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Elip Hyperbol Parabol MaTHVN

Elip Hyperbol Parabol MaTHVN

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Bai giang sA 15

BA autJNli CONIC

Bai giang nay d~ c~p d~n phuong phap giai cac bai toan v~ elip, hypebol va parabol la ba duong conic duoc d~ c~p d~n trong hinh hoc giai tich phang trong nha tnrong ph6 thong hi~n nay. So vai cac bai toan v~ duong thang, duong trim, cac bai roan v~ ba duong conic tuy co m~t khong nhi~u trong cac d~ thi tuy~n sinh rnon Toan trong nhung nam 2002-2009, nhung no la mQt trong nhirng chu d~ khong th~ thi~u duoc trong vi~c on luyen thi rnon Toan vao cac tnrong Dai hQC, Cao dAng hi~n nay.

§1. I.)J> PHUONG TRINH cAc DUONG CONIC vA TIM cAc YEU T6 CVA N61

Phuong phap giai cac bai t~p thuoc loai nay la phai thuQc cac dang plurong trinh chinh titc cua cac dirong conic, thuoc cac cong tlnrc lien quan d~n conic nhu each tinh ban kinh qua tieu ...

Till dl;l 1: (Di II'; luyin slnl: D{li I,pc kl,Ji A-2008)

Cho elip voi tam sai e = ~ va hlnh chu nMt co sa cua no co chu vi bang 20.

Vi8t phuong trlnh chinh titc cua elip.

Giii

2 2

Elip co phuong trinh chlnh rAc la: .;. +.;. = I . (I) a b

Ttl gia thi8t, ta co: .

c J5 c2 5 a 2 - b2 5 b2 4 b 2

e=-=-~-=- ~ =-~-=-~-=- (doa>O, b>O).

a 3 a2 9 a2 9 a2 9 a 3

Hinh chu nh~t co sa cua elip co hai canh la 2a, 2b. Ttl gia thi~t, ta co: 2a + 2b + 20 ~ a + b = 10.

V~y co h~ phuong trlnh sau d~ xac dinh a, b: {~: ~= 10 <'> {:: ~

. a 3

2 2

Thay VIlO (I) ta thdy elip co phuong trinh chinh rAc la : !5._ + L = I . 9 4

I va djnh nghi~ cac tinh chit co ban cua ba duong conic, ban dOC co the tim thiy trong moi SGK Hinh hOC lap 10. 0 day, chung toi bi> qua va khong nhac l\li chi ti~t phdn nay.

272

Thi dfl 2: (Di IIIi luy2" sinh kh6i D - 2005)

x2 l

Trong m~t phang toa 09 cho diem C(2;0) va elip (E): - + - = 1 , Tim hai

4 4

li~m A, B E (E), bi~t r~ng A, B d6i xirng voi nhau qua true hoanh va ABC la tam ~iac d~u,

Giii

Gia slr A(Xo; Yo) va B(xo; -Yo) la hai di~m thuoc (E) va d6i xirng nhau qua true hoanh (co

th~ gia Slr Yo> 0), Khi do AB = 2yo,

Vi ABC Ia tam giac d~u, nen ta co:

AB = AC -----t----=1f--t---*"-c-_ x

<=> Y6 +(2-xo)2 =4y~ <=>(2-xo)2 =3Y5(1) Vi A(xo; Yo) E (E) nen ta co:

2 2

~ +!:Q. = 1 (2) 4 4

y

8

, 2 4J3

Tir h~ (I )(2) ta d~ dang suy ra Xo = 2; Yo = 0 va Xo = 7";Yo = -7-'

O 0" 2 4J) T' de h 'd'l ~ , , d"I'

0Yo> nen Xo=7;Yo=-7-' u 0 at iem can ttm co toa \) a:

A(3., 4J3J va B(3., -4J3) ,

7' 7 7' 7

Till dfl3:

Lap phuong trinh chinh t~c cua elip (E) bi~t r~ng elip co tam 0, W!U oi~m tren

Ox qua M( - J), 1) va khoang each giua hai dirong chuan b~ng 6,

Ghii

2 2

Gici Slr elip (E) co phuong trinh chinh t~c: .;. +; = 1 , a b

Vi M(-J), I) <=> (E) nen co: ~ + ~ = I. (I)

a b

Kh' ich zi - h '0' h: I' ( a ) ( a)· 2a 6

oang cac gura at irong c uan a: -; - --; = -; = ,

" ,a a2

Tir do ta co - =3 <=> - = 3 (2)

e c

Vi th~ b2 =a2 _c2 =3c-c2• (3)

{~ + 2 1 2 = 1 ( 4)

Tu (I) (2) (3) suy ra h~ sau: a2 a-c

a =3c. (5)

Thay (5) vao (4) va co: c2 - 4c + 4 = 0 ~ c == 2

273

2 2

V~y (E) eo plurong trinh: X6 + ~ = I.

