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`yiš— Avkv

2| Ôf`ª †gviv, kvš— e‡ov, †cvl gvbv G cÖvY - Kwe G K_v e‡j wb‡R‡`i Ki“Yv
K‡i‡Qb †Kb ?
D : evsjv fvlv I mvwn‡Z¨i †¶‡Î G hverKv‡ji †kªô Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-
1941) iwPZ ÔgvbmxÕ Kv‡e¨i Ô`yiš— AvkvÕ kxl©K KweZv †_‡K PqbK…Z G
As‡k e¨½”Q‡j evOvwj RvwZi cÖwZ Ki“Yv el©Y K‡i‡Qb|
iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zuvi G KweZvq evOvwj‡`i KZ¸‡jv nxY ˆewk‡ó¨i K_v D‡jL
K‡i‡Qb| Kwei fvlvq evOvwjiv AwZ Avivg wcÖq, AvZ¥kw³nxb Ges fvM¨
wbf©ikxj| ejv hvq †hb AvenvIqvi ¸‡bB Giv AbvKvw•LZ, f`ª, bgª I †Lqvjx| ZvB
Kwe e‡j‡Qb -
ÔÔf`ª †gviv, kvš— e‡ov
‡cvlv gvbv G cÖvY
‡evZvg- AvUuv Rvgvi wb‡P
kvwš—‡Z kqvb|”
evOvwj Rxeb MwZnxb| Avivg wcÖq cÖwZwU evOvwji Rxeb AjmZvq c~Y©|
evOvwjiv G `ye©jZv‡K Avovj Kivi Rb¨ N‡ii †Kv‡Y Avkªq MÖnb K‡i e¨_©Zv‡K
A‡`„‡ói †`vnvB w`‡q kvwš— †c‡Z Pvq| A`„‡ói Dc‡i wbf©ikxjZvi Kvi‡Y Avgiv
†KvY D”PvKv•Lv †cvlY Ki‡ZI fxZ nB| Kwei fvlvq -
Òg‡g© h‡e Avkv
mc©mg †duv‡m A`„‡ói e܇b‡Z
`vwcqv e„_v †iv‡l|”
my›`i I †MŠiegq Rxe‡bi Rb¨ kvwš— I msMÖvg DfqB Acwinvh©, Gi GKwU‡K
ev` w`‡j Ab¨wUi Aw¯—Z¡ _v‡K bv| wKš‘ Avgiv msMÖv‡gi c‡_ cv evov‡Z
Awb”QzK| cÖv‡Yi fq, †jvK j¾vi fq Avgv‡`i‡K wbRx©e K‡i iv‡L| memgq wbZvš
— fv‡jv gvbyl †m‡R wbixn Rxeb hvcb Kwi| Abvek¨K Kv‡R mgq e¨q Kwi| G
K_v ejvi A‡c¶v iv‡L bv †h, fvj gvbyl †m‡R wbixn Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z PvB‡jI Rxe‡bi
ev¯—‡e Zv m¤¢e bq| Avgv‡`i ¯^fvecviwbf©ikxjZvi| hv GKwU RvwZi Rb¨
AZ¨š— AcgvbRbK|
Kwe GB evOvwj RvwZi GKRb cÖwZwbwa wZwb GB Ajm Kg©wegyL
RvwZwUi Rb¨ †e`bvq weMwjZ n‡q‡Qb| †mB †e`bv‡K wZwb GKRb m‡PZb
cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e Ki“Yvi‡m wm³ K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb Av‡jvP¨ As‡k|

