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ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY: An Educational and Political History, 1920-47MU-1

ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY: An Educational and Political History, 1920-47MU-1

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. ", . a- Bnd Political History 1920-1947)

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. ~S intended for the general reader .I have tried, as far I I explain the facts in a very simple way, In this preface

I, detailed introduction of this book and. explained the " I': - .... fo ~ which I wrote' this book.

'. ! ocks of' 18·5>7 it was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan who

. 1'~Ji~::' dilemma of' backwardness ... He rightly reached that . he Indian Muslims were educationally, socially, "~' ,[ . onom .. ically backward and that the panacea of all the

· -. " tading them to receive western education. For achieving. ,~~ es hie founded an institution 'for imparting English . .... , . e Muslims in 1875. Which. later on in .. ) 877' came to be .. 0 aammadan Anglo Oriental College. With the efforts [of '.' . 'ollowers, this. college w,as raised to, the status ofAligarh

____ ._ IE_ ,'I sity in. 192:0 .. B .. eing educational reformer, i.n the interest

_ . - _- community his political attitude 'was quite reactionary

~: .r . '. e Muslims not to take part in politics in view ofthe

~ •• 1 ~7' and nascent educational reform movement,

e Indian National Congress 'was founded in 1885 and an ade to the Indians ofall cast and communities to join the ir Syed guided the Muslim community not to join the 4;;0,~":'""", __ ' te thought that at: this stage when the 'Muslims need

• ..... 'e- ~ -ith western education that too with the cooperation

", vernment, their participation in politics may prove to _- . ,,. The Muslims who had received a shock treatment

_ uld :not afford another shock .. He 'visualised Muslims . ~ __ close ties with the British ..

eath of 'Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1898, the Muslims l tr tum towards active politics. In 19'06 a few Muslim.

_ "~ .':_ to the formati on. of the All India Muslim League,

. ,,-t to oppose t~ British but work for the safeguards '_ .'5ts in view ofthe growing demand of ' the Congress ..

- _'1 --:- i,o led to the involvement of' Aligarh Muslim

~- · ~ . -. ~ tholugb divided on ideological 'basis.

- _ ,- - -- 'orks of Sir 'Syed Ahmad Kha·n. most o'f his IE ~ 1- S have written a, number of books and articles,

The first and foremost among these works is the Hayat-i Javed of Altaf'Husain HaIL. He was a close associate of Sir Syed Ahmad, Khan, In his b,OIOk he has written in detail every aspect of Sir Syed's life:

h d ~ I 1-' ,,.. I '" I JIi> ~ .

su,c . ,as educationa , pohticat, SOCl;a .. ~ re.lgious etc,

Prof, H .K. Sherwani in his book The A . .ligarh Movement bas defended Sir Syed's ideology an.d stated his secular attitude by saying that in the Mohammadan Anglo o rienta I School H;oG~.l~ Sidden was Headmaster and Bhavani Chandra Chakravarti was tile Second Master when th.e foundation ofthe College was laid. by Lord Lytton in 1877.

He a lso 'S', a ... ·· ys tha t a·.'}. 0' n gw;'. :. 'ith . h e,· .. · M.··,. u sl im '.-;-, do ··n··' ors to th .. e.····1 ""I· n stitntio .. m Sikh

- - __ ", , .. . ~ . - , __ . • ... .' • ._ - - ,. _. " '.' - " . I .' ~ ,. . ~ .. "." ..I. ., _ __

and Hindu donors such. las Maharaja ,of:Patiala, Maharaja of'Vijayanagar

.... d M·· .'. h . . . .: ,. .' f~' B' . '. ,.,- .... :-. -;-'" .' '. :",. C" the ~. . '.' S:· h'·' .' .: .. ': to '. ' ... '. .. ·d·· ..... '·15" the

an .. '.',at araja 0' :~anaras w'ere In ... e 10're. _. erw,anl. a. so a,·,ml. .' ... e

hard fact that the change in the: political outlook of Sir Syed from 'nationalism' to 'communalism' (whatever these epithet might mean) was brought by the influence of Theodore Beck who was the Principa . of MAO College fromFebruary 1 :88·4 to his death in September 1899.

Prof Shan Mohammad in 'his book Sir' syed Ahmad Khan: A political Biography also testifies to, the secular attitude of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. by referring to the first batch of MAO School who

.- ... . .. d ~.. . ~ t -."' .. 'I:· t"'" .... ' .. _ .. ;o, . rti .. ,". '. ;0; •. f .. . f" 'h' .... '. 'M" . ~II:'" ..

appeare rn na. T. cuia :10n examma Jon consisnng 0 ~ ... ree .'. us ims

~I Mah b b A' I I hr H ii, d Abd 1 M iid d Hi d

VIZ .. , I::~'_"\ 0,0 .: ·~,c ... am" .shrat I .usam and A ;,IU 'f." aj.t.: anc one rnnnu

student Harnath Singh. He: also points out why did. Sir Syed adopt a. different attitude after the formation of the Indian National Congres.s in 1885 .. Suraya Hi sain in, her book Si.r Syed Ahmad KI1Q.n Aur Unka

A hi ad also a .. dmits th .. e same.

S K····· .. B· Iha .. ·;'t·: ,,,. '.:" za ':" in his b ., 01.-;. Hist .. · ···).ft:h·, MA·····;,.: 0,..·· ,C:' . -·I··le:··I' .•• :,' Aliearh

.. '. ,na.g~ r II ..... I :. a.A .l:lISOry OJ . .'. e '._ .' .. 0,_ I' . ge ..... ',b'"' ,,'

S.. S· d' T c: H'''' d Mil", .Ii! .: 'I '" H

proves tr oyeo S love lor,' in .... u-rv us lin unity ano secu ansm.u .. .e

observes, :. "Co-existence of Hindus and Muslims i,n. the' college on terms of equality continued 'to operate effectively throughout the life of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and his faith of secularism never dimmed."

K A N·· Ii 'Ii hi b k S' '. S d c Ed ., S ;0. 'E

.l '*, ::. tZatn.lln ' . .'IS iOOI.'. Sir Syec on, ':-:"uc,at,o,n Societyana . ~1conomy

also expresses the same opinion about Sir Syed and MA,Q College ..

M S· J;" ... ]. ,Ii b k Tl .. , Al'" h ~ . ..( .. ,.IIi 11 diff t ~' '. Po' aln ln .11S·.·00·'. 1. Ft,e :.: . 19ar :,~ Movement glves entrrely a ,.1,' .tcren .

P'~ cture about Sir Syed and 'M'AO CIQ . ege. He says that 'Sir Syed 's efforts and the c'olle.ge was basi cally for the Muslims". Hie further

" Th] h an i '" ... ld II: l' t

says, " ':. ~ e .conege was sue '. an. mst .. tution as woui S· nt not on y' ',0

the .present but also tOI the future needs of the Mus irn community," Jain by quoting Aligarh Institute Gazette' says that the most important object of the c;olleg'e was to bring' about the: better understanding between Muslims and the Englishmen,

The institution was no doubt meant of the Muslims as it was the need of' tile time. But his attitude towards other communities was based on tolerance. This has be:en testified by Pt, Jawaharlal Nehru,

. iru in .' he Autobiography admired the works of Sir ., l- an in the following words "Syed 's decision to .. n western education 'for Muslims was undoubtedly a _ ~ lout that they' could n'ot have played any effective part , 'Eng 'up of Indian nationalism.' In 'his another book The

'I' of India Pt. Nehru says about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, "He

. 1 . posed to In,dian, 'National Congress because he considered

antly a Hindu organisation, hie opposed it because he thought c litically too aggressive and he: wanted British help and

" stion-v=be was in no way' anti ... Hindu O'f communally ist .. "

_. " Mujeeb Ashraf in his book Hayat-ul-Bashir has 'written the - _.' works of Maulvi Bashiruddin, a clos~ associate of Sir Syed . Kha '1'1' In" this b ook p .. rof A·" sh ra f has throw .. n so m e"·, I ight on

.... __ .... ,i . ", I!IJ ."" . ,I " . , ... _..... ,.~ • .' .,'. ' ....... 1 .•. 'u. "', .. " '.' . ' :. . ." , '. , .. ',i.

, .'

~-~. ~ _ cational and political trends as, developed in, MA'O College during

~ I time 'O':f' S· .ir Sye .. d Ahmad Khan a···s~ well as after h-'I~:S'" death HI ·e:

, 1,·,· ,'. .,_.. . " .' ~'. '... .".1. _ __:- .. : __ "_::..II _:... .~.'.' ....., •• 1 '. ,_' . . _. '. ~ .. '. _ ... _ ... - _!~ •. I

uched upon the contribution ofvarious prominent Muslims to ,",' .. U 'and role of Educational Conference in, the making 0'[ great

i!;

, "o"-n'

. .'::: ,'·1

Another historian Sita Ram Singh in his presidential address of

I "

. '.' ian HI"S:t,O· ry C 'ongre .. -ss ,(."5',,-4" th S· .: .essio n 1,9· ':9'2':· Mys ·0', Ire'):; cornm ents

. ,_.,. ,.I. '., ... :.' :.: ":" . 1:'_ ,,' .: '.. ...., . :. .' . '., '. J ., I I.... ,.", ,~ " . '. . .. '" -': '. . 'e.'.. .' . ',':

Sir Syed that 'before 11885 he was the ardent supporter of the - .... __ ' __ ',iuslim unity .. He quotes Sir Syed's words.l'Now both of us

. I,,~ the air of India, drink the holy water of Ganga and Yamuna,

.' - feed upon the products of the Indian soil .. """I,~we both belong, me country, we are a nation.. .. .,? Sita Ram says that after the .-......_, .... tion of the 'Indian National Congress his whole attitude was ~.~~ ~ _ u, He· believed 'and declared that th~ political. interests of the '.' and Muslims were 'not only different 'but also opposite. He - -_~ .·ke of the Hindus and Muslims that they are not only the two _ but two warring nations who could not lead a common political once the British retired from India,

all the statements it becomes clear that most ofthe historians

- ired his movement, But a few 'of them even go to the

-_ .oorove him, a man with secular outlook . In his social mission

- _'. t he, 'was so but when come to deal 'with political .issues he,

'. show his communal leanings .. 'This is another matter that by . utm .... "'0' ··sc·tl" c .onc .. e·· rn':' was the well bein g of the M, >.' -UI' s .lim .. commun Ity

',_ ,I _'~'_ .. 1, •.•• :. ,'. ", 1'," __ ,,' .. ".. , ...... ,' ' ... '_ _" _.'_ . ',' "'. _' __ '_',' " '" I ',',' 1 •• _,11: ,.,' I ,"J

. " :-' :

.' ~ It is because of this the: works like M .. S., Jain etc. reach tOI

~ . usion that 'Sir Syed Ahmad Khan possessed a separatist and . ~. 1. .outlook,

~~ work "Aligarh Muslim. University ': An Educational and , istory I ',920~4 7'" deals with a very crucial phase of the Indian

F d M·· , t.Th A' 'I'" h )'1 . J"~ . 'hi t:; 1'1' f S' I'·

ree,om .,.:. ovement, ... ;= ,Ie··· .. 19ar _ ,·,oyaIJ.sts or the true 1'0.-' iower 0 ' ;~~'lr

Sy .. .ed A,~' hmad Khan u devoted alii' t heir tim e-' an nd ener gy:'~ . to ge·t·, t,'h:-e' c;'··h'-·· arter

":_.- ",' " ". _ '. ." _,,' . ~ I·. ..... j L. • r : _. " , _' I, ,1,'" _ '. :.,. f : ',' _",' .', , __ -': '.:' I', '_ . -.' 1 ,'_. ,_. • • _ '~_

, , . . .

of Aligarh Muslim University, 'to get government grants" to open

different departments of study and also provide government jobs to their students. But there was another section of AM'U whichadvocated

,

national rand secular ideas, They devoted their full energy and strength

in the Indian National Movement .. They invited the. reputed National

1-", ad ',. " "' .. : A'" M'·'-U' .," . d ". , ." b ~'l'~ , .' d -: -" d :., .... ,: .", , .- '.' .> d th _,. ' nu . d·-,·· -:t'j·· .-C.',- .. ' . fi" '. ed .... - ... - ' . . le[a.ers In ,'_.:. ',I .. :an .. mo '·.1 lise.· an· encourage_. I ,e Sl ,.' en_s lOlr ~re!el om

. .

,

struggle. Most of the old boys a~n.d staff members also contributed to'

h .. 1

t e nanona I movement ..

B . t ', .. -~ ... , zlv " " ... ,~,.", .' .. -. 'b-" ,:,,' ·kl,,, .. b'" a'" . be 'n' w'·r ... ·tt· 'e' n' : ',' - th·' 'e e· ducatio 'n'" a"j-: . u surprlsln.gy so l.ar no ,,00'.', S "ee. ".' .I ~_' .. Ion·, :':, "'C' ,,1.1-: '·1 >.

and political developments in .AMU from '192,0 onwards. It is this gap'

h ~ h I h .. d d : f "1'1 b "" ,'. h <II b k Th

W' icn <av'e mterx .. el'_' to :OllU·P _·,·Y' wntmg t,lS ,O'O":·~ " nesources on

the subject are: wide spread which have facilitated to complete this book. Among the contemporary sources the life sketch of the prominent, personalities 'needs to be reviewed here shortly ..

. Habibullah Khan has written the' biography of Sahibzada Aftab Ah .. unad K····· han ·w··,·,·· .. t·h th: nam ,"" : f II vat-i-Aftab In h:"I~S book h e has

_ 1 ' .~., .'. _ ' 11:- _ .e· .. ,a .. I eo. .£1 aya. I· ~ ,. _'. ~ '~".:_ ". .: '''_

d .. 1i J h ibuti f'S hib ~ Aftab Ahm d Kh

covere particularly t, e conmbunon 10: 1',- ·ai' 1·- zada s .' .'.,a' A rmac .. <nan

t· th . A'M' ,u-,- . b thl' -. v:+.- c·: ··· e- h·' - - ]l ' 'd-',·- ~ -'11 ·1-.· ..... h "., - ifth ." .. sity ,-

'0 ,'1 _e' .. ·: 1 •• _ ,0 '_as ·····llc,e .. _:· .. ,ance lor an. asl we, ' WIg. -jler 0·. ,.' e unlverSl~' •

.In the book 'hle has emphasised the jubilee celebrations of he A'MU

d diff b ~ ... hi II D Z'I! ddi d V··'

an. .' ntrerences between 'Pro- Vice C·· .. ance lor .,r."'Jau_··m. anc vrce

Chancellor Aftab Ahmad Khan.The Rahmatullah Enquiry Report has also very widely discus .• se. '.d

_' _ ~, _,' ' - ' I, '., - ...'. ..'.. - '.'

_.' .

A h h 1 M" h" d A I!JI Z' b .. h iii' tho I·'c" k h f

not .. =,e·r SC'iiO.lar,··o.· . ·'~··~-· .. m·ln .,ul·IJerJ, , t, as written the ,1i.'.le sketcr 0:

Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad Zia-i-Hayat. This book is 'very important because !!it· .' '- - ," th;·: .. ' 'h"" ,-: "1 .. .,-,. ··d·· .t':...;, - D· Z~-·I... . d d ."" . ", p:. . ,!Ii,., .. '. ~ -. : '1' h .: " .. f" ~ t'h' .,-' .1, co'vers ' 'e W o· .. e pI,eflo :_: l.rom, . '-f .. ,~J.lau.,·~, In S _flnC,lp,R:.S :.Ip 0 ' .. Ie

MAO Colle .. g,e' to his last term as Vice Chancellorship of'AMU upto

1; 9= '47 It d ib h D Z'· d' d Ii! A' h d d t d hi .. h '1 I ".s'; t

J .. '~' .. '. ..<,escrl':es ',. ·.ow··r .. ·laU:-':,:rln _.' ;~m.a:, . ",evo','e',':_"lS, WI :o!e ",l,e· '10

. -

the institution and proved himself a real successor of Sir Syed. Ahmad Kha n 'H: Ie: rn ade m an" y." chan 'g··,e· s in th .. e ca·' rricula m :0" f A'~ MI-' .... U' an nd open ne d

- . _ , :Ii _ . '. , ", '. ....'. . . . " ' ".' , ' _ , ' .', ,1.1" " .,.1 ' ' '= [ . ' .. _ ' .:. ".', , . '. '. . '. '" . ',,' :

. . -. .. ,

different departments in the universitv, The differences between

~ ~ .'. , • ,._ • • - ..' J _' • • ' , '. , "', • • '. " - 'I - ' " ',' ,J 1111 " _ • - • -" _- '. -. ' -. '. -' ',-

S··· hib d d D Z· did h I b d"· d 1111 d IF} D'

xarnozac a, ano 'ril :',13U"'-',_.I<' rave a. so oeen mscussec m c .. etan. ,r.1

ZIII ddi hi lf h !Ii . . b k d . -. III hicl h h

taudoin iimsel nas written a, /100.1 •••• nameo Bayan m W.:1C,l .,';,e· nas

di d hi ·

lscusse",_: . IS ex.plerlienCieS'li

Another associate of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was Shaikh

bd I, h('·AI·' 'h,\ h h d d d h~' h 'I l-·-c. J::' h' ,

,A::::,·~.u 'la,I: .. · iJga.c"'} W·I~O' ":a I~;ev·ote·, _, :." S 'W .. :oe ,lIe: l,or t,',e wonlen s

educatio'n and established ·Wlo::-.,me',··o's ColJea,e in Alig·_:·arh H,e 'has written

. - .. " .... , - - ,'. -. ~ .' - ~. _- . ..', ., ~, -' -" 0 ." _" I. • _. ~. ..iIl, . .. . . -

il k]l .1'.' h h"'~ 1'* . rio h' , .. h h h d~' d 1'1 'hil;

a ,bOQ:;- IviuS'>;,',:a.·'·tuot-o-'a·assu.rat l.n W_~lC ':'. ,'~,e ~. as'.·lSlcusse,,' a 1 ': "IS

efforts regarding' women '5 :e·d,ucation. in Ali,gar'h ~ He also served

AMU' , ...,. <t.II!' A 'h . b' 'J S': h R'I" hm M'}' h <II! •

,','. ··.i I,'n'-' 'V' 'an:- .. o· ~US~· C'" a''''p' la'C"l' t'l'es-:- }'·"··no\·t·-, ·e·~~r·-·'s'··'c:··-·" ·0"'" a, 'r' ..... '~am:"""','ls-ur,--- I". a:':,· :"'an::;" '. :U' '_ S:"I: n"l'

_ ( , . _ ."', . _ ... ' .. " " _ .. ' - .' - - .... ' , ~ " '."'!II " '; , , ! ..:__:, :__ "_ .. ',.. . 1-. :. • • : ,'. _ ' • _' ._, " ' •• _ _I "I - I .'. _' _ ,

h· as ·wrl·tte'·n a> b',o" ·:UI·t S···ha~-l~kh··.,' I A', b',· ,d,-"llllah": '. n·~la'··;m' 'e,d:' Ua>"'J/·."t-i-"Ab:'dullah In this

. ,._., '" '" .. _" ,'-,' .. .... '._. '..' .. ' - _ . " ' .. ' '" ..... . '- -' '. ,'. . .... , -'" . :.t'"" _ ~. '.', _ , - I . ..:-' .• .: - '-'"

book he .h:as covered the co·ntribution of'Sh,a4'kh Abdullah tio bottl th'e

i's College .. The, differences among, ShaikhAbdullah, -...._~'I Sir Ross Masood have also been discussed in detail ..

- - - Ill: y", 0" f th iese works has enabled me to throw new

. , , ~__:.I / 1 .... I, • " l,_,,: • ..::'.,' .' .',_' .. _,L '. , [~._ ': . " _' _~' '_.fl ~.' .. '. ,r, I... ..:.._', .. _. '," . I,'

-: anal and political issues faced by A'MU during the.

- _ - - S-, far ignored, The contemporary En,gJish and Urldu

_,' .-- I~ lential files from Aligarh Library, registers, reports - - I agazines and journals from Lucknow and Delhi

- ee ~ duly utilised,

- 1 Ie main chapters, first two, chapters deals with the

-, elopm e D"t,S- -~- in A'··"- MC:':'U' -! Th - ,- e' 0- "th' ner 't- ,W'-;'--O'-, c~h--'a-- pter 'S"',- a ttem p'-'t,'-'s'--

. ,. I". '_ _ . . . ' '. r.,,:__" _'.........!i . I,. . . ..:..: .. ',.'.,',. __ ' . • "',_ .' '. _. ~" . ~ !. _ "_'. .. ' .' .. "..__::

, -

I" l- ,- ,',- e political r: ole of" A:---M··' -: 'U": in ' th - e, nation 'a"11 m" ----o'-'-'v",'---e------m"-, e---'n:-- t

~__ ' I,,' _ 1.- -, - . __ I _- , " ,_".,', --' ",' ,,-', - _-" ,',_,' -' , ' -I ~.- ,-- " ,- _ -, - _, .I '.'

, -,- _~I' er "Educational Progress in Aligarh till, 192'0"" deals , ·'0- of Aligarh Movement; establishment of,AM'U , its

!~',-_ .-,--01 ~ S,I~ 0''- .s'. Sir Syed A hm ad, Khan had. a dream that the

: ,~'-e vould dev'e.lop into a 'university. After his death in 189:8, .-: : 'd :U", 1,- owers started a movement to set up a university at _'-,' collected the required money land send the proposal to m em to grant the charter for the proposed ,AMU., Due to '~,'f I and controversy about the affiliation powers ofthe '1- -e movement had to, 'be stopped in the midway, But at the

c_" ! ilafat and Non Cooperation movements were launched, -~-- ent found an opportunity to woo the Muslims 'from the '_ ' arm 'by granting them the charter of the ,AMU at the end

ts Act was different 'from that of the Banaras Hindu _ '~ • te AMU Court was given enormous powers,

~, ,-,-, -tera,lso includes the estab.jishme,:nto'f,Jamia,MilliaIslamia,~

- rwas an offshoot of'the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

-j brothers and Gandhiji arrived in Aligarh in l '9'2'01 to

',,'_""-0 College authorities about their programme. On college authorities, they founded an independent national

- Aligarh 'which was known ,as lamia Millia Islamia. It to Delhi.

, '_~ d, chapter "Educational development in AMU 19:20- educational pattern, culture and traditions of AMU,;,

!Ii .- .,... 'h · '"'- d orizi d

' ne umversity; C'flSI,S, In tl e umversity aru ongm anr

, f ' he Women 's College, In this chapter the culture and , -.: - " .. - .: ~ have been very widely discussed. 'This chapter, at . _' '~ with an interesting note on the social life: of the ~--,........... ~ it the hostels particularly the cordial equation between , . ,', Muslim students, The Hindu students took pride

'_' in, the tradition and culture ofthe i\MU.

-

rtarted fun c'--t--'I·OD1i!t,O' g' many -- 'new dep -artm--- - - ents of

_! U1!i'i.;, _- 'i ,:_.' .0",' 1_':-::,'_, i'-: - --,- ': 1- _:, ,,': ',: :, -,_-r :: ,,"'_

--~ -I' _ lith the efforts of Dr. Ziauddin, Aftab Ahmad

...

Khan and Sir Ross Massed, many appointments were made to run the fu II· fled ed d ,11' rts ar d ,'. rants .: .. _- : ..... llected for th atnui ...... " .. ;

_ e .. ' -. ,IV.' ge,... epa. ~men._ ,an,_· gr.an s,. werle COt ,ecl.e ,I. lor ;·,a. purpos,e,.

In 19:25 in order to popularise the university among the India .. ns, particularly among the Indian Muslims, the silver jubilee, celebrations

f <II·iI b d -M' I-t <I 1-' d d '"' '1

or umve srty were o -serve 'C Many plo, rnca am I. er ucationa

<Ii ... ~ tid h ld h .. ~ f h

organisations w:ere: atso mvrte .. to .;,C,O ". t ~ eir sessions as part 0<: t ie

university's sf ver jublee celebrations due to which the celebrations proved a grand success .. 'In addition to this enormous fund was collected to start new departments of studies in, the ,AM,U., A, separate fund was collected for the establishment of the Engineering and Medical Colleges in ,AM'U ~

AM, :·'~UI -h. ced : t . !ii, ~. d ,- .. ···1 t· h'" 'II' rtc t ' tie " .' " a" result of

, ,: '. llaCle a ,grle,a CflSIS_ ufln,g.e",alew,en,les las ", ,'.'~:_:', '.

h diff 'h AMU th .'. h fi 1"'1

t e, ,11. rerencesamong t . e ,': MtJ autr onties, WI ,0 were true .,10, ewers

of 'Sir Syed. They were all. dedicated and, did their bes .. for the welfare of the, university in their own way, but lacked harmony of ideas, This

~ .. .

'led to mutualjealousy leadingto a cold waramongthem, Dr, Ziauddin

- -

Ahmad pVle of the AMU was the main target of a group who were

- -

'very critical of his ways, A committee was appointed to enquire into

the working of' Dr, Ziauddin, This committee carne to be known as Rahrnatullah Enquiry Committee .. A few months later the ccrnmittee

bmin d it d fi 11 D' Z' III ddi Ahm d k d t

su mrttec 1 s report ann ' Ina y . r.~.(.au. ,')In, - ~"-Iar~ was as ,re~.:'. ,0 .

· f h" ~ .'

resign rrom t, IS post.

Towards the end of this chapter women's education in ,AMU' has been thoroughly discussed, A, great effort was roadie to .. educate the Muslim girls in, Aligarh, It was a revolutionary's, ep because the ' Muslims in, general were rigid and orth odox II, They were 'not prepared to' send their daughters to English schools and boardi ngs, (,ut Shaikh Abd UI! illa h b y'" his herculean effo rts ttan···IC: sfo rmed the dre aITI of educat ion

,' .... " .. I " '. J,' ) , •• _,' , • __ '" I ~,:____ .. ,'. '" .. l~. I •• ' • ".' ·_,1~-:,. I •• ~:.~. '_). • • __ ., •••• '.. .... • ••••••• ~". _I ••••••• :..

to Mus li m girl into reality and boarding school was start ed with enough strength of tile girl students. Later on this school developed into a college.

The th ird ch ap ter is d evo te d to "';A·::·· M' ", '.' U's C'-",O"'DI't' rib ut ion to Indian

" • "" ... ,1 I c __ .',' _,_"', _. ',,'.' '" '" . ';"._, . _. -', , .... '. . ",.1 I, , .. , - ',,,', ·c .. ·. . I," ,',

national movement from 19210 to 193171" ~ In the beginning of this

chapter the political developmen s in Aligarh before 1 '920 '.- ave been discussed. In this section polite cal ideas of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan,

s: · fM'I'" L d i-British f [-Ii' III A'III h

rormanon ,0, _': . " , lIS nn Leagt e :an_. anti- inns I, I iree rngs ID/' "lgar' ,are

di . . - '-'d" ," , . hi. It' ·Thi ... 'h' . ter 'I . thr ",. ~;". ht' . th .' Kh'" ~·li. fat ,c' rd

ISCUSs.e;, ]11 S I O,':~' 1.S C,' ap er a so r f'OWS ugr on t r,"e:,,' uarar ann

Non-Cooperation movements in Aligarh; Congress an" Muslim League

.. fl .. AMU' 'r iI f' 1 'Ii! ... A" ~~' L hi 1 f

mt uences In.:' rvn .1; impact 0,' communai tensions In .. ' ligarh; ro e ,0

AMU in national politics and the role ofthe alumni in many political developments ..

The Khilafat committees were' set up on provincial and central level with a view' to boycott British goods. The movement also

- --' ,":!e non-cooperation with, the: British government,

, -' ational leaders s,aw in ita golden opportunity to , uslims into the nationalist fold. Mahatma. Gandhi 1-' e KI,' ilafat Committee appealed to' the Hindus to ~ . - eir Muslim brethren, in their movements, This

, .111~". helped in bring:ing about unity between the

_ - _-_ "~I S in India,

- ~ ~ _ .~::,·I ne general belief that Aligarh played a, negative

-_~_ - onal movement but this chapter of the present study

_ nst all Aligarh old boys spread all over Indiaand abroad. , er I national programmes to oust the Britishers from

. - xtenc ed their cooperation to the political parties like, . rslims League, Khilafat Party, Swaraj Party, Communist

. ~ chapter deals, with "Political activities in Aligarh from , ,7' This chapter consists of an critical study of the ~,_:_ -, MU authorities and Student's Union to Muslim League, - -. - _ .... the Congress and British policies" activities of political [[ .;-'r-IO'UpS in AMU, responses of the A,M'U' community over ern - :_ for Pakistan] partition of I:ndia and its reaction in Aligarh

, as the year when Pakistan resolution was, passed by

'ago" e [T' 'h'I~S" resolution further forced t··h·e··:-· L~ eague leaders to

-, '-:'. ""::';j![ .. ~. . .~", '" .; . . :,..' ".. : .. " - , 11-· ' :., '. ,'.,: . ..: ';':":" ',.','". j;:."".:. . :) ..

