“Jose Rizal”

JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of fathers," came from Biñan, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. In the same year, he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878, he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. On May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent." Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian. He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent. Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6, 1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with

him from Hong Kong. While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes- taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts. The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his pupils, he constructed water dam and a relief map of Mindanao - both considered remarkable engineering feats. His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies. When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing him down. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted by him. Thus, from November 3, 1986, to the date of his execution, he was again committed to Fort Santiago. In his prison cell, he wrote an untitled poem, now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the hero’s great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. After a mock trial, he was convicted of rebellion, sedition and of forming illegal association. In the cold morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave, was shot at Bagumbayan Field. The Mercado - Rizal Family The Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time. Domingo Lam-co, the family's paternal ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a Chinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa. Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese. Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother. FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila. TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan,

Batangas. PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician. OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth. LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896. CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Died at the age of three. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero. In Calamba, Laguna 19 June 1861 JOSE RIZAL, the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos, was born in Calamba, Laguna. 22 June 1861 He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of Calamba by the parish priest Rev. Rufino Collantes with Rev. Pedro Casañas as the sponsor. 28 September 1862 The parochial church of Calamba and the canonical books, including the book in which Rizal’s baptismal records were entered, were burned. 1864 Barely three years old, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother. 1865 When he was four years old, his sister Conception, the eight child in the Rizal family, died at

the age of three. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having shed real tears for the first time. 1865 – 1867 During this time his mother taught him how to read and write. His father hired a classmate by the name of Leon Monroy who, for five months until his (Monroy) death, taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin. At about this time two of his mother’s cousin frequented Calamba. Uncle Manuel Alberto, seeing Rizal frail in body, concerned himself with the physical development of his young nephew and taught the latter love for the open air and developed in him a great admiration for the beauty of nature, while Uncle Gregorio, a scholar, instilled into the mind of the boy love for education. He advised Rizal: "Work hard and perform every task very carefully; learn to be swift as well as thorough; be independent in thinking and make visual pictures of everything." 6 June 1868 With his father, Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mother’s life. From there they proceeded to Manila and visited his sister Saturnina who was at the time studying in the La Concordia College in Sta. Ana. 1869 At the age of eight, Rizal wrote his first poem entitled "Sa Aking Mga Kabata." The poem was written in tagalog and had for its theme "Love of One’s Language." In Biñan, Laguna 1870 His brother Paciano brought Rizal to Biñan, Laguna. He was placed under the tutelage of Justiniano Aquino Cruz, studying Latin and Spanish. In this town he also learned the art of painting under the tutorship of an old painter by the name of Juancho Carrera. 17 December 1870 Having finished his studies in Biñan, Rizal returned to Calamba on board the motorboat Talim. His parents planned to transfer him to Manila where he could continue his studies. Back in Calamba 1871 His mother was imprisoned in Sta. Cruz, Laguna for allegedly poisoning the wife of her cousin Jose Alberto, a rich property owner of Biñan and brother of Manuel and Gregorio. 1872 For the first time, Rizal heard of the word filibustero which his father forbid the members of his family to utter, including such names as Cavite and Burgos. (It must be remembered that because of the Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora were garroted at Bagumbayan Field on February 17, 1872.) Early Education in Calamba and Biñan

Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Biñan. It was a typical schooling that a son of an ilustrado family received during his time, characterized by the four R’s- reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Instruction was rigid and strict. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teacher’s whip. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education, Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. It may be said that Rizal, who was born a physical weakling, rose to become an intellectual giant not because of, but rather in spite of, the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime. The Hero’s First Teacher The first teacher of Rizal was his mother, who was a remarkable woman of good character and fine culture. On her lap, he learned at the age of three the alphabet and the prayers. "My mother," wrote Rizal in his student memoirs, "taught me how to read and to say haltingly the humble prayers which I raised fervently to God." As tutor, Doña Teodora was patient, conscientious, and understanding. It was she who first discovered that her son had a talent for poetry. Accordingly, she encouraged him to write poems. To lighten the monotony of memorizing the ABC’s and to stimulate her son’s imagination, she related many stories. As Jose grew older, his parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. The first was Maestro Celestino and the second, Maestro Lucas Padua. Later, an old man named Leon Monroy, a former classmate of Rizal’s father, became the boy’s tutor. This old teacher lived at the Rizal home and instructed Jose in Spanish and Latin. Unfortunately, he did not lived long. He died five months later. After a Monroy’s death, the hero’s parents decided to send their gifted son to a private school in Biñan. Jose Goes to Biñan One Sunday afternoon in June , 1869, Jose, after kissing the hands of his parents and a tearful parting from his sister, left Calamba for Biñan. He was accompanied by Paciano , who acted as his second father. The two brothers rode in a carromata, reaching their destination after one and one-half hours’ drive. They proceeded to their aunt’s house, where Jose was to lodge. It was almost night when they arrived, and the moon was about to rise. That same night, Jose, with his cousin named Leandro, went sightseeing in the town. Instead of enjoying the sights, Jose became depressed because of homesickness. "In the moonlight," he recounted, "I remembered my home town, my idolized mother, and my solicitous sisters. Ah, how sweet to me was Calamba, my own town, in spite of the fact that was not as wealthy as Biñan." First Day in Biñan School The next morning (Monday) Paciano brought his younger brother to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. The school was in the house of the teacher, which was a small nipa hut about 30 meters from the home of Jose’s aunt. Paciano knew the teacher quite well because he had been a pupil under him before. He

introduced Jose to the teacher, after which he departed to return to Calamba. Immediately, Jose was assigned his seat in the class. The teacher asked him: "Do you "A little, "Do you "A little, know Spanish?" sir," replied the Calamba lad. know Latin?" sir."

The boys in the class, especially Pedro, the teacher’s son laughed at Jose’s answers. The teacher sharply stopped all noises and begun the lessons of the day. Jose described his teacher in Biñan as follows: "He was tall, thin, long-necked, with sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward, and he used to wear a sinamay shirt, woven by the skilled hands of the women of Batangas. He knew by the heart the grammars by Nebrija and Gainza. Add to this severity that in my judgement was exaggerated and you have a picture, perhaps vague, that I have made of him, but I remember only this." First School BrawlIn the afternoon of his first day in school, when the teacher was having his siesta, Jose met the bully, Pedro. He was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher in the morning. Jose challenged Pedro to a fight. The latter readily accepted, thinking that he could easily beat the Calamba boy who was smaller and younger. The two boys wrestled furiously in the classroom, much to the glee of their classmates. Jose, having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel, defeated the bigger boy. For this feat, he became popular among his classmates. After the class in the afternoon, a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match. They went to a sidewalk of a house and wrestled with their arms. Jose, having the weaker arm, lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk. In succeeding days he had other fights with the boys of Biñan. He was not quarrelsome by nature, but he never ran away from a fight. Best Student in School In academic studies, Jose beat all Biñan boys. He surpassed them all in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects. Some of his older classmates were jealous of his intellectual superiority. They wickedly squealed to the teacher whenever Jose had a fight outside the school, and even told lies to discredit him before the teacher’s eyes. Consequently the teacher had to punish Jose. Early Schooling in Biñan Jose had a very vivid imagination and a very keen sense of observation. At the age of seven he traveled with his father for the first time to Manila and thence to Antipolo to fulfill the promise of a pilgrimage made by his mother at the time of his birth. They embarked in a casco, a very ponderous vessel commonly used in the Philippines. It was the first trip on the lake that Jose could recollect. As darkness fell he spent the hours by the katig, admiring the grandeur of the water and the stillness of the night, although he was seized with a superstitious fear when he saw a water snake entwine itself around the bamboo beams of

the katig. With what joy did he see the sun at the daybreak as its luminous rays shone upon the glistening surface of the wide lake, producing a brilliant effect! With what joy did he talk to his father, for he had not uttered a word during the night! When they proceeded to Antipolo, he experienced the sweetest emotions upon seeing the gay banks of the Pasig and the towns of Cainta and Taytay. In Antipolo he prayed, kneeling before the image of the Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage, of whom he would later sing in elegant verses. Then he saw Manila, the great metropolis , with its Chinese sores and European bazaars. And visited his elder sister, Saturnina, in Santa Ana, who was a boarding student in the Concordia College. When he was nine years old, his father sent him to Biñan to continue studying Latin, because his first teacher had died. His brother Paciano took him to Biñan one Sunday, and Jose bade his parents and sisters good-bye with tears in his eyes. Oh, how it saddened him to leave for the first time and live far from his home and his family! But he felt ashamed to cry and had to conceal his tears and sentiments. "O Shame," he explained, "how many beautiful and pathetic scenes the world would witness without thee!" They arrived at Biñan in the evening. His brother took him to the house of his aunt where he was to stay, and left him after introducing him to the teacher. At night, in company with his aunt’s grandson named Leandro, Jose took a walk around the town in the light of the moon. To him the town looked extensive and rich but sad and ugly. His teacher in Biñan was a severe disciplinarian. His name was Justiniano Aquino Cruz. "He was a tall man, lean and long-necked, with a sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward. He used to wear a sinamay shirt woven by the deft hands of Batangas women. He knew by memory the grammars of Nebrija and Gainza. To this add a severity which, in my judgement I have made of him, which is all I remember." The boy Jose distinguished himself in class, and succeeded in surpassing many of his older classmates. Some of these were so wicked that, even without reason, they accused him before the teacher, for which, in spite of his progress, he received many whippings and strokes from the ferule. Rare was the day when he was not stretched on the bench for a whipping or punished with five or six blows on the open palm. Jose’s reaction to all these punishments was one of intense resentment in order to learn and thus carry out his father’s will. Jose spent his leisure hours with Justiniano’s father-in-law, a master painter. From him he took his first two sons, two nephews, and a grandson. His way life was methodical and well regulated. He heard mass at four if there was one that early, or studied his lesson at that hour and went to mass afterwards. Returning home, he might look in the orchard for a mambolo fruit to eat, then he took his breakfast, consisting generally of a plate of rice and two dried sardines. After that he would go to class, from which he was dismissed at ten, then home again. He ate with his aunt and then began at ten, then home again. He ate with his aunt and then began to study. At half past two he returned to class and left at five. He might play for a short time with some cousins before returning home. He studied his lessons, drew for a while, and then prayed and if there was a moon, his friends would invite him to play in the street in company with other boys. Whenever he remembered his town, he thought with tears in his eyes of his beloved father, his idolized mother, and his solicitous sisters. Ah, how sweet was his town even though not so opulent as Biñan! He grew sad and thoughtful.

While he was studying in Biñan, he returned to his hometown now and then. How long the road seemed to him in going and how short in coming! When from afar he descried the roof of his house, secret joy filled his breast. How he looked for pretexts to remain longer at home! A day more seemed to him a day spent in heaven, and how he wept, though silently and secretly, when he saw the calesa that was flower that him Biñan! Then everything looked sad; a flower that he touched, a stone that attracted his attention he gathered, fearful that he might not see it again upon his return. It was a sad but delicate and quite pain that possessed him.