3| Ò`yiš— Avkv” KweZvi g~j e³e¨ wb‡Ri fvlvq wjL|


D : wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii (1861-1941) gvbmx Kve¨MÖš’ †_‡K M„nxZ
Ò`yiš— Avkv” KweZvwU GKwU D‡jL‡hvM¨ I Zvrch©gq KweZv| fxi“Zv bq,
mvnwmKZvi g‡a¨ Rxe‡bi cÖK…Z cwiPq wbwnZ - Kwe Zvi KweZvq G
mvwnZ¨wU‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb|
G KweZvq Kwe evOvwji KZ¸‡jv nxY ˆewkó¨i K_v cvV‡Ki mvg‡b AZ¨š—
my›`ifv‡e Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| RvwZMZ fv‡e evOvwj Ajm, AvivgwcÖq I fxi“ f`ªZvi
gy‡Lvk c‡i Avgiv wb‡R‡`i `ye©jZv‡K †X‡K ivwL| Avgv‡`i Aš—‡i †Kvb gnr
AvKv•Lv Avkªq cvq bv| Avgv‡`i g‡b hLb †Kvb D”Pvkv Rv‡M ZLb A`„‡ói
†`vnvB w`‡q wb‡R‡`i M„n‡Kv‡Y Ave× K‡i ivwL| wbw®Œq, wb¯—ii½, cÖ_vMZ
Af¨¯— Rxebhvcb K‡i mgq KvUv‡Z evOvwji †Kvb Rywo †bB| Kwei fvlvq -
ÒAbœcvqx e½fvlx
¯—b¨cvqx Rxe
Rb-`‡k‡K RUjv Kwi
Z³‡cv‡k e‡m !”
evOvwjiv msMÖv‡gi c_‡K †e‡Q wb‡Z bvivR| A_©vr †Kvb ai‡bi K‡ói KvR‡K
Zviv fq cvq| cÖv‡Yi fq memgq Avgv‡`i DwØMœ K‡i iv‡L| wbZvš— fvj gvbyl
†m‡R wbixn Rxeb hvcbB Avgv‡`i Kvg¨| Avgiv GKvš—fv‡eB Nigy‡Lv- mvg‡bi
w`‡K GwM‡q hvIqvi mvnm Avgv‡`i †bB| Kwei Kv‡Q G Rxeb AbvKvw•LZ| ZvB
Avi‡ei gi“Pvix †e`yBb‡`i DÏvg ¯^vaxb Rxeb Zv‡K A‡bK †ewk AvKl©Y K‡i| ZvB
Kwe e‡jb --
ÒBnvi †P‡q nZvg hw`
Avie †e`yBb !”
msMÖvg Avi wec‡`i gy‡LvgywL nIqvi g‡a¨B Kwe Luy‡R cvb Rxe‡bi
mv_©KZv| we‡k¦i wekvj cUf~wg‡Z Qwo‡q cov Kg©eûj, msMÖvgx ewjô
Rxe‡bi cwiwa‡Z Kwe wePiY Ki‡Z AvMÖnx| DÏvg mvnwmKZv c~Y© Rxe‡bi
g‡a¨B Kwe Ly‡R cvb Rxe‡bi bZzb e¨Äbv -
wb‡g‡l Z‡i B”Qv K‡i
weKU Djv‡m
mKj Uz‡U hvB‡Z Qz‡U
Rxeb D”Qv‡m--"

msw¶ß
1| Òfv‡jv gvbyl” †m‡R Avgiv Kx Kwi ?
D: mvaviYZ Avgiv fv‡jv gvbyl‡K fvj Avi g›` gvbyl‡K g›` ewj, Zv‡Z †Kvb m‡›`n
bvB| wKš‘ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zvi Ò`yiš— Avkv” KweZvi g‡a¨ fvj gvbyl ej‡Z Ggb
GKwU RvwZ‡K eywS‡q‡Qb, †h RvwZ Ajm, AvivgwcÖq Avi fxi“| Avi †m RvwZ
n‡”Q evOvwj RvwZ|
evOvwj RvwZ Ajm I Avivg wcÖq RvwZ| fv‡jv gvbyl †m‡R f`ªZvi gy‡Lvk
G‡U wb‡Ri ‰Zwi D”P ev‡kui gvPvq Avmb †c‡Z e‡m _vwK| ïay ZvB bq, Avgiv
Avgv‡`i `ye©jZv‡K †X‡K ivwL| msMÖv‡g c‡_ bv †h‡q Avgiv N‡ii †Kv‡Y e‡m
_vKvi ARynvZ LuywR| Kwei fvlvq Avgiv Abœcvqx, ¯—b¨cvqx I Z³‡cv‡l emv
†cvl gvbv cÖvYx| G RvwZi †Kvb w`b DbœwZ n‡e bv|

2| N‡ii cÖwZ Avgv‡`i eo †ewk Uvb †Kb ?


D: Ò`yiš— Avkv” KweZvq Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Avgv‡`i GKwU we‡kl ˆewk‡ó¨i
cÖwZ Bw½Z K‡i cÖ‡kœv³ KUv¶ gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb|
evOvwji Rxeb GK‡N‡q, K¬vwš—Ki I ˆewPÎnxb| evOvwjiv
cyi“lvbyµwgKfv‡e Nigy‡Lv K‡i †i‡L‡Q| f`ªZvi gy‡Lvk c‡i wb‡R‡`i e¨_©Zv‡K
†X‡K ivwL| mvnmx I msMÖvgx Rxeb‡K Avgiv fq cvB| mvg‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q
hvIqvi gZ mvnm ev B”Qv †KvbUvB Avgv‡`i bvB| Avi Gme Kvi‡YB N‡ii cÖwZ
Avgv‡`i †ewk Uvb|

3| Avie †e`ywqb‡`i Rxeb †Kgb ?