.. uslim masses in 'favour of the movement for Pakistan.

I ., ed throughout India and del ivered speeches especially in - ional institutions to mobilize the Muslim support. They also . ,. otivate the AMU students and received a positive response. , -, gress a, ,SOl tried to bring the students in, their favour but. except . 1 ofstudents no one paid any attention to whatever they said, -' , :' uslim League was successful in, opening its branches in

- ,.~ty, and in AMU'~ Even the children of'Aligarh formed 'Bachcha

- - , ~ ea,gue". These organisations passed rna'ny resolutions

, g Pakistan Movement and expressing their faith in Mr .. Jinnah

_ - __ 'I eadership, Mr, Jinnah succeeded in, keeping his hold o'n the

niversity, Their resolutions confirm their strong faith and : _ innah and to his demand for Pakistan,

9, ~'''~I'I under a. proposal of the Cabinet Mission, the' Interim rent was 'formed by the Congress and only after 'much

= ~ ~; ~ - , - '~i . nah agreed to nominate ,a few members to the' Interim

mt The purpose seems to serve as deterrent to Congress .. I'~ ..... Be .. c .. ause the L' .e ague by now had th e···· only demand that

~~ • L~ • ",_'" __ •• __ ,' __ :. ~ '_ • _:~.~_._ '_. 1.,,:, ,_._ ... '._. __ ' "" ,. ,~... . .. ,' .''',,~ ',",

,.,...._,_--_._ ~ _-.-0"- which only a few months back he had given the call

.... '~. .). iii, h' biec ·iIi' Tho; d-~ . · d

. tenon to 3'C'11eve' tne 0 ··;~ectlve. . ,~e nrect action .: ,ay

was followed by communal riots; first in Bengal and in the rest of India afterwards, Even rafter j oining the Interim government .by the

'M 1'-'" - h 'I tI ' did- - .J:;.- - 'I

,,-~ uslim League, toe communal riots r 1: 'not stop. After much

opposition of Gandhiji the Congress accepted the partition plan, and the impossible dream of Mr, Jinnah became a rea: ity, AMU, though a strong hold of Mr. Jinnah, found itself in a state of shock when the country was partitioned, 'perhaps", even Jinnah had not thought :10, get it in, his life time,

The' above resume would help the, reader in, forming the general idea of the' main contents of' the book ,as also of the line of thought and approach adopted by author in attempting a, descriptive, analytical and critica account of the educational and political history of the Aligarh Muslim University,

In the last 1 feet it my pleasant duty to acknowledge the kindness advice and help which I received from my teachers, colleagues and 'friends without whose encouragement, moral SlIP'POrt and active CQ,_ operation, . his work would not have been possible. I am gratefu to my parents and other family members for- their' kind support and constant encouragement. I am indebted to nl,Y' colleagues and close friends for their coope atien in cor pletior of' ,,'- is book,

I am also indebted to' the authorities and staff of the National

A hi 'N'~ h 'M' II Ii 'M-' d Lib Zaki H- 4i Lib

rcrnves, _' ehru Memorial lv useuman .... ·1 .... rary; 'r or r- usam Lit rary,

New b',eih.i~ 'Up' State Archives, Lucknow; A, --." U 'Union Hall Research

- - - - - --, - - - ....' -_,. .. '.". . ,_. '" . - . - - , -

Library Department of History, an, - - Maulana Azad Library AMU

Aligarh: 'YMD' College Library, Nuh for allowing me to use the source

material preserved in their collection, .

(AIJAZ AHMAD)

NU'H-','

j ._

,.~ .. , ..

~ng:":,, es

C' .....

1"7,,'

, '

- .-

36'·:_'

l _ . ',_:.

~t·

S'7'

L'

, I'"

'13,7 1719

, I

194

-. '.

. .

- _ of' 'I ' ... uslim awakening by

:, lim €ommun.it)! in order to . ..,:-" absolutely ne,ce:ss.ary to

_ ding religious 'beli'ef and . . ~~,.- . ' .~. and customs etc. He

'"~_ .. _~. ~ ar ce of the age and

_", -::·l.:~.·' ,e' ". c··le·"·s:ls·,,,ary·, 1-"" beacuse

-................ -_ " ! -_ '. '_'.- .. '.~ " .,', .. _',-

_ .. .~ '> "_~Iat they' had lost

- ~ - a their culture, and

.' c ~"e of direction

" 0·' ement and. . . _ . ost long. 'S"o

'Iii' d' h

.. :',_,lDlS 'an', •. t: .. :e

_ -. Je 'policy of'

_____ ~ - _ ~. m;l, There he in I arting modern .e formed the :~ ittee" in .1870, for arted nis work with .' :' salmanane in

on. the occasion of _ ,~- ~.~ - - iated to the Calcutta,

- ~_ ~. ... ts first batch of four

_...._ -"I .. ~' I 'Husain and Abdul

_ , .- :' : In'-' an'; _,' d' W', ',". e···r·e··· declar " 'e: .... d

, .' -::: .' .) I _j' _, < .".... ." .', '. ".

' ... ;,'

P iii '. .t h' ,io, /:920'" 4'7-; 'O,_lt,ca:z. i ustory ' .. :, .'- .... .'.

passed .3 M····· ·'·r·· 'I~' G 1r S"· id d·· .C.,·· a" E··I " lish .: ' ". , ':." ' .. it c d·: t h·" f - . t·

,:!.~. " -'~. .. "; .. " <r ,'~..~, 1, · .r. L "on n ~'.ng .15. ... man, was .ap'po In' e:. as L. ie . Irs

Headmaster and Mr. Baijnathprasad was appointed as Second Master.' On Sth January 1:87'7, the Viceroy Lord Lytton laid the foundation .

. tc '.',.: . ':f~' M··:: J.. ". ".' d ,., .. : ... A:···· 1 -. O· .:'"' -. t """I"· le""" II· . '. s s one ,0.: .. O'llamm.a:·.·an. " ngl·Q ' .. ·.flen:(i: '.1, 0 ,.,ege~

Initially the orthodox Muslims were not ready for modern education and they thought that it would convert them into Christianity, The government ofIndia also drawn its attention tOi the unsatisfactory condition of the Muslim education. Governor Ge'oe.ral in. Council directed the local governments to inquire why Musalmans refrained from availing themselves of the education offered by the State, 6 In these circumstances Sir Syed 'worked ve·ry hard to mobilize the Indian

M In ..c: f h d d '.

'us: rms In favour 0.1' tne mocern ei. ucation ..

The college continued to, 'be affiliated to the Calcutta. University until 1877' when. it got to be affiliated to the newly founded Allahabad University, 7 It was partly financed 'by the British government, The

C ·I[r· .' -'s b' .... d ..... 0"" c. . d'l ,. rd C····· .: "-['" b '··~d··I·: ... - .. U·····to '., sities .. , , ed ' ... tion onege wai .. .oasec on oxroroanc i.amonoge unrversmcs m e ucanon

and religious practices .. Its medium of instruction was English, About the religious practices in the college, Sir' Syed Ahmad Khan once

. tid ,", ~ ste th .. ' · .. t d -. ts . r o ,c,' . d . d' C:'-'"'- - '-b 'id -. h ." . tc -- ~ it the

saro, ' JUS' as tne Si~U err S 0 i :.X.l'or:i 'an, 1..''- am '_'fl ge nave to VISI ... e

hui h . nd tt-·· .. d th ..... , .. - ..... '1' ·,1· t'h'-"" t 'd'i, nts .. ""1'1' h t'

,C 'UfC,,' ;a.n·' a' .en· .. ··:e praye,r re,gu .'arl.y~ .. ~ ... ',e s.u.'_len loS WI!;!, ',.ave .0

offer the congregational prayer five times a day, ',"8 He also said that they would all eat play and study at fixed times '9 He considered 'an

'.' '.... "' .". ' ' .. _ , .. . ~ •...•..• , ' .. .' , c' :" ' I,.! '._... ."'." " .. ' _ '...... . ,'

education without religions instruction to bea 'body without s·O'U,I.10

AI'" h h M' -AO' C 1'1 c d' d '. '"'I c. M- I" ·

t.l. ougn ;':. ,'.~' ....-_..,·Otle;g:e was, founded pnmanly lor 1.··,U5 urns, It

. " .... ··1' . - 1;""c .,- d H' ..... c' d -. .. t de: t" b .. ·· ·t·h"·· ",. d - v sch .. '1 ." ,. .,-'. d "...... ;"1.

open, y welcome. '-' .. 10 iu S ucents ooi .. as oay scr oiars ano as a

b :( ard : ,.: .. , C· " ':' " ·t·,·", -.. ' tJ ',,;: .. - -:.. ·'1' .. ,".' atm ;,,' , , ·h· ,'~ '-, < .' ···t·"- th "-' Mi·" A" O' :', 'C;··· ···11····· .. .:.

o,ar!·:ersii om,men~.il1g ,on .l. le s!ecu'lar at .'I'OSP . ere a_. :1 ~·e "" .'_. '''.: 0, : eg·e,

n K" S-"h' ··t·' ..... -,.. '" ~t·· ~ ,,' C"; .' ~ t· - ·c··· 'f' H·IIJ" id ... ' .. " d M" ... ,1'"' - _ ' ..... th' ,

~'8 s..tmamager wrnes: '·'.:·0-- ·eXIS.ence 0'" .In-,.:US an' .. ~' _/.us nns In uie

college on terms. of equality' continued to, operate effectively' throughout

h 1'iII.l': f'Si S d Ah d Kh d hi &:. 1:... '11 1·

t e ne O. ,~- .' 'If' ·i· ... yec .. : .. ! mad ~." ~.I an an: ms faith In secutansrn was never

d ·iI·. : .,' "'~. d' "~ 1

.nn mec

••.• ' • . •. Il1o

Instead of providing mod/ern education to the Muslims, the most

~ rt . t .. b ,.' .. ·,t·· . f'··'· ·th· - .' :',1' I····, .' .-. ". t·h· ,.,.- .~ . , .. " '.' . ·f···· .' de 't .. -· d '" '. -.'

nnpo .'. an. ooject O. I ~ 'e co' iege was ne unproving 0 . urn ers an" .ing

between the Enelish and Muslims." The college was such an

'_":' "' . ,_I .' '.- __ .0': . I . ','!~' .'. ~' .• '. _,I' ·r.1 ' .. '.' ..... :;- _' " ·1 .. ··' ',_' "' .. _ .....• , ','

:po '. . 'III Id' '" t 1 thO t btl. th C; tun d

mstitution as \V'OU .[' SUIt no only tne present I,U; aiso tr e ru .. ure n·ee,/s

'of the. Muslim co'mlnuni~~ 13

While: enlphasising, thie· future need.s of Muslim c·om'm,un·ity he

aiil<d iii ,., 'I"f' y" ou wis"h' to atta'l""n hO'n- o' 'u'[ p·ro-·sperl'ity .. a'nd"" h"}-g'h' PO·S··l·t,}·lJo· n

s~ .'.'. ~ '1 .. ,' ",r, I 'i',il.': I~I' "',[.':, ",[,', . ".,' .:.;<,,[,_;··i'-~"./··'··'··'_'._:'_';' .' ";~ .. I ... ·:.·, "·I···i.,

... it, -. !II 'hw 'h- E 'III!' h d' · 'h'" 1'~ .•

strIve y,QU.r Inter'est to· acqU.lre: 19l·. !: ··.n .. g ,IS. ~ e'. u[cattofl. W'lcn 1.5 tn,e·

I .r.. I ~ v: . ·m t '} t" '1

on y means ior yOl1r 'f'e,a··; Impro·ve.ffi'e.nt. i.Our case is 11.op1e,ess u.nJ,·

d I· · h' d 1 If'" If' Iii; If

!{o'u e uc·ate ,)'o-urse ,ves h.Jg' _ly an,~ "e·ar.n to va'ue 0·,:' s'e : re la:llc'e" sei'

control and self help .. "I4

Sir Sye,d Amh.ad Kh,an. faced th.e orthodox M'u,slim society Ver)l b·oldly ... T.hey att.acked Si.r Syed by spireading ·different types of rumO·U,f •.

+

A,MUI An Educational &. P,o.litical history 192'0-47

18

led the All India _ -_ - .. _ ise the education . . - - ~'. im ·.S·; 16 B'~UI'::t· in

-=-~ .-....-- ~ __ ................ "" .. _ .. !II!. .• IOi, . ....... __ .'

- - _. '!!II ;-- ;t'iII'e': ~ ~I ) '1 In ~': .• ·t'

_ _ _ _ _ _J~_ ,,_ _ J ac .

. _._-,._-, s, is only first and

.. ' .'. ~ ,q· .. ·lul'tl,e~.ls· •• stion of

• , .. ~ , 1 .'

, "

'I f ,] ..

" ....... ...._'~. ' _ ~e~j,taJl faculties,

1Ii.'1Ri!!O~ - nd economic

-. • --I I ~ ~ '!

- '. -. ~ ,-~ ~

_ Ut

_ ~ a j.~" atter

... - _, "'!:iII'~II;~S·:.·· 'U~.I;',.

iduand

_ ...... ,.,.... •. " .. 1 ... , .. ,

....

--." --_- ~., :'_' re dri nk

-

""".'-~_-"h'."-'I :,1 and .sorrows

--......._.' . .-~' I,. rally w'e have

~ ... - - ~ -,:- ""0::-:" ved a,,' c·:· .. om .. ';:m·::··o'···n···

_ . I . I • • ',_ . ~ • ~JL _ I • '.' '. __ _ _ I _": '._

~ ' ' Sil'ml1.·e country are· 'on,e

-' ,- i '~ .. Relations' he W .. ·.·.··.'r,'o .. ··,te<·,

_, .. ~ _. ., _" ft~l ... , '_ ..;_., _-'-' ":.......,

.•. , . ,._~"~I~ - bride and Hindus and

. ,-'~es ir the proper safety of

- "" 'I _lQ,8'U't-]'" fu " ... 'I b iri d 1 e W" '1'""1'1 h e c· O . m" . e

trus neau J un u r ue w u oec ';.'

............ 1

- --, j.-' I" ,e I,: dfferences of' religion as it

"':.80. not be an obstacle in, their

_ =-=- ~ - ~-,'" rher, Likewise, the political

~_'.JL Ie in maintaining close relations - -: ~ _ :" ,'~ as I want friendship, unity and

.. - .....

'I b h ..... .. "', f reliai distl ..

rove between t .: e two commumties mspite 0,. rengious r istinction,

similarly I, want mutual cooperations, love sympathy and brotherhood spec ially without mi riding the po J. itical idi fferences. "20

'Sir Syed appealed to the Indian people to unite together, In a

speech at La h or·-'·e' in 18,:7,3,:· he ·a·· .. d '",' I' wish that .. II ,:,,,' :, ...... f,_:._, .... ~,," ····: .. ctiv .' .. f'"

.'. ." ". -._ ._ :,'j -: , .. ..: ...•. I. S-l_ , ,WI, -.a a ,_ m,en Irrespe,c .lve 0 '

their religion and community ITIay unite together 'for commonweal. Our religions are undoubtedly different but there is no reason for enmity among us on this account."?' About tIle cow slaughter he said, ",I have repeatedly given my community to understand that it is a folly to annoy our Hindu brothers b,y resorting to cow- slaughter, If friendship can be established. between us, then, this is 'far better than

cO'W s laughter,':" '.

N d 11 S" S'" d + hi h 1 1[I;.,c k d f h hi " . f

o douot i.,·tr Sye In "IS wr oaie lle worxer lor the betterment 0-'-

the' M-' Iuslim ·c····o· mmunity bur tho 'e;' other corn rnunitie s· o ifIndia and .. ·· the

, . - :',- _" .. ','.·l,:, "j, " - .... ,J, _: ,Ii ' .. "' . ", . ~ ,.....:_-, ' _" ,! ' •• ,' ,.'~'.: "'. ~:' _ I~;,' .: 1_11 .... ·, . - '_'. ",._.f "., .:' ", :._'.1 .. " f,, __ :

.. ti .. t a I t if in . z, ati .. ' ~- . - hi - HI'" d'" d ~ .. 189"'8":" b t his '.' k na Ion go. a ,'0:' 0' msprrauon rrom un .. rie ':-JJ~ in I, >:·.·,;U,·'i.'IS wor

of the movement was carried on by his friends and pupils like Nawab

M h .. '} M lk Nil b V' ... ). M" lk D Z· ~ ddi Ah d S hib d

. U,SI,nu I. ·U;'."-, Nawab Vtqarul Iv uik, ''f~ Ziauddin A :ma.:,;:,.a·,1 .. zada

Aftab Ahmad Khan Sir Agha K: han etc, They '. continued the movement

.. . ._.... • •. • ,._. " _ • , •.• _ . ,."_ • _- . [!i ••.. ....' ,.". . . .• .• . .' , -

. . - "

· .) di c:. d M:' I'" "U-" iOi , , A- I'" h

Inc, uomg a new move to ,tQUO;-'. a" US",I.m i Jnrversuy at Augarr ..

SI·f: Syed was S'U'IC' ceo eded byhis son Syed Mahmud b I u t , in ]. 89·9···~·· he

,t '.',. '. , .. , • ", . .,:_.. ,.J, _' :_. ~ .• :_ .•.• " ....... '.: ,,_I, ',J - _ ", '..__: _' I, ".' ..... - J " • ~ _ I " .,'. ':. ." 1 ;l. ,': ','":,' _ . "

- . I •

N· b M' h 'iii' I 'M" lk th- ,~. h h d f Si S· d 23

gave w:ay' to' ,awa- ·.:'U isinul '.::,'Ui~ '~ 'I i-Ie, right ;,::an,', ma,n 0' ' ·.ir Syec , .. ,.:

'He also followed secular and un biased policy of Sir Syed. During his Secretaryship he. started Sir Syed Memorial Fund to solve the monetary'

_.... ,··bI· .- .. r- f th .'. . '11-'-" H' .. 'I", .. "J .• " "1- . 'd::' D" ty" . 's···~· 'Ii, .. ty '. ~ h .. -"h' , .

pro ems O ... e co, ege- rte arso encourage ... ut Society W, tcr

was set up in 1890 for collection 0'[ funds for granting scholarship to the poor students. From 190'7', ... ,1.'2. the college developed under the, Secre .. .tary sh 'I~P' of Na wa b V' :1"':lq·,'a·:·':r-ul MI·,·:U, lk 24

-,' . J. ! ". _ .:' , '. ,.' •••• -._' ~ r y. ~. _ " ~, , ".' -; , . . _.. , _ ~, " .'

'. '--

Establishment of' AMU

'S'··I·r:· S'·· •.. yed Ahmad Khan conceived the ide .. a ofestablishing a

. '.' ... . ..1. _ _ '. . .__ . . _ ., _ .. '. . , . . _ _.. ..' . ... .. . ' . L. '. . . . .

vernacular university 'in 1.869., which he abandoned after his visit to

E }. d 2'" H' d id d I e. d ,. f d .. 1'''' · . ..

. .n.g;:an:.I .. ·:), (e '_e1Cl.,-. ,e. to ,lay iou.n' atton 10'.! ," an educationa institution

which could 'fulfil the demand of' the time and scenario, scientific modern, education being, the need of'the day. The dream of establishing a university could not be transformed into reality, during his life-time. After his death, the alumni of the M~A.~O'. College, the .college management and the well- wishers of the Muslim community launched

c. bli hili M I'"' U ~ ... 26

a movement l,or estab IS' ·'lng. a .,\<: ·US,Jlm. I, Jniversity .. ' .

It isnoteworthy that the British, government was playing a, double game, and 'using the sentiments of the Muslims of north India who were keen for the establishment of a university for the Muslims. On the eve of the visit of King George 'V to India in, 1911, the Britis',b government of India asked Hindus and Muslims to raise a sum, of Rs.

A.MUIAn Educational & Political history 1.920,-47 20

'r

.·_~~I'-', r .~.~.·7 But a little later the 'li3.·ffi.]i.ating the colleges ~,'.~'--, Muslim University." .

. _ ~. ~- great setback to' the is ~=_-.S about their loyalty __ " . = 1£' olvie·r the y'e.ars and

- . ': --i- m'l ::. e.·:n·. t·-- .29

._."." ~"_ ,,' l_' ",__:. ' •• 1

~ ·e(':· 's stand ... against

- I • pai gn for a Muslim

. -.- _ '~. ~ ,a session ofthe

- _ - , J .' "n 1.5th October,

~~ ~ 30

-'.' _ ~. --I'. p.-_:.algn·:·l':","-

Iii1 •. .'.

~~I"w: __ ."""""",,, versity education

, his shattered

- - . -, :~, -ersity, B'y

~: rv after its _ ~ - '_ be out of

'_ . _ -- mad Sha.fi, - .,,''',00 member

,~_ -' discussion 'I D' ",'1,1': 1 ' ..

c_ _ . . .' .. r., 'V'Y' au

,_ :~. and ·24th.

-

, - - II~"

'felt :,'~~ situation

egislative

__ -_ .'. ''-""II_.- __ fion 'was,

- .. ' ~ The Secretary .,1" _, stitution." In

~. .', -A.O,~ College

- e , Ir.' 'I .e a:' ddit iona 1·

, I _"", __ ~. . •• 1... .. '-=_

-

" .. ~ 501 'that he could

- .~ I u aders a<in'" din g'- a un o .. ng

- . _. . I __ '''' ._. _.' .. '.'

.. -- ~,I'" - Committee leaders. .

_ - ~ _ 'ss held in September uslim League and

<.. Political history 1920;-47

the Khilafat leaders were 'present there in strength, Sir Mohammad Shafi and other Aligarh loyalists considered it ·an opportunity to put the AMU' bill in the Central Legislative Council calculating that the

',,(" "."",,"" ,·t" rould arr .,·36 The A"M'U" bill "-,'., thus it ", d ced '". governmen wouic amen. . ne Ar , ,.J was :.,I·,US intro ucec In

the council and. came up for discussion, Syed Mohammad Ali defending the bill delivered a memorable speech, A excerpt is being given below:

"It is nearly 10 y',ears a.g:·o that Mohammadans were first promised

.' " .

, . .

their university, My Lord, Aligarh was the first institution in. this country

which followed the best residential system of the public schools of England .. It is the matter of 'history that tile Banaras constitution 'was modelled on the 'lines ofproposed constitution ofAligarh and that of Decca does not introduce any new ideas expect 'slight changes in the nom e·:n· clature '"

, ::...1 , .', " " '. .: '. :'I@I

"Even since the first. definite proposals for th:e university were made the W'110le controversy has mainly centered round two points

...

. firstly the extent of jurisdiction of the university and secondly, the

government control, About the first, the Muslim community was compelled to accept that there would be no ro .. om in future for affiliating typ'e ofuniversity but about the latter community favoured

" , t . " - " . .. .. ,'.' . '" t-· "

aU.i o'nO'mOll1.S unlverSl:~y. '

"My Lord without real power there can be no sense of responsibility and. without responsibility there can be no efficiency, ""3-'7

Th . ".' . ' .. rt 'f'," th ':" 'S"··, 'I" " .. ' t 'C·"··; . -, . -c,. itt :-.:'. . ,; "I ". "d' ., th ..... I': d·i.", ::

e repon 0 I tne xe ect i, ommu .. ee was PI ;ac'e'::, J .. n ' e rm nan

Legislative Council on 2nd September 1920.3r:8-IOn, 9th September 19'20" Sir Mohammad Shafi spoke, "Sir, after 'having a careful study of the

I· di )"'.]1 d· '.' 1- h ,.. d I'· h h

noran po rtica conditions, .1 nave arnveo at cone .usion that the

backwardness of this community was due to their neglect of modern

ed r ition "',39 e·.,uca l.lo,n ......

The Brit I~S" h go v-:e" rn m nent in In id ia w' ·,'a' s facing a s·'··e· "r!',-'I~O"'l'IS:': threat fr 0: un .'

" .',. ',' .',. ' ,"~_':"'" '.' _I.I .'.' .. '." ,,,' J ,,":, _:_: .. ',' '" ':'.'J., .. ' __ '" " .. ' _ ':" .' _" " ':._ '.' 1,J ,,,' .. ,

the nationalists and the joint Khilafat-Noncooperation movement had

caused ,:·,,',·,.·,"····t,· , ...... " .... ", ... to th British authorities '"'_ India T"h:':'"

causec grea' concern 0 rne rsnnsn au .. norrnes In nora, .e

" :,: .. ,- ,,:, " ',,_ ',' ,·.-t· th '.'., ht it wi .. ,· t·.', _"" ke :~,.' t h .', 1i.·· :'·,1' ~ t .1,'" ents haon ,:' 'b: ,.:.

gove·n1rn!e.n. '_, oug I, I .1-:. WIse 10 ,:ere.p , ., e loyaJ 1.S . eJ:em'en;,·s .1 ,app'y ,1,Y·

granting the fulfilment oftheir demands, So the 'bill when introduced

to h "I d d h .' f I d· d

In t :.,ie counci ':, was passeo ano tr e government 0', .: n' ra assure: an

yearly aid of one lakh of rupees." 'His Excellency th,e Viceroy, congratulated the: Muslim community on the passage of the bill." The

H· . '~'''- 'b1 .- S~' D" P ·S· '. b d hik .' .'. aid : ""'S' ,1iO. II" at 'II ate ,'" 'MI' I lirr

. onoura ie r',lr~ ,~ San :,a' rxan saic ,Ii oir.. congranna '_.e my i ,.1 usum

fellow subjects upon 'the appointed time" having arrived, upon the approaching materialization of an educational organization of _

. their own for W:" hich they have long" been waiting, 42 Honourab le

.. I .. ',' "",I 11" '., ' .. ' l '~'" ' .. "; . '.' "'_",: __ :,' . '."," . ". : ', ... , ..... ,,.;. '. '." .. _.," '"

Mr, Surendra Nath Banerjee 'also congratulated on, the passage ofthe bill."

AA1U/An' Educational & Political history 19,20·-47

.. _' C ... I .. ege attained tile status .;.. . ~ . ~ __ Ie A'.: .·:·U Act came 'into

t- th ~. it

_~._ '.:1' ers ',0 . ne umversity,

-- '

,- . -"".' 'I,n' S u,c.~h:· br 'a< n,' . ,c' . he S o"f

_ ._ 'I" I lIr. I"', t' ," __ '_ '. • . • _" .lJ .. ' .... ,I

.... .'J5 for research and for .e i ._',~ -' Under the Act th.e .

-

_ .... ~ .. :.~ ,- and Islarrlic studies

~ rc igion and to impart ~ ve: the right to hold r~A··r· In' - '1-'- ot· h r aca d e m l' C:

~.~~~_ . ....,. '~'.' i~·.I. ._:, ... ' ... : '-. ".

. confer honorary

1 d"" 1

' '. grant ,.J.p, lom·as~

" :_ sorsr Readers, ,-. tr 0: . 'W' "e- r ed t; o' ' ..

. '-" - ..' . ." 1!IpO. • .... .

.~.- -s, and prizes

. - .... ~

u niversity to .. ' i: '. ents of' the

, -~ '. 1 ': ••• ight be

~ ,I . .r

'-. ~.I·.· ',': tro th,·~·le.

. '. .. - '

- .... ).".

.....__. - : " j e-"'I ,tl: S·.:' fo r:::

, _, . ." ,. ,_ .~ ! i .

. , . , : 10m. '[ 0 th·e .~,.: -'-' bra n che s ..

. '. I -',.1 . _'.' L, "- '.

_ - ~. learnings

. . ' ~ ntls'-""

~._. " _I"!!II!

..

__ ._ J _~' --[1olpler

.~ .= ction

'. nd of - - - ~'" in cl ud 'e

.~...-~______,_-~.. - .' ' .. 1. , .' .

iucted in the

_ ;&; .',!i,", ,.' ,~. I.··· .

__ ',~ -.-l-.O5 prescribed ..

,.. ~ ~.' ~ :', I S: tru ictio ·n····s: 48-

___ .1 ill .'.I'_.":~:I.- , .....

" ·~~'r ·~o establish and

!O .' e limits of'Aligarh '.: : , ,.. ,gy ; .. j .. ght a, so be

d I" -. ~,as C'O'D,cerne .. , a.li .