Life and Studies at Ateneo The Jesuits were considered the best educators of Spain, and perhaps of Europe, and so, when they were permitted to return to the Philippines, although their power to administer parishes was restricted except in the remote regions of Mindanao, the privilege of founding colleges, they had to apply to the City of Manila for subsidies. That is why the college which began to function in the year 1865, was called the Ateneo Municipal. To enter the Ateneo a candidate was subjected to an entrance examination on Christian doctrine, reading, writing, grammar, and elementary arithmetic. Jose did not take his entrance examinations Jose did not remain in Manila but returned first to his town to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint; it was then that his father changed his mind and decided to send him to the Ateneo instead. Since Mercado, the first surname of the family, had come under suspicion of the authorities because it was the name used by Paciano when he was studying and working with Father Burgos, in whose house he lived, Jose adopted the second surname, Rizal. Paciano who accompanied Jose, found him a house in Walled City, but Intramuros looked gloomy to Jose, and he later found lodging outside, in the house of a spinster situated on Calle Carballo, district of Santa Cruz. As if chance would furnish him data for his future campaigns, he became acquainted in that house with various mestizos, begotten by friars. The Jesuitical system of instruction was considered more advanced than that of other colleges in that epoch. Its discipline was rigid and its methods less mechanical. It introduced physical culture as part of its program as well as the cultivation of the arts, such as music, drawing, and painting. It also establishes vocational courses in agriculture, commerce, and mechanics as a religious institute, its principal purpose was to mold the character and the will of the boys to comply more easily with the percepts of the Church. The students heard mass before the beginning of the class, which was opened and closed with prayers. In the first two terms the classes were divided into groups of interns and externs: the first constituted the Roman Empire and the second, the Carthaginian Empire. In each empire there were five dignitaries: Emperor, Tribune, Decurion, Centurion, and Standard-Bearer. These dignities were won by means of individual competitions in which it was necessary to catch one’s adversary in error three times. The empires considered themselves in perpetual warfare, and when an individual of one empire was caught in error by one belonging to the enemy empire, a point was counted in favor of the latter. At the end of each week or two, the points in favor of each were added and the empire, which obtained more point, was declared winner. There was a fraternity of Mary and Saint Louis Gonzaga, to which only those who distinguished themselves in the class for their piety and diligence could belong. This fraternity met on Sundays and after mass held public programs in which poems were recited

or debates were held. With all these inducements it was only natural that should be a spirit of emulation, a striving to surpass ones colleagues found in the Ateneo. The first professor Jose had was Fr. Jose Bech, whom he describes as a man of high stature; lean body, bent forward; quick gait; ascetic physiognomy, severe and inspired; small, sunken eyes; sharp Grecian nose; thin lips forming an arch with its sides directed toward the chin." He was somewhat of a lunatic and of an uneven humor; sometimes he was hard and little tolerant and at other times he was gay and playful as a child. Among Jose’s classmates were Peninsulares and sons of Peninsulares; Francisco G. Oliva, very talented but not very studious; Joaquin Garrido, endowed with a poor memory but with much talent and industry; and Gonzalo Marzano, who occupied the throne of Emperor. From the first days Jose learned to systematize his work; he fixed a program of what he had to do in the twenty-four hours of the day and did not in the least deviate from it. Thus he disciplined his will and subjected it to the commands of his reason. As a newcomer, Jose was at first put at the tail of the class, but he was soon promoted and kept on being promoted so that at the end of one month he had attained to the rank of Emperor. At the end of the term he obtained marks of excellent in all the subjects and in the examinations. He had reason to feel proud of his advancement; and so when he went home on vacation that year, he ran alone to see his mother in the prison and tell her the happy news. He must have uttered this exclamation on learning from his mother that they had played her a mean trick. The judge, who was a blind partisan of the friars having been a domestic of theirs, told her that if she confessed her culpability he would release her at once. With the desire to see her children again, she pleaded guilty; but the judge, instead of releasing her, convicted her. In a few months the judge asked her forgiveness for what he had done because according to him his conscience hurt him, but the case had no remedy because it was already on appeal. The second year, Jose had the same professor as in the previous year; but instead of lodging outside the City, he resided at No. 6 Calle Magallanes. At the end of the term he obtained a medal, and upon returning to his town, he again visited his mother in jail alone. This was three months before her release. The rejoicing that her release produced in his spirit had much influence on the result of his studies in the third year, for he began to win prizes in the quarterly examinations. About that time he devoted himself to reading novels, and one of those he enjoyed most was Dumas’ (father) The Count of Monte Cristo. The sufferings of the hero of the twelve years. He also asked his father to buy him a copy of The Universal History by Cesar Cantanu, and according to himself he profited much from its perusal. The family, who saw in Jose great aptitude for study, decided to place him as intern or boarding student in the college the following year. In the corner of the dormitory facing the sea and the pier Jose passed his two years of internship. In the fourth year of his course he had Fr. Francisco Sanchez as professor. Jose describes him as a model of rectitude, a solicitude, and love for the student, and his studied mathematics, rhetoric, and Greek, and he must have progressed much, for at the end of the year he-obtained five medals, which pleased him immensely because with them I could repay my father somewhat for his sacrifices. His aptitude for poetry revealed itself early, and from that time on he did not cease to

cultivate it. An incident which demonstrates Jose’s independence of character took place at this time. Fr. Leoncio Lopez, parish priest of the town, who was a great friend of his father, also liked Jose as a little friend. He was cultured but at the same time timid and tender. One day Jose’s mother showed Father Lopez a poem of his young friend and that the latter must have copied it from a book. Jose, who heard this, answered the priest violently, for which his mother reprehended him. Afterward Father Lopez came to know from the Jesuits themselves that Jose was a pupil who excelled in poetry; and, in spite of his age, made a trip to Manila expressly to apologize to Jose. That gesture of Father Lopez’ won him Jose’s esteem and they became good friends again, lending each other the books they had. In the fifth years Jose had other professors: Frs. Vilaclara and Mineves. He studied philosophy, physics, chemistry, and natural history, but his devotion to poetry was such that his professor in philosophy advised him once to leave it, which made him cry. But in his rest hours he continued cultivating the Muses under the direction of his old professor, Father Sanchez. Jose had then written a short story (leyenda), which was only slightly corrected by his professor, and a dialogue, which was enacted at the end of the course, alluding to the collegians’ farewell. However, philosophy, just and serve, inquiring into the wherefores of things, interested him as much as poetry; physics, drawing back the veil that divine drama of nature was enacted, natural history seemed to him somewhat uninteresting although he much liked the shells and sometimes imagined seeing a goddess in each shell he was on the shelf. Jose was considered small of stature and he tried to correct this defect by applying himself regularly to gymnastics in the college. He also engaged in other physical exercises, such as fencing. After his baccalaureate, he surprised his family with his skill in handling the sword when he gave an exhibition bout with the best swordsman of the town. He also devoted time to painting and sculpture. In drawing and painting he was under the guidance and direction of the Ateneo professor, the Peninsula Don Augustin Saez, who honored him with his affection and consideration because of his progress. In sculpture his instructor was a Filipino, Romualdo de Jesus, who felt proud in the last years of his life of having had such an excellent pupil. PHILOSOPHY may be defined as the study and pursuit of facts which deal with the ultimate reality or causes of things as they affect life. The philosophy of a country like the Philippines is made up of the intricate and composite interrelationship of the life histories of its people; in other word, the philosophy of our nation would be strange and undefinable if we do not delve into the past tied up with the notable life experiences of the representative personalities of our nation. Being one of the prominent representatives of Filipino personalities, Jose Rizal is a fit subject whose life philosophy deserves to be recognized. Having been a victim of Spanish brutality early in his life in Calamba, Rizal had thus already formed the nucleus of an unfavorable opinion of Castillian imperialistic administration of his country and people. Pitiful social conditions existed in the Philippines as late as three centuries after his conquest in Spain, with agriculture, commerce, communications and education languishing under its most backward state. It was because of this social malady that social evils like inferiority complex, cowardice, timidity and false pride pervaded nationally and contributed to the

decay of social life. This stimulated and shaped Rizal’s life phylosophy to be to contain if not eliminate these social ills. Educational Philosophy Rizal’s concept of the importance of education is clearly enunciated in his work entitled Instruction wherein he sought improvements in the schools and in the methods of teaching. He maintained that the backwardness of his country during the Spanish ear was not due to the Filipinos’ indifference, apathy or indolence as claimed by the rulers, but to the neglect of the Spanish authorities in the islands. For Rizal, the mission of education is to elevate the country to the highest seat of glory and to develop the people’s mentality. Since education is the foundation of society and a prerequisite for social progress, Rizal claimed that only through education could the country be saved from domination. Rizal’s philosophy of education, therefore, centers on the provision of proper motivation in order to bolster the great social forces that make education a success, to create in the youth an innate desire to cultivate his intelligence and give him life eternal. Religious Philosophy Rizal grew up nurtured by a closely-knit Catholic family, was educated in the foremost Catholic schools of the period in the elementary, secondary and college levels; logically, therefore, he should have been a propagator of strictly Catholic traditions. However, in later life, he developed a life philosophy of a different nature, a philosophy of a different Catholic practice intermingled with the use of Truth and Reason. Why the change? It could have been the result of contemporary contact, companionship, observation, research and the possession of an independent spirit.Being a critical observer, a profound thinker and a zealous reformer, Rizal did not agree with the prevailing Christian propagation of the Faith by fire and sword. This is shown in his Annotation of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Rizal did not believe in the Catholic dogma that salvation was only for Catholics and that outside Christianity, salvation was not possible even if Catholics composed only a small minority of the world’s religious groups. Nor did he believe in the Catholic observation of fasting as a sacrifice, nor in the sale of such religious items as the cross, medals, rosaries and the like in order to propagate the Faith and raise church funds. He also lambasted the superstitious beliefs propagated by the priests in the church and in the schools. All of these and a lot more are evidences of Rizal’s religious philosophy. Political Philosophy In Rizal’s political view, a conquered country like the Philippines should not be taken advantage of but rather should be developed, civilized, educated and trained in the science of self-government. He bitterly assailed and criticized in publications the apparent backwardness of the Spanish ruler’s method of governing the country which resulted in: 1. the bondage and slavery of the conquered ; 2. the Spanish government’s requirement of forced labor and force military service upon the n natives;

3. the abuse of power by means of exploitation; 4. the government ruling that any complaint against the authorities was criminal; and 5. Making the people ignorant, destitute and fanatic, thus discouraging the formation of a national sentiment. Rizal’s guiding political philosophy proved to be the study and application of reforms, the extension of human rights, the training for self government and the arousing of spirit of discontent over oppression, brutality, inhumanity, sensitiveness and self love. Ethical Philosophy The study of human behavior as to whether it is good or bad or whether it is right or wrong is that science upon which Rizal’s ethical philosophy was based. The fact that the Philippines was under Spanish domination during Rizal’s time led him to subordinate his philosophy to moral problems. This trend was much more needed at that time because the Spaniards and the Filipinos had different and sometimes conflicting morals. The moral status of the Philippines during this period was one with a lack of freedom, one with predominance of foreign masters, one with an imposition of foreign religious worship, devotion, homage and racial habits. This led to moral confusion among the people, what with justice being stifled, limited or curtailed and the people not enjoying any individual rights. To bolster his ethical philosophy, Dr. Rizal had recognized not only the forces of good and evil, but also the tendencies towards good and evil. As a result, he made use of the practical method of appealing to the better nature of the conquerors and of offering useful methods of solving the moral problems of the conquered. To support his ethical philosophy in life, Rizal: 1. censured the friars for abusing the advantage of their position as spiritual leaders and the ignorance and fanaticism of the natives; 2. counseled the Filipinos not to resent a defect attributed to them but to accept same as reasonable and just; 3. advised the masses that the object of marriage was the happiness and love of the couple and not financial gain; 4. censured the priests who preached greed and wrong morality; and 5. advised every one that love and respect for parents must be strictly observed. Social Philosophy That body of knowledge relating to society including the wisdom which man's experience in society has taught him is social philosophy. The facts dealt with are principles involved in nation building and not individual social problems. The subject matter of this social philosophy covers the problems of the whole race, with every problem having a distinct solution to bolster the people’s social knowledge. Rizal’s social philosophy dealt with; 1. man in society;

2. influential factors in human life; 3. racial problems; 4. social constant; 5. social justice; 6. social ideal; 7. poverty and wealth; 8. reforms; 9. youth and greatness; 10. history and progress; 11. future Philippines. The above dealt with man’s evolution and his environment, explaining for the most part human behavior and capacities like his will to live; his desire to possess happiness; the change of his mentality; the role of virtuous women in the guidance of great men; the need for elevating and inspiring mission; the duties and dictates of man’s conscience; man’s need of practicing gratitude; the necessity for consulting reliable people; his need for experience; his ability to deny; the importance of deliberation; the voluntary offer of man’s abilities and possibilities; the ability to think, aspire and strive to rise; and the proper use of hearth, brain and spirit-all of these combining to enhance the intricacies, beauty and values of human nature. All of the above served as Rizal’s guide in his continuous effort to make over his beloved Philippines. The Many-Sided Personality Filipinos and foreigners alike have paid tribute to Jose Rizal claiming that his place of honor in history is secure. It was his Austrian bosom friend, Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, rector of the Imperial Atheneum of Leitmeritz, who said "Rizal was the greatest product of the Philippines and his coming to the world was like the appearance of a rare comet, whose rare brilliance appears only every other century." Another German friend, Dr. Adolf B. Meyer, director of the Dresden Museum who admired his all around knowledge and ability, remarked "Rizal’s many-sidedness was stupendous." Our own Dr. Camilo Osias pointed to him as the "versatile genius." His precocity since early boyhood turned into versatility in later years. Being curious and inquisitive, he developed a rare facility of mastering varied subjects and occupations. Actor Rizal acted as a character in one of Juan Luna’s paintings and acted in school dramas. Agriculturist Rizal had farms in Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte (1892-1896) where he planted lanzones, coconuts and other fruit-bearing trees. Ambassador Of Good Will His friendliness, goodwill and cultural associations with friends entitled him as one. Animal Lover As a small boy, Rizal loved animals including birds, fish, insects, and other specimens of animal life. Fowls, rabbits, dogs, horses, and cats constituted his favorites. As much as possible, he did not wish fowls to be killed even for food, and showed displeasure in being asked to eat the cooked animal. The family garden in Calamba abounded with insects galore and birds native to the Calamba environs. He wrote about and sketched animals of the places he had toured.