TId tlI,I 4:

2 2

Cho elip eo phirong trinh: ~ + L = I. Tim di~m M sao eho MF2 = 2MFh a

25 16 .

day F I, F2 IAn IU91 la tieu di~m trai va tieu diem phai cua (E).

Ghii

Theo cong tlurc tinh ban kinh qua tieu di~111 va gia su M = (xo; Yo) ta eo:

3ex _a2

<=> a = 0 <=> Xo =-,

a 3e

_ cXo ( CX(J)

MF2-2MF1 <=> a---=2 a+-

a a

. d' ? ') 5 .,. 25

o ay a- = ... ,C = _, nen Xo = -- .

9

xl y2 4J56

Tir do do: __Q_ + _Q_ = I<=> Y = ±-- .

25 16 0 9

V· • (E) . I . d·; hai ti M (25 4J56) 'M (2S 4BJ]

ay tren eo lal rem p at tun 1= -9;-9- va 2= -9; - 9 .

tu tlI,I 5:

L~p plurong trlnh hepebol (H), biet r~ng tieu diem tren Ox, dQ dai tieu ell la 10 va mot dirong tiem c~n e6 phuong trlnh 3x~y=0.

Ghii

O ._ dol . 0 _ (H) . d x2 y2 I

o treu rem tren x nen eo ang: 2 - 2 = .

a b

Ta eo 2e = 10 => e = 5 => a2 + b2 = e2 = 25.

Tiem can co dang: y=±~x .Tu3x-4y=0 y=~x.V~y ~=~.

a 4 a 4

{a2+b2=25 {a2=16

Tir do ta eo h¢ plurong trinh: ~ = ~ <=> b2 = 9.

a 4 .

x2 y2

V~y (H) eo plurong trinh: 16 -"9 = I .

Thl (/1,1 6:

x2 y2

Cho hypebol (H): -' - - = I . 16 9

II Tim di~m M E (H) sao eho M nhin hai tieu di~m dirci goc 60°.

21 Tim di~111 M E (H) sao eho ban kinh qua tieu di~m nay bang hai IAn ban kinh qua tieu di~m kia.

Giai

, .....-

II GQi Fh F2 Ian IUQ1la hai tieu diem trai va phai cua (H) thi

F 1 = (-5; 0) va F2 = (5; 0). Gia su M = (Xu; Yo) E (H), khi d6:

274

MFI ={-5-xo:-Yo);MF; =(5-xo;-Yo).

Tir do MF; . MF; = -25 + xll2 - y02 .

Lai co: rvfF;. M-1-2' =1 MI{ 1.1 MF; Icos60o.

( I )

I cXo III cx., II

~ a+- a--.-

a a 2

(6 day a = 4; c = 5) .

Tir ( I) (2) suy ra h~ phuong trlnh sal! d~ xac dinh (xo: Yo):

r x6 - Y6 = I {2 2 ( )

16 9 9xo-16Yo=144 3

1 2 2 1(16+5Xo){.16-5Xo)l<:"> -800+32x~+32Y6=1256-2x61 (4)

-25+xo+yo= .

32

(2)

G·,' 1 • (3) (4) d:t d' ,2 732 , 243

rat l~ e ang ta co: Xo = -: Yo = - .

25 25

V~y tren (H) co b6n diem phai tim:

M i8Ji3. 9Ji3). M (8Ji3. _ 9Ji3]. M ( _ 8m. 9m). M (_ 8m. _ 9m]

I 5' 5 ,~ 5' 5 "I 5' 5 '4 5' 5

\ \.

21 Ta co: MFI = 2MF2 hoac MF2 = 2MF1.

+ Neu MF 1=2MF2 ta co: 14 + 5:0 I = 214 - 5:0 I <=>116 + 5xo 1=132 -I OXo 1

v ~y co h~ phirong trinh {9X~ -16y~ = 144 <=> lxo = :8 "'"

116+5xol=132-IOxol Yo =±~.

