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protects the brain and its annexes, houses the or gans of sense, and supports the organs of respiration and mastication. Human Anatomy. Latarjet - Ruiz, Liard. Pag 63 SKULL BONE Neurocranium The cranial vault of the skull base VICEROCRÃ NEO The craniofacial SKULL - Vision lower jaw was removed and the cervical spine Neurocranium The neurocranium has the appearance of a hollow ball, with the major axis direct ed anteroposteriorly, and the bulky rear end. At its anterior pole attached pres ents the bones of the face, and its rear edge resting on the spine by setting th e craniovertebral joint. Human Anatomy. GarcÃa-Porrero, HurlÃ©. McGraw Hill. Pag 51 Neurocranium The bones of the braincase are called flat bones. Was covered by a thin perioste um and upholstery inside the dura mater (meningeal membranes). They consist of t wo sheets of compact bone tissue called outer and inner tables among which is a layer of spongy tissue of variable thickness, called diploid. Human Anatomy. Latarjet - Ruiz, Liard. Pag 65 8 bones of the head Occipital frontal 1 1 1 1 ethmoid sphenoid two temporal parietal 2 22 bones of the skull 2 2 2 nasal maxillary zygomatic lacrimal 2 2 2 shells nasal palatine vomer a jaw 1 14 bones of the face SKULL Consisting of 22 bones, houses: - Brain - specialized sensory organs - Holes to the respiratory and digestive tracts BONES OF THE HEAD IRREGULAR ROUTE AND SOME SHORT, HOLES (sinuses) ALOJA * * Sense organs respiratory and digestive * NERVOUS SYSTEM Cavities Ossification center Ratio: Neurocranium viscerocranium Fontanelle BACK (Mayor or Bregma) BACK (Minor or Lambda) Sphenoid mastoid
* Proportion of: Bone Development neurocranium viscerocranium * TERMINOLOGY Norma frontalis: Presents the front of the cranial vault and face. Norma occipit alis: Rear view skull. Norma verticalis: Top view of the skull Norma basalis: Bo ttom view of the skull without the l mandible. Norma lateralis: Side view of sku ll. PARTS OF THE SKULL * Calvary or cranial vault. - Sinciput or shell: front and top of the skull. - A nterior cranial fossa. - Cranial fossa media. - Posterior cranial fossa. - Holes . * Cara Neurocranium BONES FRONT (os frontale; squama frontalis) From the Latin fons, Fontis = source; squama = scale. It has an outline that bec omes ossified pair in the second year of life. Frontal suture (suture frontalis; metopic suture) is a single bone, medium-sized symmetrical occupying the front of the skull. FRONTAL BONE Scale front. Fetuses and newborns in the two halves of the scale are separated b y the frontal or metopic suture. Forms the roof of the orbit. Above the supraorb ital margin is the brow. Glabella: between the superciliary ridges. Tubers front : mild frontal bossing. R. FRONT OF BONE N. Frontal Bone in it are considered three faces and three edges: Anterior - Frontal or metopic suture half - Eminence or front elevation or glabella - Emi nence Front Side - superciliary ridges - Cresta front side Frontal Bone Underside - In the midline ethmoid notch - the nasal spine of frontal - On each side of th e nasal orbital (pars orbitalis), roof of the orbits Trochlear Fovea Fovea tear Posterior Frontal Bone - In the midline The front crest blind hole (foramen caecum) The frontal recess - The graves front, sides and top - The orbital eminences, down Frontal Bone Anterior border - In the midline nasal notch - orbital arches, punctuated by the supraorbital no tches or holes Top edge - Quadrant, jagged, cut a bevel Posterior edge - Delgado interrupted cutting in the central part of the ethmoidal notch Frontal bone Frontal sinus (sinus frontalis) - Carved in bone thickness, a right and left are usually separated by a septum Drain through the meatus ethmoidal infundibulum half Edge parietal