Anthropologist He made researches on the physical and social make up of man. Archeologist Rizal studied monuments and antique currency everywhere he went. He drew most of the monuments he saw. Ascetic Rizal always practiced self-discipline wherever he went. Book lover He had a big library and brought many books abroad. Botanist Rizal maintained a garden in Dapitan where he planted and experimented on plants of all kinds Businessman He had a partner in Dapitan in the Abaca business there (1892-1896). Cartographer He drew maps of Dapitan, The Philippines and other places he visited. Chess Player He played chess and bear several Germans and European friends and acquaintances. Citizen of the world His extensive travels and multitude of friends in Europe, Middle East and Asia made him one. Commentator Rizal always expresses and published his personal opinion. Conchologist He had a good shell collection in Dapitan. An American conchologist praised him. Educator Rizal taught in his special school in Dapitan. Ethnologist In his travels, Rizal was able to compare different races and he noted the differences. Father of community school He proposed college in Hong Kong and his special school in Dapitan made him a father of community schools. Fencer He fenced with Europeans and Juan Luna and other friends in Europe. Freemason abroad He was member of La Solidaridad Lodge in Spain. Horticulture and farmer He experimented on and cultivated plants in Dapitan.

Historian His annotation of Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas entitled him as one. Humorist There are many humorous incidents in the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Ichthyologist He collected 38 new varieties of fish in Dapitan. Japanophile His admiration of Japanese traits and his knowledge of her language proved he was one. Journalist He authored the published many articles in Spanish and English and London. Laboratory worker He was employed in the clinic of Dr. L. Wecker in Paris. Linguist He spoke over 20 foreign languages. Lover of truth He chided Spanish writers for not writing the truth about the Filipinos. He was always truthful since boyhood. Musicians He played the flute and composed pieces of music and cultivated music appreciation. Mythologist Rizal used mythology in his Noli and Fili. Nationalist He gave full expression of the native spirit strengthened by world civilization and loved and defended everything Filipino. Newspaperman He wrote and published articles in many publications and was one of the organizers of the La Solidaridad. Ophthalmologist He graduated in an ophthalmologic college in Spain. Orientalist Rizal admired the special characteristic and beauties of Oriental countries peoples. Pharmacologist Rizal treasured and popularized the usefulness and preparation of cures for treatment of his patients. Philologist Rizal loved of learning and literature is unequalled. Philosopher Rizal not only loved wisdom but also regulated his life and enjoyed calmness of the life at all time

Physical culturist Rizal maintained a good health by exercising all parts of his body and eating proper foods Physicians He treated several patients afflicted not only with eye diseases. Plant lover As a child, Rizal spend most of his time in the family garden which was planted with fruit trees, Shrubs and decorative trees. His diaries contained detailed description and sketches of plants, flowers and fruits he saw in the places he visited. He wrote poems on flower he like very much as his poems To the Flowers of Heidelberg. Poet Rizal wrote over 35 poems including his famous Ultimo Adios. Politician Although Rizal did not engage in Politics, he exposed the evils of the political activities of the Spaniards in the Philippines through his writing. Polyglot Rizal spoke and wrote in 20 languages. Proofreader In Germany, He worked as a part-time proofreader of his livelihood. Propagandist As a reformer, Rizal encourages the recommendation of improving the government entities and discourage abuses publishing articles. Public relation man He worked for better cooperation of rulers and subjects in his country. Reformer He published the modern methods of government administration, so changes could be made. Researcher Being a wide reader, he compared the old and new practices in life. Revolutionist Rizal encouraged reforms, discouraged old, impractical usage, and desired new and useful laws to benefit his countrymen. He desired changes for the better. Rhetorician Rizal has always practiced the art of persuasive and impressive speaking and writing. Rural reconstruction worker He practiced rural reconstruction work in Dapitan in 1894 and succeeded. Sanitary engineer His construction of a water system in Dapitan exemplified this practice by Rizal.

Scientist Rizal’s practice of many sciences here and abroad made him noted scientist. Sculptor His works of his father and of Father Guerrico, S. J. typified his sculptural ability. Sharp shooter He could hit a target 20 meters away. Sinologist Rizal’s ancestry and his ability to speak Chinese made him one. Sociologist In Rizal’s study of Philippines social problems, he always encouraged and introduced solutions. Sodalist He always joined fraternities, associations and brotherhood, for self-improvement. Sportsman He engaged from a surveying class at the Ateneo after passing his A. B. there. Tourist He was considered the foremost tourist due to his extensive travels. Traveler He traveled around the world three times. Tuberculosis expert For having cured himself of this disease, he became and was recognized as an expert. Youth leader He considered the youth as "the hope of his Fatherland." Zoologist He was fond of pets. He researched later on their physiology, classification and habits. Rizal's First Trip Abroad 3 May 1882 Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista. 4 May 1882 He got seasick on board the boat. 5 May1882 He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick. 6 May 1882 He played chess with the passengers on board.

8 May 1882 He saw mountains and Islands. 9 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Singapore. 10 May 1882 He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations. 11 May 1882 In Singapore, at 2 p.m., Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept. 12 May 1882 He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat. 13 May 1882 Rizal was seasick again. 14 May 1882 On his way to Marseilles, Rizal had a terrible dream. He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes. May 15 1882 Rizal had another disheartening dream. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad, he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. He was so sad and broken hearted. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin. 17 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales. 18 May 1882 At 7:30 a.m., he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. In the afternoon, Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed. 26 May 1882 Rizal was nearing the African coast 27 May 1882 He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a.m. He made observation at the time. 2 June 1882 He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles. 3 June 1882 He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal. 6 June 1882 It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat. 7 June 1882 Rizal arrived at Port Said. In a letter to his parents, He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal.

11 June 1882 Rizal disembarked and, accompanied by a guide, went around the City of Naples for one hour. This was the first European ground he set foot on. 12 June 1882 At ten o’clock in the evening, the boat anchored at Marseilles. He sleptn board. 13 June 1882 Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation. 14 June 1882 His second in Marseilles. 15 June 1882 He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train. Rizal in Barcelona, Spain 16 June 1882 At 12:00 noon, Rizal arrived at Barcelona and boarded in the Fonda De España. 23 June 1882 In a letter, Rizal related to his parents his experiences during his trip from Port Said to Barcelona. In the same Letter, he requested them to send him a birth certificate and statement showing that he had parents in the Philippines. 18 August 1882 P. Leoncio Lopez of Calamba issued a certified copy of Rizal’s birth certificate. 20 August 1882 His article "Amor Patrio" was published in the Diarong Tagalog, a Manila newspaper edited by Basilio Teodoro. This was the First article he wrote abroad. Rizal in Madrid, Spain 2 September 1882 Rizal matriculated at the Universidad Central de Madrid. He took the following subjects: medical clinic, surgical clinic, legal medicine and obstetrical clinic. 2 October 1882 He attended his regular classes which stared in all earnest. 4 October 1882 Asked to deliver a poem by the members of Circulo Hispano-Filipino, there together in the effort to save the association from disintegration, Rizal recited "Me piden versus." The meeting was held at the house of Pablo Ortiga y Rey. 7 October 1882 He attended again of the Circulo Hisfano-Filipino held in house of Mr. Ortiga. 2 November 1882 He wrote the article "Revista de Madrid" which was in intended for publication in the Diarong

Tagalog in Manila, but was not published because the newspaper stops its circulation. 7 November 1882 Rizal wrote an article entitled "Las Dudas". The article was signed Laong - Laan. 30 December 1882 In a letter, Rizal revealed to Paciano his plan of going to Paris or Rome in June. He wanted to practice French in Paris and Italian in Rome and to observe the customs of people in those cities. - In the evening, Rizal dreamed he was an actor dying in the scene, feeling intensely the shortage of his breath, the weakening of his strength, and darkening of his sight. He woke up tired and breathless. 1 January 1883 Rizal felt sad in the morning. He recollected the terrible dream he had the previous night. 15 January 1883 He attended the birthday of Pablo Ortiga with some of the Filipinos. 16 January 1883 He attended the masquerade ball in Alhambra with some of his countrymen. 13 February 1883 In a letter Rizal appraised his brother Paciano of his activities in Madrid, his impressions of the city and his meeting with his friends in gathering. In part he said: "The Tuesday of the Carnival we had a Filipino luncheon and dinner in the house of the Pateros, each one contributing one duro. We ate with our hands, boiled rice, chicken adobo, fried fish and roast pig. 2 May 1882 Rizal recollected his past impressions when he left his hometown Calamba. This day he attended a fiesta in Madrid. 26 May 1883 In a letter, Rizal was informed by Paciano of the 1,350 loaves of milled sugar produced from the Pansol farm and at the same time granting him to proceed to Paris as soon as he finished the medical course in Madrid. 15 June 1883 Rizal left Madrid for Paris to spend his summer and to observe the big French City. Rizal in Paris, France 17 June 1883 Rizal arrived at Paris. He spent the whole day walking around and observing the beautiful cities. 18 June 1883 With Felipe Zamora and Cunanan, He visited the Leannec Hospital to observe how Dr, Nicaise treated his patients. He was stunned to see the advanced facilities in the accommodation in the said hospital. 19 June 1883

He again visited Dr. Nicaise who showed the technique of operation. Later he went to see dupytren Museum. 20 June 1883 Rizal visited the Lariboisiere Hospital where Felix Pardo de Tavera was an extern. Here he observe the examination of the different diseases of women. 21 June 1883 After watching the done by Dr. Duply, he went to the Jardin d’ Acclimatation situated outside the Paris in the Forest of Bologna. He found there plants of all species and the rarest and most beautiful birds. 5 July 1883 In a letter to his parents, sisters and brother, Rizal continued describing the museum, buildings and hospitals he had visited in Paris. 2 August 1883 In a letter to his parents, he continued describing his visits to museum and his excursions to important place in Paris. Rizal Back in Madrid

20 August 1883 Rizal was back in Madrid from his summer vacation in Paris. 6 September 1883 He changed his residence from Barquillo St. N0. 34, 4 to San Miguel no. 7, 1 Centro. 28 September 1883 He enrolled at the central Universidad de Madrid for the second course in medicine. October 1883 He came to know of the imprisonment, by order of Sr. Vicente Barrantes, of the 14 rich innocent persons in Manila. The Prisoners who knew nothing is the cause of their detention and who became sick later, were kept in a humid prison cell. Rizal was indignant of his inhuman act. 16 October 1883 He learned from Mariano Katigbak about the 400 cholera victims in Lipa and 3 of beri-beri. 28 October 1883 He had a new address. He live with Eduardo Lete and the two Llorente brothers, Julio and Abdon, in Bano 15 Pral. 21 November 1883 Rizal informed his family of his plan to graduate in medicine at the end of the course in June.