. ;- S.~··· istin ig 0'· ··_.f thO ie P ro ....

-. . .k:..!:' 1 = "r~ • . .. f ••

. ... ~';. College who would

.~ officials appointed by ,"",··.IOU· nci W.>Q-"U· tld a ppoint

- . .,~ - . . -. . .' '. , .

. ~ ,,- nbers of its ow-n body or of

E_ _0 _-.~ Political history' 1920-.47

the other persons or 0'[ both .. The committee was to moderate examination questions, prepare the results of the examinations and to report such results to' the Executive Council for publ ication. 5 I

Another important rule of' the university was that every salaried officer or teacher of the university and any of its officers or teachers, wou d be referred, to a tribunal of arbitration consi sting of one member appointed by the Executive Council, one member nominated by the officer or teacher concerned and, an umpire appo ~ nte .. d by the Visiting Board. The decision of the tribunal would be fina.I and no suit would lie .in any civilcourt .. The university was also empowered t.O constitute, 'for the benefit of its officers, teachers and servants, such. provident

d ..c d <Ii • 1 hi k fi 5'

an pension run ts as it mignr t/:101t ... ~

The Act of' 19·20 had the provision of a Court, to act as supreme governing body of the university and to exercise all the . powers of the university, The Court was empowered to review the acts of the Ex ec utive , and Academic Councils and direct them, fOI 'necessary

!i" d · h h d "" f I L d R'

action In accorcance with the recommendations o. the Lore .Rector,

The Court was however to function within the framework of the provisions of the Act in :

(a) making statutes and amending or repealing it (b) considering the ordinances

(c) considering and passing resolutions on the annual report, the annual accounts and the financi al estimates

(d) electing the persons to serve on authorities ofthe university and of oppointing the officers, 53

The composition of the Court was defined by' 'the Act .. It consisted, of' the, Chancellor, the Pro Chancellor a:nd the Vice Chancellor for time being" and other persons. But no person other than a Muslim would get the membership .. S4 It was provided that the Court would meet once in a, year on the date fixed 'by the Vice Chancellor .. But 'by' requisition in 'writing signed by at least 310 members of the Court, th'e Vice-Chancellor was empowered to commence a special meeting. aut as far as the quorum was concerned it was of ,2·5 members."

As is was too large body to 'meet frequently, its executive powers were delegated. to an Executive Council, consisting of not more than, ,30 members, Four of them were ex-officio members viz. Vice Chancellor, Pro- Vice Chance 1'10 r, tile. Principle of an Intermediate College and Treasurer, Six 'persons were elected 'by the Academic 'Council and. the: rest by the Court. The elected members 'were to hold office for three years ..

It was necessary that at least eleven members of the Executive Council were present in the meeting' or form a quorum. The Executive Council was to administer their revenue 'and property ofthe university,

2Ll

.:: ;In' -estments an id perfo irm all su ich

_ .. '"'" ...... : .. ) ,I] Ill. ! :' r 1 _ •. ' r . __ . .'.' .j' '_ f·· .. · J t .. ,. I. _! ."'. ;

ecessary for the business of the

~ ' __ - ,._ ,0\ erto make and va'ry' investment, , _: and immovable property, It had ~_....._ ... ~_. - ~. __ ~' bui .dings, premises, furniture . _. :. of ,~' :' e 'university. 57

_ ~ . euo .. ··· r ertlolgr: ... rant leavesto offlcers,

I . . .

.. . - . -. eir (. ·IIII'e·: ·"v'··'···'aD'I!···C: ··e····~s·:· it w .. :. ···a····s',' a·: II,s,' 0', '. t"·O·'···1 's':,e"'e',;'

_' ~. ~ ~: ,:...1,..: . ! __ l _ < __ . . '" : J, _. . .1 • : ' ":.... - I.. ," ' ... ' j' . '

. ,',. '. [I .. t ... . . d S"; ' .. , . th

" as. m,aln arne·~ 5 ' .·lnce :, ' e

~ .' tue .,·.,to~o'd the importance of press

.. L~ t d-'" [II ,'I! d

- , _ - I ·_,s_ 'LIJJS rae rtion w'as retained

- -

- -, resoon sible to main tain the

__ . _ • _' 1,.,:. ..11 ..... 1,._, .. 1-" " I , ,1._, .'_', ,"r, • J"

_ - I - . "',e ,'; "'a' d;:r p'" 0" ".":tJe·· r t' o' c' . onsi d e"'r" th 'e'"

'_' ~_;, _x~· 1._. _,~:_j ... 1 ...• 'J"r., ,I 'fY ,: .... :- j I, ,', .," . .•.... e. _;' .... I', ~-, ," I ,,'_.

~~ __ .~ _ _ ,.,'~-; ir . ezard to there fixation of'

10

- ~'," I'I'~I·_'.·,' ts of the fees and

,". r .•. ' rsons engaged in the,

- ," ,- " ,~!" ~ I \,3S also to mana.ge

.,--....~._ _ ___, ... 1-"""" the, university."

. '/ - , ci the Act also . - -, '_:~O'D~, 'U'nder the

. co tsist of the

:,.1, "1, at least

'. I' '~r··-s":o·'.n-·

. - " ., ~ .'.~,;.....,

,~-. ~- f the

~ .. ~ ~.:-':-""'_-- _ _~ .. -.", than

- . .- -:,- und er-

.-.,.;.,,"""""__ _ _ _ -, - -

· -, . -,' le~ univers ity ",','

'__ _ _ " · __ l:...._, _ (, ." _', l :

':.'. e'" e:::_',a'· ']=0" 'n:' a' nd

.... • ',_ •.• , ,;' 1 ,' .. ,. "_."

~ ~, - uto ial staff;

,;",;r-~~~ -. _ ~ ," .. ' I _ 'for fellowships, . -~,'f- d'- a war ds:

, ." ' , I· -' ',_', [::' '~ (_: I. ::. :.':;

, , ,~'" , _' : .. "e r!es u Its in, the

II!J~ d' d' d d

" -.-:- - -; e'-"'I~ a',n'! ;1,::,. 'r! '-e,\c,·· 0: m':, ·m'·:e·,-' 'n', ·-·e·~···: ".

, •• _ • _. "_ '.-' , •••••• _OJ ••• ,.. •

-," consultation with the

-

•• ~II __

- _

(7) to appoint library committee and publish the 'U niversity Gazette.

These provisions were with the exception of department of Theology 'whose' proceedings were subject to the approval of the Executive Council, 60

Th .. e Act of 1920 also defined the functioning of the departments of studies, The provisions made to run the departments were 'b)' and. large uniform, It is interesting tOI note that the Act of 1. 920 provided the 'selection,' of the Chairman of the departments 'from amongst the Readers and Professors who were to hold office for three years Ti11s provision. 'was totally different from the existing' one, when a Chairman of the university was elevated s·o, that position 'by right of seniority and "not by selection, The departments o'f~ studies recommended to the Academic Council, cources and syllabi of studies and text books, fellowships, scholarships, studentships, medals and prizes, in tile subject with which 'it was concerned .. 6~

The Act of 19'20 made the university an autonomous body but the government had retained some powers in authorities like: Lord Rector and Rectors. Governor Gen,eral of India was to' act as Lord Rector of the university .. He had the right to order an inspection of the university or get it done by some persons appointed by' him, But in every case he was supposed to give notice .. 01 the university which had the right to be represented by' a responsible person, 'The Lord, Rector could address the· Vice Chancellor with reference to the result of such inspection an .. d enquiry, The Vice Chancellor was to communicate to' the Cou .. rt tile views of Lord Rector with the advice as the Lord. 'R .. ect:or might have given, The: Court was to communicate through 'the Vice Chancellor to the: Lord. Rector about the actions it proposed to take as a result of' such inspection and enquiry, If the Court did not take action within the reasonable time, the Lord Rector might issue such directions as he thought tit and the Court was bound to comply with those directions.'?

Next to tile Lord R.ecto1f was the authority of' Rector. The Rectors might be the persons from amongst the head of local governments Princes and the rulers 0:[ the states in India ... They' were appointed by the Lord Rector on his own motion or on the recommendation of the Court. Th .. e Chancellor might also, on the recommendation of th:e Academic Counc 1"'1 a pp oint th e'·· persons o .. feminence a- s Rector 631

.. _.':_ . .'.: .. : , . ,i... . '." .. ; ""'-." . ., ': ,> .'.}':;_~ 'J r. I:. " " ".' . .":::. ',. .:. _ "" _' .:: :._ .. " .. _,'"

According to the Act, another body of' the university was the Visiting Board .. It consisted of the Governor ofU·~,P~., members of the Executive Council, the Ministers, one member nominated by the Governor and one member nominated by Minister in charge of

Ed· ;j. 64 'T· 'h"· Ii oil'';'' B·· d h d b -h d . ~

.-'._'U.c,atloln.,: ' i' ne visiting rsoaru .. au neen conterreo extensrve powers

under the Act, such as to inspect the university and to satisfy itself

26

" '

, , .. ~ e in conformity with the n -,' .,' I'i.e- . ing .. a, p. rior show cause

.: !, -'. •

tho fu · ·

. - I . ' . .. "" . -. - .... '. ., .. ,., .

_c. L e smloo _, nctiomng

__ -' ~'. , e I sity functi onaries or

'~- ' " .," y:" of the .. · unive rsitv

"" - '-- _ .... "' . - '- ~"~,. ' . .' '. '.: ".)'

. her University Acts.

tne university officers .'. to be absolutely . ' The five cate g .... '0" rie S"~"

r!! ___:.. . .'... ~ _I_: L,,''_ . 'I :. " -' ( , .... . _" - ~ ..

I • ~

, , .. ' .-. "bl;- lect '. d .. ·

" S 0 :_.'e e,le,c ,e::

. - c' Ch an' ce '1]' o r

I " I: '" " ~ " ;;'."! j" ~ I •• :',; :,1 .) :,'

. ..., the court. 66

~ .. :. ~_',I ~'!' arly the:

s tc told office _ ~ a ~ _ .. Ien,ce: of'

. -, . " ': .. , n of the

I::', IC.:O.CC·Ullrt··· and

• .... .' ,_.. , __ n I , ' .

• : : •. _,._ ,~.·~ r- ral in

. .'. I~ • gs oif

ce lor and

---:_' , c_: ,·,.cad.ie·mic

I~,_' ,- ication between

l ce Chancellor was . ':, 'was re-eligible, H'e

" 1 ~ ~ ." ~:,' zersity. .He was the ex,-,

.~.~ I tci and Academic Council .. In. - __ -- re r esided lover the meetings o f a.sc ',_ nov erto convene meetings of

.~:.5 included Treasurer, 'Registrar, .e",le, reasurer was appointed by the - _ :' il'~n' ral supervision over the funds of the . -',.~ [gar :- to its financial policy, 71

'_ 0 appointed by the Court '[or five years .. He

.. c _ VA:n: Educational & Political history 1920~47

was the custodian of the records, the seal and other such property of the university, keep and maintain register of the registered graduates. He was also to attend the Academic and Executive Councils as their secretary .. 72 The Provosts were t "e boarding house officers, The Proctor was to look after the discipline of the students. The Librarian was incharge o,f university library,"

F '.' d tiot 'f th J' ' I!iI '. M' .. !-·I-III!·· '1' I .... ~

ounua .. ion 0,: rne aamia.mu ia .sramra

The. British attitude towards Khilafat and Turkey frustrated. a . section of the Muslims at the Aligarh, They' decided to set up an independent national university in Aligarh for a national platform for the Muslim youths.Gandhiji and many Congress leaders extended their full support to them.

T'b···· "'.'" t· ,.'. . MA" ,.0···· C" 11"· '. ...-. '. d .'- c ~;' " 't·· 'd':' b t'~h"" 1 ,- ,- '.' 1·· 'to . ·Th··· ' .

. ,:.·e eXlS lng",,' ..... O,r:,e,ge was·' .o;ml.n.a·le·; .. y :_,~.::'e oy,a.1S 8.. . ey

'had opposed every anti-government activity 'in the campus, 'The: visit of Gandhi] i in A J. igarh on. 12th Octo ber 191 9 whi le campaigning for Khilafatee Non- Cooperation movements created a group of nation a' I

I· I JI d G dh ~"~ iO, d h II fi-' ,,. d .~

volunteers amongst the co· , e·,g'e stu! ... ents. '· .. ran .. : .. IJl an'" I ~ IS . r:len'i·.S VIZ

Ali brothers requested, the college authorities to give up the government aid.Failing to reach any agreement with. the college authorities they' decided to establish a national university 'for the students who has decided to leave the college for the national cause ..

On 28th October 19'20, a meeting was held o:n the steps ofthe

A11'";g" ra rh Jam a M··'· " a' .sji .. .d a ··,t·· the I 'p. ... JjJ-·:e··r·:.' Kot A·' li brothe r S,"" an" nd o':t· h 'e····r·· nation .a

.ll~ .. _ .. , _ '. :._'.' ';' ,',' l_-_,' ,.,. .... i_" __ ",' U'J :';', '. ", .,1 ,: i ,', -.1_ " '.1:" :1 - _, ,I .- _o' ., ,.- I:.".:.J . .1.

'_ . . " .

- leaders invited both the Hindus and Muslims to attend the inaugural

.. f' h N ,~, )" I!I U'" ~ [I. hi I .' b

meetmg 0:.' the r- anona Mus im umversity w i.JC 1 was going to oe

held on 29th October 1. 9'20 in the M~,A.,~O. College Mosque .. ·14

On ?9,···t·· h ~ .. O"~: c .. .tober a·:b· '-'0',' rt 2":· ,0:;',0".':'0',· p'" ersons W·': 'e' 'r': ·e··· p: "r' esen t in the c olleg .. "e":

I. _.... .'. . ',' .' " .. ' , '.' ".' .. ' ... .... ·c. '.' . '. ..... . . . ...• " ..... :., .... ' ." . ". .

mosque .. They carne from every C om In un ity. Such a strong gathering invited the jealousy ofthe A.IG· which published a rather partisan report as the, people carne to "Gandhi's darshan' because it was the

h th j. I f .... · h OJ. ,", 7''''' Sh ikh I H' ri d

tumour t at the latter was arso one or t: :e mvrtees .. ~) Shar . rur t- In

Maulana Mahmudul Hasan along with Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani, Mufti Kifayatullah and Maulana :S' iabbir Ahmad participated in the meeting on the invitation of Mohammad A]j:~'16

Aft .'. 'F' 'id - ", .'- -_. I'" .• 2···'9· .. 'th 0···'·,····,',·· b 0 :S"'h! .ikh J H"~ d M···· ' { ','

_er . 'fl :,ay S prayer, on ::_~,.~: ' .. - ... C"O'I,,~r, ~,J·I,al., u ,':'10 . ,". au a -, na

Mahrnudul Hasan laid the foundation of the lamia Millia Islamia .. While addressing the gathering Mohd .. Ali criticised the government as a. Satan (devil) and said that those cooperated with th.e government were their associates or Satan,He also said " if'the college was closed

h h Id b 'b'I d teachi h

then t, ere wouro . '·e no pron em, we wouio resume teac . ung D'n t. ·.e

mats. If there was no arrangement of Scfai-wala (sweeper), I will clean toilet. The education of science was not in, any way' better than.

,A.MUIA,n Educationala: Political history 19,2',0 .. ,47

28

',~, ulana H,f}srat Mohanideclared that those __ - . '/;"l >"',n- Cooperation should be regarded - _ "'~~'-,: Ajmal Khan and Haji Moosa Khan also

-"__"~-r1r- - - _ '_ mlana Mahmudul Hasan started to read his

., . :0 'so because he 'was keeping a very bad

... '. ad ,Q· .. rf Deoban d co '. m 'P',: ·:e· te ... ,.d··. h is ad dres .. 'S:I 78

_ ~ ~"_'. _! ••• " • • _ " I '. _. _, .'... ._... ....

............. -...l,...,_~ : _ ' ~'-, ;gl,Y criticised the pattern of the modern

__ '. i_-h,. making the Muslims devoted and loyal __ '.iIlL '~ ... '~' u rze ,d': th e M . .us .. .lim is +'0","'· think 0; f th ·e· evil

-_ ' ': ',:0' i _I. ..... ,',. '.' _'.~. \'. . ,.1. .. , '. ,., : , '.. .,.. I,

tc T a system and requested to give heed to: .~ _' - ,. ",~ :'.,,: ahmudul 'Hasan also expressed the hope

.- -. II, University (Jamia Mil1ia) would reconcile . _,~~ 'Ii,garb and.religious education of'Deoband." ric ,. I', eeting of 2:9th October 1920' the, name of , ~' .,~,. versity was changed to Jamia Millia Islamia .

. - a _I, .: ""'1 •• : ._~ as designated to, the first. Vice-Chancellor,

'. , , :.- .... ,.- b···;·· "A" b d'''t''I~i 'M· .. ·· faiid .. ·' Kh waja 8,1

_ -. -_;- ... '__.-.. ~'I" ,. ';".:-,.:." 1:!',l,1 .i .''',l·:.!J ,Iii :. , ... : .. ~, ~ to

'.,\ o"'~>l boys requested the nationalists to leave the

. '. . _' .:.. ' .:- ,.: ,_.,. '. J.' : ,'11..,._ .' . . '.. • . _. _ . ... ,. .._._, '." '. _, ' .,.. .:-.,. ':.. .... ". _ ..

I c_.". ie adamant attitude o:,f Maulana Mohammad Ali

'~. ~--'I' '-,,0._, ed 'the, Trustees and the Honorary Secretary '.~ .. , . sequent Y' Syed Mohammad Ali, the Honorary

" "I A~ -1·0 .... ,·· College ·W·,: rote to Maulana M~···i.O· .hammad

_ . •. - .) ',.. til . . ". . ... '.' . ..... '", L· ", '.. _. , ._ ,."'. ," •• ' ,-".~"'" •

~ -;.,' 1 0'" ,power vested in, file, under section '9:01 of the

_ 0' <~, .. kind ofrneeting .. ~ ... not to' address the, students., .... ,

... f hi II d p, oi f hi

~ - _ ,I res 0' the C'o' , e:ge gro.u.n·.", alter receipt 0 t'J"1IS

.... ~~~ . _' ~ .. Jh:e notice Maulana Mohammad Ali wrote "., .. " .. The

~ .

_ ~. l . ',olught ,m!e here is God's work, I am acting in,

_ ~ commandment, 1 can not therefore' carry out your

,~ .;: . ";e"n'" ·'e··'s'··· t.-' h e':"','s,'e iC·····O .. , m,' rmandments "84

_ .. ~ . ' ... .' I!'.: :_.' J ._',' _ • I .... ' '.' '", (1.1 _,' . . I ... II r:.., ' .. ". .' I." . ,lit

'~' of' the M.A.O,. College Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad also

_ ',. _ ' 1,~:OI' ammad Ali that he w,as staying in the college

_ --,:'", .. '~" .. - of the appropriate authority, H'e also, levelled

~- - I" ~~:" opening and using SQ!m1e: of tile locked rooms

- h ich was' a- ga' inst tho e' peacefu I withdraw .' I' of'

.' _'_ ... , ','),'::)"1 ,,(·,-,:,·~:.~;'l:;: i_ " ,".'~'--,"":';l~'.'" ~'. _,,:.,i,:': ·':.'a u

..... ~~,~ _~ '_' " ... - ceS, had been given .. He urged upon Maulana - '-. '~ r .. e colle ·g;"e,.:... pre cin cts imm nedia :·t·e:c Illy"'" a n d w ·'l·thl' idra ·;c-·: ·W'··.'.-

. '._ , . ',"-,' ,_,-' IlL I, 'il,: ',,'_':'_ '. 1. -, . ,.l __ - .,'-,', . I~', , ,I __:._ "-._ ' ... 2:' _: _.: ". ",- .. "w-' ~ '_.: _ .• " ..

- -;~ UI' der his, influence." As usual, Maulana

- '~ ~ refutingthe allegation that he was responsible

c '.,:- as of the Pakka Barrack: He also, repudiated

~~--, .... ,- .. '11: as··II·s·'C"ll1l'1IiT"a··'nc·,'··e····s·-:- gi .. lle·-·n·· by him to the c' ·'o·, .. ···l·l:e·~-g····.e:·',

~ ~ _. ,._ _" ,- ·J~lIlilll.I.. .' ,To:. _) ;_ .. yl _ I.', . ..,'. ,._~ 1 _-.'~ •. , ','. '.:' ~.: ,,' ,1·.· .. - ."_.

, .

. ~" nested to comply with the request contained

- _ 'I~I '(,J' of ,3 10th, October 192'0; a, deputation 'o,f 40

.. Educa tional &,':. Politica ,/. historv 1~9'.·:··'2·'·"O'~4·'·'7····'

,n«u", .. , ,_ . . . : ... ,1_ ' ,..." 1Ir.r .. ,' _' ,.

people includin .. g old boys and trustees met Mau ana Mohammad Ali

a'. nd req iue ste .d - h rim to ':ec8' ve ,', the IC:~O··· . I-Ie· .': g' ·e--,' Bu rt he sa rid that with out p'-··'01J~:'C·. i:l!

"_ .l·,_',. '. . •.• r. _. I.' .1 ... , .~Ill.. '.' ,. 'I-,'I'~ "".,,' ,I. '., .. ' I., Vl !.". ,", '.:: J, .~

,=

or' .orcible eviction he would not leave the college .. 87

The: management of the M'~A,~O .. College thus could 'not succeed to persuade Maulana Mohammad Ali. At last the Honorary Secretary of the college requested the District Magistrate Mr, Campbell for tile assistance in this la····:,ffa~r881,n.·· the morn ing of 3', II st October the District

. .' . , , " I, _. _. . _.. . .11, _ ~. • .,' "_, . . _ _ '. _. ._ ,. ,j, . _ ' _ " , .

Magistrate arrived in the college. Maulana Mohammad Ali 'was virtually ordered under section 14,4~ Criminal Procedure Code to vacate the Old Boys Lodge alongwith his followers including' Maulana Abdul Majid, Maulana Mohammad Ali avoi ding further confrontation decided to,··'" v: .. 'a·'c· at e·'· th e'~ CO",: llege 8:9

- .. _ . . . - .' ._ - . ,I, " ._. .:. ,',. " . ',' '.

A caravan of 1'10 to 150 students left the: college to Wh01TI they considered much dearer than their horne. In the front a student led a. green flag on whic ,1 kalma Tayyaba was written."

They took their baggage to "Krishna Kothi' hired 'by Khwaja Abdul Majid". Some more private buildingwere hired for the stay of the students .. 9m

A· n'C"u'! mb ier o fstu de nts ofth e lis, rla m ia C·' ollege Lah .. ore and P esh ·a- W"'" ar

I.!_ • .' ,,' ! '.1 . - • " . 1,1.. . '. ·r.:r "I .' .' •. _. '_:"" " I .. ,.. . '_, . .' " '.,,'. .,..,' , ' " ,,'_. I .' I" I .,' ",

also came to Aligarh for admission to the Nationa Muslim. University .. 9-2 As a result two thatched buildings 'were raised and a hall with the same material was constructed [and, called 'Mohammad Ali Hall." Further arrangements were made to receive the incoming students seeking admission to the newly Stet up university at the railway station."

Maulana Mohammad Ali pre p are d. [a syllabus and. 'himself' started teaching English language and the Modern History- 95- Some senior students with good academic career we're also appointed Lecturers including, Zakir Husain, Noorullah, Saiyed Mohammad, Rauf Pasha and others, Maulana Aslam, Maulana Rashid Ahmed, Hafiz, Faiyaz Ahmad Abdul Karim Faruqi also joinded as a teachers .96 At. the instance of Maulana Mohammad Ali, Mr. Gopalacharya, the Secretary of the

N .. ... d h f h .. k

. on-cooperation movement In Ma ras sent t iree ot t Ile.ir best worxers,

Among them Mr. Kripanidhi was appointed as . ,ro'fesso.[ in national University and Mr. Rama" was appoinated Professer of Science. Maulana Abdul Hai of Gurudaspur W'8S appoi nted as Professor of' Theology." In. order to attract experienced and highly qualified teachers to serve the National University, the authorities offered them very handsome salaries. 'Pro fcssor Hadi Hasan a. great teacher of'the Muslim

U!Ii' III . h h ". E 1'·' h d P .. 1"" I

ntversrty, 'W "~'O 'was at .: orne In !~,n.g~is, ana . . ersian literature a.' so

joined the National Muslim University,"

B h Jill h d C:. 1 1- bl II ld 'iii th

uttt e Jamia had to race a ega promem as It couro neitr er

award degrees not assure to provide jobs to' its students. The students were trained much 'for political purposes than academic .. The ~T amia,

A ~·1··-' '/A- Eid: .'. - .. t,~, "." ... / .. &', .. '. p~, ... : ·'l",~t,···: ./;- histc ... '9·' '0' 47 1".. VI nn '. uca lona._. " 0', Ilca. ,/'.f,IS,_O,r_v A .~ _ ." I

""0"-'

,j'

_ '. leve:'f" gave much emphasis on character building. !OO The students e provided the religious education and trained for the struggle of ne freedom movement, They also collected funds for the

-, tstitutions.'?' Thus 'in Aligarh two institutions were functioning in . :'-Iecelnb·e:f' 19,20i' One was held by the loyalists with full government mpport and the other the lamia against the government .. Both. the

.. tudents and the staff campainged to' WlO'O the students to join the

J .. TI h d O' h ,. b d D Ih- d T d 'J rm

amia.u ]e,'Y' reac ieo 'J'~' azi a oao, .. ',e_ > 1 and Tund a, stations to meet

the students in order to 'induce them either to go back or to join. the National University, They organised deputations to meet tile students at Aligarh station and they aJso tried to enduce the cooliesand Ekka drivers not to carry the luggage ofthe students intending to' join the old college, They' arranged. motor lorries and coolies to bring the students from Aligarh railway station. J02 Althou .. gh there were two universities in Aligarh with two different ideologies, the management ofthe loyalist group was trying to maintain a strict 'vigil but students

"c'·r:·· b oth . !;, .".' - .- ities ..... - mti .". I. ,,_' d t '.-- ' .... Ii' .. 't'-" IJ. ,-;- .. - .' di -1 ")' .] .. t··I!l·, . '" i'· b·· ;;.~: it .... - - '.

o: .·0 umversr .res con .muec ro marmam core sa re a tons ,y VISI .ID,g

each others places. This was soon taken u'p seriously' by the loyalists,

Th' ·'1 '.1- 'th-" . M' . ':CI};o,_. U:_·····, sit " . t:h: ····~!i·tj'~ , .. ;'.-.':.-: t" t ". M'··· .. ':.' ]', .... :. 'MI ··'h·· '.' .' .... ,-~...- ~'.' d'iust e . us im .mversny am .. on res wrote .O! au ana .. 0. amma-

A11· "M-" ty de .'- M' Iaulan a Sa" h ib - 0 -- e - f' 'you . st - de nts h . ve 'be- e'n 'VIIi'S- iting

. u, '. ' .. '. uear rv .. .1. ana ear 1. ;.'" S .JTI; 0" vour s ucem : ·,a· ··lr:.·~ :.',.'1],1 ,1.-

. . -

h b di h tach d . hi' '"' '"' ii, ki dl ]1

t·e noardrng rouses attached to t'.-lS msntuuon=-you nm iy warn a.

your students and, prohibit them from entering the premises ofthis institution to avoid a friction .. ""W03

I

S· .. ,.' ." ,' . fth -'. , ." ·t'h· iti _···:: ::. ':'. '" .-. , .. d···· .- d'-II" :" :. ,,: . ed to s,I id .~, t·· o' ··f··

'. orne 0' .1 . e lau . Oft les were eve·n .' ea'. r ,y o'pplose, _ '. ,.ILU' .en s_ .

the Jamia corning to offer prayers at university mosque.They alleged that these students were creating disturbances in. the university mosque du ring th e pra y,·-e··r· time 104 The division be tw "',,·e:'·:e· m t· h- e natio n alists a, nd

.. ] ,J. _ . . . ,', 1.' '. ," •••• .' ". _' • ',iiIIi!J • '_ .. ". • ,I I _. .' • ", '_"". _ ' • • • L. . .• ' . '. I ",.: :__,". I ~ ',.. _ . r'. ._ _ I . -

. .

th .' I . ". 1,'. sts - (' th .. - " , '-1·' ne 0" :.' '. 15··t.'h D···· .... be 1 '9'" ·2' 0"" t'-'h""'~ .. ' . - - .. 11

.' Ie· oyalls S w,a:s .. u.s co'mpl·e'_e .... ' n .1 :. _, . ecem _.,er :. :", .I.'e: InaU.g,u,ral

ceremony of the Aligarh Muslim University was scheduled to be held, The designated Vice-Chancellor Raja of Mahmoodabad though a loyalist exte ded invitation to Maulana Mohammad Ali to participate in th.e cerem "10" n ry but the I' a ter decl in ed the off e r, ~05

.' . '_ , ": '. ' .. " ':'.' ' . ,',' .... . _ J f_" . _ _ .- ,"..: .. ' ( _

The "'1:: US~ lim U" niversity A· ,"tl wa" s t 0'-,\ come in to force from l "

_ . ", 1\ ." ,I ,',' .... ~ .J: _. ..,~._. ,,_ .. J •• ' .---: ••••• _ • ~ •• _r l~·: .'. 'L _" _1,. ~

December 19210~ According to the provisions of the Act Sultan Jahan Begum of Bhopal became first Chancellor , Raja Shaib Mahmoodabad became first Vice-Chancellor and Dr .. , Ziauddin Ahmad became the

'ro-Vice C·' 'hancellor When the colle .. 'g···.e'· was open ied on )1 s ...... ,t, December

, _.' '._",. ': . , . '. I '.".'. l""l.,..l. - :," ,...:, • '" I .. :. I . ' '. . ,.. .... ' . . .' ... _' _ . '-,' . ' . . .', ... ' :. ',.. [ L.l.1 ,I.