5

+ TU01lg tu se th~y truong hop MF2==2MF1 dfrn d~n met h~ vo nghiem (cac ban W nghiem lai).

V• 'I' dol ~, M (48 JiT9] M (48 J1T9]

~Y co iar tern can um : I 5;-5-; 2 5;--5- .

TIIi d.., 7:

1/ Cho (C) la duong cong co phuong trinh: / + 4y - 4x == O. Bang phep tjnh ti~n true toa dQ, clurng minh (C) la met parabol. Xac dinh tieu di~m va duong chuan cua parabol nay.

21 Cung cau hoi nhir phAn I I v6i (C): x2 + 6x - y + 8 = O.

Giai

II Vi~t lai (C) duoi dang: (y + 2)2 - 4 - 4x == 0 <=> (Y + 2)2 = 4( 1 + x)

Th I· • I' h d ~ . {X = x + 1 hi , (I) 'Y' 4X

uc uen p rep t ay 01: _ ,t I tu ta co: - ==

Y--y+2

(1)

(2)

275

Nhir v~y (2) co dang y2 = 2pX. Trong h~ toa d<) moi (X; V), day IIi parabol co tham s6 tieu p = 2 (2p = 4 <=> P = 2). Parabol nhan (0;0) him dinh; true d6i xirng

Y = 0; Tieu di~m (1 ;0) (chu Y _£_ = 1 ), dirong chuan hi X = _£ = -1.

2 2

Tro v~ bien cii: parabol (P): y2 + 4y - x = 0 nh~n di~m S(-I.;-2) lam dinh; true d6i xirng la y = -2; tieu di~m F(O; -2) va duong chuan x = -2.

y

y

x

x

y =·2

-2

s

6:x + 2 = 0

21 Vi~t lai (P) diroi dang: (x + 3)2_ Y - 1 = 0 <=> (x + 3)2= Y + 1

{X=X+3 ,

Ddt ta co: X- = Y (3)

. Y= y+ 1

Tir (3) suy ra, trong h~ (X; V), (3) co dang X2=2pY. Khi do ta eo 2p = 1

p=~. V~y parabol nhan (0;0) lam dinh, true d6i xirng la X =0, tieu di~m la (o;±)

va duong chuan Y = ( 0; ~ ) .

Tro v~ bi~n cil thi (P) la parabol nh~n (-3;-1) lam dinh, true d6i xirng la

3 . A d· ~ F( 3 3) . d' h ~ 5

x = - ; neu rem -; -'4 va irong c uan y = -'4.

Y TIIi dl! 7:

Cho parabol l = 4x va hai di~m A(O; 4), B(-6; 4)

11 Tim tren (P) di~m C sao eho ABC la tam giac vuong tai A.

21 Tim tren (P) di~m C sao eho tam giac ABC eo dien tich be nhat,

- 6 x Giai

1 1 D~ th~y duong th~ng n6i AB co phirong trinh: 4x + 3y + 12 = O.

_ 4 A------ V~y dirong th~ng d vuong gee voi AB co dang: -3x + 4y + m = O.

276

Do(d)quaA(O;-4) ~ -16+m=0 ~ m= 16. V~yd:-3x+4y+ 16=0. Tir do di~m C la nghiem cua h~ phirong trinh:

3 [X = 16;y = 8

x3+_1 =(x+_!_) -3(X+_!_)=U3-3V ¢:> 16 8

x3 X X x=-;y:;--.

9 3

V~y CJ( 16; 8), Co (.!i. -!) la hai di~m phai tim. . 9' 3

2/ Ta eo SASC= k AB.CH. Do AB khong d6i nen SABC d~t gia tr] nho nhAt khi CH nho nhAt. GQi C(xo; Yo) E (P), ta eo (theo cong thirc tinh khoang each tu mQt di~m d~n mQt duong thang).

CH 14xo +3yo + 121 = 1 y~ +3yo + 121

5 5

~~(Yi +3yo + 12H[ (YO +~)' + 3: J

Vi th~ CH nho nhAt khi Yo + ~ = 0 ¢:> Yo= - ~ (khi Ay Xo = _2_ )

2 2 16

Vi Ie Ay C ( I:; -%) la di~m duy nhAt tren (P) sao eho tam giac CAB eo dien tich be nhAt.