27 November 1883 His sister Maria that Soledad was married on November 4, 1883 informed Rizal in a letter. Narcisa also informed him that the causes of the delay of sending him a letters were the cholera, the typhoon, and the death of the parish priest, events, which occurred in succession. 31 December 1883 In the evening Rizal delivered a speech in a banquet held at the Café de Madrid. Many Filipinos were gathered in the restaurant to bid goodbye to the year 1884. 2 January 1884 Rizal proposed to the member of the Circulo assembled in the house of the Pateros, the publication of a book by association. This idea became the embryo of this first novel Noli Me Tangere . 3 January 1884 Early in the morning, Rizal went to the University of San Carlos only to find out that there was no class. He immediately went to the Café de Madrid to meet members of the Circulo who were gathered again to discuss the proposed book. 4 January 1884 Rizal received letter from his Uncle Antonio Rivera. They were, according to him, full of good and interesting news. 5 January 1884 Rizal and the Filipino student were reunited again in the house of Pateros to reorganized the association. Since no action was taken on that day, it was agreed to gather again the next Sunday. 6 January 1884 Rizal meet Valentine Ventura. They took their supper in the English restaurant in Madrid. 7 January 1884 Rizal’s professor in Greek slashed at the students accusing them insubordination. The students of the San Carlos University were on strike, thus preventing him to attend the strike. 8 January 1884 Rizal finished two drawings. He met Ruiz who proposed him that if there be someone who would pay the expenses of the Circulo, Rizal would be made president. 9 January 1884 He did a single centavo on He attended. Rizal Back in Madrid 10 January 1884 Rizal received two letters: one from his uncle Antonio dated December 2 and the other from Paciano dated November 30. 11 January 1884 In Madrid, Rizal was visited by Antonio Aguirre. Later, he went to class and met Pareda there. 12 January 1884 Rizal went to the theatre. He enjoyed seeing the "El Octavo No Mentir" and "Un Año Mas." 13 January 1884 In the afternoon, in the house of the Paterno’s, Rizal extended the meeting of the Filipino students

15 January 1884 Rizal and other Filipino students in Madrid attended the birthday party of Pablo Ortiga y Rey. There was a dance. 16 January 1884 In the morning, Rizal went to class. After his class, he visited his patient on the number 10 bed who thanked Rizal for the help he extended. The patient recovered immediately. 17 January 1884 He went with Llorente to witness the proceedings in the senate. At 6:00 p.m., after more than 5 hours of waiting outside, they were able to enter the hall. 18 January 1884 Rizal was not able to attend his classes due to the demonstrations of the students of the College of Law and the College of Medicine against the Minister of Finance. 20 January 1884 Rizal met Valentin Ventura and Rafael. He sent to C.O. (Consuelo Ortiga) a piece of guimaras cloth. He bought a tenth part of a lottery ticket for three pesetas. 21 January 1884 He went to class. The students of the College of Law still refused to enter. They wanted the abolition of the decrees. Rizal thru Eduardo Lete, receive the thanks of C.O. guimaras cloth. 23 January 1884 Rizal visited the artist Estevan and Melecio. He meet Antonio and Maximino and later Pedro. The Pateros requested him to exhibit his photos, but Rizal refused because the pictures contained dedication. 24 January 1884 Rizal was visited by Valentin Ventura. The strike of the students in the University of San Carlos was settled and the students of the College of Law entered their classes 25 January 1884 Rizal had a sad dream. He dreamed the returned home, but what a sad reception! His parents did not meet him. 26 January 1884 Rizal with Estevan Figueroa, Sanmarti, Eduardo Lete and Rafael went to the house of Etermes Figueron. This was the most peaceful reunion the Filipinos had. 27 January 1884 He had a picture taken in the house of Otero. He was visited by Maximino and Antonio Paterno. They planned to see the Ateneo, Madrid, but the weather did not permit them. 28 January 1884 He visited the Ateneo with Antonio and Maximino it was beautiful, wide and well decorated. He met beautiful girl at the door of his neighbor’s house. 29 January 1884 He attended the Masquerade ball in Madrid in which he enjoyed by dancing every piece. There were two masked person who were joking him but whom he did not recognize.

30 January 1884 Rizal sent three letters to the Philippines, one for his uncle Antonio Rivera, another for Jose Cecilio (Chengoy) and the other for Lolay. He sent also newspapers: El Imperial, El Dia and El Liberal. 31 January 1884 Rizal made an accounting of his one month expenses. For the month of January, he spent a total of 329.63 pesetas. 1 February 1884 He went to the theatre of Eslava to hear politics and bull-fighting. Later he went to the Café de Madrid. 2 February 1884 Rizal in the Filipino students were gathered in the house of D. Paul, to discuss the affairs of the association. 3 February 1884 He was visited by the Cortabitarte sisters accompanied by their mother. He receive them amiably. 4 February 1884 He stayed at home, seriously reviewing his lesson for the examination. 5 February 1884 He visited Valentin Ventura who was slight sick of dermatitis. 6 February 1884 Rizal felt sad for the death of hid professor in History, D. Federico Lara. Of the professor, Rizal said: "very nice person, at least by the little I knew of him." 7 February 1884 He witnessed the discussion between the two Spaniards in the street of Lobo, one sustained that all Spaniards are brave and the other, that not all are brave. 9 February 1884 He was very much disgusted of the result of the "La Macosta" which he saw for 2.10 pesetas. 10 February 1884 Rizal had a work around the University District. Later, he went to see Consuelo Ortiga. 13 February 1884 He sent letters to his uncle Rivera and to his family, the latter with a picture. 17 February 1884 Rizal made operation on arterial vein in the Hospital de la Princesa. 25 February 1884 He attended the carnival where he saw at his side a beautiful girl, with blue eyes and a pleasant smile.

7 March 1884 Rizal performed an operation with Mariani. In the evening, he attended English lecture conducted by a Mr. Schuts in the Ateneo de Madrid. 9 March 1884 He was visited by Cunanan and Valentin Ventura. They talked on various matters. 11 March 1884 Rizal receive an information from his uncle Antonio to the effect the Sra. Ticang became crazy. - He bought a German on this day. 15 March 1884 He visited D. Quintin Meynet in Atocha Street, Madrid. Later He and Eduardo Lete, Sanmarti, Paco Esquivel and Esteven Figueroa were gathered in the house of Pablo Ortiga. 19 march 1884 He receive postcards from Pepe Esquivel, Aguirre, from the family of Ruiz , Eriate, D. Pablo y Carillo, Pedro Paterno. 30 March 1884 Rizal wrote letters for home, for Leonor Rivera and for his uncle Antonio Rivera. 31 March 1884 He enjoyed his visit with the family of V: talked with the children. For him, this day was full of recollections. He realized that days ran fast. 8 April 1884 He started his sculptural work representing the "wounded gladiator." 13 April 1884 He receive letters from Leonor Rivera, Uncle Antonio, and from Chengoy (Jose Cecilio). He was very much contented with the news, although not of the health of the Leonor. 17 April 1884 He saw Rossi, the Italian actor representing the Kean, Dumas’ drama. He was surprise of the effect – well represented. Jose Cecilio informed him about the rivalry between Leonor Valenzuela and Leonor Rivera. He told rizal in a letter about the desire of Miss Rivera to see Miss Valenzuela with the object of settling the rivalry. - From the same letter learned that two thirds medical students studying University of Santo Thomas failing grades. 20 April 1884 He receive uncle Antonio 500 pesetas he went to visit the brother, but they were home. 24 April 1884 In the evening he saw Hamlet presented and he had a pleasant moment how wonderfully was interpreted.

1 May 1884 He stopped eating in Calle de Lobo, Madrid; he wnt to the Calle de Principe. He dropped his German language lessons in order to devote the entire month to his studies for the coming examinations. 6 May 1884 Rizal answered Lorenzo D’Ayot who published an article entitled "El Teatro Tagalo." 5 June 1884 He took the examination on medical clinic, 2nd course, in Central University de Madrid. 6 June 1884 He took the examination in his last subject in Medicine, Surgical clinic, 2nd course. He got grade of "ver good." 9 June 1884 Rizal filed an application for graduation for the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. 13 June 1884 He took an examination in Greek and Latin literature. He obtained a grade of "excellent" in both subjects. 14 June 1884 He took an examination in Greek, 1st course, and got a grade of "excellent." 17 June 1884 Rizal pawned his ring to pay the fees for the examination. 21 June 1884 He finished the degree of Licentiate in Medicine with the grade of aprobado from the Central Universidad de Madrid. 25 June 1884 Rizal won first prize in Greek contest, after which he delivered a speech in honor of the two Filipino painters, Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo. The occasion commemorated the triumph of the two, especially Luna who won the first prize for his Spoliarium during the National Exposition of Fine Arts held in Madrid that year. 26 June 1884 He took an examination in Universal History, 2nd course. He grade of "excellent." 27 June 1884 He was informed in a letter by Mariano Katigbak about the deteriorating health of Leonor Rivera caused by her too much loving and waiting for her love one. 1 July 1884 Rizal explained the term "Filibusterismo" in the newspaper of Madrid El Progreso, calling the attention of the Spanish authorities over the case of future of the Filipinos. He asked for freedom of the press and the right of representation of the Spanish Cortes. 29 August 1884

He came to know how Pedro Tobin of Nagcarlan Laguna, was gypped in Madrid. The man was fooled and all his cash was lost. He relayed the news to the Philippines thru his parents. 31 August 1884 The popularity o f his speech delivered during the Luna-Hidalgo banquet held in Madrid, reached the Philippines via two ways: one thru the draft Rizal sent to Antonio Rivera and the other thru the periodicals he sent to his friends. 30 September 1884 He was issued the diploma of ordinary prize obtained during the examination given last June 30, in the subjects of Greek and Latin Literature at the Central Universidad De Madrid. 5 November 1884 He receive the news from Paciano that the cause of the sickness of their mother was his speech delivered during the banquet in honor of two Filipino painters. Their mother feared that Rizal could no longer return to the Philippines as opined by both his friends and enemies in the country. 16 November 1884 He wrote a letter to his family in Calamba asking their permission for him to return to the Philippines. - Because of the treaty of commerce being negotiated between Spain and United States and the plan of England to enter into the said treaty, Rizal predicted the fate of the Philippine sugar. He said it would turn from bad to worse. 20 November 1884 Rizal witnessed the tumultuous scene in the Central Universidad de Madrid where the students and professors staged a strike against excommunication imposed by the bishop on the lecture proclaiming the freedom of science and of the teacher. 21 November 1884 With Valentin Ventura, he escaped from being arrested by a police lieutenant and a secret service man in connection with strike staged by the University students. 22 November 1884 He disguised himself three times to evade arrest by the law agents who were eyeing on him. The indignation rally of the students continued and more arrest were affected. 26 November 1884 Desirous to help the family, Rizal in a letter reiterated his wish to return home. 11 December 1884 Teodora Alonso admonished not to meddle in things which would give her displeasures, not tomfail to comply with the duties of good Christian, and not to expect too many letter from her and she was already very old and could not see very well due to her failing sight. 1 January 1885 Paciano begged Rizal to wait for the opportune time to return to the Philippines. In a letter,

he told Rizal that their parents would see him in Hong kong sometime in the future, and not in the Philippines were the situation was dangerous for him. Paciano asked for some information about sugar beets in Europe, and advised Rizal to write tell their parents things that would always please them. 26 February 1885 In a letter Rizal told Jose Cecilio to marry Miss Leonor Valenzuela, than see her married to the other person. The letter arrive on the Philippines last April 5 1885, on the same boat which took Governor General Emilio Torero. 30 March 1885 Rizal sent a letter to his brother Paciano why not receive his pension. In the same letter he mentioned his going either to England or Germany to specialized in ophthalmology. 18 April 1885 He asked Jose Cecilio for advise as to who, between two Leonors, would be an ideal partner in life. Cecilio, as an answer to the question, selected Leanoe Rivera for being more feminine, more ductile, sweeter, milder, nicer, and above all more educated. 16 June 1885 Rizal receive a letter from Manuel Hidalgo informing him of another cholera case which occurred in Manila. He requested by a letter to buy for him ( Hildalgo) tha Spanish book Emilio written by Rousseau. - He receive one hundred pesos (P100) from Saturnina and Manuel Hidalgo as their contribution to his expenses in finishing Doctorate degree. 19 June 1885 Rizal finished the degree in Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters with grade sobresaliente from the Central Universidad of Madrid. 28 June 1885 Rizal wrote to P. Faura and Sr. Barrantes requesting them to work for the transfer of Silvestre Ubaldo to Calamba from Albay were the letter was signed as post master and telegraphic operator. 30 July 1885 In a letter, he asked permission from his parents to cure cholera patients in towns were there were no doctors in order to earn at least $12 a day. He was financially hard up and wanted to help his parents. 30 September 1885 He was issued a diploma of ordinary prize on Hebrew language, obtained during the examination offered last june 13 at the Central Universidad de Madrid. He w2as also issued on his date another diploma of ordinary prize on Greek language, 2nd course. 1 October 1885 Rizal planned to leave Madrid by the middle of the month. He intended to go to Germany to learn the German language and to study advance course of ophthalmology. Rizal in France

