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The Juan Dela Cruz

The Juan Dela Cruz

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a narrative research on Who is Juan De la Cruz
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Published by: edarry on Jul 09, 2010
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The JUAN (1762-1765






The struggle of the Filipinos for freedom is a continuous one. In war as in peace they have never wavered. An example of this struggle is the Palaris Revolt of 1762-1765 led by Juan de la Cruz Palaris of Binalatongan, now San Carlos City. The exact name of Juan de la Cruz Palaris is Pantaleon Perez. He was the son to Tomas Perez, a cabeza de barangay. He was born in Barrio Coliling, San Carlos City, Pangasinan, in the year 1733, third in a family of five, with three brothers and one sister. The first two elder brothers died when they were yet small and the youngest brother lived to marry yet. While the sister next to him grew into a beautiful but manly woman who used to kill a wild boar single handedly. She was finally killed in her own game, that is, she was killed and devoured by the wild boars. It was not known whether Pantaleon Perez was able to enter to school during his lifetime. The sources on this matter are silent, but he must have acquired some form of practical education while he was in Manila because when he returned to San Carlos, he was held in high esteem and the people looked up to him as a cultured and refined man. In the words of Simon de Anda: "he onced served as a coachman of Auditor Don Francisco Enriques de Villacorta." His dealing with his townsmen earned for him their confidence and respect and, being a dynamic and restless man, he easily became their leader. History records him as Juan de la Cruz "Palaripar" then as "Palaris," but for convenience he was more popularly known as "Palaris." He was called "Palaripar" as he was the fastest runner and his legs appeared to be twirling like an auger and the ground furrowed. Immediate Causes of the Revolt The immediate causes of the revolt were the failure of the government to satisfy the petition of the people demanding: (1) The return of the tributes that had been collected, (2) the removal of the schoolmaster and the church officials, (3) the removal of the alcalde-mayor of the province, Don Joaquin Gamboa, (4) permanence in office for the then master-of-camp of the province, Andres Lopez, a native, and (5) a promise that they be exempted from the payment of the tributes if they go to Jolo to fight the Moros. The Revolt Proper The Spanish Force: the Battle of Bayambang (First Battle). Palaris was prepared to meet the Spanish force. He instructed his men to get ready not to allow the Spanish force from Manila to reach Pangasinan. In a flash, Palaris gave the command to mobilize, in spite of Governor Anda's last minute rally to gain their support. They advanced to Bayambang to intercept the enemy there. They built some trenches in the western bank of the Bayambang River in a place called Manambong where they believed their enemies would pass through.

Some hours and perhaps a day or two, had already passed. The rebels were impatient waiting for their enemies. Was the Spanish force coming? Two, and then three more shots were heard. General Antonio of the rebel force went up a tall tree to find out. Verily, the Spanish force was coming. He blew his bugle and the rebels reported to their leader, Palaris. The latter instructed them to line up along the opposite west bank of the Bayambang River and spread themselves. The Spanish force numbering 33 Spaniards and 400 natives headed by Francisco Arayat from Bacolor, finally arrived at the east bank of the river. As the river was impossible to crossed, the Spanish leader detained his men for some time. Then he thought best to send an embassy to the rebels so that they would submit. "If Your Majesty Has Muskets, We Have Cannons." Palaris received the members of the embassy courteously, who accordingly told him of their plan. Immediately he replied (rather haughtily): "If your majesty has muskets, we have cannons." Thereupon, the Spanish commander was compelled to make war on them, attacking them in the trenches which they built with five hundred men equipped with thirty-four muskets and some cannons besides their bows and arrows. The rebels hurled their banner to the breeze accompanied by a hot from a cannon of the caliber of four, and two shots from falconets. Spanish Lieutenant Pedro Hernani, with one sergeant, one corporal, and twenty soldiers began to cross the river on their horses. The rest of the Spanish force was left as a reserve. Lieutenant Pedro Hernani was the first to reach the other bank; but he was at once shot by General Domingo by an arrow which pierced his breast. Lieutenant Hernani, at once returned his deadly blow by a gunshot crashing in at Domingo's temple, and they both died - the heroes of the occasion. The Rebel's Flag Pedro Tagle succeeded Lieutenant Hernani. He shouted at his soldiers not to waver, and the battle was on. It later developed into a hand to hand fight; and the rebels, lacking in military training and equipment began to waver, and they broke. The Spanish force captured their flag which they immediately brought to their commander-in-chief, Francisco Arayat. The rebel flag was two varas long and a trifle more narrow. At each corner was a twoheaded eagle, and in the center an escutcheon with its border. Within it were the arms of the Order of St. Dominic. With the rebel flag in their possession, the Spanish force decided to return to Manila, thinking that the rebels were already gone for good never to offer trouble again. Palaris saw them leaving, and desirous still to kill some soldiers of the Spanish army, he adroitly crossed the river and attacked them from behind. After killing many of them to his heart's satisfaction he dashed to the thick underbrush and then escaped to join men. The Spanish commander forbore to attack them reiterating that he would act mildly, and he continued his march to Manila.