§ 2. BAI ToAN vE Sl) lUONG GIAO cUA CONIC vo cAe DUONG KHAc

Trong muc nay xet cac bai toan v~ s .... nrong giao cua dirong eonie vrri dircng

thing, duong tron hoac gifra cac eonie vci nhau:

Phuong phap giai d~u d .... a vao k~t qua sau:

Cho hai duong IAn hrot eo phuong trinh f(x,y) = m; g(x,y)=n

Khi do s6 giao di~m cua hai dinmg bing s6 nghiem cua h~ phuong trinh:

{f(x,y)=m (I)

g(x.y)=n (2)

Khi do toa dQ (x;y) cua cac giao di~m chinh la nghiem cua h~ phuong trinh tren. Nhu v~y bai toan v~ s .... nrong giao cua cac duong quy v~ khao sat h~ phuong trinh dang (I) va (2).

Thi dfll

x2 l .

Cho (H): - - - = I va duong thang d: 2x - y + m = O.

1 8

1/ Chung minh ring voi rnoi m, (H) va d luon eAt nhau tai A, B thuoc hai nhanh khac nhau cua (H) (gia Slr XA < XB).

2/ Tim M sao eho BF2= 2AFh a day FJ(-3; 0) va F2(3; 0) la cac tieu di8m cua (H)

277

{X2 l

II x« h~ plurong trinh: -I - 8 == I (I)

2x - Y + m == 0

Tir (I) dan o~n plurong trinh: 4x2 - 4mx - m2 - 8 = 0 (I) .

.,

Vi - 111- + 8 < 0 voi I11Qi 111, IH~1l (I) luon co hai nghiern trai d~u voi I11Qi m. 4

V~y (H) va d luon citt nhau tai A, B. trong 00 XA < Xn.

b)Taeo: BF2=2AF1 ~jC:B _aj==2jC:A +aj

Do A, B thuoc hai nhanh khac nhau ella (H) (XA < XIl),

A Vi C I A , ")

nen: XA < -a: Xn> a. I - > nen tu (_ 5Uy ra:

a

eXl3 ,,( eXA) (c dA 3

-a- - a ==... -a - -a- 0 ay a = 1; e = )

.;::> 3xu - I := -2 - 6XA ~ 6XA + 3XB + 1 = 0

Do XA, Xu la hai nghiem ella (I). nen theo dinh II Vi-et ta co:

{XA+Xl3==m (4)

1112+8

xAxB ==-4-' (5)

{X +x ==m {XA =3111+_!_

Tlr(3)va(4)taeoh~: A 13 .;::> 3

6xA+3xB==-1 6m+1

. xl3=--'

3

Thay (II) vao (5) va co: 63m2 + 36m - 68 = 0

-6± 16J2

~ m==----

(II)

21

Do la cac gia tr] dn tim ella tham 56 m. TIIi d1,l2:

2 2

Cho elip (E) co plurong trinh ~ + L = 1 va duong thang d: 2x + 15y-l 0=0. 25 4

Chung rninh d dt (E) tai hai di~m phan biet A, B, trong do A E Ox. Tim 0<) dai doan AB.

Ghii

se giao di~m ella d va (E) bang 56 nghiem cua h~ phirong trinh:

278

{X2 y2 {_IO-15Y [X=5;Y=O

_+_=1 x-

25 4 ~ 2 ~ 6

2x+15y-IO=O 5/-6y=O x=-4;y=S'

V~y A(5; O).va B(- 4; ~). R5 rang A E Ox va AB = 3~ .. Tlti d{l 3:

2 2

Cho elip (E) eo plurong trinh: ~ + L = I ,

25 9

va di~m M( I; I). Vi~t phirong trinh dirong thang qua M va dt (E) tai hai diem phan biet A, B sao eho M Iii trung di~m cua AB.

.j

Duong thang qua M eo hai dang:

II Neu x = I khi do d~ thay x = I e~t (E) tai AI, BI (xem hinh ve) va ta eo ngay:

MBI>3>MAI'

Vi th~ loai kha nang nay.