Eminence Front Temporal edge Hole Edge zygomatic process supraorbital supraorbital notch supraorbital glabell a Nasal spine VISTA FRONTAL BONE anterolateral VISTA FRONTAL BONE inferomedial Cara superciliary arch orbital nasal spine Trench Gl. pÃ³fisis lacrimal igomÃ¡tica Sphenoid Edge Ethmoid notch Foramen cecum Frontal crest Frontal fossa crista galli apophysis cribriform plate PARIETAL (os parietal) From Latin paries, parietis = wall. It is the only bone that belongs exclusively to the vault of the skull (calvaria). West pair, above the temporal, frontal be hind and in front of occipital Parietal Bone Face Shape quadrilateral outer (lateral) - Eminence parietal - temporal lines Inner (medial) - Trench wall - "Fig leaf (middle meningeal a.) - pits for Paccioni corpuscles Hole parietal (Santorini vein) Parietal bone Superior border - Sagittal suture - Canal to the superior sagittal sinus Lower Edge - Parietotemporal suture Anterior border - Coronal suture Posterior edge - Lambdoid suture Parietal bone anterior superior angle - Networking with the front and the other parietal Anteroinferior angle - Coordination with the greater wing of sphenoid - Canal middle meningeal artery Posterior angle - Networking with the occipital and parietal other
Posterior angle - He stays at the incoming angle of the squamous and mastoid portions of the tem poral Parietal Bone Formation within - Recalls the front. A very thin diploe (especially in the middle and bottom) be tween an inner and an outer layer PARIETAL BONE EXTERNAL VIEW Sagittal Edge Superior temporal line Occipital Edge Front edge Squamous Edge (temporary) Superior temporal line PARIETAL BONE intracranial VISTA Corpuscles Paccioni pit for temporal fossa Arterial grooves of the middle meningeal artery OCCIPITAL (os occipitale) From Latin caput = head, occiput = occiput) odd bone, medium, symmetrical, locat ed in the back and bottom of the skull absorbs Originally outlines three to five vertebral Occipital R.N. Occipital bone presents fairly regular diamond shape: Two sides (posterior and a nterior) edges Four Four angles Occipital bone Posteroinferior - In the center presents the foramen magnum or magnum (foramen magnum) - In fron t of the foramen magnum with basilar surface pharyngeal tubercle - Behind the fo ramen magnum the squamous or simply shell External occipital protuberance occipital lines upper and lower curves - On the sides of the hole The condyles (condylus occipitalis) Fovea anterior condyle with anterior condyla r foramen posterior condylar Fovea Occipital bone Cara anterior - In connection with brains - In front of the foramen magnum Clivus - Behind the foramen magnum Septic cerebral or superior or inferior cerebellar fossae internal occipital pro tuberance of the lateral sinus Canal - On the sides of the hole
Anterior and posterior condyle Holes Occipital bone Borders - Higher or parietal Bordes - Bordes inferior or temporary Jugular process Angles - Superior, articulates with the parietal - Lower articulates with the body of t he sphenoid - Side, corresponds to the junction of the parietal and temporal CARA occipital bone EXOCRANEAL External occipital protuberance Lambdoid Edge occipital subtraction xterna Superior nuchal line Inferior nuchal line Foramen magnum Jugular process Occipital condyle Anterior condylar canal CARA intracranial occipital bone Lambdoid Edge Groove superior sagittal sinus cerebral fossa ccipital rotuberancia internal transverse groove Internal occipital crest osa cerebellar Basilar Ethmoid (os ethmoidal) From Greek ethmos = sieve, strainer) is named after the cribriform plate (Latin cribium = sieve, sieve) that moves between the two portions of the frontal bone, orbital bone odd, medium and symmetrical, located in front of the sphenoid, the ethmoid notch the front. Contributes to the formation of the orbital and nasal cavities. Ethmoid Bone vertical Print Print Form irregular horizontal lateral masses Ethmoid Bone Plate vertical - Horizontal section through the Region that is above and how the processes intracranial Crista galli (Latin cris ta galli; gallus = cock) Region is lower than the perpendicular plate (lamina pe rpendicularis). Separate each other the two nostrils Ethmoid bone cribriform plate - It extends from one side to another mass Bottom surface of the dome is part of the nostrils Upper side, divided by the cr