~ , .

1920' '" !IIo he f f ,. 'Ih M I'" U" ~.

:.,_1'_" It was 'In tr e rorrn 10' . a unversrty, '1' _'e ,us im .Jnversity, SO

ounded, had a complete domination of the loyalists who took all care

-, I' :"IS' . 'I' ':: t, ·lib· -' .... ': stit t·· '"'1-" ' '.' ,.t::. -. Co· , ." th .," , . . t-·." :"1 .',' 'I'!i'l' t' ,0 tu . d .... ·t· ,,f"lj I"

en·: ure .1a e nc ~1. U Ion w,as Jree Jrom ... e naJOna,lIlS S_ .. en =SOl . n

111: h h '. I h d d'"' -d d' '"' tb Ii;

~lelJ t.ougrt lout p an tl',,:e stu'ents were;>lv.I··.·'e:- tnto'~. ~ree sectiolns:

(A) No·.n-coope:rators

(B) D,oubtfiJl.

AAtfUiAn Edll'cational,&. Political ,history /920-4,7

(C) Cooperators

Admission cards were first sent to those students who had cooperated with, the college authorities, The cases ofdoubtful students were con sidere d a bout X'·, .m tas h iolida y .. '·S·: a nd the y.'." a" '~:S<O' 'e' '8' lle d No non-

_,-' : '.r·, : _ :.: _:.~- _. _,,1 I ••..• __ ·_.t· .•• r: •• • •••• [',' _11-:,. , .. 1.1", :_~ I,l. :'i!! '._ !

cooperating students were admitted, without a written guat,an'tee from the par 'e: nts 106 A- bout 3,··i2'·5~1 admission cards W' -ere sent.F'The strict

_ ""~ '.'. .'I .. , .. __ :. '.' -_-~_l:..~ .ll!. :"':." ." .' ... · .. '_.·_t.~· I' "' •.• ' '.~ .~ "L-lt" ':_' ..... 1

'policy' of the Muslim university authorites caused considerabl eanxieties among the parents of the, non-cooperator students. They wrote a number of lette s denying connections of their ward 'with the Non ... Cooperation, Tiley' made a lot of excuses and, condemned the non-

coo- pe rators

' ...: " :<, ~'!_'-c' - ,ill

It seems that man y students who had taken part in the N onCooperation also gave way 'under the pressure of their parents. The cases of such few students cited here by way ofillustration. A student Nurul H[ a' rsa n wrote to t, h 'e'~, Prin eipal ' N:,I Q'·'·'W·:' ... Ii am full y': C··~·O'· m vinced

• ". ". 1 ' '" f._: ' . ,. '. ,.., .'.. _ ~. 1 ." ~::___'o ,Ii II iii I! !!!II...: " '.. ,[., _ .• ':_ , ,·;1 _ '=.' I' , _'. _ U

that I ," .',' ".'---- ... c.· - !!II r ad .'" ·t·~ . ,. th , N":·'·-- C",- ,'.:. ~ ·,··tr"., I h . ~ ,:- :---,.. ,';'~1

_,a, am wrong IJ, a<"oplng ,_e,on[ ,oopera I,'on ... ~ ... , : :ople" you WltLIl

be kind enough to consider my case favourably, '~ll()8,

A st der t- Abd R' ';',. hm .. . .... f 'Fi ,," _ IIld["k' . t , ·t·· '-[ " I" I' f;:- _, •.. OJ .' ed

stu ient , ,}:_ ur xa man 0 ann 0[, wrl es 'U~.'." never joiner

'N' ational Colleze -1..-·'···· ' .. ' .. , ,".",' _., ifmv ast b ehs ,i!iI',-, -'an'" d ,:- _, , ..

, . a,_lona: .,0'. e'ge ... ,., .. , _ am very sort) 0 . m,y p,as.e "aVI,our ':'_- promIse,

. - - - .

that: in future I would 'not behave in a similar way . My' 'life is being,

sp• oiled a.' nd I, a· .. tm 0·.··0 y'o'·.· .. u·r m .... ·· e'~c'·'y.·" 09

." ".' . "_' ,. __ ,_ "_.' '.. . , '_' III

/ _.

Another student Rashid Ahmad o·.f· Hyderabad wrote." I was

. ." >. :__ " _ _. , .. _~. . _. .'.. .,' '. .. " ' _ ~ _ . . . I " : ~ -. .I I . ~. 'VI' .1. !" -.. ". , .. II! • • .1 '_',' _ _"

for ced to a d opt the r,- o',Ie' of s 0"[ ca Ille:d,--: 0-0" n -c' oopera tor Kin dly inform

.It~" . " .. " ... , .''- ~. . ~ _ '.' '__:. "- , .' , '_ . " . ". . .. ,:...:_' ." _ "'. '. I I."_ _' " II ",_ " : " ~ " " - .. -!! !!II II ~!Ii .' _.. . "" I , ,I ~ ". . "I

- ,

at an early date to, the exact dat.e 'by' '. hich I should return, to Aligarh, "rn io

'K~:B Mohammad Abdul Hamid Khan Kundi, a Divisional and Session,

J I' d --- .-. ~ ':1. ··,t' " ,.; M·· '.,,' --:., ... ' A·'· b'·' 1 H" I' .. d KC,:"'h" ','," K" ' . d-" ~ ',' 3-" d ,,~. ,- .

.ruoge wro e" ;j~~~",'. y son Aocu -ianuo ··~ ians unui IS a .sru year

student of your college, I request you to kindly forgive and allow him to' continue his studies in your college."!"

R:efe.renlces

I ~ S, • erwani, H .. K~,;, The Aligarh' Movement; New Delhi, 19'69~ p~ 25 (Here after'

quoted as Sherwani). See also Hali, Altaf HIlS,S)"; Hayat i-Javed. New Delhi, 1990, p.332 (Hereafter cited as Hayat ... i-Javedi

2,~ Hayat- i-~aV'e'd1.,p~337 '"

3,. Mohammad, Shan; Sir' Syed Ahmad Khan; .4 Political Biography, Meerut) 196,9 p~9' (Hereafter quoted ,as 'Sir Syed Ahamd Khl(J',n~')

See also Husain, Suraiya, Sir' Syed Ahmad Khan Aur Unka Ahad, Aligarh, 1993 ,--- .,,32,4, (Here a.le.J' quoted 'Suraiya Hussain')

4" Sherwani, PI" 2'7 See also Suraiya Husain, p, 32.5-

5,. Aligarh Instinue Gazelle, I,2'lh Jan, '1871 (Here after quoted as A1G)

See [also Suraiya Husain. 'p., 32:5

6 ~ The Pioneer: 8th January 1877

7 ~ Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. p. 8, I

8 Tahzibul AJchlaq', Ist, Rajab 1289 H~, See also Lelyveld, David; Aligarh First Generation; New Delhi" 1878 pl ... l2'9 (Here after quoted as "Lelyveld']

9. Ibid, p, 129

io. AlG, 21 August 1874

32

16. . 1'.

1 :8,.

9'm 20., 21 .

22'

, __ ' • 'r.

23., 24 __

2"" -- ~ .

26 .. 27+ 28~ 29. 30.

31"

32~

33. 34. 35,. 37 ~ 38.,

39 ..

40.

4,1., 42~ 43 44~ 45 ~ 46~ 4.7. 48

49'-:·

- . - .

510~

51 ~ 52~ 53., 54 .. 55~

33

8:' atnager S,~K .. ; History' of the MAIO College Aligarh, New Delhi, 1869' .. p .. 28

Hereafter quoted as f Bhatnager ') See: also Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad, Sir Syed on Education. Society and Economy, Delhi, 1995:,. p. 90

AIG;. lst May 1886

Jain, M,S .. " TI,e Aligarh Movement, Agra, 1865 p. 33

AIG_ Ist March J 890. See' also Mohammand Shan, The Aligarh Movement,

'4.1 11 'J! U MI'- _ . l' 9-"78 .... 99-"

",OL ji .. U,. _"ee'rut; "" .. p .. , ;;."",::

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, p. 69 Bhatnagei ~ p. 1.7

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, p. 85 taken from Majmua Resolutions Hai from 1886-95, Agra 1896-

Nehru, Pt. Jawahar LaJ~ .A.1t Autobiography, New Delhi 1962;F pp.458·-4S·9. (Hereafter quoted [as, "An, Autobiography Y

Bhatnager, Pl. I 7

,r1IG~ June 12,.1,897

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, 'p., 245 taken from Mukammal Majmua Lectures, 'V,a Speeches of Sir Syed from 1863· ... 1896. Lahore 1990. :p.120

Ahmad, Syed Tufail, Musalmanon Ka Roshan Mustaqbil, Delhi} 19,45~ p'p .. 31.6 317

Sherwani, p, 31.7

- lbid, p .. 37 See also Ashraf, Mujib, Hayat-ul ... Bashir, New D'elh~~:1'997" p.100I Hayat-i-Javed, p'p. 187-90 and Naqoosh, October ] 956

'Le lyveld, p. 3] 7

Husain, Mir Vilayat, Aap Bill'; A1 igarh, i 970,. p. .1. 61 Sherwani, p~ 43

Ibid p, 45

AIG~ 15 October ]919

Modern Asian Studies, Vol, 8- Part-Z, 1974~ p. 18,4 (Here after quoted as

j'MA'S,) l .

Zuberi, Mohammad Amin, Zia-i-Hayat .. Aligarh, 1.9'70~ p, 83 (Here after cited as Zia-i-Hayat]

MAS, Vol-S, Part ... 2 ,9·74.~ pp, 184-·.1,85 Zia-i-Hayat, p. 83

Ibid

A1IG',~ I st September, I 920 Ibid 8°! Septeber, 1"9.20

Proceedings Indian Legislative C:ou,ncil, Vol .. L.IX~ P., 79", (U,PS·,L.L) (Hereafter quoted as Pro ... lLC)

AIG~ 15m:h September 19'20 Sec also Aligarh Magazine, Sept, Oct. 19 . .20 Va.) XVLL.L~ p~ I2

Ibid

Pro.ll.C, Vol, 'LIX, p, 8.5 (U"PSLL) Ibid, Pl. 89

A.M,U Act of 1920 p~ 8:

Ibid

Ibid, pp, 8-9 Ibid, p.9

Ib i d, P + 1 0 - I I .Ibid

Ibid, pp, 20~.21 Ib '. id , p'p. - 8' ·,,-9' .

.. I ~ . '. . • . .'

Ibid, pp, 2,2-23 Ibid, p, I S' .Ibid

Ibid, pp. 28-2'9

AMUIAn Educational &. Political history 1920,-47

56.. Ibid, See also AIG ) 31st March 11926"; and A.MU Calendar; ),921-25" Aiigarh

1926-, pp. 74-,76

57. tu« p. 30

58,. Ibid

~Q'

....... .,L' •

:60.,

6 I . 62 ..

61,

- ,.

64 .. 65. 6'6. 67 ~

6,8---::

. '. +

69. 70. 71. 72;

7.3. 74~ 75 ~

76---

,.: II

77 ~ 78~ 7'9~

80"

.'. r • ~

81

~ "'

82.,

83. ,8-,1'4"

," I J;;

85,. ,8'6~ 87. 88.

8-9., 90m 9 :1

93. 91 I~ 95~ 9,6,.,

97

9'-

','

, '.,

Ibid, See. a] so' A.lG, 31st M arch 1'926

ibid? pp. 30~31;, See a so AIG~ 31 st March 1926 Ibid" p. 32

Ib id, pp, 11-12 See a]50 A Ie, 31 st March, 1926

lb -d 23' '4

' ',l~, '" pp. ,_:' -'L",

Ibid, p. '14

Ih td J 2 1 3:

:: f , pp +. ~ ' .. ' I, :

Ibid, 1'.13 Ibid, pp.13-14 Ibid, p.14

Ibid, p, 24" See also A}G~ 31st March. 1926

Ibid

Ibid, PIP~ 2,4-25 Ibid" pp.24 ... 25 Ibid, pp. 25~26

.I41G~ 301h October, 1920 See also in Zia-i-Hayat, p. 73 Ibid

Hadi, Syed Mohammad, All Biradran Aur Unka Zaman Q' , New Delhi 1978 p, 07' (hereafter cited [as 'A Ii Biradran'Y

AIG-' 3"O~'lh 0 t, 'II... 19"-20' I

1 __ ~'~ ", ·,C' oU'er~, '

The Leader, lst November . 920

Aligarh Magazine, 1953,-54,-55 pp, 212-213 se,e also Ali Biradran, p'. 0,2- Rizvi, Khursid Mus' afa; Hayat-i-Zakir Husain, Delhi, 1994., pp. 66-,68 (Hereafter quoted as Hayat-i-Zakir Husain) and Mudholi, Abdul Ghaffar, Jamia Ki Kahani, New Delhi, 198:4" part ... I

,MAS') Vol ,8 part-2:" 1'974 ppl,.I8,1-188 Hayat-i-Zakir Husain p, 68

AIG~ Ist November, 1920

The Leader, 4th November, 1920 Ibid

Ibid

Ibid

Zia'~i,-Haya't~ PP7 74~ 75-

Mohsini, Shamsur Rehman; Hayat-i-Abdullah, AHgarh.(ND) pp, I O:5~,] ,06 (Hereafter quoted as 'Hayat-i-Abduilah'Y

The' Tribune, 3rd Nove nber

Jamia Ki Kahani p. 25

They also occupied a, three or four- roomed bui ding which was named as "Mahmud Court' by the stude ts, Nawab Ismail Khan of Meerut hired few tents which 'W'8S placed in. front of the' "Mahmud Court". Ali Biradran, pp,

104 ... ,106 Ha}!at,...i~Abd'ullah:Jpl06" Jamia-Ki-Kahant, p. 2S" Zia-i-Hayat Home-Political. coil ,21 0 ... 216 &. KW Dec ... ' A 19,20 (N~) See also A li Biradran, p. 10,8

A Ii Biradran p. 'I 08

The Tribune. 3-rd November Hayat-i-Zakir Husain, p. 66 Jamia-Ki-Kahani, p, 26

In a report of Dr, Ziauddin said that Mr, Rama was the chief liet tenant of Dayal Singh who was sentenced some years, ago for smuggling pistols,

File- s« 151 J 920-21 (AA.)

AMUIAn EducattonaiS. Political history /92'0-47

34

,

02~ - 03"

'_':.____-' ..

0·4 lOIS.

I 06~ I 07 ~ m 0"'8"',

I. _. [ - -t"

. 0"9'-'

I.,_:. '.; •

1),0., 11 ,I, .,

su Biradran, pp, 11.3~ 1.14

Aligarh Magazine, 19j,3-54.,.~.J9i54-·551- p .. 274·

Minault, Gail, Khtlafiu Movement, Delh .,-1982 p,. I 18 (Hereafter quoted as. H'G,ai:1 Minault')

File No". /5,; 1920,-21 (M) File }lol. XX!45', J920~,,21 fAA) Ibid

Mul ,8" rnma d .. S.·· han, Unou ,b, "i.sh·· ed L etters o ,f' the Ali Brothers Delhi I' 9'.·'7"9'."·1. pp

- " . ,~, . -, r· -'. . .. ~!- - (J' ,.... r1_.. , Ii ""'!!i Ifoo;, , , _ ,.

21 7 ~,21 (hereafter quated as 'Unpublished letters I ,F'lle' 1\'0 ,XXO!"·42j 1920-2'1 (AA)

Zia-i-Hayat, p, 75

File No .. J, 1.9210-2l (J\A) Ibid

Ibid

Ibid

.IT"/A E'.J.·.. I &1 r liti I hist }"911047

.. J.1Vll.J//in Educauonai c t t otitica t nistory vzu-«.

In the' ra.c1e of advancement and development, Indian Muslims were much more behind than the other communities of India .. They

h- d d ' ,,' ..

were' so ort odox ann not rear y to accept even a mmor change In

their social set ... u,p,. They lived in the: changed atmosphere 'but not ready to g'et adjusted to the changed accordingly e,v'en. in the light of their religion. They thought that English education or the' education suitable according to the need of time would lead them astray' from Islam and it would bring them into Christian influence .. 1 Perhaps they thought th at the Christian influence would convert them into

,_ -., _, . ' ._. _ . . " .. .. . -. " . I - . _ . l··,.._· . _,' ';11 • ," • • '" ~ , •

Christianity. In these days when, the Musl ims were so backward due tc lack of nod ',-' . d '," uion 's······· S"" ed A- h '. '''·d:, Khar c.: , ded .. ' M'-' "A"0" .-

.0 :_c, . 0 m,o, ern e': .. uca t Il, ~.lr,ye:_ .' '_ .m,a .1 ~,~n loun· .e' :' "., "

C'olle'ge at Aligarh .. According to him the western [education was must along with the Islamic education. It was the only w'ay to insu 'e a, position for the Muslims in the society.

I· d h ducati M 1'"

n order to encourage te western education amongrvmsnms, a,

n- . r S'·',', ·, .. .: etv ',: C. nded bv S·": h :!ib'-' ,',' d" '-, A' ·ft· :" ib A .... b : td K:" h '--:" 1 e , },8·9'-··0····· '. Ui_Y '~,OCle) waSlo·.,n·c_,e,~ ... .J:·~:alza,a,,:.'a '''._.: ,run_'.·:_lanln, [1",._,.

with th-' - ,·,t;' '.'" " . -. tior 'f""M' T:I- 'l11 A'- -'., 'I'd M' ,"': E' J' B""- k M' ,.' . I' II'~ iNl_ ,I 'ie aC.ive· cooplera lo',n Ol ,,'f;, ' ... '11~ s: r.na> ... :, . ,"ISS, ' ~' ",I'·",ec",., ..... au \II

T .C; ·1 - h d d tho 'I' b-·' ("". .. M al

'I urai Aham ano others.Its object was u) to impress uponr-ins mans

the ad vantage of western education (ii) to explain 'both by precept and', personal example the benefits which the: M'·', uS·:,·II"m community was

, •.• ' ,~. • • .. . ~ .''''!l '" .; _. • _ ' ,. .~. • ..' ,._" " - " ','" • ,.. " .' _ '. -, .'" "

deriving from Aligarh. (iii) to collect money for Waza'ifand loans for poor students and other university purposes.'

It was the moral duty of all the students of Aligarh, who were either inthe college or lout side to preach the values o .. r modem education

',:,' .. 'C'", ",. t·'·h· M'" slirr .- ,'.-, nity T,- .. rtir " fhe ,',' '!!'" ;." ..... :., '" d ,:'.' "._: "'" ... nt

amo,ng,~ e' . - U.:::.· 1m communI ... r: 1 0 con:~ _ nue I . e mISSIon, an ... move,m,e,n,

of' Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the [old boys had formed, an, association.Je-

- I ~ ~ I] d h M O' Old B-' 'A 'I ,r;

Id:e1t@;-~-oflM@M ,&B-OF..gantSatl-el~c,a'le·: tt e ,~ .. Ai,: .. ~ .• 1,._. ,: oyss .t ' sssoctanon

the - .. b .' . f' - h' ~ - h - .. , . t· ib , ,t .. d I OL ." f-' t'I" .... " . :: ' .,. t .h . . '. ,t d " f

tnc memners 01 W rcn contnoureo ,,,,'/0 or rneir Income I'.O·_: eat .. 0'

their Alma Mater .. After the elevation of the' college to! university status in 192,0, the Old Boys Association was re ... formec in 1923~,3 The old. boy's and the students of the institution developed a unique culture and traditions which gave a distinct identity tOI the institution differing

A,lt1UIAn Educational &. Political history .192'0-,47 36

those of others .. In the first convocation of Aligarh Muslim ~ ersity in 192,2 the Chancellor of the university Nawab Sultan = an. Begum told the students .::

"Our view point always should be that we protect honour and ~ me of' our university by maintaining high standard of education. - -a- ise only tho se un iversities survive and attra ct good stude n t S'- ·w·· hich

. CI U·" <',.,1."=_.. .: _,'_.JI,'._'.~,.E.I.I·I.,,:J._",:" '1_'.,:-",:,--' -:; ... ' .. ,.', ':' :1,:1,1 '

eel in education and not by merely awarding cheep degrees' ~ _ idvising the students she siad : "You are the future of the community nation) and it is hoped from you to maintain the reputation of the aegrees of' your university i.n every way, By your hard work you would s'erve as examples for fulfilling' the objective' of university, for which it had been established. ~'3

In. the: convocation of 1935, Girja Shanker Bajpai, Member Department of Education Health and Lands Government ofIndia addressing the students said, "Educationis first and foremost national service which enters vital iy' into most aspects of national advancement, ''''5,

The education imparted in Aligarh was the education for the cultural and moral advancement. It was free from the bonds of caste, creed and religion, During those days national movement was going o'n, in India and naturally every student of'Aligarh was affected by ODie way or the other by the political atmosphere of thecountry, The students were faced with question whether they should take' part, in 'politics or not? Regarding this question H'~H~ Nawab Harnidullah Khan Bahadur, ruler ofBhopal addressed theAligarh students on the occasion of Muslim University convocation held on 16th Dec .. 193,9',. He said

..

I~' .... ~ ,J think it is very' desirable that they (students) should, study and

dis-cuss political question.LBut I am strongly' o:f the opinion that in student's life, the difference in, political 'views should not assume a form which may tend to subvert the discipline of university or disturb :ev:en, the tenure of itsacademic life. The university is not political institution and there is 010 justification for making it the arena of'political strife .... ,~ .. ~, .. ~ ... "'~ He advised to students", ,", After- leaving the university you should n.ot think that 'Y',OU, have learnt all that: was knowable and

hi hi h don' kn oF - h k · ' hould

any trnng w nch you aon t know is not worth xnowmg, You, snould

act on the principle of 'live and, learn' and keep your mind open to receive new ideas,' and impression, from any or every source, ""6,

The ,A ligarh Muslim University was imparting education to the

d .-... .. A' d S'" Ii' bi . h h 'I - iii, • d

U ents m 'v'a'r'10""-US' vrts an' - , ' c renee s u ne cts T" 'e" a- ut ionnes re mame .

.) ,. ',_,I' !<i.: ,L ......• -: ~, , "_:'1,'. I ~~ --'-)J~:' .-;;; . ,,'- -'" - '. ,_, .. 1Il ._'. ,'.' ' .... ,J:. .•.•.. ".,

agile in evolving the pattern of education, even suggesting for oriented ~ ucation for the benefit of the students, Sir Shah Muhammad aiman, whlle addressing 'the convocation of 1934 advised that the

stern of education should 'be remodelled so as to find new fields of'

II!"

occupation in 'increasing number,"

He said "in t'he' e .isting 11n' stitu tions me - gen - )' pd ri - t

I~" ,,: :'. ",', r ' ,I,:. ;:~ x:·: : . ':~, IJ ,',- _ .. ' .. ' '.1 .. " ."rle.~"~, ' lera .. ";": .. uc,a, Ion mus.

b·e transformed into semi-vocational education so ,as to benefit the stud nt The. ' .. ' .. -sho ld b to have industrial md craft school s-u:_ . .lens .. ~,~,~ ... ,,~ .. __ ' e aIm S, ,ou' .... e,t,O' .a,ve r.n,us r13, an ,era., sc .. oo=

in all the important towns where youngmen and girl may be trained 1'10

hit Iii lih d b ki II '!Ii dustri iii • h

ea:rn their rve 1 00,"'.' ,:Y ta eng to sma industries not requmng roue,

capital, Vocational training should be made compulsory to the: schools' He continued "On the. other hand the values of higher education, should

be' ~ d sed both fj- .. , ... -.- th .' .. -xte ·.·-1 and': ' itiliu ,.:iII,' 'n>i ,,' I ·'-.··t·_, of: ,iI "',:-. r T'-·h .. ,.-, JU6 .. i,."_.o .. _.rom. lee.·. ··-·rna,l~.:. U.,J[ _ar,la,~pOln .. OI Vlew~uu ....... ~u : e

universities. .. j., ..... ~ .. mould themselves so as to be in a. position to find employment for their graduates in. industries, trade and commerce

'" h as i h .. T['''· - '"' h Id d'

Just as mucr as In. the service .. , ..... ,....lle uruversines S . ouic reac opt

themselves to' the needs of the time and must adjust their teaching to the f'e-- quire rn .. nen t of tho e-' vario ,u,s,,:, p:,r' ofe ssions, services and .. ind U"'S,_' trie s '''8

. ",.,1,,,._ .. ,, ', .. ". """ ' .. , .:" "iLL,.,. '.' _ .. ,." ,J! .. ':',.' ., '.... ,'. I ~ , . , .'. ,,- .. · .. 1 ,,~'_.'iII

TIle Aligarh University adopted the suggestions b'ut practically it was not possible to start the scheme immediately 'No doubt it was the' period when unem.ployment was widespread and the Aligarh University tried its best to introduce many new professional courses slowly and gradually,

Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, a reputed educationist and administrator of the Aligarh Muslim University started many job oriented departments and cources in the university. The details of these departments are in succeeding section of this chapter, His more stress was on making the same pattern of education in Aligarh as prevalent in European and. American universities. In 194,7 Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad undertook a tour of America and Europe for studyn ,g the pattern and system o,f education. then prevalent, His second aim ofthe tour 'was to establish a Medical Collage OlD. the model of the Medical Collagesin England. But unfortunately in December 19,47 while going from Paris to London, he left the 'world, forever on 23,rd December .- 9,47.9

L_'~n:---uag "

.I n Aligarh Unvers ity tbe medium of instruction was English because it was the requirement of the t me and was also in order to compete with, the studen s of' other 'universities .. As it was fact that Muslims were so 'backward in terms 0 "English education and it was the responsibility ofAligarh University to impart its education through the medium of ' nglish, but it was confined to tile education and 'university functioning only, Its atmosphere was fully coloured with a national language, 'Hindustani' or 'Urdu' ~ The Hindustani language was in vogue in the Aligarh University. The Aligarh alumni thought that how English language could keep alive those Indian thoughts and traditions which constituted their culture and which were part and

AMUIAl1.Educatlon·.al & Political history 1920--4'7 38

- arcel of their national heritage, SU.Cl1 an. object could be served by a ~ nguage ofthe people of India. Honourable Nawab Mirza. Yar Jang Bahadur (Mr. Sarniullah Beg) addressed AMU Convocation in December 1938~. He said ""1 feel humiliated when once a Japanese of 'board ship who had 'no idea ofsurroundings and circumstances under which we received our education, expressed his: surprise to me on seeing that ev'en amongst ourselves, we talked oftener ill. English than in our own mother tongue ..... .Drdu means a camp where people ofall nationalities can rnect, It is not the language of any Islamic country.. .. ~,~as far as this university is concerned, it should immediately make Urdu its medium of instructioin specially when it 'tappens to be the mother tongu.e language of this province?"