Preparing For a Second Battle The rebels mended their broken fences and reinforced their armaments and ammunition at the west bank of the Bayambang River. For two months, in the early part of 1764, they prepared and waited for another battle. At last news was relayed to then that a formidable Spanish force under Manuel Arza which recently quelled the Silang Revolt in the Ilocos appeared in Mapatalan, San Fabian. It was headed for the rebels' headquarters. Palaris at once sent a reconnoitering force of cavalrymen headed by General Victor Valdez. It was planned that this cavalry force should intercept the Spanish force at Mangaldan, while Palaris, with the rest of his infantry should stay in the barrio of Pias, Sta. Barbara for some strategic reasons. The reconnoitering force of General Victor Valdez reached Mangaldan as planned. But instead of keeping a close watch on the approach of their enemies, they indulged in merry-making, frolic, and fun. Wine flowed freely, and they drank themselves to sleep. It was about 2:00 o'clock in the morning when they woke up; and the Spanish force was already bombarding Palris' place at Pias, Sta. Barbara. The Spanish force was able to escape the vigilant watch of the reconnoiters proving that General Victor Valdez was negligent. There was nothing more to do than to mount their horses for the succor of their leader, Palaris. On their way they met a group of fleeing soldiers of the Spanish force who were evidently but by Palaris from the main body of the Spanish army. Victor Valdez' cavalrymen charged upon them and they fled in another direction. They continued their way just the same, and at last they rejoined Palaris' beleaguered force. The battle dragged on unmercilessly, and the ground was already drenched in blood, and dead bodies could be counted by the hundreds. In the wake of the battle, neither force was the victor because there were but few fighting men left on both sides. Pias was converted into a veritable pool of blood. Whatever remained in the battlefield, either corpses or cannons, were ordered thrown into the Sta. Barbara Gorge by Palaris. Death of General Antonio Victor Valdez's cavalrymen presented themselves to Palaris after the battle, willing to suffer the consequences of their gross military blunder at Mangaldan. Between Valdez and Palaris there was only an understanding of personal friendship; but this time this friendship was hanging on the balance. Palaris received them quietly but indifferently, his eyes were burning with passion and anger. The soldiers remainly only passive and waited for their leader to "cool off." "Where is General Antonio?" was all that he could utter. Somebody informed him that he had been captured by the enemy, helplessly bound in fetters. Surprised, and apprehensive of any untoward development against General Antonio, Palaris immediately sent some of his men to rescue him. General Antonio was at this time being cross-questioned by the Spanish commandant, under ordeals for any clue leading to the capture of Palaris. His questions were rather pressing and persistent, with a promise of freedom afterward. Would General Antonio tell the name and native town of his leader? It would be plain cowardice and treason on his