istagalli processes in two halves (right and left). Ethmoid or olfactory channel s, riddled with holes, hence the name cribriform plate. They noticed two holes i n the preceding section, ethmoidal groove (internal) and anterior ethmoidal fora men Ethmoid Bone Lateral masses, suspended from the sides of the horizontal plate - External Face Flat bone (os planum), is part of the orbit - Inner Outer wall of the nasal superior and middle nasal turbinates - Anterior SemicÃ©culas to supplement the unguis - Posterior Articulation with the body of the sphenoid and orbital process of palatine Ethmoid Bone - Upper side Irregular half-cells that complete the half-cells for the frontal infundibulum - Underside Lower edge of the middle turbinate middle meatus area that articulates with maxi lla I uncinate process Ethmoid Bone inside of the nostrils Ethmoid VERTICAL PLATE SIDE VIEW Ethmoid Bone RIGHT Side View Ethmoid Maxillary Esf Shell Maxillary Esf Ethmoid Lateral Mass Plate Perpendicular lamina cribrosa ethmoid cells Crista Galli Sphenoid (I spheoidale) Saw out of all the bones of the skull base bone is probably the most irregular a nd unique. It is an odd bone, medium and symmetrical, like a wedge located at th e base of the skull, between the bones that surround it. It has a central, odd a nd three pairs Sphenoid Bone Body (corpus), sella (sella turcica) to the pituitary fossa (fossa hypophysialis ) Lesser wing (wing minor) (Latin lat = wing) Ala higher (greater wing) pterygoi d process (processus pterygoideus), the Greek ptÃ©ryx, pterygia = feather, wing) Sphenoid Bone Etymology For centuries it is discussed whether sphenoid (spenoidale) (Greek sphenoid = we dge) is not due to a lack of spelling, writing sphenoidal, instead of sphecoidal e (Greek Spex = wasp), since the bone with its four wings reminds us more to thi s than a wedge. By including some anatomists called this bone, and in the eighte enth century, "bone wasp." The Greek sphecoidÃ©s = avispoide was used in antiqui ty for people with long form "wasp waist"
THE R.N. Sphenoid bone REAR VIEW Sphenoid Bone Body, occupies the central part of the bone - Upper side The two olfactory channel optical channel sella or pituitary fossa clinoid proce sses quadrilateral Print Sphenoid Bone Body, occupies the central part of the bone - Underside Crest of the sphenoid body Groove to articulate with the vomer pterygopalatine c anal Sphenoid Bone Body, occupies the central part of the bone - Anterior Channels anterior crest of the nasal passages of the inlet, Rough sphenoid sinus es to the back of the masses of the ethmoid aterales - Posterior Yesterday the body with the occipital, usually represented by a saw cut Sphenoid Bone - Lateral surfaces They serve as a point of introduction to the great wings of the sella Separated by a channel in the form of s italics, channel to the cavernous sinus Sphenoid Bone older Wings - Posterior Corresponds to the brain - Anterior Outer side of the orbit - External Face Divided by the infratemporal crest, is part of the infratemporal fossa Sphenoid Bone older Wings - Anterior border It articulates with the malar - External Border It articulates with the squamous temporal Procyon - Internal Edge Free the front and back, joined by the middle, with the body of the sphenoid. Sphenoid Bone older Wings - Internal Edge Superior orbital fissure (the motor nerves of the eye, the three branches of oph thalmic and ophthalmic vein) Foramen rotundum (maxillary nerve) foramen ovale (m andibular nerve) less than or esfenoespinoso Round hole (middle meningeal artery ) Foramen of Vesalius (emissary vein) Alas Sphenoid bone under - Upper side Brain - Underside Orbital Vault