2/ N~u y = k(x - I) + I ~ kx - y + I - k = 0

Khi do toa d<) (x.y) cua cac giao diem A, B cua d voi (E) la nghiem cua h~

phirong trinh:

{ ;: + Y92 = 1 ~ {(Y = kx + 1 )- ~ ,

kx-y+l-k=O 25k2+9 x-+50k(l-k)x+25(I-kt-215=O (2)

D~ h~ ( I ) (2) eo hai ngh iern phan biet, truce tien ta dn eo:

~ '= 25k2( I - k)2 - [25( I - k)2 - 225](25k2 + 9) > 0 (3)

Khi thoa man (3), giil Slr h~ (I) (2) co hai nghiem phan bier (XI; YI), (X2; Y2). Do M( I; I) la trung diem cua A,B nen ta co: XI + X2 = 2.

50k(k-l) 9

Theo dinh H Viet ta co: 2 = 2 ~ k = -._.

25k + 9 25

(I)

(chu y k = - ;5 thoa man (3): Ban doc tu kiem tra di~u nay.) TLrdod: -~x-y+I+~=O~9x+25y-34=O

25 25

la dirong th~ng cAn tim. TIIi d{l 4:

x2 x2 y2

Cho hai elip: EI: _+y2 = I va E,: -. +-= I.

16 - 9 4

Vi~t phtrong trinh duong tron di qua giao di~m cua hai elip noi tren.

279

Ghli

GQi toa dQ (x; y) hi cac giao di~m elsa (EI) va (Ej) la nghiern elsa h~ plurong trlnh:

j X2 0 I

16 + y- = ¢:) {X2 + 16 v' = 16 ¢:) Xl = 432 ; y2 = 28 .

Xl y2 4x2 +9y2 = 36 55 55

-+-=1

9 4

Di~u do clurng to r~ng EI va E2 e~t nhau tai 4 di~m ph an biet,

Ngoai ra ta eo: x2 + / = 92 , suy ra b6n giao di~m elsa chung n~m tren dirong II

tron(C):x2 +/ = 92.

11

(C) chinh hi duong tron cAn tim.

§3. cAc BAI ToAN DJNH TINH vE BA DUONG CONIC

Loai 1: Cac bai toan Slr dung dinh nghia elsa ba duong eonie

TIll d(ll: Cho parabol (P) y2=2px va dirong th~ng to. di dong di qua tieu di~m F elsa parabol va dt (P) t~i hai di~m phan biet M, N. Chung minh r~ng cac dtrong tron duong kinh MN luon ti~p xuc vci mQt dirong th~ng e6 dinh.

Ghli

Ke N H va M K vuong goc vci duong

ehuAn to.: (x = _£').

. 2

y

N

K

x

Theo dinh nghia elsa parabol ta eo:

NF = NH, MF = MK V~y NF + MF = NH + MK

hay MN =NH + MK.

GQi I la trung di~m MN,

ta eo: IJ = .!_ (NH + MK), J la hlnh 2

chieu cua I tren (to.) (do IJ Iii dirong trung binh cua hinh thang NHKM).

Nhir v~y IJ = .!_ MN. 2

Di~u do chirng to r~ng duong tron duang kinh MN luon luon ti~p xuc vai

duong chuAn to. cua (P) ::::> dpcm.

F

280

TIIi d(l2:

Do MA = MB (cling b~ng ban kinh cua (C).

Do do tit (I) suy ra: MF, + MF2 = R, + R2 = const.

Theo dinh nghla cua elip, ta suy ra quy tich cua M Iii. elip nh~n F, vii. F2 Iii. hai tieu di~m voi true 16n Iii. R, + R2.

Chi; y: Ta xet tnrong hop C\1 th~ : (C,): (x + 5)2+ l= 441;

(C2): (x - 5i + l = 25.

Khi do, ta co: F,(-5; 0) vii. R, = 21; F2(5; 0) vii. R2 = 5. Ta co R, + R2= 26 suy ra: a = 13;

F,F2= 10;c=5;b= 12.

V~y quy tich cua M Iii. elip v6i plurong trlnh: x2 y2

-+-=1.

169 144

TIIi d(l3:

Cho duong tron tam F, ban kinh bang 2a vii. met di~m F2 6 ngoai duong tron. Tim quy tich tam M cua duong tron qua F2 va ti~p XUC voi duong

tron noi tren.