part, pure and simple. At least, he must tell him the name but not the real one. Palaris was what he told the Spanish commandant, and Mangaldan was his native town. The Spanish commandant was overjoyed with the new recovery; but instead of giving General Antonio freedom, he had him beheaded, and his body thrown into the river. The Spanish commandant immediately had the name of Palaris written in big letters on canvas together with the name of his native town, Mangaldan, and exhibited it in a conspicuous place where everybody could see. It was purposely done to facilitate the capture of Palaris. His name and native town were whispered from ear to ear until it was the most popular name in the whole province of Pangasinan at the time. "A Fight To The Death" At Dagupan The rebels on the other hand were busy fortifying their trenches in Pias, Sta. Barbara, waiting again for the appearance of another force of Spanish soldiers. They were busy manufacturing their poisoned arrows which were then very effective in spelling doom for their enemies. Before long news was flashed to them that an enemy force from the Ilocos entered Dagupan from the sea and that they were headed for the headquarters of the rebels. There was not much time to be lost by this time; and Palaris ordered his men to mobilize. Within a few minutes they were marching head-long to meet their enemy. At Calasiao, they almost captured the municipal officials who were luckily entrenched in a certain impregnable building. The rebels were however in a hurry, so they left and continued their march to meet their enemy somewhere. At Dagupan, the two forces clashed, and the battle raged for days until it lasted for one week. Little by little the rebels gave way, retreating until they were on the dead run. Hunger was gripping them and when they reached Calasiao they were almost out of their senses. They crossed the bridge and broke it when they were already on the other bank. A Spanih Commandant Locked Horns With a Rebel Chief The Spanish force could not press on them further but they were so ingenious and determined that they all plunged into the river and swam to the opposite bank while the rebels kept up the song of their bullets and arrows. A hand to hand fight ensued, but this spelled great disaster for the rebel force. The Spanish commandant, Manuel Arza met General Victor Valdez, and they grappled like wild beasts. They were masters of their own art, these two leaders. The attention of all soldiers, rebels and Spanish soldiers and volunteers alike, was centered on them. It seemed as if these two combatants would decide the outcome of the day's battle. It was a fight of the century, neither combatant gaining advantage of the other as both of them were well adept in their own craft. A hand, and then a leg rose up to land on the neck and lower extremities of the other, only to be unlocked and to be pushed aside by the other.

They clinched again, at this time they rolled down the steep bank of the river down to the abysmal depth of the water below. There was a sepulchral silence. The onlookers were at a loss to explain what would happen next. Two minutes, five minutes, and ten minutes passed without any head to crop up from below. Suddenly, the water turned crimson with human blood punctuated by occasional bubbles here and there. A head appeared - a black head. It was Victor Valdez' head, the rebel general. With him tucked up in his right arm was the lifeless body of the Spanish commandant, with a twisted head. For was Valdez not a strong man? He was the Samson of the rebel forces. Shouts of victory from the rebels' ranks rent the air. Then bang! A shot was fired from the Spanish rank. And down went the swimming body of strong man Valdez. It was the curtain for him too. The two combatants died, one licked by a superior skill of an antagonist's limbs, and the other by a treacherous shot from a humbled enemy. Palaris' Last Stand At Calasiao: January, 1765 Palaris' self pride was hurt. It was foul play from the enemy. Leaving his perch, he swooped down on his enemies' rank, and smashed them right and left with his glistening sword. Many went down like grass, helpless against the onslaught of the maddened rebel leader. The battle between the Spanish force and the rebel force was resumed, and the Grim Reaper was busy with its toll. The rebels were being pushed little by little to the east until they reached the barrio of Ymbo in San Carlos. Hunger was gripping them. Their enemies knew this and they brought their suit harder until many of the rebels were killed. According to Sinibaldo de Mas, about 10,000 of the rebels were killed, while with the Spanish force, only 60 Spaniards and 140 natives suffered death. Carlos and Satur of rebel force were killed, Palaris knew this, and thus his valor was giving way. Without the knowledge of his soldiers and enemies, he cautiously slipped into a thick underbrush and then to the wilderness in the forest. His rebels followed suit and fled in all directions; but some were however captured. They were later pardoned by "Governor" Anda through the entreaties of Bishop Fr. Bernardo Ustariz of Nueva Segovia. Palaris was still lurking in the forest of Ymbo, San Carlos; so the Spanish force riddled every nook and corner of the forest with bullets believing that Palaris could be caught dead. Many were killed of course. But they were the helpless women and children who left their homes to escape the fury of the Spanish force. Without the knowledge of hi enemies, Palaris slipped to Dedios, now barrio Torac, San Carlos. Here, he led a wild life, wandering from place to place, from Dedios to Magtaking, and then to Pao where he was finally killed in January, 1765. A Sister's Treachery The story of his death was rather pathetic, filled with treachery was his own sister, Simona, almost strange and unbelievable. Simona used to ration her brother with his regular meals, and even his tobacco and other necessities were supplied him. But one time she failed to be on time in giving his meals and daily needs. The result was that