- Anterior border It articulates with the frontal and the cribriform plate - Bored posterior Free, winding and cutting, separating the anterior and middle compartments of th e skull base Alas Sphenoid bone under - The apex corresponds to Appendix ensiform - The base attached to the body of t he sphenoid, is prayed for: Optic foramen (optic nerve and ophthalmic artery) Sphenoid bone pterygoid - Base Superior, crossed into the air vidian - Vertice Bifurcated, consisting of two layers, the wings of the pterygoid, internal and e xternal, the latter ends with a hook by which the tendon glides veli palatini mu scle. Between the two wings is the notch that is occupied by the pyramidal proce ss of palatine Sphenoid bone pterygoid - Inner Narrow and flat, contributes to form the outer wall of the nasal cavity - External Face Wide and rugged, is part of the infratemporal fossa (lateral pterygoid muscle in sertion) - Anterior Lisa above and below the palatine articulates with - Posterior Corresponds to the pterygoid fossa (medial pterygoid) Fovea scaphoid (veli palat ini) Sphenoid bone TOP VIEW Sphenoid bone posterior VISTA Sphenoid bone anterior VISTA TEMPORAL BONE (Latin tempus. Temporis = time, whose graying temples tempora = indicates the ag e) Bone pair located in the side and half from the base of the skull contains th e cochlear vestibule sense organ of hearing sense of balance TEMPORAL BONE primitive in the fetus and the newborn is formed by three differen t bone pieces: Squamous (pars squamosa) Tympanic (tympanic pars) Petrosa (pars p etrosal, rock, rock) (gr. Petros = rock) In the adult these three parts are fuse d, and are described as a single bone OLD TIME WEST carcinoma: thin semicircular boundary located at the top and side of the other two Tympanic: Located below the flaky, half-carcase shaped open up Petrosa: Located behind and medially to the foregoing TEMPORAL BONE FACE There are two sides willing EXOCRANEANA squarely: Lateral: On the side of the head has three parts - Mastoid (posterior) - acoustic meatus (media) - zygomatic process (anterior)
TEMPORAL BONE FACE EXOCRANEANA Bottom: which is divided into three parts - Petrosa - Tympanic - Squamous TEMPORAL BONE EXTERNAL FACE VISTA INFERIOR TEMPORAL BONE TEMPORAL BONE FACE Formed intracranial squamous parts only (vertical) and petros al (horizontal) with anterior and posterior TEMPORAL BONE FACE intracranial TEMPORAL BONE CAVITIES AND CHANNELS contains numerous cavities and channels that belong to different systems: pneumatic cavities vestibular organ attached cochl ear nerve channels vascular Channels TEMPORAL BONE cavities and canals of the vestibular organ cochlear cavities: The two acoustic meatus (external and internal auditory canals) Middle ear - Safety eardrum - Tuba auditory (eustachian tube) Inner ear - Bony labyrinth TEMPORAL BONE CAVITIES AND CHANNELS attached pneumatic cavities attached to the middle ear cavities additus ad antrum mastoid antrum TEMPORAL BONE CAVITIES AND CHANNELS Channel carotid vascular channels: for him, the internal carotid artery passes from the upper cervical region into the first vertical braincase, is layered at right angles to go horizontally until its ter mination in the vicinity of the apex ( vertex) of the petrous TEMPORAL BONE CAVITIES AND CHANNELS nervous Channels Destined to the passage of two nerves: Canal to the facial nerve (aqueduct tubes) canaliculi back of the ca naliculi