Giiii Xet hai kha nang sau:

* Duong tron tam M ban kinh r tiep xuc ngoai vci dirong tron (F ,; 2a). GQi ti~p di~m Iii. I. Ta co MF, = MI + IF, = MF2+ 2a. ~ MF,-MF2=2a.

(I)

* Duong tron tam M ban kinh r ti~p xuc trong voi dirong tron (F,: 2a). GQi I Iii. ti~p diem, ta co:

MF, = MI-IF, = MF2- 2a

~ MF2- MF, = 2a (2) Tit(I), (2) suy ra:IMF,- MF21 = 2a (3)

V~y tit (3) di 'd~n quy tich tam M cac duong tron di qua F2 va ti~p xuc voi duong tron (F,: 2a) la hypebol nhan F"F2 lam hai tieu di~m va true tlnrc bAng 2a.

y

/// /

/ / I

I

I

I

I

/

/ / I

I

281

Xet vi du C\I th~ sau: Duong tron tam FI(-S; 0). Khi do c = S; 2a = R = 4 ~ a = 2, do do: b2 = c2 - a2 = 21. V~y quy tich tam M la hypebol (H) voi phuong

2 2

trinh: ~_L = I. 4 21

n« d(l4:

2 2

Tren mat phang cho elip (E) co plurong trinh: ~ + L = I ,

. . 2S 16

co hai tieu diem FI, F2; A va B la hai diem tren (E) sao cho AFI + BF2= 8. Tinh AF2+ BFI.

Ghli x2 y2

Tit: - + - = I suy ra (E) co true ion 2a = 10.

2S 16 .

Theo dinh nghla elip thi: (AFI + AF2) = (BFI + BF2) = 10

~ AF2 + BFI = (AFI + AF2) + (BFI + BF2) - (AFI + BF2) = 10+ 10- 8 = 12.

Lo~i 2: MQt 56 bai toan djnh tinh v~ ba dirong conic:

Thl du l:

x2 y2

Cho hypcbol (1-1): -2 - -~ == I, M(xo; Yo) Iii II1Qt diem b~t ki tren (H). G9i ~

a b~

va ~' la hai tiem can cua (H). Chung minh r5ng dai luong d(M, ~).d(M, ~') khong phu thuoc van vj tri cua M tren (H).

GhU

-, b b 0" b

De tbay A: y=-x ~ x-ay= va A't y = --x ~bx+ay=O.

a a

2 2

DoM E(H) ~ x~ + y~ =1 b2xo2_a2yo2=a2b2. (2)

a b

Thay (2) van (I) va co:

a2b2

d(M,~).d(M.~') =-~--2 =const => dpcm. a" + b

282

283

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

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_ .... uem F '" \&} tai A va B. Chung .... 1111 rang rich cac khoang each tir A. B d~n true cua (P) 18. mot hAng s6.

Giiii (P) co dang: i::::: 2px, nen ta eo p = 2. V~y, tieu di~m F cua (P) 18. F(] ;0).

Xet hai kha nang sau:

* N~u AB IIOy. Khi do ta eo hai giao di~m h\ A(]; 2), B( 1; -2). Tir do suy ra:

dCA, Ox).d(B, Ox) = IF AI.IFBI = 2.2 "" 4.

* N~u AB khong song song voi Oy, suy ra AB eo dang: y "" k(x - I) <=> kx - y - k == 0

Gilt su no c~t (P) tai AI. B,. TQa dO cua A" B, lit nghiern cua h~:

{kX-y-k::::O {Y:::::kX-k

2 <=> 2 y+k

y =4x y ::::4'k

Vb tung do cua AI, B, lit nghiern cua phuong trinh: ki- 4y - 4k =:: 0 (I) 'JQi Yr, Y2 la nghiem ella (I). khi do YlY2:::: 4.

'a co: d(A" Ox).d(BJ. Ox) ::::: lyrl·IY21 "" !Y1Y21 ::::: 4.

-:,m lai, luon eo dCA, Ox).d(B, Ox) > 4 =:: eonst (dpcm), 'i (/{I 3 (DR IIIi D{li live, Cao D{i"g kluJj D - 2008)

',) parabol (P): i:::: 16x va di&m A( 1; 4). Hai di~m B, C thuoc (P) sao cho ~ :f. A; goc BAC === 90°. Chung minh rAng day cung BC luon di qua mot

B

Ghli

. B(m2 ;m);c(~;n) thuoc (P). Ta co:

16 16 .