Palaris beat her and kicked her unmercilessly. This provoked her to report to the Spanish commandant, Pedro Bonardel, the hiding place of her brother. There was no other alternative than this to end her sufferings. The Spanish commandant and his soldiers took the tip with great joy as they set on their journey to capture the rebel leader with Simona as their guide. Upon reaching the vicinity of Palaris' lair, she instructed the soldiers to keep low and to hide behind bushes. Palaris began to eat his noonday meal as usual without the slightest fear of danger. Simona watched her brother eat his meal for a time. Then she sneaked into the place where her brother's bows and arrows were hidden and destroyed all of them. she Later raised the agreed signal of attack and the curtain for Palaris came. He died while he was eating without being able to defend himself. He was a victim of a treachery well planned, paying very dearly for the cruelty he inflicted on his sister. Mutilation of Palaris' Body The soldiers of the Spanish force brought the mutilated body of Palaris to the town of San Carlos where it was, in the words of Ramon Diaz, "paraded all over the principal streets accompanied by a band." Speeches were delivered, and then they began to administer a further mutilation of Palaris' corpse as if they were butchering a pig. His head was hung at the south end of the Cava Bridge, his left hand at the Caapangan Bridge (now Imbornalla), his right hand at the San Juan Bridge, his right leg at the Malabago (now in calasiao), his left leg at the manat Bridge, and finally his heart at Taloy. With the death of Palaris, went also the end of the Palaris Revolt of 1762-1765. The people who fled to the mountains were thereby advised to return to their repective homes. Their suffering, both with the fear of the rebels and the Spanish forces, was also ended. Danger from animals was thereafter terminated. It should be noted that these people suffered the greatest hardship when the revolt was still raging. They all threw their babies into the river to avoid detection in their hiding places when they cried. In Catopactopacan, babies were killed by the hundreds under necessity. In Mamerlao, Ymbo, Taloy, and Panoypoy many built dugouts under the ground to avoid being seen and being hit by a stray bullet or arrow. While many preferred to hide in caves along the steep banks of the river, others chose to hide in the hollows of big trees, behind big boulders and other dark places. Many of them fell victims to snake bites and other poisonous and carnivorous animals. Others were devoured by crocodiles and wild boars. Still a great many died from hunger as few of them dared to venture into the open to procure fresh food supply. Those who survived contented themselves in eating young guava leaves to stave off hunger. The End of the Revolt: a Lesson? Thus, the Palaris Revolt of 1762-1765 ended. The Pangasinenses tasted for the second time the bitter pill of war and the Spaniards burned their fingers again and learned a great

lesson. But history, as others say, repeats itself. The revolution of 1896, and the was of 1899 are still well known.