D : Ò`yiš— Avkv” KweZvq Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Ajm, Kg©wegyL Rxeb †Q‡o
GKwU msMÖvgx I †PZbvgqx Rxe‡bi w`‡K avweZ nIqvi K_v e‡j‡Qb|
Kwe Ajm Rxeb‡K fvjev‡mb bv| wZwb fvjev‡mb Avie †e`ywqb‡`i gZ
msMÖvgx Rxeb, gi“ A‡ji cÖvPxb I hvhvei GK RvwZi bvg †e`ywqb|
†e`ywqb‡`i ¯’vqx †Kvb emevm †bB| Zv‡`i mg¤ú‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡Q ïay cï I Pvgovi
ev †gvUv Kvc‡oi Rvey| Zv‡`i Rxeb AZ¨š— K‡ói| mKj evavi gy‡LvgywL
nIqv‡KB Zviv Rxeb e‡j| †hLv‡b Zviv wec` ‡`L‡e †mLv‡bB Zviv Suvwc‡q co‡e|
Zviv `y`©vš—, ¯^vaxb I †ec‡ivqv| wbtm½ DËß evjyKvgq cwi‡e‡kB Zv‡`i Rb¨
Dc‡hvMx Ges G cwi‡e‡kBZviv eo n‡q D‡V| G Kvi‡YB †e`ywqbiv `yiš— I
mvnmx RvwZ|

e¨vL¨v
1| Ajm †`n ---- cÖwZ Uv‡b|
e¨v‡L¨q cOw³Øq wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ògvbmx” Kve¨MÖ‡š’i
Aš—M©Z Ò`~iš— Avkv” KweZv †_‡K msKjb Kiv n‡q‡Q|
D‡jwLZ As‡k Kwe evOvwji kªgwegyLZv I NiKz‡bv ¯^fv‡ei K_v e‡j‡Qb
Kwei K_vq evOvwj AZ¨š— AvivgwcÖq I Ajm RvwZ| †Kvb ai‡bi D”Pvkv Avgv‡`i
g‡b Rb¥ wb‡jI cwikª‡gi f‡q Avgiv Zv‡K `~‡i mwi‡q †`B| cyi“lvbyµwgK fv‡eB
Avgiv †mªvZnxb, ˆewPÎnxb GKwU RvwZ wn‡m‡e wek¦evmxi Kv‡Q cwiwPZ|
wbZvš— fvj gvbyl †m‡R wbixn Rxeb hvcbB Avgv‡`i Kvw•LZ| ZvQvov Avgiv
¯^fveMZ fv‡e Nigy‡Lv RvwZ| evB‡ii RM‡Z cwieZ©‡bi †h nvIqv eB‡Q Zvi
w`‡K Avgv‡`i †Kvb 哇¶c †bB| AjmZv, RoZv, fxi“Zv Avgv‡`i N‡ii †Kv‡Y Ave×
K‡i †i‡L‡Q|
evOvwj g‡bi msKxY©Zv Kwe mevi mvg‡b Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| GB
kªgwegyLZv, AjmZv, msKxY©Zvi Kvi‡Y Avgiv DbœwZi †`vi‡Mvovq KL‡bv
†cuŠQv‡Z cvi‡ev bv|

2| wec` gv‡S ... .. .. . . . . . †R‡M D‡V|


Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i KvjRqx †jLK wek¦ Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKyi
iwPZ Ògvbmx” Kve¨ MÖš’i Aš—©MZ Ò`yiš— Avkv” KweZv †_‡K msKjb Kiv
n‡q‡Q|
G As‡k Kwe Rxe‡bi RoZv, fxi“Zv I Mvwb‡K Qz‡o †d‡j `yiš— `ye©vi
MwZ‡Z Rxeb msMÖv‡g GwM‡q Pjvi Avnevb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| ev¯—eZvi wbix‡L
c„w_ex‡Z Rxeb hvcb AZ¨š— KwVb| GLv‡b memgqB msMÖvg K‡i ‡e‡uP
_vK‡Z nq| wKš‘ G Rxeb evOvwji Kvg¨ bq| AjmZvq cwic~Y© evOvwji Rxeb| †h
RvwZ fxi“ I `ye©j `ywbqvi me `yf©vM¨ Zv‡`i Ici cwZZ nq| Rxe‡bi `yiš—
Avkv‡K ev¯—‡e iƒc w`‡Z PvB‡j k¦vc` k¼zj Rxebvi‡Y¨ I wbfx©KwP‡Ë Awfhvb
cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z n‡e| g‡bi AvKv•Lv hLb MwZgq I fqnxb ZLb †Kvb Ackw³B
fxi“Zv‡K Kv‡Q Avm‡Z †`‡e bv|
evav-wecwËi gy‡LvgywL n‡q Rxeb‡K Rq Kivi g‡a¨B i‡q‡Q Rxe‡bi
mv_©KZv|