AS =(1112 =I.rn -4)' At: =(~-I'n -4).

16' , 16'

<\C === 90°, nen ta co:

(m2 -16)(n2 -16)

~BAB:::: 0 ¢:> +(m -4)(n -4):::: 0

256

'> (rn + 4)(n + 4) + 256::::: 0 (do B,C:f.A nen Ill:f. 4, n :f. 4) mn + 4(m + n) + 272 :::: 0

Ta eo BC = ( n2 ;6m2 ; n - m) lit vecto ehi phirong cua duong th~ng BC nen vecto phap tuyen cua duong th~ng BC la n = (-I; n + m) . Do do, duong th~ng qua

16 .

. (m2) n+ m

B,Ceod~ng: - x-- +--(y-m)=O

16 16

<=> -16x + m2 + (m + n)y - (n + m)m = 0

<=>-16x+(m+n)y+4(m+n)+272=0 (3)

D~t m + n = a thl (3) tro thanh:

-16x + ay + 4a + 272 = O<=> -16x + 272+a(y + y) = 0 (4)

Goi (xo;Yo) la di~m e6 djnh ella ho (4), ta eo h~ plurong trlnh sau:

{-16XO + 272 = 0 <=> {xo = 17 Yo +4=0 Yo =-4

V~y day eung BC luon di qua di~m e6 dinh I( 17; --4) (dpem).

BAI T _.Jp TV GIAI

x2 2

Biii 1: Tren m~t phang eho elip (E) eo phuong trlnh: 8 + Y4 = 1; FI, F2 IAn

hrot la tieu diem trai va phai ella (E). Tim diem ME (E) sao eho MFI - MF2=2.

Dap s6: M = (,,'2";FJ) va M( -F2;-FJ).

Btli 2: Tren m~t phang toa d<) Oxy, hay I~p plurong trinh ehinh tAe cua elip (E) co d<) dai true Ian bang 4F2, cac dinh tren true nho va hai tieu di~m cung n~m tren m¢t dirong tron.

2 2

D· ; x Y 1

apso: -+-= .

8 4

2 2

Btli 3: Tren m~t phang, cho hypebol (H): ~ - Y3 = 1 va di~m M(2; 1). Vi~t

plurong trlnh dirong thang qua M cAt (H) tai A va B sao eho M la trung di~m cua AB.

Ddp s6: 3x - y - 5 = O.

284

Blli 4:

~ ~

Cho hypebol (H) co plurong trinh: ~ - r_ = 1 . 64 36

II Xct cac di~m M(16;6J3) va N(8; 0) thuoc (H). Tim cac giao di~m P, Q cua duong thang !1 n6i M, N voi (H).

21 Chung minh cac trung di~m cua MN va PQ trung nhau.

Dap s6: P(12 - 4J3;3J3 -9) va Q(12 + 4J3;3J3 + 9).

x2 y2

Blli 5: Tren m~t phling, cho elip (E): - + - = I va hypebol (H):

9 I

2 2

~ - Y4 = I . L~p plurong trinh diroug tron (C) di qua giao di~1ll cua (E) va (H).

D"p sd (C): x2 + y2 = 5.

Biii 6: Tren Ill~t phaug toa dQ Oxy cho parabol (P) co plurong trinh l = x va

di~111 1(0; 2). Tim toa dQ hai di~m M, N E (P) sao eho 1M = 41N .

. .: .[M1(4;-2),N1(1;1)

Dap so:

M2 (36;6), N2 (9;3).

Blli 7: Tren m~t phang, eho parabol (P) va dirong thang d nhu sau: (P): l = Zx: (d): 2my - 2x + I = O.

II Chung minh rfing voi moi gia tr] ella m, (d) luon di qua tieu dj~m F cua (P) va ciit (P) tai hai diem phan biet M,N.

21 Tim quy tich trung diem I ella dean MN khi m thay d6i.

Dap .\'6: 21 QuT tich lit parabol; y = X2 + _!_ .

2

Blli 8:

Cho duong tron (C): (x + 2i + / = 36 va diem F2(2; 0). Xet cac dirong trim tam M di qua F2 va tiep xuc voi (C). Tim quy tich tam M.

~ J

Dap s6: Quy tich la elip: ~ +.r:.. = I .

9 5

285

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