JUAN DE LA CRUZ (PALARIS) (1733-1765) Pangasinan Freedom Fighter

Juan de la Cruz, later to be known as Palaris, was the leader of the second revolt in Pangasinan during the Spanish times.He was born on January 8,1733 in Binalatongan, Pangasinan. His father, Santiago de la Cruz, was a former cabeza de barangay. His mother was Catalina Ugnay. They were both natives of Binalatongan. Dela Cruz was extraordinarily big, thus earning the sobriquet, ”the giant’s son.” He was fond of playing with calves. Also usually fat and strong, he ran races with horses and grappled in a tug-of-war with the carabaos. As a boy, the town priest taught him the rudiments of reading and writing Spanish. Being intelligent, he could easily read many books. He was 22-years-old when his parents died, leaving him alone to support his brothers and sisters. His grandfather adopted them. It was during this time that he witnessed an incident that rankled in him and make him lose his respect for the Spanish authorities. It was that of the priest slapping and kicking a native boy for not hiving kissed his hand. The insurrection in Pangasinan that he would lead also had its beginnings thereabouts. It coincided with the British invasion. The insurrection started in Binalatongan. Residents of the town defied the tribute collectors on the ground that with the British occupation of Manila, the colonial government no longer existed. They demanded that partial payments made earlier in the year be returned. The rebels also asked that certain officials be deposed and that the native-born be allowed to hold office. They resented being forced to work without pay as laborers in the repair of roads and the construction of ships and buildings. On November 3, 1762, De la Cruz, now known as “Palaris” or “Palaripar,” led Pangasinan revolt together with his brother Colet, Juan de Vera Oncatin, and two Hidalgo brothers. A certain Andres were appointed master-of-camp of the province. The early confrontations between the British and the Spaniards were mostly diplomatic. During this time, Spain was at war with England, the former being an ally of France in

the Seven years War. English troops had already occupied Manila. To add to the dismay of Spanish authorities, another revolt farther north of Luzon was being waged by Diego Silang, an Ilocano, and his wife, Gabriela. At the start, Palaris, backed by his followers, simply intimidated the Spanish authorities to give in to his demands, but when they succeeded in seizing an abandoned armory in Lingayen, they turned combative. Now armed, the rebels would have been formidable force. Owing to their lack of military skills, however, they were as vulnerable as before to the onslaught of Spanish troops. Obviously, the people of Pangasinan were deeply Christianized. Dominican priests’ residing in churches in the province played a decisive role in the suppression of Palaris’ revolt. They served as the bridge of communication between the rebels and the Spaniards. The people genuinely respect them. There were threatened with death by rebels, no one was inflicted any serious physical injury. The priests were constantly in touch with Palaris. They implored him to cease the rebellion. Palaris told them that he was willing to do so, but not the people. Having tasted freedom and its fruit, Pangasinenses were not about to give these up. And they had reason not to. Between 1762 and 1763, the ruling class of most of the towns of the province was made up of Pangasinenses appointed or elected. The only Spaniards in positions of authority who remained were the priests. However, on March 1, 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, signaling the end of the Seven Year War. Spain was freed to concentrate on the military campaign in Pangasinan. Spanish officials were slowly reintroduced into the region. At first, the people received them with jubilation; believing that real reforms would be forthcoming. But the new imposition of new taxes told them that would again be in place. Another revolt flared up. In contrast to the first stage of the insurrection, this second phase was marked by much cruelty and ruthlessness on both sides. Eventually, the rebels were routed by the combined forces of Spanish and Ilocano troops. The surviving rebels retreated into the forest, but were hunted down and publicly hanged. Some of them were quartered. Their corpses displayed for all to see. As Palaris, his own sister, Simeona, betrayed him to the gobernadorcillo on January 16, 1765. The theory behind this betrayal was that the Spanish authorities had threatened his family and relatives with harm if they tried to hide him. During his trial, Palaris declared himself the author of the rebellion and asked the forgiveness from God, the king of Spain, and from all the priests in the province. He was hanged on February 26, 1765. Gradually, peace-and old order-returned to the province. The town of Binalatongan was renamed San Carlos. It was rebuilt far from its original site (it was razed during a battle by Palaris, who had conducted a scorched-earth policy).