19 November 1885 While in Paris, Rizal recieved information from Ceferino de Leon about the prevailing vices among the Filipinos in the house of Aceveno in Madrid, abetted by the lousy women gamblers. 27 November 1885 Rizal’s transfer to Paris was disapproved by Paciano who, at the same time, informed Rizal that his letter caused their mother to shed tears; that Rizal’s brown horse would be sold, the money to be remitted to him in Paris together with the chronometer watch worth $300 (Mexican dollars). 4 December 1885 He was practicing ophthalmology with Dr. Weeker at the Crugen Clinic. 19 December 1885 The news that the Filipinos in Madrid were preparing a Christmas banquet in spite of the little money they had, was relayed in a letter to Rizal in Paris by Ceferino de Leon who also informed the former about his (de Leon’s) plan of going to Paris the following summer. 1 January 1886 Rizal represented to Paz Pardo de Tavera a pair of Greek vases which he painted the other with the picture of the Filipinos engaged in cockfighting, and the other with the same people at work as milkmen and as prisoners at hard labor. January 1886 In the album of Paz Pardo de Tavera, he entered the illustrated story of the monkey and the turtle. Rizal in Strasburg, Germany

2 February 1886 Rizal arrived at Strasburg, Germany. He visited the celebrated cathedral and climbed a tower of 142 meters high, the fourth highest of the European towers. 3 February 1886 He arrived at Heidelberg. The town to him looked gay. On the streets he saw students with cups of different colors. 6 February 1886 Rizal was living in a boarding house costing him 28 duros a month. He found German life full of potatoes; potatoes in the morning and potatoes in the evening. 9 February 1886 He penned a letter to his family in Calamba describing his life in Heidelberg and his trip from Paris to the city of flowers. 14 February 1886 With an old woman as guide, Rizal visited the interior of the famous castle in Heidelberg. He saw the hallmof the pages. Waiting room, audience chamber, the court, and many other parts of building. 17 February 1886 In a letter, he informed his family in Calamba of his visits to the eye clinic of Dr. Otto Becker. 18 February 1886 He planned to change his residence. He wanted to tranfer to 12 Ludwigsplats, near the University. 19 February 1886 He must have transferred to 12 Ludwigsplats. In a letter to his family in Calamba, he describe the duels he saw in Hirschgasse among students belonging to different corporation. 11 March 1886 He wrote to his younger sister, Trinidad, describing the German girl as "serious, studious, and very much attached to his work" However, she did not have that "delicacy of hearth’ of the Filipino woman. He advised Trinidad to read and read. 22 April 1886 While in Heidelberg experiencing the feeling of nostalgia for his parents and his country, Rizal wrote the poem "A Las Flores de Heidelberg." 26 April 1886 He left Heidelberg for Wilhemsfeld to honor invitation extended to him by Reverend Karl Ullmer whom Rizal meet one day in the woods with the Pastor’s wife, daughter Eta and son Freidrich. In Wilhelmsfeld where Pastor Ullmer was staying and working, Rizal was invited to visit the vicarage. Later, on Rizal’s choice, he boarded with the Ullmer family until he left Wilhelmsfeld by last week of June. 9 June 1886 From Wilhelmsfeld, he reiterated in a letter to his parents, the necessity of writing him the badly needed amount.

20-25 June 1886 Rizal left Wilhelmsfeld for Hiedelberg. In Wilhemsfeld he studied the German country life and ppractice speaking good German with the Ullmer’s family with whom he live.

Rizal Returned to Heidelberg 26 June 1886 From Heidelberg Rizal sent to Reverend Ullmer the note of 100 pesetas. He wanted to comply with the promise of paying a latter the amount he incurred while he was in Wilhemsfeld. 14 July 1886 In Hiedelberg Rizal was admitted member of the chess Club Germany. The Club Presidents F. Zeferenz and E.Arrnirum. 31 July 1886 He sent to Prof. Ferdinant Blumentritt a book in arithmetic written in Spanish in Tagalog. This started the communication between the two and also the start of their life long friendship. 6 July 1886 Rizal wrote few expressive lines dedicated to this beautiful city Heidelberg. He was to start his travel thru the cities along Rhine River. - On this day he witnessed the fifth centenary celebration of the founding of the University of Heidelberg, which he enjoyed very much. Rizal on His Way to Leipzig 9 August 1886 Rizal left Hiedelberg for Leipzig 10 August 1886 He left Bonn for Colonia, on his way to Leipzig. 12 August 1886 He arrived at Coblents, one of the cities along the Rhine River. 13 August 1886 Rizal was in Ehrenfels, Germany. 14 August 1886 At 10:10 in the morning, he left Frankfurt for Leipzig.

15 August 1886 Rizal arrive at Leipzig at 9:30 in the morning. 16 August 1886 In a letter, Rizal offered his little knowledge in Tgalog to Prof. Blumentrit for thr latter’s study of the language. He said that his knowledge in tagalog which he studied since boyhood is as useful as that friars and chroniclers who had stayed for a short time in the Philippines. 2 September1886 He witnessed the fiesta of the Sedan, which was highlighted by the inauguration of the beautiful fountain in front of the museum of Leipzig 13 October 1886 Rizal, in company with the school teacher, Hering visited one of two big beer manufacturing companies, situated in Reudnitz, and owned by a Mr. Riebek. 14 October 1886 He got acquainted persolly with Doctor Hans Meyer, chief of the Bibliographical Institute of the Germany, and author of one of the two famous encyclopaedical dictionaries of Germany. 21 October 1886 Rizal left Leipzig for Halle to observe the country life of the people there. He returned in the afternoon. Rizal in Dresden, Germany 29 October 1886 Rizal arrived at Dresden at 8:20 in the morning. 30 October 1886 He visited the Palacio Japonais and many other interesting places in Dresden. 31 October 1886 In Dresden, he met Dr. A.B. Mayer, naturalist of the Dresden University. He was shown interesting things taken from the Palaos Islands and from tombs in the Philippines. 1 November 1886 He left Dresden this morning for Berlin. In the station, he was nearly cheated by the taxi driver. Rizal in Berlin, Germany 1 November 1886 At 1:25 P.M., Rizal arrived at Berlin and boarded at the Central Hotel. 2 November 1886 Rizal wrote a letter to his friend Pastor Karl Ullmer informing the latter of his arrival at the big German capital the day before. He wrote: "Remembrances to your loving wife, Eta and to Friedrich." 4 November 1886 In a letter he informed Prof. Blumentritt about his meeting with Dr. A.B. Meyer last October

31 in Dresden. He was already residing at Jaeger Straesse 71,111. 9 November 1886 He was admitted to the Real Biblioteca de Berlin to do some research and to read other books. His admission ended on March 1,1887. 22 November 1886 In a letter, he informed Pro. Blumentritt that he had already sent to his nephews in the Philippines the tragedies of Schiller and the stories of anderson, which he translated into Tagalog. 27 November 1886 He made a small outline of the Teruray, dialect of the binhabitants of the Western coast of Mindanao,which he later sent to Prof. Blumentritt. 11 December 1886 Maximo Viola joined Rizal in Berlin. Rizal was not able to meet Viola at the station because the former was sick. 12 December 1886 Early in the morning Rizal visited Viola at the Central Hotel. They took breakfast together I the restaurant below then hotel. 15 December 1886 He started teaching Viola the German language. 23 December 1886 He started dreaming of his mother. 24 December 1886 Rizal was high spirit although he just recovered from sickness. He was very happy to be with Maximo Viola. He finished translating one third of the book Waitz. 25 December 1886 Rizal wrote his mother: "It is three times now that I constantly dream you and sometimes the dreaam repeats itself in a single night. I would not like to superstitious even if the Bible and the Gospel believe dreams, but I like to believe that you are thinking constantly me and this makes my mind reproduce what goes on in you for after all my brain is a part of yours, and this is not stran because while I am asleep here, you are awake there." 27 December 1886 He was required by the German police to provide himself with the necessary passports or the risk of being expelled from German soil after three weeks. 30 December 1886 In a letter, told Prof. Blumentritt, of a plan of Maximo Viola to cope with him to Leitmeritz during his visit there. 31 December 1886 A certain Captain and ex-aide of Geneva Moltke of the French-pruss War invited Rizal to his home to celebrate the incoming New Year. Before this fiesta, Rizal bought a pair of chin pitchers, painting them figure of an old man representing the outgoing year and a boy

personifying the incoming year. January 1887 He became a member of the Ethnographic Society of Berlin in whose meeting he had the rare opportunity of hearing the interesting lecture of Dr. Donitz on pre-historic Japanese tombs which contained sets of dishes and other decorations. 11 January 1887 He met personally Dr. Teodor Jagor who invited him to attend the monthly luncheon of the member of the Geographic Society. In one of luncheons, he came to know the famous Virchow, president of the Anthropological Society of Berlin. 24 January 1887 He was again sick of fever and in the evening had stopped working on the novel. If not for Maximo Viola, he would have transferred to Italy where according to him the climate was healthful. 26 January 1887 He planned to translate the book of travels of Dr. Jagor as soon as he would finish translating the book of Waitz. By spring, he hoped to finish this works. 7 February 1887 He was very busy this day and the previous days going to the clinic and making some clinical investigations. In the house, he was occupied reading the copies of the Globus sent him Prof. Blumentritt. February 1887 He became a member of the Anthropological Society and the Geographic Society of Berlin. 21 February 1887 He communicated to Evaristo Aguirre telling the latter that the novel Noli was being rushed for publication. He requested Aguirre not to divulge the real title "Sampagas". At 11:30 in the evening, he finished writing the novel. 1 March 1887 His admission to Real Biblioteca, where he used to read the books about the Philippines, expired on this day. 5 March 1887 Rizal translated into French the "History of a Mother" by Andersen written in German. 21 March 1887 Copies of his novel came off the press. He sent one copy to Prof. Blumentritt. In a letter of his Austrian friend, he say it was the first impartial and daring book to be written on the life of the Tagalogs. He opined that the Spanish authorities and the friar would attack the book. 29 March 1887 In grateful appreciation of Maximo Viola’s pecuniary aid, Rizal presented him the last galley proofs and the first bound copy with this dedication: "To my dear friend, Maximo Viola, the first to read and appreciate my work- Jose Rizal, March 29, 1887, Berlin." April 1887

Rizal read before the Ethnographic Society of Berlin the "Arte Metrica del Tagalog", a thesis submitted by him to become a member of the same society in the same year. 12 April 1887 He received a gift from Blumentritt. It was an Ethno-graphic map of Central Mindanao published by the Cartographic Institute of Gotha. 13 April 1887 With Maximo Viola, Rizal studied the map sent him by Prof. Blumentritt. He said it is very necessary for every one to know first his own country- "Nosce te ipsum". He considered the Filipinos unfortunate because they had to receive new knowledge about themselves from foreigners. 24 April 1887 He was happy to receive the letter of pardon from his beloved father. He definitely decided to go home and help his folks. – Later he sent an advance notice to Prof Blumentritt of their coming visit to Leitmeritz. April 1887 By the end of April, Rizal left in Berlin for Dresden where the most famous "Musco Etnografico" was located. He met there the wise Filipinoogist director of the museum, Dr. A. B. Meyer, uthor of the excellent monographs. 11 May 1887 Accompanied by Maximo Viola, Rizal left Berlin to visit the cities of Eurupe, including Dresden, Leitmeritz, Prague, Vienna, Munich, Nuremberg, Ulm, Lausanne, and Geneva. Rizal in Leitmeritz, Bohemia 13 May 1887 Rizal and Viola arrived at Leitmeritz at 1:30 in the afternoon. They were met at the station by Prof. Blumentritt who conducted them to the Krebs Hotel, Room No. 12. 14 May1887 Rizal and Viola attended the session of the Board of Directors of the Tourist Club in Leitmeritz thru the invitation of Prof. Blumentritt who was the club secretary. They were cordially received by the President of the Club, Jose Krombholz. Rizal delivered an extemporaneous speech in German, which was very much applauded by the audience for his fluency. 15 May 1887 With Prof. Blumentritt as their guide, Rizal and Viola visited the churches , the residence of the Bishop and other important buildings of the city. They also visited the special friend of Prof. Blumentritt, Dr. Carlos Czepelak, who wanted very much to see Rizal personally. 16 May 1887 Professor Roberto Klutschak invited Rizal, Viola, and Prof Blumentritt to dine in his house , and in the evening in return, Rizal and Viola invited them in Krebs Hotel. At 9:45 that same evening Rizal And Viola , accompanied by the whole family of Prof. Blumentritt and Prof. Kluschk, left Leitmeritz for Prague.