',:,e,lig';o·u's an,d Sp~r~tu'a' '-~ e'8ichings

The Aligarh students studied rnodern education but they were permanently inspired by religious and spiritual teachings. through personalities of the Islamic community, Mirza Yar Jung Bahadur said that a religious and spiritual life would greatly help the formation of character. He fU1111·er said "if 'in Cambridge University, attendance at church service and reading of a few verses from, the Bible in tile dining hall everyday before taking lunch have been considered necessary for the formation of the character ofits students, Jl0 reason is seen 'why' the saying ofthe daily prayers or attendance in Friday sermons S rould 'Dot be enforced as strictly for the. Muslim students as attendance at regular classes .. For daily and Friday ser.iTI011S preachers of the' 'right type will have to be employed. ':q 1

The .A.MU students were very' lucky i:n getting the advlce of many eminent personallties. The visitors always reminded them of their culture, traditions and nationalism.Mirza Yar Jung Bahadur also taught the lesson of nationalism to theAligarh students by saying "love Indian" said "I love those W]lO' live on. this soil irrespective of caste or creed;

, ]. d 'f~ ~ V is th . f II! b

respect eve~y ell ture 3,n, reIlg,lon .. ~~.~, .. lours 'is the country o,~. ramoow

cultures and creeds .. Your different culture i:f properly mixed, 'may add to the beatuy ofwhole.; .. .therfore remain cheerful and optimistic up to the last moment, "'12

It 'was clear that the aims and objectives of' the university was to

'.' d ra ".' .. ',' t· th·,·.' ' ',' .. ' . '}' ,.,' . '" rt ' '1" · .. ·1' .,~ '1;' - .' th 1.~. f" Oxf .. d ,.--; .. d

E: uca, e· '" e plle·o.p, 'e , pa. Jcu,ar, y lVIUS Ilns on ,-_ .. :'e· .&In,e O. ,·XIOf, .an

Cambridge University, 'b,ut in the light of Isla111 and nationalism, This

,~ • 'I! • • dd 'I f' d" d d

.' '. '-1.1 .•••. '-. .' - '.:,':".' ,,'j., .',-:.. ". ~'. : .: ,,:.,:, I' ".'. . " ' , '.' .' "1' -.- '.' ' .. '"'' .,.... ",,",-.

Institution msiste .... ' evelopment o· soun.l. Jll .. gernent, ,goIO., marmet S,

CQ,ITlm,On sence and self-sacriflce as essential elements of good

d '" A" 'MU' .. ~ d le t I d ". f ;0 -

Q 'I' "(:" .. -', -, "_ ,', ~ -O'i'" ., -1 ", --:-·.:I·~-·. '". I I~'~ "',-:- .- '-.: . ,[(.' ,.I-I"·j·· .' '1-··· " _. -." .

~ ucatron. , .' .. ' .. rl~lcelve .. a.mp,.e . le p all_. assistance .rom Its 000,-·

39

AMrflA Ed' !IJ I' & P li ~ I h ,. /'920:" 4'7'

. . Ut.An Eaucationat ee .. ' outicat history .' .: :., /

Muslim friends and its door 'were open to persons of all religious classes and creeds. His Highness Agha Khan, the: Pro-Chancellor of

AM,l:" U, . in 19.,'6 sa id "th ls un ivers ity m ru st be c·''''h' erish ed bl-';Y:" the who lee':' of

,_ ~ . " c' . J'.. ..' :... ". '. rJ l 1 _ '" ~'. ~ ". ..," ." _' '," .. _: : ' _I .. . ", I '",', " " .' •

India as their common 'trust, their jewe.l and their child. From Madras to Peshawar we must remember that this university occupies the ,'-'--.: ""-,' oositior · , m""a' tter: ""f:-·' lt 'e:" and ed catic ~"I]' ··d", ,1, ,C, 'D"·""l'I,',~ same p sr on m t , ~'" . ers 0, cu tur ano e, ucauona 1_ ears as _ ietm

does in matters of' politics."!'

S·'::',I,O"·, far a 'S~:' this university .. t colle "g., 'e. and -5' .c .h 0"110",:,,1 W' vere conce me 'd' th'-I, e,·'

, , , -- ~' - '_ ,JI '_ " .1" ," ., JJ. - " ' ~:, '"_,, _.,",,',' ,',. _ ," . ' " ,'," " , " ',', '_'

students carne from U ~P. Punjab, Hyderabad, Deccan, Madras, Sindh, Delhi, Kashmir, Mysore, South Africa, Ceylon, Persia and Muscat. Besides tile Muslim. students this university and its allied institutions

,r

had many Ilindu and Christian students who represent different parts

, "f-" th c, ' ',', nt .... , t- A'- ~ .'~'. rard the H"~ ':.- d . '1'- It '. ~,., ..... rt ",' t t·'- "" obs ",' ,,, t'h, t

o· .·."e cou.n'ry .: ··.S rega.r-,.s ,': ... e . ,In: ,us, I IS I,nl.po ... an.· 0 0 .. s·erv1e " a

'besides the regular students a larg,e nuber of'private candidates appeared in its examinations every year. Thus, while it is ture that its main

" ,,:,,'1 -. --:', ,,~. -- t .... :.' '~d' .' c'. - ·M'·" "'5,,1' >!I' " , .d ,-,,' rti '., I:' I ":'- eds th :"1'_ I; I ", '. ity

purpo.sle was .,01 provl .. ,e lor ,,'. U .. ··, 1m e· .. u.ca ,Jona. nee,· ,S, .', IS l,nlverSl .'

has always served tile educational cause of the country as a whole."

For the' session of 1922-23 at least half a dozen Hindu students applied to be admitted as boarders coming from distant places. Tille university felt responsibility to 'make 'permanent arrangements for these boarders their kitchens and other requirements. Later on they were accomodated into S~M~ Court but it was felt that for their permanent boarding old school building would h·e arranged, if' their number increased .. ·J S

In 192,4 many students from Baroda state applied for admission in AMU,~ But the problem before this university was about their dining

,., ': "',,, .- , ,"'" nt this 'I'· .obf '~"", ,', : ,-",1" 'd'-' :h-"""" . lett '" fr '1 cr, ant ~,,:, -'f

arrangements, JS pro I rem was server wen, a e er rrom r.aptam 0,

B d S' h d Ali h I think thi k ·'11} b .. lete if aro; a State reac ae a ::,jli,ga,f .. ,. 1:···. .. 'is worj WIl"I:. e mcomp ete J'

that Jetter is not quoted .. The letter was a follows", .... As regards the feedins ,-, '," ,', ,.'" ent c, .. the M"': ""':' tha S'-"-' "d' C', ~,~ b~'" " the :", 'ould lee' ung arrangements ror tne . arai "a, -ar rar s ooys, . ere WOlI.

not be any difficulty. 'They will and they are quite used to dining with their Muslim brethren, In fact Baroda is a very advanced in that way, Marathas, Gujratis, Brahmans, Europeans, Parsis and Mohammandans always dine at ODie table and take food coocked by Mohammadan cooks, All are non-vegetarian, You 'will be surprised to learn, that almost 75% of the officers and Sardars have been to Europe .. The real idea of these parents in sending their sons to Aligarh is that the boys may ernbibe and inculcate: that spirit which Is not found in o;ter colleges of India, Banaras University' included."

"In January last I had gone to Banaras with His Highness the Maharaja Sahib for the convocation meeting .. My' eyes we:re keenly

AMUIAn Educational Sc Political history' 1.920.-,47

40

, :, paring the Aligarh spirit with that o:f Banaras one and to please

- ' .. 'I f J '. '. .' th t 'A" -}' .. '1'-' ·-h ~." ' .it '. differer t ' " d .. ~ ,.. . '. ", ble 16

_,,_ se, 1. c,a,o s,ay.~ a,: my," 19ar.,c_ 1S qU1.I .. e I l lere'n. an·, IDc,omp,ar.a,: r , e .. _

The A"MU had a good reptuation all over India :in all communities

id had no prejudice against any caste or creed of India. Unfortunatley orne students of Banaras Hindu University who had been in Aligarh .:" .'. '.' ti '. " '. ore -"Id'i ·t···h·· '.- : .. " ..... :: th - t .. '1 .. A:' '),"" . rh .'~ .... " .. tt "'._. ti " ':- ... '.-' .. - ,",' '"'d:

or some line spreao . e rumor at In .. .ugarn no anerr Ion was pial,

'[01 the interests 'of the Hindu students and no provision was made for '. he holidays of the Hindu, festivals. But these were mere allegations, whose fallacy could be proved, by the list of'AMU holidays which had been attached in the appendices. 17

Aligarh 'University never betrayed any 'bias against any particular community .Regular convocations were held and students were filled with, national feelings, communal harmony and love for their country and countrymen, In the convocation of Mus im University ]1940 Sir Sultan, Ahmad Addressed tile students "racially and po litical y Hindus

d M ')111 I d Ii d b h'l I., t, h N" d b

an ,._ USJms are .n: uans and brean ' In, the same atmospr ere. .. ···0_ 'O'UI.-'t

there are' differences but the foundations of life are the same. Political and social solvation can only lie in both, Hindus and Muslims pooling their energies together for reconstruction of a better India."

S~' S· - t·~ ,.-: A:' h ' .. ad ~ ,- rth .. ,'- .' .. '," id '" .. , ... '~, ". '.' " , i','"" st -'.0. ",' 1"1' e- - .. ' i' -. "',," . ' ,

If ·.·U .an , .. 1 rna nn ier sa , conjure you eames Y au youngmen

b h Hi d d Jv I'll! b hili h d d

ot " __ Hindus anc Mus Ims to remember t:,IIS - ar'~, sane' a:n·.

incotroversible fact when you enter a larger sphere of life. You, must try to promote mutual understanding, mutual trust and 'mutua) love

an' . ..J to 'reo unemb 'Iee"r'- your m utua I ob ligation "]8 He wa rn' c'. e d that a ny

."u, ,_c'., '. _. ':"" '_:"'_'_" "~'." 1 :;, ,,' .' ,'_',. '."",' " • .. ,.:.u_.--": "1'''''... ,,~,,' . ',':':__; ' .' "'"' ._ ,',,:

other road would lead I ndi a, to chaos, anarchy, bloodshed anti perpetual subjection .. 19

Cu,lt'ure-- Tradltlons

All the characteristics. of the university which made it different to those of' other universities 'was due to its traditions and culture .. It 'PT: ovided a uniq u···e:··· c .. .ha ira c ter to th e"', studen ts .. ·· whic .. .h C·.·O. mld be a' c 'qi uired

. . . .I.. . . .. ,I . ~ ,I I _ ., . -..' _ . Il. . , . '. . ~" _ _' t' • [ I . • .", . • '. •• . _ . : .• ' • _.. _ '. I

. .

only in the true atmosphere of culture and, enlightenment and not in

'he class rooms. The culture and traditions of AM'U were mainly slamic in character but it did 'Dot hamper 'the freedom of non-Muslim st-_ dents in the university campus. The rel igious instructions were nly for Muslim students, Besides this a common uniform, for a,IJ, - dents and, its discipline constituted main part' of the culture and

__ . ditions of the university. 'This particular type of culture and traditions _ istinguished (he university students fro:m other students ofIndia and

- ~,e' world ..

The university uniform consisted black Turkish coar'", white iusers or paijam as ofAligarh cut fez boots or sh oes with socks

- . .' , . > I" , " :;)1_. ,,' ". , ~. ., " ,." , 1. ~ e- _, .,. .' '_' ' :-,. __ . ,', .. , . , . J. ',' ' .. ' .. ' 1 .' . t, , II

'~s uniform was worn by students at lectures, in the' dining' I all, at

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 192'0-,47

,

the time of inviting on any" universtiy officer- visiting the town or

. . , " . l ~ . h . " .. ,: '," '" '_" J ',' _ '_' _,', :....:. _ • ,I, _. _ . __ . "I,. ",'. ", ." - '. '.' " . .' 'J

railway station and also 0'0. such occasions as the Pro-Vice Chancellor directed, But the research students might 'be' exempted, from that

.' 'II . h d"" !II' f'! 'p'V'C' d h' d '" f'"

.... ' .. =s '_ _.~. - ~.- .. ,- .. ! .' -, : '-'1 ",',,:;.-;,' . ," .", ,,' '.' ~~_'. ',".-. '.' .:. _- "_' "-'1"'_ ~I·-··I·:··ll···~:·.~~·.'·:_~':·· ':" 1- ..•. "~': ..•... , I

provISIon. at t. e ._ iscretion 0., . ' an on. t e recommen.c auon a

chairman of their respective deptts. During the 'hot weather i.e, from 15'th April Olf from tile date fixed. by 'PVC or the beginning ofthe long

"",.- ·-t·_, ... ,'C······,:-· tud _·t·-· ':-.- ' .. -.:'_'. 'hit ··· .. r lizht bi .. ".",. 'T''II kish -,' .. t .}.- .,'-" ';-1"':'" vaca·i'on,s S,:U_ ents wore w r . ,I·e: or .. lg, ··rown IU,~lS,tl c'o,a,', S lerW,8(,nIS

or achkans, Members ofthe teaching staff 'wore gowns atinvigilation and all 'univ-ersity; functions. They 'wore gowns of the universities at which they had graduated and those members of teaching staff who did 'not possess a degree recogn iised by the university were entitled to

•. ~. '. _,' '_ "_'. _- _.' ": 1: ... ,. '."" '1' ", -.\ _: •. I .' .1 '. ~ .' .:_' .:'_ I')" ,_ .. __ . ._" .. _."' .1,.. ...... ,', .. ' .!!Ii;' ~- _ .. '_. ~ ~, . \ :._.. _' . ~.

;

wea r graduate gow .. vn .. I·,s··· 0" f the university TI~·e,· observ .. an .. ce ofthis ru le

,'." ..... " 1_. I.' .. _:.f .. " _,_ .. ,.1 ._'.'_.'.' ,-_ .,_.' •. ' ". ,~1,.· '_'.' ~ ·1J. .. _" .. · '.'. ,_. '. ,I_.~ ..... _. 1_. "1.,, [ .. ·.1 .

1 .', .,_. 1='

during the hot weather was left on discretion lo,f the' members of' th,e

staff .. Graduate students ofthe 'university were required to wear gowns

1_ ,iii, d '9i 'm

on the convocanon c ay, £,rn

The uniform 'was very important for residential universitv and

~ _ , .. ' '_.' . ',', .. I __ . _.' ". l-'!. __ ._' ,_. ". " , • .' 'L." - I,. J .~.'

every resdential institution had its own uniform. It. helped the authorities to distinguish the students from those who did, not belong to the institution, Another im portant part o .. f this university 'was its proctorial .. .vst .. · '11 vhich '" ..... intr .. id ced b····· r Theodo .. ··· Beck "d- S<'~"'- 'T-' heod .. ··,-····· sys e,m W.11C " "as Inro"uc,e.,Y . _ ,eo __ 'ore _·ec,."" an· ·J.r . l~IO_ orle

'Morison. in the college days .' This system continued when Muslim 'University was established and afterwards, Here, the students were under the eyes of' Proctors and Sub Proctors wh 0, I o oked after the discipllne and conduct, at the same time they werethemselves allowed

,

to take part in, m .' aintaining order."

Th A'1:~ t U ~ ii 1 .• , di f 1~' II

"e ·~···.JlI,garl]_ ' .. '. mversrty was alSO 'very strict r1egar ·.lng 0:, rehgrous

,.: to d···· ,-,' D' . ~.. . ,t' h-" .... / .... ' .. tl c-·,f···· R'~: ':. , 'd' '.1A,· . ·H· _. " '," d . f-' the ·d'·'·: '.' .,' " tme nt .. '.

SI!,e,,,, tmrmg .'., e morr .1 0 namananc t ea i 0, ie cepar .merr S.,

Proctors, Headmasters an d Provosts 'were impowered to formulate some regulatio .. ·. n s a bout thl-'e M' uslim students to' show d U' e regard to

' .• ', ., ', 'I .' ':' l' .' .. ,1····· ._11 •..•• _,_' ":" .', - I_I .. , .. ~.. " _. ". ,', ,,' "," _.. .- "'. . ... ,,1 ... " .:.: I. ..: •• 1 •.•. _. • ... , .. I'~' • _ ".'

the sacred traditions of Ramdhan. During the days of Ramdhan smoking, chewing and use of Pan during the day time was avoided at all public places. There 'was no singing" 'playing' musical instruments or any other kind of disturbances during the paryer time including the time of Taravih. No parties we're given either by students or the members of tile staff during day time. No 'meals 'were issuded from the dinning hall except 'for tile non- Muslims and there was no cooking done in student's rooms during day time, Special arrangements were made for Taravih prayers and these were regularly attended bit the students concerned, The Wardens were requested to sec that the forgoing instructions were duly observed 'by the students and an)! 'b.' ue ach wa S" rep ·o-··rt·"-ed·· to' th e P-'r'o":"V""O"'Si""It'- c .o .. .n IC' ern cO" r action N' "'0 s .. tudents

"I"'-'-'~"_:'" '.-.""<~,:.'. ~I·_" :'._,.'._'_.' .. _: __ .. 1 ,,' : ..•...• _ .. _- .. ,.~"I .. ~ .. _,_,_ l~,·.·." ".,' \,.' .. 1,111 ! [ . .'I _.111 '.'_'-, _-."I

.' d b h - d" '" h' ., 'h iii i ,_

'w;e~re p'e.rlnitte'~_,·y t.-Ie .Prov,olsts,:· u.rl'n,g· t_' l.S mont:·· to V'lSlt c'inlema

h Al I""h . .- 'Ii 'h'" ., ,t., .] d- d ~

'Q'uses .. '.-'. 1. tile restau~ants Wit .In 'unlverSIty' arlea 'w'lere C,iose,···. ·.·· .. uflng,

AMUIA.n ,Educ'atiolnal & P,oiitical histlo,ryl 1920,~47

42

- ~e' day time, 23

AM:1J while building tile carear of the students, always remain

. of th '. '.' .'-' '''':'!j;''. '., r' .,.' idelir 1-.r- 111 t-h' ", , .. -,'" ,·-c. ,."o;tyl,'"", JO.,,·-·,'-t'''I't tic . '.' of

ne 0" tne source 0 gumeunes lor au n e mmorn In.SJ..ll Ions ,0,

ndi T-1,. A-' M·'· ~J ,' .. "t:·],··, ·--"·,,t·:· .. ',-'" , .. ,', ·tl· ,~; . instn .cti .'. ,- .... tc e". .... ""'1' i st "1.'- "n"'s n.,la ... ,file.: Il, au ,:;lor,l' les g.avle , lelf In,s :ruc, .lons,o lorm re,gu"la, 1.0 '." I

... h h l' d II £" h M 1" '" 1 d"'" 'B'" M'

.',1 :--., ,', I' '" ', _:.11':. ',,', .~':'. ," ,", "I" ,:. ',," " ..• 11':/1;' ,', 1········ '.,:,' "" ,I· I"', .:. '-,' -:' '1" _':.",: r .-. ",','1 ::., .

_or l: .. e SC. OO_S an" co eges ·or tne =,US_,lms In .:n~la" .. , . .ray,n.e, _,-c-eo

H' ~ h s·· ".1 h 1 f M' ,:' - - t - - .... - . , "f': th . . . . '. '-1'" ,-. " . 'hi . h ,-, -, - ,~" . th '-' I.~g.~,. '_CI"OOJ. or rviewar was one 0'1_' e exampres wrncn was given me

guidelines 'by' the A.M·U. It invited the 'Pro ... Viele Chancellor Dr" Ziauddin Ahmad for consultation regarding many problems about the Meo community and school, 24

A '1'1 h A' M'U' . ') 'i' cit ti b t t·

.... . -' .. ' .. ',' "1"' . ,I. • ", I . '_ 1:- .. ~'.~ "', -I' I':'P-~ .',. .~'. . ".,' •• I' L .•... - ,:.: I" '"_-:", .-.- _ •• ~. :'_ "1. ,:,; .. _. I

. ctual y t e Aiv ... was not mere y an msntut on ou _' a movemen .

to educate the people of India particularly Muslims.It included the students 'from all the communities of India but the Muslim students

" .. '- .... "-'. ,., •. , : .... ':', ·rt····,· f", its stre igth 0''-''-''; . the .'.'., ,,-", , .... .; ... ,- . -hen HE:,. H· N";'",,~-

were In.~JOI' pia,. ,0' l_S sren,_ l' ~l >n. : r ,e O~:Clc,a.Slon, 'h',: ·en .. " .. " ~., .. ,.' J1zam

accepted the 'Chancellorship of the Muslims University in Ocotber

19135, many meetings of the Musalrnans at many' places in India were held and conveyed their sincere and respectfulgratitude. These p'J.acles were Gorakhpur, Allahabad, Saharanpur, Jhansi, Pratapgarh, Marehara (Etah), Basti, Sherkottfsijnor), Dehradun, Hamirpur MOl raid ab ad "

Gurgaon, Kanpur~ Etab~ Iaunpur, Banaras, A..gra.~ Bu\ana ~habar, Peshawar , Kohat, Qadianfl'unjab), Burhanpur (Central Province), Baghpat Estate/Meerut), Shikohabad, Jaipur, Ambala, Sikandrabad etc 'I 25 All the Aligarh students or old boys popularly known as 'Alig' had much moral interaction among them and always convened, meetings and send suggestions, their respect and allegiance to this university,

Open:ing of the New Depp, and _ acultles

The: A'MU' Act of 19,2,0 authorised the university to open departments and upgradi ng the existing ones to maintain a standard of' education. In the begnning the ~AMU had ] 5 departments of studies i.e. (J) English (2) History & Plot .. Science (3) Chemistry (7) Mathematics and Astronomy (8) Geography (9) Sunni Theology (10) Shia Theology (11) Islamic Studies (12) Arabic language and literature (13) Persian (14) Urdu (15') Law, 25 ,A few' departments we're not fully functioning and were-only on paper such a Islamic 'Studies, where 0,0 teaching arrangements. existed, After some time the Department of Islamic Studies was made functional by providing a syllabus and teachers .. There were, however, still some deapartments functioning in the same way as they did at the time o'f'M,~A.m 0 .. College ..

·:.aJa 'Moham;ma - Ali Khan

The"." first Vice · ...... C'· hancellor ofth e university W'-· ,"a'~ 'S' Ra ia 'M,I····:' oh am m ad

., ',' .I';:L ,", ._, ._,.' .- .... " ,,,._1 '. __ ".',:. ::".' ".' ' .",'. Ji"~ :...',', '_' . .' .;,:, .. _.'" '~:J"" ,I.',: ." UJ .. · ., I ... "',

Ali Khan, popularly known as Raja of'Mahmoodabad. lIe had taken full intersest ill the foundation ofAligarh Muslim University, He donated

43

AM' iL-,ltf, Ed. itior -I' &'" P'-:-: ilitic -'I hi to , /:9"'-:'2""0'- 4""7·'

': .. 1nn '_-,','U:C'O,llo,na, _' -O',I~:'lC,a, _::IS.,O·ry ,__~"'" , .

-

rupees one lakh to AMU in 11920~ He also instituted scholarship to the

AMU students every year, But due to his pre-occupation as the Horne Member in the ·U;o'P .. government, he could not pay attention to the university affairs .. He is also said to have developed personal differences with the first Pro-Vice Chancellor Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, Consequently he resigned fro:m his 'post in February 1923,~21

Nawab Mohammad Muzammilullah Khan Sherwani become Acting 'Vice, Chancellor from, 1st March to' 31st December 1923, During this period the AMU made considerable progress, four new departments viz: Sanskrit, Botany ,', Zoology and Education were: created. For the de artment ofEducation; a Teachers Training College was also established and placed under the charge ofMr, N.,K Mukerji .. 28. From, 192,,3 onwards there was a tremendous increase in the strength of the students, particularly private candidates to the university examinations."

Sahibz,ada, Afta'b ,A hrnad Khan

Oil 2,4th December 1923 Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan was formally elected as the new Vice Chancellor oftheAMU but he joined the office on Ist February 19,24~ Prior to tl is he was the 'Vice President & the Secretary of the State" s Council for the last seven years 'which 'was also known as India Council. On being' elected as the Vice Chancellor of AMU, he decided to devote himself to the work of promotion of Muslim education 0,0 the mines ofSir Syed Ahmad Khan, In, this 'position wrote "The Times' "he will be titular as well as the actual leader of the Mohamrnadan educational efforts. "['.30

When Sahibzaba Aftab Ahmad Khan. assumed th,e charge, as Vice' Chance lor, he found that every office and department ofthe university was in a complete disarray, The' office staff including t' e Imams and the: Muazzins of the mosque were unpunctual.the dining halls and the kitchens were fil.l of filth and a hreat to the: health .. The tea sta1 Is, hotels added more filth " the wards of' 'health centre presented no better look .. Such a state of affairs greatly' shocked Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan . He resolved to introudce reforms and, set. an example

by 'h' I""S P untu ality and h ard wo rk 3'1

_ _:" . '. ",~.." I. ,'. . . 1 c, . ' • ',', ' ' .:. • , '. C" , ",,', ;, r' _ . :_ I

Here it is worth mentioning that when Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan began to work as the Vice Chancellor ,of'AM,U':, political tensions had almost ceased in the campus, The politics of young Aligarh nationalist students 'for the support ofthe Khilafat and Non-Cooperation had come to almost an er d, especially beacause the National Muslim

AMUIAn Educational & Political history J 9'20-,47

44

U" iversity (Jarnia Millia Islamia) 'was shifted to Delhi in 1925.32

Though. Sahi.bzadaAftab Ahmad Khan had nOI immediate political issues to deal with, he faced challenging situation to promote the educational atmosphere in. the A.MU[., 33, In. his convocational address of February 192.4· " he gave more emphasis 011' the need 0'[ technical training tlO the students to face the economic problems and promote the I· n d 'U·. s .. trial Pi- ro gress 0'--:: f In- d .. ia 34

,,' '. • "_ I.....:_. _. , • ........:. • .'_ __" .• ":_.. • ',' ", I., , '. •

He also complained that the A.MU library was the only library which did not receive any grant from the government while those of

B .. - .. - c;: A' 1'}- ah "b' -'d .. -- d L 'kn[ ' -.. b' _i! -. .} l -. -l!Id-'d' '.-' t·

_ anaras.z . a a oac an'; .. ,uc. mow were ,-e:lng re.gu, any provx e. gran_s

by the government, A. good library was essential for mental and intelle C" tual developm '-'. e "0' t . for r·'e's·· earc .he S' 3S R, e fer ring to t 'he': tee -a'" C'" hin gs

, ,., 1' , __ .. :_ .....:._ ,',".,"". . w ,._._.,. .,·.,·:·1,~ . _ '.' .'" __ .' ' .. I.:'

1 • ,.

ill Theology 11e said that adrnittedh it was a compulsory subiect

,', , _. ~ .. ' .. ,J _,' ':' I". .' ,1-., ":_',' _" r '. '. 'J . . . . ~'" 1[, .. _. ' .•.... ,.- . "J , J.

according to . 'he statutes and, the examinations were, also being conduc ed but only the teaching: and examination were not enough, He, stressed that instead of asking students to read theology books it was essential that a religious atmosphere be created in institution which demanded appointments ofsuch Ulema who had reputation for their

". ~h/· ··dl 'kn']·· t. d'·· ~.-. -H' ; .. ~[ rthe , .': l' ib '. '_.- t··,··· d I th ... t· ' ... ' h 7il;: ,-, .' h"· ."-. ld

pie,,} aOI_ .. [.' ... Dw[e'",ge. I .,e lU" ler e la-.ora.e .. _a~, sue.;. UII·e,ma s ,ou-~

be allowed so much time so that they could meet teachers and students and impress them with their piety, courtesy and knowledge resulting' in the emergence of religious .. atmosphere. 36

During a, speech Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan made it clear that

thfi ;PI' .. fth ii' '. d h

e' lnanlCJa posuiono. t .. e university 'was so·un .. , to meet the expien.ce·s.

Hence 11[e appealed to the well wishers to give donations generously to the un .. versity, 'He also [appealed to the govern .. ment to extend grant to meet the requirement of' A'M'U .. 3"

He saw that the condition of the Training College was hopeless.

The students ofthe 'Training College were also allowed to attend the

cla .:1:.· :' . f' M'······ . A'" a'n- d 'L: L 8·" '" .[;}- ich "''' .. - : ot 111' ~_.- .. ible 111._. . - -

sses 0, . .. c_' _ •••• ' [..1111, . I, W,lle, was 0'0 permlssl~. I.e In any

G·········c .. - .. ~ it T········· '."", 'C:'" ']'1;" I':' S······ that D·I: ctor ···f··-·E .. .d cuati. '[ .", f"" U- P

_ ov ern.m en. e ralnln,gc_o· ege .. ,:0, I·a. ,'.Iree or o_.c,uaIJo'n. o. [ I_-,

.'. ade a' '-· .. ···1····· .. iot t··:· ~"" ·1··-:IIII.-c., ... ,-:--, te che .... : .... 'i: .. f ... ;. th ". A· M·····U ml~_:. e '~_, po, ley DIQ .. ,0 appo ni a.n.y e,ac .. e.r ,co.mlng : rom .. e-, ...