For Pangasinan, there would be no other freedom fighter after Palaris. Purpose of the Revolt The Polaris Revolt has one main purpose, and this was to push the government to fulfill the petitions of the people. They went to Andres Melendez who was at that time the head of the friars in Lingayen presenting the following petitions of the people. 1. The return of the taxes paid by the people for the year of 1762 2. Filipinos sent to Mindanao to fight against the Moros should not be charged with taxes; 3. The four persons that guard the prisoner should wear Polo so as to show that they are not working for free; 4. That the schoolmaster of the all-boys school was to be stripped of his position because of his slyness; 5. Don Joaquin Gamboa should be removed from his office as the alcalde-mayor of the province; 6. Andres Lopez, a native was must be granted permanence as the Master-of-Camp of the province and henceforth, this position must be made exclusive to the citizens of Binalatongan. And finally, 7. The removal of all the schoolmasters and church officials including the convents under the Spaniards in the event that the above mentioned petitions are not met. Major Events of the Revolt The British influenced the revolt of the people of Pangasinan under the leadership of Juan de la Cruz, or more popularly known as Palaris, Together with him is his brother, Domingo in the name of “Magalog”, Juan dela Vera in the name “Ungkatin” and the Hidalgo brothers. Having heard the news of the revolt, Governor General Simon de Anda of Bacoor lectured that the people of Pangasinan about obedience to the Spaniards and tax payment while stayingg hidden from the British in Manila since he appointed himself to be the governor of the Philippines. Anda asked his assistant Juan Antonio de Panelo to dismantle the formed group of Palaris but was unsuccessful in his attempt because of the lack of soldiers. Anda also tasked all of the friars to fight-off the rising revolts of Palaris but also rendered unsuccessful since they did not have enough the military power. In Lingayen, vicar Melendez submitted to the petitions of Palaris and in order to assure his safety, he issued a document stating that he approved of the petitions of the people of Pangasinan. Having found out that vicar Melendez had approved of the petitions, Anda wait straight ahead to Archbishop Bernardo Ustariz, who at that time the Archbishop of Nueva Segovia in Vigan, Ilocos Norte. Thus came to a temporary end with the victory of Palaris and the assignment of an all-native leadership in Pangasinan. The Departure of the British and the start of a new revolt

The British and the Spaniards came to a settlement also know as the Treaty of Paris on March 1, 1763 in France. It was mentioned in this treaty that the British vacates the Philippine islands after 18 months stay in Manila. Meanwhile, back in Bacoor, Sim[on de Anda again made a move to dismantle the group of Palaris. On November 18, 1794, he ordered the friars and leaders of Pangasinan to stop at any means the revolt. The people of Pangasinan were all also ordered to burn the document made by vicar Melendez to prove their loyalty to Spain. The friars persuaded the group of Palaris to their side so as to gain back their positions in the government. Anda then ordered the return of those that escaped to Pampanga back to Pangasinan and that Joaquin Gamboa be returned back as the Alcalde Mayor of Pangasinan but was very much rejected and so Jose Acevedo was appointed for the position. The people of Pangasinan calmly accepted the changes that happened especially the return of the Spaniards in the country with the belief that there would be improvements in their leadership. But to the people’s demise, the Spaniards started off with a new set of taxes and were back with their cruel ways. With the firearms that they had collected from the military base camp of the Spaniards in Lingayen and no experience in warfare, the group of Palaris was re-awakened and started once more with the revolt. The First Batte: Bayambang In preparation for the first battle, Palaris made sure that his soldiers were equipped and well prepared to what they are up against. It was his plan that they take on the Spaniards in Manila before they entered Pangasinan. He asked his men to dig along the shore of Bayambang river to serve as barricades to block the Spanish soldiers from Pangasinan. Anda, the temporary governor of Manila again contacted Palaris but was ignored. Palaris then called on all of the armed forces in the area to fight against the Spaniards at Manambong in Bayambang. Two days had passed before the Spaniards armed forces reached Palaris’ group who just been waiting for them to arrive. Palaris tasked his soldiers to spread out in the shores of the river to face the approaching Spaniards. After seeing that the river cannot be crossed, the Spaniards sent out messengers to advice the group of Palaris to surrender. [edit] If the Spaniards have guns, we have canyons! Palaris faced the messengers who asked him several times to surrender and forewarned him of the consequences for not surrendering. Palaris quickly answered with “If you have guns, we have canyons”. Pedro Tagle, head of the Spanish army signaled to charge. Palaris then also signaled to charge, but the Spaniards retreated back to their camp at the other side of the river since they were clearly out-numbered.