Rizal in Brunn 19 May 1887 Rizal bade goodbye to Prof. Dr. Willkomn, State Adviser in Brunn. The lovable daughter of the professor reproached Rizal for not having told them of his artistic and poetic talents which they read in Bohemia, a newspaper published in Prague. They left Brunn this day. Rizal in Vienna 20-24 May 1887 Rizal and Maximo Viola arrived in Vienna at 2:30 P.M. of May 20th and both boarded at the Hotel Metropole. 24 May 1887 For the last 3 days, they were conducted around the city by Mr. Masner to see the points of interest, especially the Museum. On this day, Rizal was interviewed by Mr. Alder of the newspaper Extra Blatt. 25 May 1887 With Viola, Rizal left Vienna for Salzburg which the, too, left the following day, May 26, for Munich.
26-30 May 1887 Rizal and Viola were boarders of Rheinischer Hof or Rhine Hotel in Munich for five days. On May 29, 1887, they drunk beer in the business establishment, LowerbranKeller Munich. 30 May 1887 they left for Stuttgart.

Rizal in Stuttgart, Germany

31 May, 1887 Rizal and Viola arrived at the Geneva and boarded at the Hotel Merquardt. They left for Basel the following day, June 1.

Rizal in Basel, Switzerland
3 June 1887 Rizal and Viola drank beer in Baverieche, Bierhalle, Basel, Switzerland. A paper napkin with the trademark of the said establishment proves that they were in this place on their way to Geneva. They left the place the following day, June 4. 6 June 1887 Rizal and Viola arrived at Geneva and boarded at Rue due Rhone 3, Pension Bel-Air. Here Rizal expressed his feeling against the exhibition of the Igorots in Madrid side by side with the animals and plants. In a letter to Blumentritt, he wished the Igorots would die immediately to avoid further sufferings. 10 June 1887 Rizal changed the original plan for his trip. He wanted now to pass Italy, te country of European Laws, before leaving Europe. He hoped to stay in Geneva up to the 20th of the month. 13 June1887 Rizal sent a letter to Fernando Canon requesting the latter to sell the copies of the Noli, not less than 5 pesetas per copy. Canon was given 10% commission for the copies sold. 19 June 1887 With Maximo Viola, Rizal celebrated his 26th birthday in Geneva, Switzerland. His attitude towards revolution was manifested in his letter to Blumentritt on the following terms: "I do not have interest of taking part in any conspiracy, which seems to me very premature and risky. But if the government obliges it to us, meaning, when no other hope is left for us than search for our perdition in war, when the Filipinos prefer to die supporting misery, then I shall also become supporter of violent means. It is on the hands of Spain whether to select peace or perdition because it is an evident fact which all know that we are patient, very patient and peaceful." 23 June 1887 Rizal and Maximo Viola parted at Geneva, after visiting European cities -Rizal going to Rome and Viola to Barcelona

Rizal in Rome, Italy
27 June 1887 Rizal arrived at Rome and walked around the whole day. He visited the Capitolio, the Roca Tarperya, the Palatinum, the Forum Romanun, the Museum Capitolinum and the church of Santa Maria, the maggiore. He tool a flower from the Palace of Septimius Severus, which he sent to Blumentritt 29 June 1887 From Rome, Rizal wrote his father: "I was in Turin, Milan, Venice, Florence, and for some days I have been here." Heannounced his return to the Philippines between the 15th and 30th of August. 30 June 1887 He considered the day a lucky one for him, meeting on the railway an Italian priest who treated him like an old friend and whom he considered his Father Confessor.

Rizal on His Way to Marseilles, France
1 July 1887 In the train on his way to Marseilles, Rizal treated with much amiability by and American couple who invited him many times to dine and drink with them, and who, before separating in Monaco, bought fruits for him. 2 July 1887 Rizal in Marseilles searched the bodegas of the "Mensagerias Maritimas" for the box of merchandise. 3 July 1887 Rizal was in the Bureau of Posts of Marseilles at 8 o’clock in the morning. He received two letters there: One form Manuel

Rizal Back in Paris

19 March 1889 Rizal arrived at Paris and immediately founded the Kidlat Club. Since he had no time to publish immediately the annota-tions to the Morgans Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he planned to edit the Ethnography of Mindanao together with Blumentritt Defense. On the same day, Rizal, in Paris, permitted Mariano Ponce to publishthe poem "En Bosque" advising the latter pay attention to the signature Laong Laan. Likewise, advised Ponce to buy Filipino books and to mention its authors from time to time. 27 March 1889 He received a table cloth gift from Mrs. Rosa Blumwentritt. In order to remember her always, he placed it on his study table under the table lamp to remind him frequentlyduring his studies in the evening. 28 March 1889 Rizal borrowed from Blumentritt several pictures of different positions with the object of modeling some busts for the Professor. Rizal wanted to leave something as a remebrance of his art to the Austrian savant. 31 March 1889 His "Me Piden Versos…!" Signed Laong-Laan was published in the La Solidaridad. March 1889 He became sick in Paris. In a letter to Graciano Loperz Jaena to whom he sent an article for the La Solidaridad, Rizal made mention of his being sick. He requested Lopez Jaena to become a member of the kidlat, a Filipino Club in Paris. He advised Jaena on the way the newspaper La Solidaridad should be run. 12 April 1889 Another speech was delivered against Rizal in the Spanish Congress. Dr. Luis M. de Pardo, appearing in the Congress. Dr., Luis M. de Pardo, said that "… En

Filipinas Sr. Presidente del Consejo Circula con gran profusion, y no ahora, sino desde hace algun tiempo, un libro titulado Noli Me Tengere, que ye suplicaria al Sr. Presidente quesuplicaria al Sr. Presidente que estudiar; pero hagalo con cierto ciudad proque tiene bastante envenenarse su señorita." 18 April 1889 In a letter, Rizal informed Mariano Ponce that if not for the 1872 event, he should have been a Jesuit and instead of writing the Noli Me Tangere, he should have written another. 23 April 1889 He sent a manuscript of the "Ethnography of Mindanao" to Barcelona for publication. Likewise, he sent to Dr. Joist the letter of Manuel Hidalgo in which the abuses of the friars in the Philippines were mentioned and from which Rizal hoped Dr. Joist could gather facts for publication in the Kolmer Zeitung. 30 April 1889 In a letter, Rizal Proposed to Mariano Ponce that a conference among Plaridel (Marcelo H. del Pilar), Apacible, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Ferdinand Blumintritt, Julio Llorente, Fernando Canon, and themselves should be held in Paris. He planned to return to Chalcot Crescent, London. His article "a La Defensa" was published in the La Solidaridad. 2 May 1889 Rizal wrote Fernando Canon about his sentiment upon thinking that Canon’s child woulf later be a lost member or a country that needed men. 8 May 1889 He learned from Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera who arrived from the Philippines, that life in the country was impossible. Tavera told Rizal of his prediction that a big revolution in the Philippines would occur within ten years unless the condition would change. 15 May 1889 He sent the manuscript of his Article "por telepono" to publication in pamhlet form. His article "Los Viajes" signed Laong Laan was published in the La Solidaridad. 20 May 1889 He requested ferdinand Blumentritt to write the prologue to the Morga which he was preparing for printing. Morever, he urged the Austrian Professor to come to Paris for vacation and conference, placing at the latter’s disposal 200 marks for transportation expenses. He sent to Marcelo H. del Pilar a manuscript of an article, an answer to the "La Voz de Manila." He informed Del Pilar that he had Broken relation with Regidor due to the noncompliance of the latter of publishing his (Rizal’s) manuscript as per agreement. 23 May 1889

Rizal’s brother-in-law, Mariano Herbosa, died of cholera, together with Isidoro Alcala, both from Calamba. Herbosa was not buried in the holy ground but on the hill (Lecheria) outside Calamba, causing Rizal to publish in the La Solidaridad the biting article entitled "Una Profanacion" on July 31, 1889. 26 May 1889 he sent Mariano Ponce his answer to Barranter’ criticism. He instructed ponce to publish it with his (Rizal’s) name or that of Laong Laan. 31 May 1889 Rizal published his "La Verdad para Todos" in the La Solidaridad. 4 June 1889 He translated more than 30 pages of Blumentritt’s Memorias on the tribes of Mindanao. He expressed the illusion than when liberty brightens in the Philippines, he and Blumentritt would come and live together. Dr. A. B. Meyer visited him in Paris. 6 June 1889 He conducted Julio Llorente, his childhood friend, around Paris the whole day. Rizal had to accompany Llorente always because the latter did not know French. 15 June 1889 Rizal’s letter "Al Sr. D. Vicente Barrantes" was published in the La Solidaridad (first installment). 18 June 1889 He sent to Marcelo H. del Pilar the manuscripts of the "Defensa del Noli" of Dr. Blumentritt. He wanted it to be published in the La Solidaridad by the end of the month. 19 June 1889 Rizal planned to leave Paris. He was annoyed by the exorbitant increase of room rentals. The landladies of Paris became opportunist of the presence of the Exposition. 23 June 1889 He continued with enthusiasm the translation of Blumentritt’s Memorias on the tribes of Mindanao. He was already on page 36. Two copies of his picture (age 28) were sent to Blumentritt and Dr. Czepelack. 30 June 1889 Rizal’s letter he informed Mariano Ponce that he was going to wander for few days in other countries. He requested Ponce to inform the others on Barcelona about his plan. 4 July 1889 at 8:55 in the evening, Rizal Left Paris for Dieppe. He arrived at Vernon at 10:15 and at Rouen at 11:30 in the same evening. In his travel he was very much disturbed by a loquacious American who was always boasting of things American.

12 July 1889 Rizal arrived at Paris from London where he spent a few days confronting the proofs of the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas with the original book found in the British Museum. He resided now at 45 Rue de Manbenge and attended to the finishing touches of his annotations. 23 July 1889 He sent to the printing press his annotations to Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas and requested Prof. Blumentritt in a letter to keep secret the publication of the book because with it he wanted to surprise his compatriots. 30 July 1889 He was very busy the past days and on this day he was going to the printing press Garnier Hermanos, reading and correcting the proofs and adding new annotations to the work. July 1889 His "Two Eastern Fables," a comparative study of the Japanese and Philippine folklore, appeared in Trubner’s Record (London). 31 July 1889 his article "Verdades Neuvas" was published in the La Solidaridad. 13 August 1889 he was admitted to make studies in the "Bibliotheque Nationale" of Paris. His Admission ended on December 31, 1889. Rizal was very much occupied. He had much work to do and he felt blank. 14 August 1889 he received a telegram from Hongkong with the information that Paciano Mercado, Silvestre Ubaldo, Antonio and leandro Lopez, Mateo Elejorder and others were accused and threatened of deportation. 9 September 1889 Rizal was very busy in Paris putting the Morga in the final form. -With five or six young men from lipa, who were in Paris and who were willing to go with him, he planned to visit Prof. Blumentritt in Leitmeritz the following year. Rizal wanted to show to Blumentritt that he (Blumentritt) was not depending in vain the Filipino people. He attended the baptismal party of the child of Juan Luna. 10 September 1889 In Paris he met Sr. Moret, the ex-minister of the Spanish government. The exminister purposely went to Paris to meet and talk with the author of the Noli Me Tangere which he liked very much, 15 September 1889 His article "Differencias" was Published in the La Solidaridad.

21 September 1889 Rizal instructed Jose Ma. Basa to do away with pseudonyms in the articles he (Basa) was publishing in the newspapers in Hongkong. He requested Basa to pay especial attention to the packages or letters with the initials Rd. L. M. written on the envelope. 22 September 1889 In a package, he sent to Blumentritt two statues: a beggar with a hat and a maid with bilao on her hands. He sent, too, a wallet made of nito vines. All these things came from one of Blumentritt’s admirers in the Philippines. 30 September 1889 his essay "Filipinas Dentro de Cien Años" was published in the La Solidaridad (first installment). 10 October 1889 Rizal was believed to have written in Paris a proclama-tion carrying this date, in which a bloody revolution was being announced. Part of it follows: "cuando se le arranca del corazon hasta la ultima esperanza… entonces… entonces… entonces… no le queda otro remedio sino sangriento y suicida de la revolucion!!!" 20 October 1889 He insistently requested Prof. Blumentritt to write the prologue to his annotations to Morga’s Sucesos de las Filipinas, giving him the freedom of criticizing or eulogizing the work. Rizal said: "I want to give my countrymen an example that I do not write for myself nor for my glory, but for my country and that’s why I prefer the truth than my face. God grant that my countrymen also sacrifice their passions for the welfare of the country." 22 October 1889 He attended the nuptial ceremony of Felix Pardo de Tavera. Because of this event, he postponed his plan of going to London for the confrontation of the proofs with the original Morga in the British Museum. 31 October 1889 His essay "Filipinas Dentro de Cien Años" was published in the La Solidaridad (second installment). 4 November 1889 A secret member of the R.L.M. with the no. 2 grade was introduced to Marcelo H. del Pilar in a letter by Rizal. This secret member went to Madrid with the object of securing a high position in the Cathedral and avenging injustices of which he was a victim in the Philippines. 11 November 1889 He erased the name of Quioquiap from the prolongue written by Blumentritt for the Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas which was being printed with the Rizal annotation. 15 November 1889 His article "a La Patria" was published in the La Solidaridad.