T-" .:- .. ~., '. C'c'll'I'~ ",',,' .'. S·.·ah·· i ib .. " d .... A",,· ft ib A," h '.' ... d K> h "" .. - u -. d to n .&:. I ' .. ' th···I.e • ralnlng-o I, ege, '; ". ~: l"za ... a-,. ,-a ·.,!rna·, an fie __'0 re.lorm 1.le

system. and succeeded in appointing one Reader and tW,Q Lecturer in the Training College .. ,18 Consequently a diploma course was introduced in. the Training College .. 39

The department of Geography-was almost non functional.

Sahibzada Aftab A 11m ad Khan took keen interest and soon regenerated it. Tile condition of the department 10 I' Arabic was also not very satisfactory, Efforts were made: to obtain the services of the learned persons through invitingapp lications from India and abroad. Sahibzada Sahib thus secured the services of'Allama Abdul .. AziaMemon to manage this department. Soon the department improved under to care of Mau 1 ana

45:

AI~TrIA EJ .. I: & P liti I hi 19·· .. 20 .. 4'7

lYI ulAn tsaucauona .. ~ .' GI[ utcai nistory .. ' .... .'_.> .. :'

M ·.-,·.-.---.40 emon.

Sahibzada A ftab Ahmad Khan also ca > e across the i rritati ng 'facts that most of the' teachers were not punctual and some of them even abstained 'from their duties sc as 'to attend, their personal works .. ,A majority of studentshad also become irregular in attending the classes. He therefore took the matter seriously and after confiding with the Pro-Vice Chancellor Dr .. Ziauddin Ahmad, he informed the 'parents about the carelessness oftheir wards, His appropriate action worked restoring discipline amlo,n,g the students .. 4.-1

Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan made it a regular feature to meet the teachers of the departments and to enquire about their needs. In such meetings hie chanced to meet Maulana Sulaiman Ashraf the Chariman of he department of Is amic StL dies, he urged. 'upon 'him to,

.. .ti .' te 'to h~ .. de - ... ,. ']1. - - .. - t -··f· 1(·-·I-'~ S·'·· n die ,I 42

aC.ival~e 1_ I .. erp,a,,_m.,en. o .. samllC' ,U~ __ les~

Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan also improved the 'working of th:e administration through several reforms. Hie inspected the dining hall and sep up a committee fo:r improving its functioning. In the light of' that co nmitte's recommendations the old dining hall contractors were rep aced by new contractors." T-. e dining hall functioned for about ,L, year under the new arrangements .. Bu the reforms were short lived

. r ' rtl ' b ... ", "..., f-' th . _. - ,- : ," -." .. , .... iii: ,J::;:. .... ., D- - z·· ~ .-:, d d ~ , .. -'h- .. , . c " .. '.,

p,a . y t, eca,u.s.e Ol . .. .' Ie non,~,coopera. on J.ro'm,r~:-1.a.u._" ~ In. W _ 0 w,as.

the Pro- Vice Chance" lor, Consequently the expel lied, contractors reentered One of the major hurdles Jn the success of the reforms 'was the' fact that the contractors who supplied the material for the dining hall were also, the suppliers of da ly needs tlQI the' supervisors and keepers of the dining hall .. Added to this problem was the fact that

S- om ··e of'th e employees of'the univ .. ersity a lso fun ction ed as '.::-, C-',Q' ,'··n·- tr a ctors

I . ' __ >" I. '. . . ": ." ':_ I ,,_"' '.:_ .. ,' ._:. ~ " . . . ' "", . 1,,' ~.) •. ,It... ..:.___. _:: . ~." _,_", ". · .... t. .=", ','. [".

• I .'

of the dining halls and 'boarding houses."

Apart from', coking into the detail offood cooked and supplied to the the students" Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan like' Sir Syed took interest i.n 'fitness and maintaining good health of the students. H,e began a Scouting and Dri11 Society, He also improved the working' of Riding' School by adding ten horses tOI the existing four, .H,e also promoted other games viz. Hoc cey, Cric cet, Football Tennis etc."

Fort;'h ~ -Ie - +. '. ., .. ~- d .' ... te C· ... ,j-I· .. ··- ., IS: cahi'· ibzad .. -- -. ;·~·I ., ... • - _·t· d (, .. p.~,. '. "., ~'·:-·l A" bd ul '_. :e, o;[enn'e,c . a ,-e ·0.· ege ~_ I l~ _~~_. ,_.a ap,polfl._e,. __ t, a. I 'I.nclpa , .. I ... _ .. :- .

Majeed Qureshi and ei'gllt' more teachers. Improvements were also made in the College library and COl ege bui Iding, He appointed Bashir

H ... Z idi H d 'M- f h · III hool and d usam .. 'al. 1 ,a3 a c_; ea: Master 0 ,. t :-.,e university sc '. ,00' an- grantee

Rs, 300'0l- for furniture of teachers and students, He also gave money for Geography and Science equipments and added new buildings for university S'Cl10Io1. He formulated the idea to set 'up a school for the blinds 'under university's care. This idea was not new, Earlier the movement for establishing a school for the blinds was given 'by Ghulam

All J.r"IJ4 .- E-· rl ' iat 7. I &..' D lit r - ./' h .. t· - : l 9" 2 .. 0· 47

JV1U/~ n ,·,l.Uca.lona .. ,. A - o,I.I,ea,' ·,-I,S ory rs I ...... _.

46

,

,

- ad Ahmadi to which Sahibzada gave a practical shape. The dation stone of 'the blind school was laid on 14th January' 1925 _ Iakim Abdul Wahab Ansaritl-lakim Nabi .. na), the elder brother of -~ 10, us· nationalist leader Dr, Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari. The school __ ilding was completed within two years and half Sahibzada himself, ~ ii , elder brother Sultan Ahmad Khan and, his wife, Bilqis donated a

randsome amount for this purpose .. IOn 29th November 1927 the school named as Ahmadi. School after the name of its pioneer, was inaugurated by Sir William Marris, the Governor ofU .. P~ At this time ~." awab 'Sir Muzammilullah Khan Sherwani 'was the Vice Chancellor

.ifthe university and he donated to the school a sum of rupees ten thousand in the: memory' of his elder brother Haji Mcham mad Ahmad Sayeed Khan 'who' had become a blind in. his advanced age .. 48

In order to meet the ,growin,g needs of the universtiy Sahibzada Ahmad Khan invited the Governor General Lord Reading to, visti Aligarh .. He expected great favour fro In. him." The Viceroy visited Aligarh on 25th January 1925 and announced the' enhancement of the annual grant from rupees one Iakh to one lakh and. twently five thousands. Hie also announced the additional amount of rupees five lakhs for the construction of new buildings .. so

For the: develompent o,f the university, Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad the Pro-Vice Chancellor was not behind. He had faced the eventful years of the university from 1920 to 1925" As far as admission policy o'f the university was concerned, Dr, Ziauddin showed softne·s·s..The session. of AMU used to begin fro:m the month of' October, it was two, months late than other universities and there was also n10 fixed fast date for admissions, His. soft view on the. admissions were in order to increase the number of students."

Though ideologically Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan and Dr.

Ziauddin has. differences but for the progress of the .AMU they' worked together and cooperated with each other as the future events indicate. Like Aftab Ahmad Khan Dr, Ziauddin also believed in the expansion ofscientific and technical educations in AMU~ I:n 19.2.2 in the function of Duty Society (Anjuman-i-Farzy he presented ten years plan, stressing the need oftechnical education for which he fixed a target

'0, r-a· ise ru P e-- es fift y.:. la 'k'i h 52 H' i e a .}- S'O"-'· e X·" .p '·I'·a· ined W-, vhy tee hni c'3"'I e .d :UC' ation

r ~ •• 1 .: '. n ••• :! _. . ... ', I _:_ • ' '. . '.. .'. I '... r • r 1 c" .::. ; I, ", , ; _' ... "" ~ ... • • '. . . ' . • • '.: I., " . . . '_ .. :' "", ,,' . I" • .' "

ieeded so urgently, He believed that in existing educational system -. very student can not secure government employment, now it was .. 0 - as attractive as a few years earl ier .. 5'3 He also secured a donation of' ___ pees one lakh from the Nawab of'Bhopal added to it in the donations

ecei ved in the ju,bilee ce ebrations of 192,5 .. He received the funds for e establishment of the Engineering College, He also purchased . cessary equipments for' the Applied Physics and Applied Chemistry,

~4MU/jf.4n' Educational '& Political history J,920-4.7·

The government however dalayed granting permission while it had, already allowed Agra and Allahabad universities to start engineering classes." Dr. Ziauddin also considered that education. to the A1\tlU

S·t-U-I den ts 1·:0','" m" rodern .. · Medica .. ·l Scienses W' .. ···'a--:s .. ·n·e'·!s··e-·s·<s:a~·ry'· Hence he set up":

_ ""'.''' 1. '.,."" .J .. ' .. , , c. _.' _..... .'.' __ .'. __ " : .. "- ,- _. "'_' :.'~ ) ' ' ., : ' : [. "

medicalgroup in the Intermediate Science grio'up, so that the: students

'.-: ,~" ht . bt·, I· .. ··· kn . '} ,·d·· ". +:., adm e , :'., c· '. to the ·s·· . b A:" '. I'" '"I ua; ·t· 'S":" I' .....

mlg'.~ 0 -' .8ln r "O'W e g,e lO.r a:.~ISs.Io.n, .. ::._·e _ lUI :.- .... SSlS ,'::n'urg,eon

in the Medcial College."

In A.MU the Theology and Urdu were' made compulsory subjects, These were extra. subjects unlike in other universities. Dr, Zi audd in. Ahmad started an examination called 'part one" which was to be cleared b'Y' the students during, the years of'thcir cou rse, He also started coaching for competitive esaminations in 192.2 butthis was not very

I h iii I' 9' 3" did 1- di . k

regu ar, even t ien m is 2,:' two cane tdates were se ecte i In ROOf' e'e

and Shahpur Engineering Co '1 leges, four students selected in. Lucknow Medical College, In 19'.2.4 three students were: selected for provincial

.services and O·D·e in the Indian civil services."

D Z... ddi Ah d d h 1- f h Idi III

... rr .. ·:··,JaUI>: _ in ... ' .. m.a·. starte: the po iCY' 10 -·,~o.~·_ln,g· private

examinations, Actually' poor stud.ents from distant areas could not take admission in A'M'U land university had 0[0 provision 'for affiliating schools [and colleges out of Aligarh district _ So a new system. of private examination was started and. many students benefitted from

thi ,- . ' ·t· .. -·· . 5'7 T-II I' 92"'4-:' '.' ,- .' h t 1- tu'· d" . ··t·[.-·· -"'.,.' .. , t·· t E" " .. -. t:: .. ",' .;. '. " .-. '.' .-'. h

_ .S sys~:em_ . 1 > ,.~" elg: '. S'.'.· .. e·n s ",ere se.n[ _iO ,urrop,e' lor res·e[arc .. _

purposes and. this number increased later 00 .. Three teachers also got loan from the unversity for that purpose, For the improvement of' education in the un iversity many societi es of deparments started Till the resignation of Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad in 19.28 there were 7' literary societies in the university, some of them started journals, some established libraries, some other send their members for enquiry

'Iil b' Ii 5'@

I" .". -- - - . . ". , .. "0

In ormative tours. ..

Go/de'n Jub'Ilee Celeb,ration

0,':-. the completion of 50 years from the foundation of MA,O College, the Vice Chancellor Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan and ·P·.rlo-,

V~ Ch I . i!I ddi .- decid d s. ld' ill bil

Ice "_ .. ~ ance Iar n,r. ZaIU' ~ .[ 10 Ahmad i .. ecj.~·,e '_ llOlr a go .. en JU. [1 ee

celebration, It was a process to draw the attention of the Muslims towards the educational. movement of Aligarh which got distracted

· 1'·' ~ '1 'I'" . f th . 59 S ah ib d id b ~ h

OWIng' to' po utica c 'imate 0 .. tie country, ....;._ <.: l .. za:" n S81' .. _ "e'i~ore' t '-i'e:

Court, "As I. desired the: celebration of'the jubi.lee to be truly national

in scope and character, I started. preparation soon after the dicision 'was tak,en."'160 A fuII preparation was made by Sahibzada Sahib but unfortunately his, doctors advised him for complete rest for at least ." six weeks as, his illness reached its zenith ... He handed over his work

to Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad and left for Agra and then for Delhi for two

A MUlA n .Edu'catio'nal & Politic'ai history 192'0:-47' ,48

___ anths." Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad was busy with his academic work but , . took tl e responsibility serio usly and did his work competently; He ired some places met prominent persons and sought their , aoperation, Her Highness the Chancellor (Begum ofBhopal) ordered

he related, officers of her state to provide a high class pandal and

nt . I f-:" 0-" t·- '1" - ~t' rt "'- ' .. 1· tt-· .. ,.. '. -c. -'.,., 'I' ' ..... d ~.... the side '. f H . -

en, IS ior cues s ... mvr a ion iet ers w'er,e resease rrornu e sioe or I. ier

H~ hn . '1" C' . h . -. "'11' . -. (-. id "V"~" ". 'c··- h -' .', ""I-I"" _. ITh··, h ." .. ",.' .. ' ab '1 ' t 'h, . I-d' ."-'.

_ 19 I e·s,s· ance:' l'lor an:'lc,e '_" an~ce or, __ e nonoura Ie pos .0:. ers

of provincial and central governments, Education Minister of Afghanistan with. other 'members of the ministry; the representatives of the Indian and Oxford University and representatives of different states participated in. thejubilee celebrations. His Highness Maharaja

- f';'- A" I.. . . '1-, -',,- d !Iii -,- A" '1-: .. ·" -- rh '. d '. '. t 'd' 'R"" 6"-0""0" 0: "0":\' .' d . ,,-

0- . ' ... , war at so arrive.. In '. 19ar: an':' gran Ie, . S ~ _t: '. . _' '.~ an.' _l. Q,ne

scholarship for studies in any foreign country .. The Viceroy, the Governors of the provinces and Vice Chancellors of the universities also sent their messages of go·od wishes, 62

Th 'I bil I b '!!I b 2-' 5 h D b d if. d-

, -. e J U .' 1. ee cele oration ; :'e,gan o:n . _ ,.···.t' Oecembcr an'! continued

till 31 st December 19,2·,5'. About 700,0 guests came 'from, far off places to participate the celebrations, The occasion was utilized for holding'

. '!Ii f i "M li ill III h as th f'--AII I' di

meetmgs 0: important -·:.'US un organisations sue '1 as t aose 0 ..... , nora

M- oharr nadar Educational C'.--::···:&.,·:·-:···· ,,'.,'. A'"II )1 ndi, M·:· ,.,·I,~·:- L·-<··-- .' _ ,0, amma.·.an I ... uca ,.Iona. ., ,on .. l.erenC1e"" n. la. USJllffi .:eague,

Tanzeem, Muslim Rajput Conference, All India Urdu 'Conference etc .. TIle university convocation was also held during the' same week .. 6a Besides public meetings and lectures the programme ofjubilee included elocution contests in English and Urdu, A series of game's, tournaments which drew players and sportsmen from different universities and colleges." Rs 17600/ ... , in cash 'were recevied as donations 0'0 the'

, , ,~ ., ',-"d':IR' "" '3":0:-"0'''''0'''0'0'''/' -,.-, '.:'.' -:-,.~ .. .d tc b dor ned D···--Z-··I'". ddir

occasion an, ." s~ ,.1.,., vxn> were prormse .o .. :'e __ ona.el'. zr.z.rau ... m

specified this money for engineering land scientific education." Soon after the jubilee the Sth convocation was held in 1926 .. Maharaja of Alwar in his address emphasised the need to strengthen the department ofTheology. Hie said "department of Theology is not less important than the establishment ofthe school o ftechno ': ogy as religious education of high standard is equally essential for tile progress of t.he Muslims. It is unfortunate that despite' the provision in ordinances for awarding the degree of'Bachclor and Master in Theology no sufficient staffhas

b id d c. ~ - hi d d'" !Ili,.. C h

een provided lor Its teac ID.g an.: .. cone uctmg examinations lor t,' es.e

degrees." Maharaja of' Alwar offered to the V .. C'~ a donation of' Rs.,8000/~ per annum for founding a cr air in, Theology for five years."

Her Highness the: Begum of Bhopal thanked His, Highness the Maharaja of Alwar for extending his generous support: 'to the cause of Muslim education .. Her Highness expressed her satisfaction with. the:

d d ~ h '" ~ d b 1· hi

pace an progress, mac e In tne university ann esta '.' IS'. lug new

, epartment, A donation of two lakh rupees generously announced by

. l_!, . - , , - . . _. '., . , - .. _ - . ...' ~ "'.' ,. - . - _ . - . ' . - _.' . . .

er son while laying the foundation stone of Science College." Dr,

AM:<f" rIA, ,E···d,····, '.- t s . ., .... t- ','- &~' P ,'J ~t·· '"'.,- .·.C I h:" .... ,. t· .. , . 19'j"'O" 4·/ 7

. ,.1' VI.t1,n . :_;,uc·aJona~', " .. ' 10 lICQ, " IS_Ory· : ~,:.- "

Z'" ddi Ah d d I

' tau :,", m A unad requester the government of' lnd ia to' open a, signal, Ier

1 di ," '"' h d d .. I h' II I --

class on tne same con" rtion as It iao opened m severa SC I "QQ' m ndia

and UI P , ,68

1! .' - _, !III

The term of Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan completed and in December 1926 Nawab Sir Muzammilullah Khan became the next Vice Chancellor, But this fol owed the confusion in the' university and personal differences among the university authorities which led to the setting of a committee of enquiry against working of Dr, Ziauddin Ahmadi' This Co nmittee report le'd to the' resignation of Dr, Ziauddin

Ah ' d i h-' 1- P f M" 'M' A' h f inted as P " '

1- • n' _., _ . J • - .' _I '.... '.' .• 1 I' _ . '. . 1 '. • 1 . ".:' 1'. _ _ • 1 I" I': .--: " •• ,-.:.,'.....,. " . - •. .' .' ,'._ •

Jlla(l an" In . IS p' ace 'ro; '. ''''~'I': ' ,i . ,S,' ria was appointe as PVC on

2'nl' d M"·,,'· 'a; y" l' 9' '2,," ,8, 69-

. .., _ I. ."" L.·.. Ii

After Nawab Muzammilullh Khan a search for new 'V'C was started. Through a letter, Mr, Theodore Morison suggested that Mr. Ross Masood (the grandson of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan) sh-ould, be appointed as Vice Chancellor.Begum of' Bhopal who had arrived at Aligarh also requested the Court to appoint R-oss Masood as Vice Chancellor, The CIQ'U,rt members accepted this suggestions and Syed Ross Masood appointed as Vice Chancellor with effect from 9-th February 19,2'9,.'10 Meanwhile a rumour spread, that Syed Ross Masood had accepted the post o'f' Political Secretary offered by the Nizam of Hydarabad, But the tumour was not true, no doubt both offers were before him but he accepted the' vice Chancellorship of ,A MU 'i 11 He said that it was the: call 'of the blood whcih :made 111m, to accept the

," ositic - of ,v,~ ,'. Chane .... 11·· - H' felt th at h·, .'", , ",:' ". mtim ; the '.,'" 'k posmon 0._ rce i ancei or. '" e rert ~,',_ .a , emus connnue ,',I e wors

- '"' h hi "')-1 'Ii df h h d d 'I' th h desi f

'W' ncn ,j'JS ), .. ustnous gran,' fat", er .' ,'.,a,'1 commenceu 'Wit t neuesire 01

raising the intellectual standard of Muslims in the east .. When he was

dto zo bac i IIJ " • - .;.. h of

aske to, go back to Aligarh, he put In all his energies In search 0

Professors and Lecturers in Great Brit ian, and in many' countries of Europe and tried to raise large sum ofmoney tOI built finest chemical

1- aboratories in Aligar .,h:,,_12

~ ~ - ~ - ~, , , . - ~~ -

S·, 'ha,

As Syed Ross Masood 'was in England.jhe temporary charge of Vice Chancellorship was given to Sir Shah Mohammad Sulaiman the 'Chief Justice ofthe Allahabad High Court, In the absence of Syed Ross Masood, Ju stice Sulaiman did very hard work to raise the' standard ofthe university because the university had avery bad, reputation due to' . he enquiry committee report, He made many changes in order to foumulate the Rahimatullah Enquiry Committee suggestions and satisfied 'the government. It was by' dint of his efforts hat government granted ,~"S~, 15'00000 for the building purpose and raised its annual grant from, : ,:s.12,500'0/ to' Rs 300000/-.'13 Other important work of 'Sir Shah Mohammad Sulaiman was making the arrangements for coaching' the students for competitive examinations, As almost all the

AMUIAn Educational & Political history J 92\0-,4'7 :l)

'. ' /ere open. to capable youngmen and it was essential to train ~_ ~ ts f~or these competiti ons, .A central office, where necessary - - arion for atl the competitive examination was stored, was opened efforts were being made to make it updated. M.'T;o Mohammad , , as appointed to look. after this office and to give students all ~ .. cessary· information regarding conditions, prospectus, syllabus _ .. _ examinations. A complete and, exhaustive chart of all the Indian _ .. ces was, prepared an,d published land one of its copeis was supplied ach university student .. Similar charts for the provincial, .Ird.i.nate and the' 'lower services we're in the process ofpreparations ... - . following staff members appointed on fixed allowances to teach lents in. the' subjects noted. against their name."

Dr- ,M~ Nazim) Mr. Abdur Rashid

Dr" A" M"'I 'ukhta .

. • .. '.. . _ . I . I " .. __ .• ~_ I.

H· Istc '.' a '. 'dl p ... } s-· .-: .. -.' .. ' istory <n._. 01 .. cience

Eco :n- om 'IIC':'S-'

" ," _ .. .i •... 1

Mr Mukhtar Hamid

Mr. S. Mal- mudul Hasan English

Mr .. Abrar Husain F'aruqi. - ".- ' Persian. '& Arabic

Mr ... Allah Baksh Kamali '0-= Lower Mathematics

It is suprising that all the wo-rk 11e had d.one 'w'as the result o'f only _5 few' days stay at A igarh .. He· spend only two days in a week at. - igarh because of his service constraints in the Allahabad High urt .. 7.5.

i Ross M,aso··. d

Syed Ross Masood assumed the charge of Vice Chancellorship 20th October, On 12th S·ep. 11929 Mr .. E~,A'i Horn was appointed as »Vice Chancellor Ion the adivce ofSyed Ross Masood before 'his ~ ival, The post 01' Ragistrar was vacant 'because of the resignation : Shaikh Abdullah and his place was taken 'by Khan Bahadur -: hruddin Ahmad from Bengal Educational Service." The tenure of ", .. , . ····f' .. -S· ed R' .. :, M··· ood , .. I", "-:::.\ ... :: ... 0'" . ·t· 1·9:"'2·'9' ... A'" :.-'. ·.'j;'l· 19·"3' 4 D"·· .i '.

lice 0 ·.y,e .:.osS;. .aso1o "_. was l..rom .. c',~ ,0:-· ,prJ. ., ,~ . url.ng

is . 'er'"'lod' 'hi. Q fa ced many difficulties F-' irst was th e' eco ru mic

.... p .. ' .. : .... ' I.i~ J.j~,:'~ .. : ,.~: ... _: .... <~:·'.· ... I'."",;; I .-.~ ... ~I .. , .. C_' .'1.'.:'0 .. '0 '_:.'.

S'"' m f m which th e who - world had suffe red and 1111t also res lO:J rro ... ,.'1., tne w '.'. e worr _:". "1,' 11 .. "'_':., ·a',,·· n ':. '~'.,-.

rally effected adve "se.ly the finace of'the university." Second was . roblern of Pro-Vice Chancellor 'because Mr .. E'IA~ Horn died just __ r his appointment, Mr .. Morrin officiated the post for a 'few months

, 1'-'· . I·' ;.,_. '.' d' d b t M" ,', R B·· 'R"a':': bother ~. he 0;.0···· ... d ed h ;- ·d- tl- -: ..

~ was succee "e ' .. J.- ~'."ili' .1 ~'. ms·o .em w: 0 J c'ln[ e". .J.S I·,u· -, :es

',. b .. 1 '93 1 .. Third was the enhancing the reputati on ofthe university. 'aced the prob ems boldly and worked hard for the betterrnct of' niversity, Regarding the A'MU; the United Provinces government : rved "---'~'Y~lork 0 ~. reform was undertaken with tile determi nation

d h 1 £: h b ti f - dil · ..

- rrage an tr e tast tew years ave', :Ieen a nne o ~ steae .. 1 ,yo mcrcasmg

AlvlVIA.n Educational & Political history 1~92Ia~·47

efficiency and the' widespread improvement and activity, The unive ,<_ having set its house in order, can look backward with satisfacth and forward with confidence.?"

An, .important work of Syed Ross Masood was the decision t amalgamate the Intermediate college with the university, For t 1 __ reason Sir Fazl-i-Husain introduced a bill ,giv'in,g effect to t _ amendments, suggested 'by Aligarh University authorities and approve by Visiting Board, in the University Act. The bill introduced in :, Legislative Assembly, Shimla in September, i 93, l,~ 19 The amendmen was passed and 'by this provision Intermediate Cell .. e'ge' '_ I~,' amalgamated with, the university during the session 19,3,2, ... 33 and M~ , ~. School was raised to the status of' first class high school. 'M,U C,·' ~ School also became high school and the university instead of treatii

;;; id' d h r t, d ii' J d d £0;;; h f '. '"' ,Ii

It as an aioeo scr oolhac now mcnmec It In t~ ecategory 0' mstitutio

ii' ill db" .. d h d h' b b ,,,,, 1 ibl e. ",,'

maintained by It ano nac t.-,ere -,:Y : ecome enure y responsi me tor - ,

maintenance ,.,gO

Syed R"o"'S"'S- Masood laid more stress on Urdu The medi '-;-;-'-;- '0'"

, '. _, ." " '.. • _."s t .:. ',' '.::." , • , " .. ._" • ' _ ," " .' _. _ '. ~ '" .- " "_'.' '.._ •• • ' , • . .., ,. • '_,' l. '" '_ ,

instruction in VI,,'VIl,VIII classes of the school was changed to Un ',I , ~

Urdu a:nd Commerce were added to the list of ootional s- - lJ01" ,-~, ,': .'

Intermediate examinations and, later 0 for M .. A~ and honours classes. In ' 93< '\ , .. _',1=, .. ,

senior Lecturer in Urd'u was appointe .,a __ ' - _ ._ department." As far ,as Geography , -as CI'" " -, classes 'were opened in, 193,2 .. 82 ,Sy'ed, -, ,OSSI Masood a' 'so J~- ,: e e ~'. 1 '5'~::-[on, Hindi teaching and its teaching in t I 'Ie school ciasses -, ,ere started from, 1. 93 1 ~ 8,)1 A graduation studies in I r eology also starf,ed~,IA'

In ,193.1 the electrification of the entire univers ity area w _ ~' completed and all cost of electrification was met by Her Highnes Sultan Jahan Begum, As far as, drainage system was .eoncerned rnuc . spade work was done. 85: Syed Ross Masood instituted the Vi e ' Chancellor's Fund forthe PO'Of' and needy students, .. With the handso ,,;~',' amount of donations from His Highness the Maharaja Sir Tukoji ,I ca ' Holker ofIndore and Captain, Nawab Dr. Sir ',- ohammsd Al II,', Saic Kh·an, Chhatari, a spacious gymnasi __ r I as ,- :,_.

swimrning bath. Equipments ,"elie also 1:1_,' . ',I~~""~'

D' '. ;. th Iii d' f SRI

_:u,flng tne perioc 0:' Sye .oss I "aso', " man

_. alit I' ~ ited A'" l<!i' , M t ,~ rtant ~ ,-., ,

ple-rsQ,n,a J les VlSl. ~ .. ~', ~ I,gar' ~,~ , ·'·05! '; '_POI Wi]: . :-_' , . ',0_ 'g' ! 'e ' ,'e, __ g - ',~

great historian Sir Jadunath, the world famous seientl st Sir C .. ·V Ra_ - " , - the world famous poet Dr, Sir Mohd. Iqbal, who delivered, interesti , " lectures on their respective subjects."