petrotympanic chorda tympani (eardrum through petrosal) Mastoid portion TEMPORAL BONE TEMPORAL BONE bone structure consisting of very strong and compact. The scale an d the eardrum is very thin. The petrous part, on the other hand has plenty of bo ne tissue, especially at the process (processes) mastoid TEMPORAL BONE STRUCTURE bone tissue in cavities exist Pneumatized, which are the cells (cells) of the storm, where they differentiate two groups: cells mastoid tip cells (vertex) of rock ANATOMY OF TEMPORAL BONE SURFACE The only parts of the temporal are: The mastoid process (apophysis) zygomatic acoustic meatus (ear canal) external bone Cresta supramastoid Scale Edge parietal Temporal fossa Mastoid foramen zygomatic process Mastoid notch
Mastoid process external auditory meatus Styloid process TEMPORAL BONE external auditory foramen mastoid pÃ³fisis Scale Zygomatic process of temporal Glenoid Anterior cranial fossa Polos orbital frontal depressions in sheets (gry orbital). Crista galli: process es, on either side of the cribriform plate, insert the falx cerebri. Lesser wing s of sphenoid: articulate with the frontal bone, complete internal to the anteri or clinoid process where you insert the tentorium. Ethmoid Bone SKULL BASE Graves (endo) Cranial: Previous Media Post Et. Esf Br. P. Temp. Occ. Anterior cranial fossae: Front cribriform plate (ethmoid) sphenoid wing minor Media: Optical hole pituitary fossa - superior orbital fissure Sella greater sph enoid wing Holes Hole teres major and minor foramen ovale lacerum Back: Foramen magnum Hole Hole torn posterior internal auditory SKULL BASE Middle cranial fossa Print quadrilateral temporal poles: On the exterior angles of the posterior clin oid processes of the sphenoid wings sella Anterior cranial fossae: Front cribriform plate (ethmoid) sphenoid wing minor Media: Optical hole pituitary fossa - superior orbital fissure Sella greater sph enoid wing Holes Hole teres major and minor foramen ovale lacerum Back: Foramen magnum Hole Hole torn posterior internal auditory SKULL BASE Posterior fossa Cerebellum, pons and medulla. Grooves of the transverse sinuses. Internal occipi tal crest: in midline cerebellar mass limits. Internal occipital protuberance. C livus Anterior cranial fossae: Front cribriform plate (ethmoid) sphenoid wing minor Media: Optical hole pituitary fossa - superior orbital fissure Sella greater sph enoid wing Holes Hole teres major and minor foramen ovale lacerum Back: Foramen magnum Hole Hole torn posterior internal auditory SKULL BASE Cranial foramina of the anterior fossa Knockout sieve Plates: emissary vein passes from the superior sagittal sinus int o the veins of the frontal sinus and nose. Cranial foramina of the middle fossa Optic canals: They spend the optic nerves and ophthalmic arteries Crescent Hole:
Round hole larger (N. jaw), oval (N. mandible), spiny (A. middle meningeal), to rn anterior (internal carotid A.). Cranial foramina of the posterior fossa Jugular foramen foramen magnum: V. internal jugular, N. glossopharyngeal, N. vag ue, N. cord, inferior petrosal sinus. Hypoglossal canal: N. condylar canal hypog lossal: V. emissary of the sigmoid sinus .. Internal auditory canal: N. facial, auditory, intermedius (Wrisberg) Sphenoid V2 V3 Cranial Pass: Occipital I. Olfactory: etm cribriform plate. II. Optical: Optical hole orbital fissure II I IV V VI: Trigeminal: 1. Superior orbital fissure 2. Foramen rotundum 3. Forame n ovale VII + VIII: ear hole int. IX + X + XI: post hole torn. XII: Hole condyla r Intracerebral vessels carotid artery: carotid foramen (temporary) Vertebral Arte ry: Foramen magnum Jugular Vein: Hole torn posterior (pars venous) BIBLIOGRAPHY ANATOMY MOORE. HUMAN ANATOMY Editorial Panamericana. G. Wolf, salvat THANK YOU
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