22 November 1889 Rizal sent back to Blumentritt the original of the Prologue and the proofs with his corrections. He expressed his sentiments to Blumentritt that he did not like the Filipinos to be imploring and asking the confraternity of the Spaniards. From Paris Rizal sent to Marcelo H. del Pilar in Madrid the Article about Blumentritt to be published in the La Solidaridad. 30 November 1889 His article "Inconsecuencias" was published in the La Solidaridad. 1 December 1889 He finished with the proofreading of the galley proofs of the Morga. He wrote to Dr. Meyer that as soon as the printing of the books is finished, one copy would be sent to him. Likewise, he explained to the latter the meaning of the word UPOS found in the book of Morga. December 1889 From Paris Rizal sent to M.H. del Pilar the continuation of the "Filipinas dentro de cien años," some poems and letters of Bluementritt, all to be published at the disposal of the director of the La Solidaridad. 15 December 1889 His essay "Filipinas Dentro de Cien Años" was published in the La Solidaridad (third installment). His poem the "Las Flores de Heidelberg" signed Laong Laan was published in the La Solidaridad. 23 December 1889 Copies of the Morga started coming out from the printing press. He sent one copy to Mariano Ponce in Barcelona. In a letter, Ponce told Rizal that the book would rectify the wrong notion, which the enemies had against the Philippines. A big blow against the enemies, he said further. His admission permit to the Bibliotheque Nationale expired on this day. 3 January 1890 Rizal who was still in Paris announced to Ponce his return to London.

Rizal Back in London
6 January 1890 Rizal arrived at London from Paris. He went on searching for the paper and book, which Dr. Meyer requested him to buy in London. 15 January 1890 His article "Ingratitudes" was published in the La Solidaridad.

Rizal Back in Paris 8 January 1890 Rizal arrived at Paris from London and planned to go Holland to look for books in the libraries their written during the 7th century about the Philippines. 8 January 1890 Rizal and Albert left Paris for Brussels. 1 February 1890 His essay "Filipinas dentro de cien años was published in the La Solidaridad (fourth installment).

Rizal in Brussels, Belgium
2 February 1890 Rizal arrived Brussels from Paris. 12 February 1890 In a letter advised Mariano Ponce Barcelona to collect the article he (Ponce) was publishing because they would be useful later, publishing them in book form. 15 February 1890 His letter "Excelmo., Señor Don Vicen Barrantes" was published in the La Solidaridad. 5 March 1890 In a letter he told Dr. A.B. Meyer that the Filipinos before the coming of the Spaniards used to drink "arak" or wine of nipa or coconut tree, and were chewing buyo. The opium, according to him, was introduced after the arrival of the Spaniards. 31 March 1890 His editorial article "Filipinas en el congreso" was published in the La Solidaridad. He planned of establishing on top of a hill in Calamba a school which would be directed by him. He hoped the Filipino youth would study in this school. 15 April 1890 Rizal’s letter to his countrymen, "Sobre la nueva ortografia de la lengua tagala," was published in the La Solidaridad. His article "Seamos justos" was published in the La Solidaridad. 17 April 1890 Rizal didn’t believe that the Filipinos came from Sumatra. After reading the book of Marsden, Sumatra, he found many similarities about the two people especially in costumes; but he didn’t draw the conclusion that Filipinos came from Sumatra. He said that from two similar poeple no conclusion could be drawn that one came from the other. The two might be the sons of a dead father. 30 April 1890 His editorial article "Cosas de Filipinas" was published in the La Solidaridad. 26 May 1890 His article "Mas sobre el asunto de Negros" was published in the La Solidaridad. 26 May1890 He came to know that his annotations of Morga’s work was very much searched and read in the Philippines. A copy reached twice the original price of 12.50 francs. 28 May 1890 In a letter, he complained to M.H. del Pilar about the Filipinos indulging in gambling in Madrid. He said that Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura in Paris were complaining about it, as it became known already in the Philippines. 6 June 1890 In a letter Rizal wanted his sister Soledad to be virtuous and possessed of good qualities in order to serve as a model

among her pupils. 11 June 1890 He informed M.H. del Pilar that he was not separating from the La Solidaridad but was only resting and giving others the opportunity to use their pen. Rizal was going to continue the second part of the Noli. 28 June 1890 Persecutions against Rizal’s family in Calamba were intensified. These were communicated to him in Brussels by his brother. People were driven from Calamba by the friars aided by the civil guards. 3 July 1890 In order that Antonio Luna would know about his activities in Brussels, Rizal informed the former that he was working and studying, going to the clinic, reading and writing, and going to the gymnasium and the "Sala de Armas" for practice. 5 July 1890 In a letter Rizal reminded Dr. Blumentritt if he had received already the two sculptural works which were sent on Sept.22, 1899. 9 July 1890 In a letter to M. Ponce, he opposed Graciano Lopez Jaena’s going to Cuba. He said it is useless: "If one has to die let him die at lest in his own country, for the cause of his country and for the welfare of his people." He informed Mariano Ponce about this. 15 July 1890 His essay "Sobre la indolencia in the La Solidaridad (first installment). Also his editorial article "Una Esperanza" was published in the La Solidaridad. 18 July 1890 Rizal received from Mariano Ponce, who was in Barcelona, 125 francs. The money arrived at a time when Rizal had just one franc left in his pocket for his existence in Brussels. He planned to go to Madrid. In a letter he promised to Marcelo H. del Pilar that the was leaving Brussels before the end of the month. He wanted to present before the Supreme Court in Madrid the lawsuit against the friars of Calamba. 20 July 1890 He sent to Madrid the continuation of the "Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinos." He also sent the authority for the presentation of the case before the Supreme Court. He planned of leaving Brussels at the end of the month. His family lost the cases in Calamba against the friars and Paciano elevated the case to the Supreme Court in Madrid. 29 July 1890 Rizal informed Mariano Ponce of his departure for Madrid on the 1st of August and his arrival there on the 3rd or the 4th day of the same month. 31 July 1890 His essay "Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinos" was published in the La Solidaridad (second installment).

Rizal Back in Madrid

15 August 1890 His essay "Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos was published in the Solidaridad (third installment). 20 August 1890 He wrote to his brother and sisters advised about the persecution of the noble persons of Calamba, but to have patience since he was going to consult the Minister of Pardon and Justice of the Spanish government in Madrid. 23 August 1890 He reported to Juan Luna what transpired between him and Antonio Luna. They had a quarrel and they also had a duel. 31 August 1890

His essay "Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos" was published in the Solidaridad (fourth installment). 15 September 1890 His essay "Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinos" was published in La Solidaridad (fourth installment). 31 October 1890 His article "I contestacion a Don Isabel delos Reyes" was published in La Solidaridad. His article "El amor patria with his pen name Laong Laan was published in the Solidaridad. 5 November 1890 His comments on D.F. Pi y Margallall’s article "Las luchas de nuestros dias" was published in the La Solidaridad (first installment). 15 November 1890 He was issued the diploma of Mason-tea of the Lodge "Solidaridad the Grand Oriente Español." 23 November 1890 He wrote legend of "Mariang Makiling," which was published in the La Solidaridad on December 1890. 30 November 1890 Jose Rizal comment on D.F. Pi y Margall's article "Las Luchas de Nuestros Dias" was published in the Solidaridad (second installment). 15 December 1890 His article "Como Se Gobierno las Filipinas" was published in the La Solidaridad His poem "A mi…", -signed Laong Laan, was published in the La Solidaridad. 31 December 1890 His article "Mariang Makiling," signed Laong Laan, was published in the La Solidaridad. 7 January 1891 Rizal wrote a very inspiring and interesting letter to P. Vicente Garcia, seeking from the latter a light with which to prepare himself (Rizal) to trend the path of the future. He said that the experience of old who has seen much of the world and studied more can supplement the youth’s few years and little knowledge. 21 January 1891 In a letter, he broached to Jose Ma. Basa his idea of founding a college in Hong Kong where they would teach languages, sciences, and arts, patterned after the Jesuits Colleges. 27 January 1891 Rizal left Madrid for Paris via Biarritz, after encountering all failures and difficulties in Madrid.

Rizal Biarritz, France

11 February 1891 From Biarritz, Rizal wrote Mariano Ponce in Madrid that he was too occupied and could not send articles for the La Solidaridad. He offered his services of answering the attacks hurled against them in case Marcelo H. del Pilar and Antonio Luna could not answer. 29 March 1891 He finished writing his book El Filibusterismo. He planned, however, of revising some chapters.

Rizal Back in Paris, France

4 April 1891 Rizal sent a letter to Jose Maria Basa asking the latter if he (Rizal) could borrow money to defray his fare for Hong Kong from Paris.

8 April 1891 Rizal arrived at Brussels, from Paris. He immediately wrote a letter of congratulation to Antonio Luna in Madrid. 19 April 1891 In a letter, he reiterated to Jose Ma. Basa his intention of borrowing some amount so that he could leave immediately for Hong Kong. He sent two letters to the Philippines through Jose Ma. Basa: one for his family in Calamba. 23 April 1891 He was revising some chapters of the Fili. He thought of sending it soon to the printing press. 1 May 1891 In a letter sent to Basa, Rizal reiterated [again] his desire to be in Hong Kong, reminding the former of the amount he was borrowing for his fare. He also informed Deodato Arellano of his plan to move from Europe to either Hongkong, Philippines or Japan, and to renounce the receiving of pension from the Propaganda." 30 May 1891 Rizal set ready for printing 20 chapters of the manuscript of the El Filibusterismo. He was waiting for an amount to defray the publication expense. 13 June 1891 Rizal finished reviewing and correcting the manuscript of the Fili, except for the last three chapters. 21 June 1891 He left Brussels for Ghent.

Rizal in Ghent, Belgium

3 July 1891 Rizal received from Jose Ma. Basa the amount he was borrowing for his trip to Hong Kong from Marseilles, as well as the letter for the Director of the Messageries Maritimes. He was boarding at 9 Rue de Hinaut. 9 July 1891 He was financially hard up. He did not receive for three months up to this date any pension from home. He was living in the most difficult situation, renting a small room and eating the modest food in order to economize and able to publish the Fili. He had already pawned all his jewels. 29 July 1891 Rizal informed Eduardo Lete about the details of the two agricultural colonies in Belgium, telling the latter that the Hoogstragen colony is for men and that of Brujas, for women. To know the details about this request of Lete, Rizal personally went to Brussels. 4 August 1891 In a letter, he thanked Prof. Blumemtritt for the two books: the first volume of I El Sacerdocio and the beautiful treaties of Mal Epos. He planned to write articles about these but the El Filibusterismo consumed his time. 6 August 1891 He told Juan Zulueta that it was never his habit to provoke conflicts; that the idea which precipitated the conflict among the members of the Colony in Madrid did not come from him but from other persons, and that he never had the desire under his leadership to subordinate neither the La Solidaridad nor its director. 23 August 1891 In a letter, Rizal informed Blumentritt that Padre Leoncio Lopez, the old parish priest of Calamba who wanted to see and shake hands with him again in Calamba before eternally leaving the valley of tears, but who died before the publication of the Noli, is described in the Fili as Padre Florentino. 24 August 1891 Rizal wrote a letter to Mariano Ponce in Madrid informing the latter that he was deeply hurt by the false accusations coming from Manila. However, he reiterated his adherence to the cause of the movement. 26 August 1891 In a letter, he informed Basa in Hong Kong that the Fili was coming out in September. 16 September 1891 The El Filibusterismo was about to come off the press of F. Meyer, Van Loo at No. 66 Vlanderestraat. He was elated, together with Jose Alejandro who was staying with him at No. 32 Vlanderestraat, near the printing press. 18 September 1891 The Fili came off the press and Rizal sent to Hong Kong two copies: one for Jose Ma. Basa and the other for Sixto Lopez. 22 September 1891 He sent one copy of his El Filibusterismo to Marcelo H. del Pilar. He informed the latter at the same time that he was completely retiring from politics since he said he was going home. Likewise, he sent a copy to Antonio M. Regidor, one of his countrymen living in London. He planned of writing the third novel during his travel back home. He wanted to write about the customs and usages of the Filipinos in a humorous and satirical style. 25 September 1891 Valentin Ventura sent to Rizal in Ghent 200 francs for the publication expenses of the Fili.