The university started a coaching class preparing students to ap :~11.&11 in tile entrance exam i nation, to Indian 'Military' Academy. The clas: 'was limited, to I 0 each year and each applicant had to undergo ' selection board before 'he 'was admitted to the class."

Th .. d hi hl .' bl k f S- ed R

he most important an,": righly appreciaore work otSyec Ros ..

_ : _ ad was the establishment of a. Science College, Till then science !' ion. was provided in casual, manner without having necessary -,,' e .', ,·','1' ia Ne tther ther ", w "a': s b u ild in 'g" an rd labora to ry 'no' "'r" resca rch

, I"r,na., ,".:.", ' ']J_ .,' , ,:,'e ',."'.,' : .. , ·'C. '[" .• ', '~. 1. .. :-, ::",_" '[.J ,."," , ',' ,",,", '

•. ... S" " ed 'R'-'· , M' ,', d oer: ' d d' th ,'. -.,,, , ..' ,t t"· " " ti - .. ,

- .sron. syeo ,i;:,: oss ,', ,aSIQ'O persuaceu u e governmen ,0 sane' .ion

- ,5'0.0000/- and Rs 'i 00,0:0,0/- were received from State of Hy darab ad

- the above purpose. He founded laboratories, for Zoology, Botany,

- _ . iii.. . ., d C'" h ' .'. · "t'" '. ~ d ....., .. " .' . d 'th '." " ith 1,' t ' '. , . t '~, -. t , " - . - -, ts

;; sics a,n ,', '" ermstry an.', equlpp'e' t 'em WI': rarest Ins ruments,

-=. .. " S tarted the research provision, appointed able staff for their guidance

- ',_ made provision for scholarships for the needy students .. Hie also

-_- ouraged resea ch w: ork in Arts subiects, In 1913,4 the universitv

IIio .aI.._: _'"_' . r:- - ,..._ - . '-. .' - -: -: 1 ~ - l .1 - . I', .. _ , - . - 'J . " , .'.. - . ._ l' ~ -. f"J'

nferred its. first Ph.D .. degree in chemistry on Dr, Omar Farooq and, _. ~ -, ond Ph~D de,gree was awarded to Dr, Zakiuddin in Physics in the

_ ,- C'le--:' y-~ e-"la:I'f 89

. ,-,_ :... .. ~

He also took care of'Training College, It was running in the office, ~ ~ Muslim Educational Conference. He spent an amount of one lakh _ ipecs over the: construction of 'building, instruments and library of - e Training College .. Hie also increased the: strength of the teaching staffto improve teaching, During the academic year 19,30, ... ,31 the . '. rt . , . " ,', . - t f'" -P':" l b )', ~" 1,:·,"" t> . " tic ,,' h ,d' ',."..., , rd d ': c.". ," "": '1, ':",: - : ' ... " . "'~ t "I ,', .", t'" epa unent 0', : "U:IJC mstrucnon .iau accor .rec rorrna recognmon 0

te ,B~ T .. Degree 0'[ this university and Director of Public Instruction egan to select the trained, teachers from this university, He: also did,

-- uch work for Engineering and Tibbiya College, But unfortunately a ~'. .ction of Aligarh did, not appreciate his work, and started opposing

.. I·' ~ ,-_ d M" · 1 d h'

, S po ICy. By' nature Syed Ross '," asood 'was very sentimenta anc . e

.rsed to get nervous when some one opposed 'him and thet too when e opposition came from his own friends, Syed Ross Masood tendered :~I' "",,'~, natio ' tc t'h" , . A'" M· 'U' :,1' 'C"""'-" irt , ,'C A" '. ,,""1 19""3"'4: . " d" I' ft f ': E'- .. '" ,: '.- . .ms reslgna :1 on 0 " e, ," ,': Oll, i~ on, ,prl: ' ,': :' : an" e 1, lor : urope~

_ .awab Mohammad Ismail Khan, Treasurer, was appointed as Acting

.. Ch I'] n~"

Il" ,". , ,.'. '-;Fiji

lee" aance ,or.

T'h" ·'c·' G" vt ··f···I·::d' ~ 'A-" "",·:t' ]' 9"3)5' ' ,.' '''' - ,,' " "':-:"'d'!' I't'd.' iii vid d'" :' '1'1'1" d " .. t·": ""J

. ;,e' .. IOV .0 ,_n,._la.··· .c' .,', .. ' was plasset, .•. _.' IV.l.le a, e',,_u.c[a lQ,n,a,[,

tivities into two, categories Federal (central) and State (provincial),

1 ' C', h M·'I .' 1"- U' .r, I,", it ,- fell e., the p'-C,. 'd"'-'" -''''J ,', b ": " ct 9'J A: M' .. '"U" .&': .... ed

o. Ilga,f .. "USJA.lm ,nlversl!:Y lel,_,III . ",e ·e,,',era su,~ecs,;,'" :,"c.' .lace,,;

_ any cha-nges in that year, In August 19,35 His Exalted Highness the izam of Hyderabad accepted the Chancellor of the university, IOn .' April I 9'35 Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, was elected V~C .. by the Court of -_:vIU .. Kt,'8 Obaidur Rahman, Sherwani was elected Honorary Treasurer ,,-, M,~' rr A'" zmat llahi was acting as Reg istrar 'H!'''is Hig hness Sultan"

_.' ", l. :. ',' • - . ..,._ . I . _ -," ~ r ']", .:' " 'I '._". ',," I _' _ . .' '. L ••• ·' .1 J ... ' .. ~' -. . ... ". '.' __ .' . '. "

, -

ihd. Agha Khan was elected as Pro-Chancellor ofthe university' on'

.... : h November 193,5 by the Court.Mr, Abu, Baker became the PVC in

. t c .. ~h'·'" }, 9·-.··3';' 5':~ 9.2.

_, .' " - ,'I

In March 1913,5 Sir Fazle Husain introduced a bill ir 'the Council State 1.0 amend the A,MU Act whereby the post of Pro-Vice-

incellor would be voluntary and notobligaory, The Council passed,

A,MUIAn' Educational ,&, Political history J920!-47

h b '-)1 di h AMU" A I b I d h .. .. f 11 h

t "e ['-,], amendmg t 'e :"'_2-':,.' - •. :ct~:t e'n)a",',e, tnc urnversity to n _ the

',- ist ""f' P'V--,-,C:-" at th"'-" time , h -,,' it ' i' found desi abl - 93 ~W,c."tt"h- thi pos 0, ,'_"", ,ai', u e :!l,me W .en .J.' was lOU,D:' '_"eSlra,e .. "', I" __ , IS

amendment the dispute regarding PV'C carne to an end. The session of 193,5~36 was very' important as nubrner of persons visited the university, Prominent among them 'were Hon'ble Sir Nripendra Nath

S:~' ,- 'L--' Memb -- 'f:"- -t of Indi Hon'bk 'S~" ... G'·"~·'- Sh ke I rear, .aw viemoer oi govt, or mora; , onore sir vnrna xnanxer

Bajpai, Education Member' of government of India; Hon'ble Mr, 'R" --, zh ,-,- iath R-'-: ,--, H' r , ' '" M' ,'I -- nbei rf th 'C-"--, rtr ]- P'-:"""--" "",:-- ,-',,-- , "'-, ,,- . -' ---.-, ·,t- ..

'a,g' un,a,"" ,:"ao" !, ,"'om,e rv ,em,'er 0" ,,' ,e ", ,en,:ra - rOVlnc,es go vernmen i I ,

His Excellency the Viceroy and Lord, Rector of the university and His Exalted Highness the Chancellor, 9'4 The Viceroy Lord Wellington

, -

conveyed to the A""'--'Mi"-U--,' C' .ourt o--:"-"n' :2--~'2-nd March 19',3"'6,- cc Since 19,---3"'2':

'l' .". • .'. \ , ' . 1···· " ,.,: ~. ,'. ' •. ,'. '. I,', .' 1:. _ ': - ... 1".. '.' .' • ,Ii ~.1!!; Ii! ' .... , " .' .,;' . ,"

(d ld depression) h · f h 111 'Ii 'h d

_' ,ule to wor u ',' epressron ,'I t',e recurrmg grant 0" t ne university had

been reduced by lO%~ .. ~.~I run glad to announce that we have decided, to make this restoration for each of the three universities Aligarh, Banaras and Del hi .. ~r'95

For the development of the unversity there' was aneed of so'me more lands to start, other important courses, For that purpose Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad then Vice Chancellor of the university appealed to the government to give:' the Al igarh fort and its ad] oining areas. The Archeological department of the govt, of India transferred the fort and, its grounds tOI the university, TI1e university intended to open course on animal husbandry in, the fort area .. 96 In 1943 university intended to start a scheme for research in fisheries. The Director of fisheries u-'p:, also approved the scheme T' ~ he ditches of the Aligarh

,( '", ",. '_, u . , ,_,' ., " ' ,,' ~" ',' ", _' . " , " __ "

fort were to provide an ideal place for breeding fishes not only 'for experimental purposes but also as' a means to large scale fish, supply'

- !i;- h d II hb '", distri c- -" ,0; III h II' ,Ii

to Aligarr an"," ncignoounng districts. Tile unrversrty sought permrssion

to U, ,s':e--,- t"h-· e ditch e--s-' a n': d t[-, 0" C, a rry 0"- n' 'S,,- om ''-',e- necessary m as 0·, mary r 'W'O" rk

.. :' .: .. l..... , . " __ II l' ,"1.,' _. , , ••• ,', • _ • :' "', ' __ ,' '. • .• ' _ •••. ~ '"_ ... '_ '.'. ,_:. • ..r _'

.

for the said purpose." The government approved and informed the'

university authorities ";o'B ~.uulliversity may occupy and repair two modern bunglow in the fort for the' use of officers of the university, The 'university' shall have the free use of the land attached to 'the' fort for agricultural purpose including maintenance of the cattle, The

- d' " he ri h ke i ;;

government of In lia reserves to' themselves t····,e right to'. take into Its

control the fort premises at [any time' 'with one year's notice."?" So the fort was granted to the university and the university was free to' 'use the fort according to its wishes,

Ma 'n'·'y," new dcp artmcnts and c ourses 'W,':-, ere opened in', the' AMU'

_" - _. ,'. .' I . '- . . j • , •••• _ _ • • ,': .' •.•• ... ..".:.... I -. ,', "_., _ '. . . , .. " ,_, ~ - - _

" -

during the Vice Chancellorship of Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, The classes

ofJournalism were opened in1938: on experimental basis. It attracted

A MUIAn' Educational & Politi-cal history 1920'-4,7'

54

.• or

w , ~ large number of'students" Military": Drill \-v.as made co·m'p~I"~ UtSO~1

~. .. _ " !J.."J

.. '.39 for the students of' .1 st year and 2nd year classes and in 1940

, ~as extended to the 111 & IV year .classess as well.'?' Regular __ ses were started in. Agriculture as optional subject for the nediate examination. In 1. 94·4" an Agricu tural College was opened _ ~ ~ vhich university had eceivcd a gra nt of RS .. 200IQ,Q' from government

di A C I !:i, d d .. r

__ .m _ ra, '.. regular Commerce course was a so introc uce as optional

~ : bject for Intermediate examination. In 1944 this department 'was

.ised after receiving a donation ofRs, 50!0·00 from Haji Mohd, Sahab Siddique.!'" In 1'9'46 the department of Commerce was established and reorganised 'by Mr, S ... MtSlla·fi. ~02 Geology course was also started ~ 1944 and it was hoped that this department would develop into a

egu ar department of Geology as soon as class room accomodation ~ ould be available.'?" By the effort of Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, AM'U iecame the center for conducting examination of City .an .. d Guilds of . ondon . Institute of which Ragistrar was the Local Secretary, 1-04 In ~ 19'4,4-.supple.meIltary· and compartmental examinations were introduced in tile university as recommended by the. 'Central Advisory Board of

Education.'?'

In I 944 radical changes in the university were, introduced. 'TI1e ac'uJty system was started in the universtiy, The Deans were appointed as head ofthe faculties, Nawab Sadar Yar Jang Bahadur was appointed . IS Dean of Theology, Dr, S .. Zafrul Hasan of Arts" Dr .. M' .. Babar Mirza .' Science and K .. B. Abdur Rahman of Engineering .. HJ6 In. the same .... ear the work. of "PV'C was distributed among the Deans and Provosts head. ofthe residential halls) 101

Dr .. Ziauddin Ahmad got an opportunity when the World War II started. He opened many new departments with a view to help the Emergency Commission, Several hundred students were sent out for Emergency Commission and more than a. thousand war technician I~ -erc trained. Ever since the war broke out in September 193·9 the VC

of AMU made 'Military 'Drill 'I, compulsory for all students ofuniversity

ive sta'ff members were sent to Dehradun for the training in military' ~,. urse .. ,108-

On. the representation of" the VC the Governor ofLl.P .. appointed . _ ecial Provincial Selection 'Board :for Aligarh students and also mctioned Rs .. 70'0/- p·er month for .' he appointment of'a special officer _ train. candidates 'for Emergency Commission, ,A. handsome grant ~ Rs. 1500/~ as pr,om.pt payment and RSG 1010,00/-- annual y, alongwith ~.;:A grant of U~,.Pi Governor, enabled the univestiy to organise a regular ~ _. artment ofMilitary Training in 1942 on the lines of the pre-cadet ~ '1001 of Bombay' and Madras, This department was 'put under the srge of Mr~.WfEC~, Qauyle, Ex-Professor of Physics in the: university

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 1920-47

of Rangoon an td a~' n Air Pilot ~09

. ,_ '. " '.' . '., l _' _ Il. _' . ill!

In 194 i as per requirements of the war, arrangements were made

.c. d' - Ii d 'Iii. f" . 'hi h .' · Th

tor educauon an, training 0, the te'c nucrans .. '. ", 'e' government gave

grants for that purpose and appointed an experienced officer to train the: technicians. 'Th,e Labour department of government of India also granted Rs .. 27000/- for residential perpose of technical students.Dr.

A b dk .h 'hi L b 'M'I!! III '} id h c dati f h"

, m :-,e .. , ar t "~e t ~ .en La iour Munster al. t "e foundation stone o i the

hostel. building .. On the representation ofthe Muslim members of the Central Assembly " Aligarh was included as a c·entre in a scheme of training to war technicians, The ce,ntre was located in th,e Engineering College of the university, To this course mostly poor students were

d .. d" Aft" I" h·' 'i!!., h .. b · diff

[a mittedrAl .er comp eting their trainmg t iey got j'OIS In ditterent

factories in India, uo

10-- }, 9','3:9";'" a Flying Club w' a,···s" established and Prince of .. 'B-;'e'ra····f' laid

•• ' _" ,'. _", ~,' • '_ ':" "., ••.. '.' .'.~.",,:, .',' 1[1, r~ _. -_ ~~ • ',I .', 1., .. __ ' " . .t. ,'_.' ;1 .',. . .•.• _. '_ ._ _._ ",

. . _-

the foundation of .a,n aerodrome .. But due to the war the schem,e

remained in obeyance. In, 194,3 the dream was fulfilled and a special school for 'Indian Air Training Corps' was started in ,AMU'I NO'W Aligarh got the distinction ,o'f being the' 'first university to start such

h I T- "he oneni +, d 'I- A'" V' iF M h - 111"

sc 00",. ' ... e openl.ng c,erem:ony 'w,as perJ.orme. tiY ... ~ : lr:JC,e ":1 ars.,a!.

AI,B.,C~ Collier on 13th Feb, 194,3~ 50 students were admitted to this course .. They were given a scholarship ofRs.20/- per month alongwith one and half rupees by way of' holiday pocket money, At the same tim - - th Y w er-e allowed t - contir ue their ed cation in th e unive rsit y , J.'~e· :u.e_,,: !","_: ~:, .Jl,:::':~'~ '0'- "<,1' n I' , ,'" ' .. , U:,,-· ',:' ~,\,'_,' . .r '. :<\':'l_~"~

At the suggestion of High Commander Majumdar and other representatives of the Air Headquarters, the Managing Committee of the Engineering College introduced course of instruction, in 'Aeronautic

. -_ '_

Engineering in November 1. 943 as an alternative subject in the

curriculam, Five planes were received 'from, Air Headquarters for instructional purposes but a workshop fitted with hangers was yet to b 'b'" ilt HI.· ... " - ," t'h' "" ter , ', .. " - .. '.', - .. ' .',' :' of tlu - . 'ill , -C,,',' "'t-· w'e"'"'''' u'" ed

e I 111, .. ' owever " e emporary rooms 0 :;;e: unrversrty were _I,S"·-,,

for purpose, 'I]] Among all the Military departments the Navy could, not become successful in Aligarh as the place was far away from tile sea. The theory classes however were regularly conducted.l"

A' the ",,-, -- ,",,' i . :"' .... ' ," -erything '-:',',~.', sible -c: ,·d·1 ,-, onceivable

.s me war wave was on ever, ,,In,~'' POSSl, e [an .. C,O cei ao ,

W-as done and achieved in the U' niversity -' In view" of the' war emerg -,ency"" t

, • " _, '. • '. _. ....' "__ ~ . , ' ' " ,II! ' , , , '. _ . .. ", ' .. ~ , . ,

the duration of course was reduced on the recommendation of the Managi ng' Committee of'Engineering Co llege. 'r ~ 3.

Fortunately when the office ofthe ,2nld U.T.C~ Battalion shifted toAligarh the strengt , ofU~T~IC. atAligarh was doubled .. This UjT~,C.

,-, l' Ii! h- '1 d h in imoarti "'''1 !I' 'I! , h

Batta ion nerpec very' muc " In impartmg mihtary training to the

university students. Services of science department of AMU had 'been placed at the disposal of the' government of' India for the' preparation of articles needed for the war purposes .. For the development of the

AMUIA,n Educational &' Political history 192'0,-47

56

~11"'-8.-·,- rt branches ,0":[- defen .. rc •. e ]<IOn-11 A:.·M.··U. 'olIo a M·:,. lilitary .... 'S'-' cience Institu te .. ···

,__ .' . 1. I ~'-_ .. .... _ . _ ... 1!, . -' . - . '. -'- "i' .... ' " '. -' . . "', - -' .

~-- .'. tarred in Novemeber l'944~ It was known as Aken Luck nstitute

. I itary Science. These- departments were sometimes inspected 'e government officers .. ! In March, 1944 Commander in Chief .' .ral Aken Luck visited Aligarh and after inspection af al branches

- ~i efence education at A'MU expressed great satisfaction.'!"

In the beginning of the 'World War II university faced a legal . ~ b- em in opening the different defence branches. But on .27th Feb. - - 3 problem was solved when the Central Assembly passed Mr ..

- ~ I · •• I~ Tyson's (Secretary of Education, Health and Land) bill to amend .

. AMU Act, .M· ,. 'Tyson's' bill sought to enable the university to odify its ordinances expeditiously and, provide special course of' ~ dy for the interested students .. ] '15

The university authorities were perhaps confused in thinking that ~ ,~ e British government was quite friendly with them. SOlOn 21 s~ May -, 9--3,.~, the VC ofAMU Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad delivered a touching speech.

Ie said "'We, have' assembled here today to celebrate the victory of . .llied Forces in thefirst stage of the war, The Musalmans felt greatly ~ elieved at 'the termination of Italian hold. in, North Africa.i., The .iversity has sent out about. 700- students in Emergency Commmission

.. ~ d they have all gone with the firm resolve that they would take Burma back 'from Japan and will release our countrymen.i.J n,QW ~ ive a, small contribution of Rs .. 5'OOO/~ towards the, war efforts and,

......

. d 0· .. · 'V e"" r' tl . ... c' 'hl e' q e'·' to' t'he-' Ch" a~ rna' n "I 16 -

" an::,,:~:·,., .... le. ,'.' " U -'-: .' '.: '.1). '~': "-.ITI, ._ ':,., .

In the mid way when, the development measures were being ndertaken, Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad resigned form the post of' Vice ='.ha:ncellor.ship in. 947 due to some disturbances .. Nawab Mohammad =~ mail Khan took over as V'C on 20th October 1947.11.1 He W3.S a aowned politicain and a well wisher of the community,

__ edicsl Colleg,e

The moment the MAO 'College was elevated to the status ofthe ~ iiversity, the' Muslim community had been urging to establish a i edical College for the benefit of students interested in medical line, . 1923:, Mr, Nur Mohammad ofBhera wrote to PVC,. Dr. Ziauddin ~ hmad and requested him to make all efforts for starting a Medical . llege in AMU .. He too thought that it 'WO'uI d provide good career for _ in gmen as only' smal fraction of them could get admission in. the -:,ting Medical Colleges of India.!" The old boys from each CO'1l1or

~ India too appealed to the AMU' aurthorities to open a Medical

- '. ge 1 19'B'ut' the effort s to' cs ta b ··'1'· - h M'- dical C' 'olh ge -c' 'e .. ···· slo w due

.. e·· ', '. ,"':' . -~.' It '~ .' •. ':-::' . - .: IS f L. " e'.·II, ," .. 1. ' ,: .'.' e:<,:, W : fie :_., '.:, '.1' ~

the pau city of fu nds It required a hu ge amount of mon ey" for Its

~ _I. ',".' , .. ', _.:: '. = . ..ll,. ' "iI " "'_'. .. .. _ .• ':. I. ":'::::': r ':. 'I. ::: _ ' ., <-:-:: ~~"'._ .

__ blishment, 'When, Dr. Ziauddin Ahamd became Vice Chancellor

A'MU/An Educational & Political history' 192'0:-4'7

-

second time in 1941,. Sir Agha Khan donated a sum 0'[ one lakh rupees for establishing a" Medical College .. 12o By 19·44 all amount of thirty lakh rupees was collected for that purpose.'?' Under the guidance of Dr, Ziauddin many delegations consisting of students and teachers toured the country and Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad himself visited b·i.g· cities like' Bombay and Calcutta to' collect donations 'for the: Medical C . 'oll e·g·e· 122 T': h e M' .... :. usl i rns resp ended . g' .. en era" usly to the a P pe "a'" '1' "or fun d " S"·

'- ' ... 1 .. '.' .".. • •• ".1 .. ' ... ",'. ". ".' . _. ._" ... _ ..... ' ... ,. ',.: "'.' . "'. . . ... .- - .. 1.'.. . e- ' '. [ .. '

and by the end of' 119416 a sum of 4,41aJm of rupees had been collected

hi h"- 1 d d th d t· f" 1 0-' 1 k' h II! 'b-' h' N'!l1

W'-lC, inctuc ec i ce donation 0.-' .u . akns rupees given"Y' t\"e :1' izam

of Hyderabad. 123 'Till the endof 1947 over 50; lakhs of rupees were

".' ~l,'" ted ..c;"th--I"· '," h' .... ''', ,f" stablishir 1'M'·,,· d !ii' ... 'Ie' ',.,. ',}'.,,- "1 'C··''· ,'.: .. ',",,' ',',,- ,t -;.

COl, eCi:e lor ",e purpose o es a 1S mgrv e . ucan, ouege.Consequen ,y

a plan for the faculty' of Medicine was submitted to the government 'of India for .its approval.'?'

Like the Medical College there was a lot ofhue and cry from the muslims for establishing .. a Technical College in Aligarh University ~ A student ·of Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad worte a letter informing him that in 'Iata Technological College students from a.11 the universities were given admission excepting from that of Aligarh University H~e therefore, m .. ade an earnest appeal to him to, open a Technological College as

soon as possible, 125 .

In 1924 university had made a provision for the teaching of technology. Accordingly Academic Council approved to open three:

b h f t II< /1) t" d C'~ · (2') El rr'I' h !II'

rae cs 0';- techno og,y VI.Z, (, ,I., App 'le.':' I. ::llemlstry'·.·':"., ._' ectro 'Iecl me

(~)Civil Engineering. In Civil Engineering it was prop'osed to provide teaching only in diploma course ... us But the real beginning could be

d I'" 19'3· 5 11 T 'h" 1 "I ., - . d >ill h . h

rna e ony In" :~'-',_ wnen a, .iect uucat .nstitute was starte ~ .. In t . "e' mont ~:.

ofNovember. Consequently this, institute started two courses i.e .. the Electrician course and Foreman course having 20 students in each course.By 1'93,7 the Institute was having the following courses .. ~27 (I) Diploma course, three years course for F .. Sc boys.

(2) Foreman course, three years course for matriculates,

(3,) Electrician course of two years duration for boys of e: ementary knowledge of vernacular and arithmatic,

(4) Motor Mechanics course of two years duration for boys o flo. elementary knowledge: of Urdu and Mechanic,

Additional part time courses in Telegraph, Signalling' 'and Driving ofmotor cars were also started.!" In '193? Sir Agha Khan arrived at Aligarh alongwith Nawab of' Rampur, Sir Agha Khan donated one Iakh rupees for Engineering College, Nizam Hyderabad also donated same amount and Nawab of Rampur donated one lakh and two thousand rupees.?" The College of' Technology made satisfactory

A 1·'1·fj:·,lJ·~l(~n'· Educational ,&/ P olitical history .: J .. 9' ·2:0'.- .... ,4··.·' 7,.'·':

lVlJt ... In _ L.'. ", ' ••• ,.- ••• " ._. I' • ~ •• _", __ • • _- •. ,' ••

58

progress from the date ofits foundation .. In '193,8, 23 students appeared in the City' ," and Guilds examinatio n of Electrical Engineering 11",7.-' of

I . _ .. , . ~ . : . .: . , . . . '. _ . : ... ' ': . , . ~. . ' ... ,..: ,1." ' ': : .:_ , '.. • " .._ ( : ,,', 1 _. • :: '. I ~! _ .. ~.' '. .' " "I ., I

. .

.hem became successful. ~'30 In 19,40 the government approved the

opening of"BM'SC, classes in Eletrical and Mechanical Engineering, 1311 In. 1941 Nawab Kamal Yar Jung inaugurated the Agha Khan workshop, ~32

A· . .., I" '8· '.'. S," . .' , C·' ,I '.: ,"I E' " - ,"' " .' ' . .,,~ ''T' . t . .' d -:' t h . ..... . .' .' '" 133

S a resu t ~ .,',C 1[1 . .J'IV : .n.,glneerln,g was s arted m .. e same year, .

In '19,4·2 the department of' Technology was transformed into the Co lege of , En, gin ,eer it' g. ]34 From then onwards the Engineering College required great reputation,

The U:~ P' go 'V: e f··n: .m e·" nt a" p 'p' .olnt e d a C:· om imittee un d e,··~··'r" M·:·· .. :· 1'"-·

.. I.~- ", ~ " j'. ' •.. l~ .~.' ',;,ir". ,_. I ," A· _ , . I, ,' ,', _. __ _ r

G kl h M'" t.,.,_ c. . bi·' hi I!' II' . iI f- A, doJ' d U ·

ora thnath Mishra tor estat hshmg institutions orAyurvedrcanc ". inam

system of Medicine in 1925: .. TIle committee visited many places in

h U ,"' d p- II' b Co f i h di d . '"' A- ,1II h

t e Io_: ite ;' rovmces but untortunatety t iey .' rc not arrive: at ~"',ljgar,i I ..