The Second Battle: Barrio Pias After the previous encounter with the Spaniard, Palaris’s group wasted no time and began to build up once again their weaponry. Two months after, they received news that a group of the Spaniards was headed towards Mapatalan, San Fabian under the leadership of Manuel Arza for the purpose of crushing the group of Palaris. Palaris then divided his group into 2 sub-groups where one group was sent to Mangaldan to anticipate the coming of the Spaniards in that area and the other half was taken to barrio Pias in Santa Barbara. The group that was sent to Mangaldan spent their nights in merry-making until 2 in the morning where thay were awakened by the sound of canons firing at Palaris’s group at barrio Pias. The group proceeded quickly to barrio Pias and the battle ended with a draw. Hundreds were killed at the battle at barrio Pias since both sides did not have enough man-power to overthrow the other. The bodies together with the broken weaponry were disposed of in the cliff in Santa Barbara which ended the second battle in Pangasinan in 1764. Third Battle: Dagupan The Spaniards attack Dagupan in 1764 with the intension of finally dismantling the Palaris group. When Palaris had news that the Spaniards were then at Dagupan, he sent his whole army to combat the Spaniards. Their attack was so swift that they almost captured the Spanish leaders at Calasiao but they had no time to destroy the building that contained these leaders. The battle at Dagupan lasted for a week. Due to hunger and fatigue; the group of Palaris retreated to Calasiao where after crossing the river and destroyed the bridge so as they could not be followed by the Spaniards. Final Frontier: January 1765; Calasiao Palaris attacked the Spaniards but were over-powered by the Spaniards and were forced to retreat back to barrio Ymbo. Suffering with hunger, injuries, majority of Palaris’s soldiers together with himself and his remaining officers Carlos and Satur went into hiding in the forest. Palaris then secretly fled from barrio to barrio; from barrio De Dios to other barrios, to barrio Magtaking and finally to barrio Pao where he lived taking care of his relatives and living with his sister Simeona who later on betrayed him to Commandant Pedro Bonardel because of his abuse to her. Together with Simeona, Bonardel and his soldiers went to where Palaris is staying. Upon nearing the house of Simeona, she asked the Spaniards to go on hiding until she gave a signal. After Simeona served lunch to Palaris, she gave a signal to the Spaniards who then came and killed Palaris on-site.

The Butchery of Palaris’s Body The body of Palaris was dragged across Binalatongan and was paraded in front of the townspeople. The Spanish leaders gave speeches about their victory and had the body of Palaris chopped into several pieces to strike fear among the people. Palaris’s head was hung at the end of the bridge in Cava. The Left arm was cut and hung at the bridge of Caapangan and the right arm at the bridge of San Juan. His feet are also cut and hung at different places. His left foot was hung at the bridge of Manat and the right foot was placed at Malabago. His heart was taken from his chest and was hung at Taloy.

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