Rizal in Paris

3 October 1891 From Paris, Rizal sent a letter with 600 copies of the El Filibusterismo, to Jose Ma. Basa in Hongkong saying that he was definitely taking the next trip of the Melbourne for Hongkong from Marseilles. 7 October 1891 Since January up to this date the whole amount Rizal received as help from the "Propaganda" amounted to three hundred pesos (P300.00) only. Because of discontent, he informed Marcelo H. del Pilar that he was not writing anymore for the La Solidaridad, and was renouncing the receiving of pensions from the "Propaganda." 9 October 1891 He confessed to Blumentritt that he would not write anymore for the La Solidaridad. He said he was leaving the field to others to manage the policy of the newspaper in order to avoid schism among the Filipinos in Madrid. 13 October 1891 Rizal made clear the cause of the conflict between him and Marcelo del Pilar. He wrote Del Pilar about the details of the cause of their misunderstanding and the reason why he could not return to Madrid. 17 October 1891 He arrived at Marseilles with boxes of Morga and Fili.

Rizal Bound for Hong Kong
18 October 1891 Rizal left Marseilles for Hong Kong aboard the Melbourne. On board, the beauty of Mme. De Block amused him 19 October 1891 He woke up near Corcega. The day was beautiful, fresh and carried mild breeze. He was surprised to hear Bishop Volenteri talked much about the Philippines. The Bishop had stayed in the Philippines for 23 years. 23 October 1891 He arrived at Alejandria where the boat was invaded by the vendors offering the passengers their services. He was irked by the natives’ behaviors. 24 October 1891 At six o’clock in the morning, he left Port Said to start his trip along the Suez Canal. 25 October 1891 In the evening, while traveling in the Red Sea, Rizal had a long discussion about religion with Bishop Volenteri. The Bishop was so intolerant. 29 October 1891 He visited Aden and found the place more beautiful now than before. Here he saw slave cargoes. 31 October 1891 He passed the point of Guardafui. This was his 14th day on the sea on board the S.S. Melbourne since he departed from Marseilles. 1 November 1891 He had a conversation with a Russian naturalist, who asked him whether he was a patriot, whether his country was unfortunate. In return, Rizal asked the Russian what consists the misfortune of a nation. 2 November 1891

It was on this day that, on board the Melbourne, he made mention of Mr. W. B. Prayer who later became Rizal’s correspondent regarding the North Borneo settlement project. 3 November 1891 The sky was cloudy when Rizal woke up. Many passengers became sick on board. His clothes became wet. In the evening, he heard an Englishman sang ballads, among them the "Diver" and the " I am Khulen Keller." 4 November 1891 The day continued to be cloudy. Rizal was surprised how fast the oxidation took place among the iron bars. The fiesta prepared on board was suspended because of the bad weather. After hearing the discussion about "will "and "hope", he told his listeners that without hope there is no will. 5 November 1891 He had a long conversation about things related to Medicine, towns, girls, writers, artists, feeling and literature with Mme. De Block. In the afternoon, he played chess with the best players. He won. At 8:30 in the evening, he arrived at Colombo. 6 November 1891 He took a walk around the town of Colombo. He went to see the Museum, the hospital, the Temple of Buddha, and other places of interest. Here he made a detailed observation of the different Buddha peoples he met on the street. 8 November 1891 On board, Rizal met some Franciscans whom he informed about the Franciscans in the Philippines. They told him that if the Franciscans of the Philippines are rich, then they are no longer Franciscans. 10 November 1891 Rizal had a talk with Mr. W. B. Prayer about the colonization of North Borneo. At four o’clock in the afternoon, he arrived at Singapore where he came to know about the departure of General Despujol for the Philippines. 14 November 1891 He arrived at Saigon. He went ashore to visit the town. He saw the Museum and the Zoological Garden. 15 November 1891 He was still in Saigon on this day. He made so many visits around the town with his co-passengers. He went to Chelong, a city hall an hour travel from Saigon, for observation. 16 to 19 November 1891 Rizal was again on board the S. S. Melbourne traveling from Saigon to Hong Kong.

Rizal in Hong Kong
19 November 1891 In the evening Rizal arrived at Hong Kong. 26 November 1891 From Hong Kong Rizal sent to Manuel Camus in Singapore 20 copies of the Fili, 6 of the Morga and 4 of the Noli. He gave Camus 25 percent commission for the books sold. 1 December 1891 He asked permission from his parents to join them in Manila in their sacrifices and at the same time,

encouraged them to have a little endurance. He said: " I have learned of the exile of four townmates to Jolo and of the return of my brother to Manila. I have also learned that mother, Pangoy and Trining, have been summoned again by the civil government. I am burning with desire to embrace you. Patience, a little patience! Courage!" 6 December 1891 Francisco Mercado, Paciano and his brother-in-law, Silvestre Ubaldo, escaped from the Philippines to avoid persecution, and arrived at Hong Kong to join him. 12 December 1891 In a letter sent to Maria, one of his sisters in the Philippines, Rizal broached his plan of establishing a Filipino colony in North British Borneo. 17 December 1891 On this day Governor General Despujol, offering his services and cooperation for the common good. He wanted to point to the latter the ills of country in order to help cure the wounds of mal-administration. 27 December 1891 An article was published in the La Epoca carrying false news about Rizal’s stay in the Philippines and his influence among the natives. This article carries no author’s name and was believed to have been inspired by a Dominican friar. December 1891 Rizal was visited by an Augustinian friar in his house. The friar pulled his ears and wanted to attack him. But Rizal stopped the intruder by twisting the latter’s hand. 25 January 1892 The duplicate of his diploma in Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery was issued by the Ministry of Development in Madrid. 30 January 1892 In a letter, Juan Luna favorably endorsed Rizal’s plan of establishing a Filipino colony in North Borneo. He wished Rizal luck and success in this project. January 1892 Everyday, after his medical practices in his clinic, he continued writing his third novel. It treated exclusively about the Tagalog customs, usages, virtues and defects. Meanwhile, his brother Paciano translated the Noli into Tagalog. 1 February 1892 Rizal paid thirty-five pesos (P35.00) to D. Mallunko for the rent on the premises of A-2 Rednaxela from January 1st to 31st. 6 February 1892 Rizal wrote a letter addressed to "My beloved friend" and signed it with the name Cabisa. 15 February 1892 The Hong Kong Telegraph published the letter of Rizal signed Philippines in which he denounced the vandalistic actions of the friar manager of the Dominicans in destroying the houses of those who refused to pay the exorbitant rentals demanded of them in Calamba. 23 February 1892 Rizal wrote a letter to Blumentritt in which he informed the latter of his plan of emigrating to Borneo where he could establish another Calamba free from the abuses of the friars and the civil guards. 2 March 1892 He visited Victoria Gaol in Hong Kong. Dr. Lorenzo Pereira Marquez who was the physician of the state prison accompanied him.

Rizal on the Way to Hong Kong from Borneo

7 March 1892 Rizal left North Borneo on Board the boat Memon for Hong Kong. In the morning, he was traveling on the Philippine waters near Cagayan de Oro. 8 March 1892 He was traveling along Mindoro Strait on his way back to Hong Kong from North Borneo. Mindoro, according to him was mountainous on the southeastern part, with few trees and uninhabited.

Rizal Back in Hong Kong
11 March 1892 Rizal received the duplicate copy of his Licentiate in Medicine, which allowed him to practice his medical profession in the Crown Colony. Governor-General Despujol issued a decree of pardon for some of Rizal’s followers and friends who were deported to far places. 11 March 1892 He thanked the staff members of the La Solidaridad for the campaign undertaken for the Calamba case. The La Solidaridad carried articles about the troubles in Calamba whose people were stripped off of the land they were cultivating by the friars. 21 March 1892 In a letter, he asked permission from the Governor-General to change his nationality and to gather the few properties of his family left in Calamba. He informed the latter of his plan of establishing a Filipino Colony in Borneo. 22 March 1892 Rizal received a receipt for $88.28 from Wenyon and Robinson of Hongkong in payment for the account of Sixto Lopez which was paid by him. 23 March 1892 The Rector of the Universidad Central de Madrid wrote to the Minister of State, requesting that a representative of the Spanish government in Hongkong deliver personally the diploma of Rizal at the instance of Baldomero Roxas y Luz. 20 April 1892 He abandoned the idea of continuing to write in Tagalog the third part of his third novel. 23 May 1892 He sent a letter of protest to Mariano Ponce against the article of Eduardo Lete published in the La Solidaridad. He wondered why Marcelo H. del Pilar permitted the publication of such article. He feared that it would lead the Filipinos to believe the existence of schism among them. He was angry and furious at the attack of Lete. 24 May 1892 In Hongkong, Rizal wrote a letter to Juan Zulueta complaining of the article of Lete published in the La Solidaridad. He said that the article of Lete is highly impolite and prejudicial to the Philippines. 15 June 1892 He urged Mariano Ponce to establish a portable Tagalog printing press in Manila to handle the publication of news and article whenever necessary. 20 June 1892 He wrote two letters which he left sealed in the custody of Dr. Lorenzo P. Marquez, with instructions that these letters "be made public after my death". One of these was addressed to his parents, brothers, sisters and friends; and other, to his countrymen. 21 June 1892 He wrote to Governor-General Despujol advising the latter of his arrival to the Philippines to take the few things of the family. Rizal was in Hongkong at this time, about to depart for the Philippines. He informed the Governor-General of his arrival in the Philippines ready to face whatever charges presented against him.

Rizal in the Philippines
26 June 1892 Rizal arrived in the Philippines from Hongkong on board the boat Don Juan. After having been inspected by the custom men, he boarded in the Oriente Hotel where he occupied room No. 22, facing the Binondo church. His sister, Lucia, accompanied him in his return to the Philippines. In the evening, he attended the reunion held in the house of Don Ong-junco, a Chinese mestizo, who was living in the district of Tondo. Here he met many Filipinos who were later arrested and executed as a consequence of the discovery of the Katipunan. 27 June 1892 He took a train for his pleasure trip to Bulacan and Pampanga. He visited Malolos, San Fernando and Tarlac and his return, Bacolor. 28 June 1892 At 5:00 p.m. he arrived at Manila from his trip to Central Luzon. 29 June 1892 At 7:30 in the morning, he went to see Governor-General Eulogio Despujol. They talked about the Borneo plan. The Governor-General was very much opposed to it. Rizal was told to return the following Sunday. June 1892 Rizal used to see Maximo Viola in the Oriental Hotel prior to his (Rizal’s) deportation to Dapitan. Here Rizal confided to Viola the results of his interview with the Governor-General, which he termed sometimes pessimistic, sometimes optimistic. 3 July 1892 Rizal had again an interview with Governor-General Despujol. He thanked Governor-General Despujol for lifting the order of exile for his sisters. The Governor told him to come back the following Wednesday. In the evening, he attended a meeting at a house on Calle Ylaya to discuss the proposed Liga Filipina. 6 July 1892 Rizal held the last interview with the Governor-General. The governor-general confronted him for anti-friar bills supposedly found in the baggages of his sister Lucia. He was ordered imprisoned in Fort Santiago. 7 July 1892 Governor-General Eulogio Despujol issued a decree deporting Rizal to Dapitan. All the newspapers of the city published the decree on that day. 14 July 1892 In his prison cell, he was informed by D. Ramon Despujol , aide and the nephew of the Governor- General, that at 10:00 in the evening they would leave for Dapitan. 15 July 1892 At 1:00 on the morning, Rizal was shipped on board the boat S. S. Cebu to Dapitan. He was given good cabin, but well guarded.

Rizal, the Romantic
There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, O-Sei San, Gertrude Beckette, Nelly Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence, charm and wit. Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He

visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye. Leonor Rivera Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. Unfortunately, Leonor’s mother disapproved of her daughter’s relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her mother’s choice. Consuelo Ortiga Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortiga’s daughters, fell in love with him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo. O Sei San O Sei San, a Japanese samurai’s daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. Gertrude Beckett While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded in the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum. Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship. Nellie Boustead Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other ladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo Boustead. Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juan’s brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately, Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots. Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith, as Nellie demanded and Nellie’s mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. The lovers, however, parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe. Suzanne Jacoby In 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid. Josephine Bracken In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizal’s security. Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufer’s blindness was untreatable, he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizal’s family in Manila. Upon her return to Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephine’s consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which might have shocked or frightened her.