When the Pro-Vice Chancellor of the .t\~/IU was .. nformed about the proposal, he addressed a lette-r ,0 the President fo the committee and

., .,.,. - d th . t· . h .'. , " .... ': .r,. . d T-::; b . b'· "'~" C· ~ .. 'l'I~" '." . b : .... , ,,- .. , te b Iish . d t Al'~ arh 135

ul.,ge'; t~ ,a,I.,[e p,opo's,e' __ . l.:.·lya·o: ege:,e es,_.a '" 1~, ,~e',i, ,a:, ' .. Igar: '.,

P, rtu · .. uel 'p···'_····,-;iJd····' -',' ,t" of the ..... rnmitte M:- G-C-' xak hn th Mish -"-'1 o,llnaAe,,,,Y .r rest <·en,,: 0, ,i < e ICOmnl.l_ee rv r~, _.lora·' 'na· _ ,I " l~, ra

considered the propoasal of PVC and requested U "P .. government to

t iblish: T:"b··-b-·' - Colleze ut A···· 1~· . h 1-' '0'-':', ·t· b .', . 19"'2"F'7 the. .. ~', ... ity es a , IS_ a ,.: ·lya.:.,[o',~. e',ge a.''''Jlg,ar,,_,~ " ,1 ' ,', 'c. 0' er , ,,' .' I '" ~ e unr 'VlerSI ,1,_/

inaugurated a new deptt, ofUnani Medicine for which 'U .. P~, government had given a recurring gr .. ant of Rs, 5,0, ,0,,0,0/- p-er year .. 136 It was 'merely:

- -_. I ~ .:' • • ,._ _ ._ _ ", . "I ',:.: ._. \' _ _ -'. ,.. .' ., _.: •• _.. '-'.. .., •

d ..('0' 'U " M di '" Ii i' d b h AMU' d

a 1 eptt. or " inaru ~" e icme maintained .. y tne j'~",~1 , ano was no: yet

given the' status of the college. III the mean time it made great progress. A, laboratory with Xsray equipments and a collectior of pathological specimens enabled 'the students to receive training in, the latest methods

f d'" .'. - :Ii .. d -.,' ."'IJ 'T"h' ..' t· .. :' .,.'~ ~ - ~!"'II., . . = ,-.' '-. ,. - '~. d ' ith

[0 nagnosmg uescases. .. ie anotormcar musium was orgamseo WI',~ . .'!

a, large collection of models from Europe covering all tile svstems of

. ~. . ~

human Anatomy. The department of Physiology was also well

equipped.P? In order to achieve efficient functioning, Dr. Atau lab, Butt (earlier a Medical Officer of the' university and incharge of the deptt .. ofUnani Medicine also from the time of its establishment ) 'was

given exclusive charg e of the department.!" By this chang-e the deptt,

,. •• ~ , _,._ ~.. .-~., :,1" ". - - - . ... - ... '. - .. . [".;' .,. , _ '~,l - : . '. . '~'.' II

of Unani M' led r licine continued to' make rapid progress 13:9' ITn, 119··3:1· ..... 3"2'·':

.' ,' .. ",I _, . ,,_., _. . .&_. ,-' ... "'. ,1 ..... ,.· ,,~.. .' , .', '<. _"J[,. I'" "',~, ·,.rW'·,~ .! .' ~, '

the: svllabus of the Unani Tib was split in the following 'manner:

- '~

:, .§,I_ year - Fundamental principle of Unani Tib were taught ..

2 C Mil' -M' .', di (CU i) · 'l! 1 h

nc yea-_.' ourse on v atena lv 'edtca :., mann particular y u 'Ie

.~,":-.: ·1 ' d ':' ,'.,',:

srmpte c rugs.

,,',r-c year- General methodology (Unani ) general principle of tr e' a' t .' ent

.: :.--~'~ .. ~"m·:·· ,:-~ .. ' ~,

. t, M' dici (U i) (; 1 1 ]. d

',~ i~-II y .. ,a'_·~,I~·e( .icme "., , narn particularly syrnptomo .ogy ann

treatment of deseases.

59

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 192'O~47

Praetica classes data.

Year

N o. of cases .. d d examme- an.'.

tre at ed

n (". . ... , e 1 •••••• __

1 929§3·.30 193·0,-31

12 .. ··'8: '-0"

.' - :J!"

. "":J

'.' j ,

, . ..

17966

No, of minor No of dead

operation bodies dissecte

performed. bfore

students

II 425

1 by :8 students I by 11 student,

Examina t:a on (19310~31,)

C ass No of student Passed Re-examined Passed

appeared

Iyear 7 6 1 I

II,year'7 7 ,-- _,

IIIyear 19 17 - -

The above data is based on the session 1930-,311 when the students

were examined for three year classes and the fourth year class was not started .. l40 'The teaching work was quite' satisfactory' and, practical Pharmacy class in which compound drugs were prepared. under the supervisi on of Hakim incharge were regularly held. The examinations 'were conducted by Board of Indian Medicine. 1:4:1

Strength of the students increased and departments expanded.

F or this purpose as foundation stone of' new Tibbiya Col' ege Build ing was laid on 22 March 1936 by Prince' Azam Jah Bahadur, heir apparent of the State ofHydarabad.!" In 19,3,8· a 'few changes were made ion the syllabus as 4th and, Sth year classes were started from that time .. By this ti ne classwise course 'was: '[4.3

~ st year- Fundamental principle of the Unani Tib

2~.Dd yea ,.- -Mufredate & Qarobadin (Si:mple drugs 10'[ Unani Medicines & Unani Pharrnacoepea ) became the, special subject of this class; ap,art' from the lectures 0'1 the subject of preparation of Drugs,

3'rd, yea, ·~ ... General Pathology

14th year- Symptomology and treatment of deseases ..

5th year- Hummayat (Subject in which different types of fevers is taught) and Moalijat (Unani Medicine) of'Qannrn Shaikh (Canon. 0,'[ Medicine, a b100k of' Ibn-e ... ,:S,ina ) were daily taught which completed the Unani section ofthe Tib.

It was matter of great satisfaction 'for the students of Unani Tib that in 1939~ 'U9P~ government took 2,5 Diploma holder Hakims from Aligarh for rural dispensaries in U .. P 144 In 1943 the department of' Tibbiya was granted the status of a College to be maintained by AMU. Its 'course's of study and examinations were henceforth regulated and controlled boY the Academic 'Council of the university.':" After 19'44

60'

the status of the college was raised, to Degree College. ~46

Me' ··d· ,~-:-al" D'-~' "e'-"p- B'" . If' , men

- _ ,. . - '. ,I .. ', ., .. ' " I

I . -.- .', :.." .' • '. . _ '. . • j' _'" • ".' ~ ~ .': • • ~ _'

'For the health care: of the: university sutdents, a first. class Medical

d . , ._. rtr .. · .: - 't- . - ,'.~. . st ~~ b .. I' ~ sh ,.- d .-. d'·' -. th·· .'. .. - - id -'. -.' .. '- --f' I: M' " . '-dl '; ']' O' ff -' ...... -. " ,epa - Inen" was es:,a, 'I,S .. , e' .. , un,. er -. e gu"~,,_:_,,ancie Q,e ,a .' .e,J,c,a,., _ leer

Dr, Ataullah Butt, When, Tibbiya department was established he also took charge of the Headship ofthat department, This naturally affected the' efficiency of this deptt, as a result the post of Prine ipal was created 'in- 'l9·_·3·-·· 0:-; se P ·,a·c ra .. ·- ting Tibbiya CO~i I I 'e:g .. e fr 'om ~ Medical depart men t. Dr

'_' f:- .-_,._: ':. , , ':. .. ' " '. ":.:: " 1 ~.' ;,., "," ".' " .' .. 1. ,", _ -. , ,.,': ',~, ••. • .• Ii

" - . . .

Ataullah Butt assumed the exclusive charge of the Tibbiya College as

P .... - - .. ,'" ·1··' ·d·' D--"" M' ',', ... ' .... - .... ,-c. M' ." 'D: D:,' P':'H,' be ," ..... -.-' .-,' the '. h "1 . tim -·,'M·'-" ed ,"',-, I rln,clpa ani, To;:" aos,oar, '. ~,.,:.-.',., .... '",. ,"-e,cam,e:~, ew,/,o e Ime_·e-,I,ca

Officer of theu: iversity, :147 From that time Medical department continued to do good work under the direction of Dr, A.,R., Mansoor.!"

Wom~n' s leallege

Shaikh ,A bdullah may be' cred ited for initiating the work of women's education inAligarh .. He formulated, the idea of starting ladies school in 1 ,902 but the: actual work of collecting donation was started after the Educational Conference at Lucknow which was, held in 1903 ~ Shaikh Abdullah started a journal "Khatoon' in 1904 in Aligarh propagating for women's education so tar abhorred, Through this

journal th,e ladies carne out with 'writing about their social problems .. 14-9 The.'. ournal Khatoon carried the message to the ~ adies of'the respected 'families. This finally ledto establishing a ladies school at Aligarh, Her I" ighness Begum ofBhopal gave: donations 'for it .. Some ofthe important ladies made a movement and collected funds for the school, Many

, .

st ud ents of th-'I'-,e·.-' M'· :'A""-O-: ..... C . olleg e a '~S:-'O"" res .. ·p·· onded to the ca ]-'1' a In, d join e' xl t 0"

_ ' _:'. _'I _._ .• t_ ".' '... ." ,.. • I '_.... ._ '. '., ,1-, .. ~;" ' " 1" .... ]· .. : , . _l:--. -.... .. ':' .. ~' _ . 1.-;-. • ,-' I .' _:l -. • ._'. '-.- ._.>

collect do. ations from Kathiawar, Bombay, Hyderabad etc~ Abdur Rahman Siddiqui, Khan Bahadur Buniyad Husain, ZahoorAhmad, Abur Rahman Bijnori also participated in these tours for donatins. Even Syed Mahm "0·'-0' d toured d iffere 'nt a: reas and co- lle cted do nations 1:S;(~

'_" .. -: _" . ..:., .-,_ .. .. ., ~ '_. e : ._ .. '-.'a •.•• _._ ·_·.~~'l.': '.'.,' ': ";_:_ '.,(.··.·,1·.,.-.'.·.· " .. .1" _ ,'.!.']iij!Ii

In June '19,06: Shaikh Abdullah, sent a letter to Lt. Governor of U'.P4 informing him about the plan for establishing a ladies school in, Aligarh, He appealed to grant money for the' same, He also requested to see' 'him with a delegation on 2nd August 1906 for the meeting, Shaikh Abdullah sent names of Nawab Mohsinul Mulk Nawab Mohammad Faiyaz Khan; Maharaja Mahmoodabad Raja Tasadduq Rasul Khan, Nawab Muzammilullah Khan" Sahibzada Aftab Ahamd Khan. Raja Naushad Ali Khan, Maulvi Mohd, Nasim Advocate and Khwaja Ghulamussaqlain to the Governor, But on the appointed day only three 'persons namely Raja Naushad Ali Khan, Maulvi Mol d. Nasim and Khwaja Ghulamussaqlain reached with Shaikh Abdullah, With reference to Begum of' Bhopal, Shaikh Abdullah said that Her

61

A,MUIAn Educational & Political history 1920 .. 4'7

Highness had .. granted donations and desired to get the assistance from. government. The government permit ed to' start the school but asserted that monetary gra t would be released only after a sat" sfacotry '. n - uiry b.y the government.' 5l

From 1 :9'07 a regular school for girls 'Alas started. Its first lady teacher was Akhtari, Begum Abdullah Waheed Jahan and her two sisters Sikandar Jahan and Sayeed Jahan also started teach.ing in that school, Sedans were arran .. ged to carry veiled girl students 'from nearby areas. Within t fee m .. onths form the inception of'the school, 50 students were enrolled, A government inspector came 'for a'n enquiry and gave satisfactory report t.OI the Governor ofU.P The' Governor in order to: fulfil" the p .. omise granted Its ... 17 thousand for building prupose and. Rs - 2~··.5-·-0" I month ly· fo .. ·r·· sch 0'--:0"") 15'2. The gov ... _ ern m··-'·e·n.· ·t· gra m ··t- ra ise d the hop e"-

~ " ,_.: r •••• I .. '.', l~·. [':'., ~ ~_.~._ ., r _J _> _1: 1'_,1,._, _=' __ '.11 ,',1',,:. ~ .. ~ _. 1_ ' .. :

" , -' : . .

ofShaikh Abdullah and he became sure that this primary school would

be raised to a, college in the near future, But it was not an easy task, He facedmany difficulties in persuading tile people to send their daughters for his school. At this juncture Begum Abdullah played .. key role: in convincing the mothers of the girls, On the other side, those who were against the gi rls education started creating' problems in the works of Shaikh Abdullah. They condemned and, committed absurdities in order to harass Shaikh Abudullah.l" But he continued to work

d hi ] a hom to h '.1,.. SI ikh Abd 1-:1 h

towart S : ._IS goa, WIt. ~ out canng t ie cnncism .. Snaixr ,,'- ... ~'.' ','U .Ia ,:

purchased a land of 14 Bigha from Nanak Rai by' paying a meagre 'amount of Rs, 1950/ ... It 'was a very big garden and Shaikh Abdullah sold only woods worth ofRs .. 51100/ ... and for this money he purchased another surrounding land for the school .. In a very few year Shaikh Abdullah was able to secure fO·11.y acre land for the: school. W 54

In 1911 when Shaikh Abdullah intended to construct a, new permanent building for the school" the opposition created hinderances once again. According to them the place for the building of girl's school was very near to the MAO College which would badly affect the college. They started back biting Nawab Viqarul Mulk. Nawab Viqarul Mulk met all. those persons who were opposing Shaikh Abdullah. The leaders of'opposition were Sir Arche Bold, Principal of tile college and Dr .. ZiauddinAhmad. The Principal said ".1 shall :resign

if that school will be built. ,., He further said "Muslim girls school near the, college would cause depravity for 'both the institutions, I am sure that for this reason both. the institution will be defamed.' Dr, Ziauddin

d d· t '. "" "" I- .. ,.. ii" : d b hat tl 1 iilI-

see,Q·n. e·,·.:. the r nncipars o.plnl.On saylng . ,'. oubt tl: ali the peop' e Wi· .

sent their girls in view of the nearness of the col ege, ,',:e shall have

no' objection if the school be b uilt on th e o-··t: aei 5-.:101, e of the city .",

.. ' '. ,- .' .. I. -._ . - I '. ~ _. . - _" ~ '.. - .. ' ,. . • .. ..It.,. _'" ',' . ., '. ' . ~ . - , ". _ , ".:' 'II

',- .. .

Sh a' iikh -, A'- bd UII' llah ga v· :e' . a P-.' , Ie a'; tha " mo st 0: ,f' th e staff fm em "b: e rs are II ivin .g-

',' " _ !.' .. • • '. • • _ .•• _ _ .•• ~. '" _. '. _'. '.. .'.1.. . [I .". I. ". _ _ '_ 1I!o.J:. " 1. • I ... ' ,J, .1.. . '_",:', • .~. ~. • _ •

. ' -

with their families in the college campus and no difficulty arose out

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 1920-47

.62

- it, then to what harm it could, cause if a boarding house was going be biuilt one and half miles away from the college. On hearing this. - rgumcnt of Shaikh Abdullah the opposition became sile it and Nawab 'iqarul Mulk gave judgement in 'his favour.!"

At that time the Governor of U ~P. was Porter, So", on 11 th : ovember lvl l the foundation stone 'was laid by Mrs. Porter .. At that :me many' chiefs" noblemen, Talluqdars, staff' of' the .MAO College, indus, Muslims and Christian ladies . were present .. After the ceremony . haikh Abdullah decided to construct the building, at first the 'boarding rouse, because it 'was the first requirement of the students coming _ .om the: very distant areas ofthe country, Shaikh Abdullah collected . .orty thousand rupees 'from. the donations and. goverment also granted ~D thousand ruppes for that: purpose, From this sixty thousand rupees,

'he construction of the, boarding house completed in 1914,. Now : longwith Hakim .Ajmal Khan and Sahibzada Aftab Ahamd Khan, Shaikh Abdullah requested 'Begum of Bhopal for inauguration and on . 4th, Feb .. 191 4 the inaugural ceremony was held with great pomp and show .. ·w 56

Shaikh Abdullah facedmany difficulties as no parents were ready o lodge their daughters in the boarding. But before' lodging their ~ aughters they 'wanted to be' assured about the proper functioning of .he boarding house, They were also concerned about the observation

if pardah system .. Shaikh Abdullah said that only gents water carrier and sweepers (Bhangi) would be' allowed to enter the boarding house .. 00, the 'very :first day only nine' girls were admitted in the boarding 'louse. Among these girls three werle the daughters of Shaikh Abdullah, . " ther three were' the neices of Begum Abdullah one was the; daughter f Shaikh Abdullah's friend and the remaining two 'were' persuaded

Iy Begum Abdullah .. , Begum Abdullah herself began 'to live with the ioarders in the boarding house, Gradually the number of boarders started increasing and many parents got their daughters admitted appily in the boarding house .. l,S7ln due course of 'time the' functioning f the: school became very smooth ... The number of' girls increased ..

For the first time in. 1916 ... 17 three students appeared in, the middle ass ex' a:' m in ; a, t ion ~ 5:8

L' .' .', ", •• ~. ", I .,!" _. ',L __ L:__' 1 ~I'

The students 'further demanded that arrangements Sl10U.ld be made -r martic classes. But the resources 'were' too meager to appoint ew teachers, 'Shaikh Abdullah however, secured the donations from .izam of Hyderabad, Nawa of Tonk, Nawab ofBahawalpur, Nawab - Jawara ·etc. and then requested tile government to raise its. annual

G' oi. di I' ,., d '. .&;; h th d

- mt, 'ov'ernm·e ,~t immediately ral .. se,'", Its grant trom t··re'e thousan '

: 'i,g'ht thousand rupees .. As the monetary problem, being solved Shaikh ~ dullah [appointed qualified teachers, For the first time in 19.2,1 six

AMUIAn Educational & Political history .l92'a~47·

- ......._ ...

students appeared in matric examination .. The school, then 'was raised to the status of" Muslims Girls ,High School?"? Shaikh Abdullah in order to solve the residentail 'problem requested Nawab Muzammilullah Khan for help. Nawab Muzammilullah donated Rs;7'O'OO/- to construct the residence of four lady teachers and this building, later on, was denominated after the name oflate daughter ofNawab Muzammilullah

'K" 'h,'" '-, '~60 I'''' '}- 9: 2"'5"" d - .. -' - - tlu .. , b ,'''1- :-. ',- '. -:-,'-1-,' -b" .-. ,., .-- f .h ,- ~"- 'io ,,---." -, "-'ft-- --

,>, ian. n I', '-'.' aunng tnejum ee ce ebrations 0' the umversrty atter

a prolonged debate girl students were to listen the speeches from behind the curtain at the instance of Shaikh Abdullah who became the

f' - .

pio,ne'er of libration of Muslim women by virtue of his great efforts .. 161

T'h',-- -'·'-1· stude "'t·: "-. -,' ,I " .,,---'~ -',--'" d t iartici -,·'te':-- ~- .. - .tra .. .s.: "J'-.ne gin S_U.-_ en s were atso encourager 0 par icipate In extra carncu ar

activities, 162

In 1-,9"'2"',6-·" one girl student of this scho '0-1 appear e,d" in Interm ediatc

.: ",". ., • .' '. _ '.' ",' ~._ '. • • j.. "'. L" !.,' ",' . '",' " " '.' ._.: _ :~.". . :. . , :', . I , '. '~_ 1. _'.' '", . ,'.', I .: ". ',I'.' .:. "

examination from U,.Pi' Board and thereafter many students appeared

- ... - - -." L --- t· - ,--- , -, ~ _. )' 9?9 th '-. -, - ·'h· ,I ' _- -- ", . ....:1 t - lit' -.' __ - . d '~ t . every year, .... a fer ,on m rvzv, rne S'C __ 'OOI was rarseo '-,0 -n terrneatare

College and was recognised by'U'IP~ Board. Shaikh, Abdullah, however wanted its affiliation with the Muslim University, In order to affiliate the college, university made a provision, 0'[ Rs, lOO/-, as annual grant, Hence from 1930. the college got affiliated to the Muslim U niversity, leGS)

W- ith t h ~. ""~" -, 'If- .. igt h ' fthe 't--' d' rt it --,_ .£'1-'-' ---' ". - -, ,__ 1.',' u e mcreasmg streng __ I 0,. " e S_'U,_' en, ,S, 1-, was lee t necessary

to, start B.A. classes .. This could only be done 'by raising necessary'

ii' ,,- d . ' 'd'-' ,--- .- kit _ ". __ , , -, "" ' .... - mt ~ 't-" -. .hin ~64 unns anu mai mg proper artagement lor reacnmg.:"

In 193,5:, the Muslim Educational Conference was held at Rampur, It was presided over by Syed Husain Bilgrami, an eminent officer of Hyderabad State. Shaikh Abdullah also attended the conference and put up ,I lis, proposal for opening a Degree College for the girls at

AI"~' . rh M'-"-- '-- - d --1' '. rtes -. - rt- d the ',-,- -, -. ' '-J '165, H" -. - -, it ,-_,,'

., Ig.ar ',;0 ,.[ any . e ega es sup'p'O'.,: ,ei. tne :prop,osa ~ ",', ,o'we:ver,,! I, was

not accepted. Shaikh Abdullah unfetterd by the conservative attitude of the muslim intellegentsia continued his effort, 'wrote articles highlighting the need 0'[ encouraging higher education among the:

- ~

Muslim .girls.~66 When Sir Shah Mohammad Sulaiman became the

next Vice Chancellor, Shaikh Abdullah finally succeeded in getting, his approval for the Degree College .. The' , niversity granted 'Rs~5000/annually 'for the coll;ege, in. 19'37'-38 and B~A classes were started."?

In 19[,3,8 the' Education Minister ofthe V,.P. government Mr.

S·- .'~-'" ., ,",',- N··'·'· d visited A'- liearh S>h' takh '- A:" bd rl'l h ,'-' iethi .-- ---, d --".-, -, 'C, --t·· d' -'. ampurna ,an." V1Sl_!:,'_· . '. 19ar_ .. '~:·" I" ...• r: ,_'.UI a'_,'_me . .tman< reques_e"

him, to visit the Girls College and, demanded a grant ofR·s~2000'O/ ... for the Girls College to built the Science laboratory, He appreciated the efforts of Shaikh Abdullah in 'field of glrls education and approved the

grant, 168. ":

Later on the university permitted th,e girl students to attend the 'pi'·,G, C', .lasses 1",'0: the university" and several other imp rovements

• ,1jI . 'II . ~ . . " ',' , ~. _ _ _ . - _ _.' . .., I _. .. 1', . - '. - i . -_ .

fo Ilo :w· »e ':d' 1.69'

l' ',' I 1.-': .: ~

A,MUIAn' Educational S: Political history ],920,-47

64

-

To accomodate the, Girls College in, the university and f.~G education ~ the girls in the university, necessary amendments in the, university , nstitution attempted. On SthNcvembcrHonourablc Mr, N~R~ Sarkar , rroduced a, bill to amend tIle Aligarh Muslim University Act to enble

__ e uni vers ity _, __ '11.0

i I to admit to its previledges a Degree College for women 'which it was proposed to organise at Aligarh and

:i) to confer degrees on passing degree examinations 'from. that college,

A' auf ," ',-" '" -fth. C' ru rr ,'1 'f'" State '~~- 'b" - "',

n au ornn session o me ',QU'nC,l! 0: "':,'" a es arso tiegan in

November in New' Delhi, In that session speaking on 'the motion for consideration of the bill to amend the Aligarh University Act, Sir _'_ ohammad Yaqub and Mr, P~N~ Sapru welcomed tile propsoal to organise Degree College for women, to' be affiliated to the university,

'andit Hridaya Nath Kunzru while not wishing to oppose the bill, - aid that he would have preferred ifgirls were to receive education in Aligarh Muslim Unversity in the same way as boys instead of being in . separate college. The establishment of such a college, he felt, would be in contravention ofthe principle underlying the Aligarh University,

hi h '"'t hinz universh Tl bill d ith

w :IC,': was a, unitary teac ung university .... ne r 1,,:1 was passed wrtnout

fu rther discussion. 171-

Faced with monetary problem, the Girls College with a meagre grant of Rs. 510001- per annum from the university" Shaikh Abdullah ':', ought it: proper 'to, get it de-affiliated from the university and make

p a, provincial college so as 'to' get. full grant from U.~P~, government.

This was done with the help of Dr, Ziauddin who 'was at that time, the member o,f the Provincial Assembly, He put u .. p the metter before Assembly and empowered the university to cancel affiliation ofthe Muslim Girls College .. From, that time the Muslim 'Girls College became

., provincial college maintained by the 'U.P~ government .. Now Shaikh, Abdullah made effort: to get much more grant from the: U .P, zovernment. III 1 :944 U .P, govt, sanctioned eighteen thousan .. d and ~ve hundered rupees (Rs 1. 85,00/-) for the college, A Managing :ommittee for the college was elected for managing the college and :: is system continued till the time ofindependence. In 19,44 tile strength,

Ithe college was two' hundred and twenty five but it increased rapidly zfterwards. 172

Till 1 '944:, there was a Women's Hall in A:MU for the admission of ',e women candidate in the M~A." B .. 'T~ and other higher classes in the iiversity, But in 1944:, the Women's Hall was abolished and the iversity empowered the college to give admission to the candidates ~~ectly .. The Executive Council of the university declared that the : stgraduate students for whom provision for 'the classes were not

...

made i .. n the women's college 'were allowed to, attend lectures in the university under purdah, arrangements. The Women's College was tc .p,ay the tuition fees of such students to the universityand no additiona fee w'ere charged .. ]73

The Girls School started in 1907 became a n,egree College and reached its peak in 1947,~ It was all due to the hard workand efforts of Shaikh Abdullah a111d Begum Abdullah .. Due to their affectionate attitude with. students th.ey were lovingly 'known as "Papa Miyan' and "Aala Bi"

The ,AMU' Act of 1920 made the: PVC principal academic officer 'but the relation between VC and PV';C, were not clearly defined .. As a result, it caused a lot of practical difficulties in the day to day working creating undue misunderstanding between them .. It was for this reason that tile relations between the first Vice Chancellor Raja of Mahmoodabad and P-ro' Vice Chancellor Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad got strained. The Raja of Mahoodabad, during his tenure of Viele Chancellorship (two years and two' 'months), had his stay in Aligarh for less than twc weeks. He had attended only nine. meetings of the Executive Council outof'Zx, In sucha situation the p'V'C, Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad had to carry all the burden of responsibilities. Even then the relations were far from cordial .. Besides, 'Raja of Mahmoodabad was not able to work as a regular VC because h.e was, too busy 'with his Ho'me Membership of United Provinces so he resigned from the post of Vice Chancellorship 'ill February '] 923 .. 114

In, December 191'23 Sahibzada Aftab Ahamd Khan was elected unopposed as Vice Chancellor, 'This could not improve the equation between the Vice Chacellor and the Pro-Vice Chancellor, consequently in. Allri I 19',25., Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad tendered his resignation but it was not accepted. Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad was requested to continue t.IQ work in the interest of the university. Actually the bittemess of'the relations was not due to only Raja of'Mahmoodabad and Sahibzada Aftab Ahmac Khan, Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad was also equally responsible 'for it. The Pro-Vice' Chancellor had formed a group of his followers from amongs the university staff and actively participated in Indian politics .. J7 Although he was a full time Pro-Vice Chancellor, .h,e was a member il the Central Assembly arid was permanently appointed member 0 many different committees. FlOI' that purpose he spent most of hi time for their work and went to, different places like Banglore, Dhaks Calcutta, Lucknow, Karachi etc,. In this situati on the other office bearer olf the university could not pay much attention to the universit functioning."? Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad's libral policy of admission an

A.1V/UI A.n Educational & Political history 1920-47' t

~ ieme of private examination and the system of SUp!pI: ernentary

,

rnpartmental cxai . ination was another subject of much

., 'ers.y.171

._ that time similar propaganda was be:·a: .. ng made against the ~.. P sit')' by certain. hostile elements. First and. foremost among them ------",- me Governor of U.P. Sir William Marris .. 11'8 The' other was Mr .. .. . renzie'?? the Director of' Education in United Provinces. Third the English daily ,,( Leader" of Allahabad .. Added to it was the _ .rp politics of the university, AI] these hostile elements alleged that

h hori he rules and I· fh .. ..

~~e. t te present [aut ronty t ne nues ani: regu anons or tne umverstty

"' e being openly violated and the standard of the university was _. g down.?"

No doubt the unversity was going through a dark phase, The ~.' orities instead ofimproving the' standard ofthe university" engaged msclves in setting' their personal differences .. Another dispute _ veen the VC and ·the administration. arose when the former asked _-I . eck the functioning of the exami .. ation .. The' administratior did

I'. allow him. to interfere.'!' It infuriated the VC against the P'VC Dr .. =--·.:ud,d~n .. All these differences encou aged govt, authorities to pay nention towards the university,

___ dullah Enquiry Committee

Shaikh Abdullah went to Lucknow for some purposes and heard . rumour that go vernm rent 'W" :3··S· about to a··p···IP··~O··"I~·n·C't .. : a C~O"'-"'Im'-"m' iission of

-.. .. , '';_ ,.' - , , .:. ,.:<."" ,! I., '. . ,' '::.< '. ".' '.:, '" .', '.' ' , _'. . , .. :-. ,', '. ._.

=- - _,uiry '0 investigate the university affairs .. Shaikh Abdullah returned Aligarh and informed the university authorities and suggested that __ - iversity itself should appoint an. enquiry committee immediately to - ove before the govei nment that the university authorities were 'not

.. aw·are of university conditions ... Dr .. Ziauddin opposed the idea 'but ~ spite of his opposttion an enquiry committee ·w·as formed .. Shaikh .

,

- dullah became the president of this committee and the other four

mbers were from amongst the university staff 'This committee : e to be known as ," Abd ullah Committee, ~u 182 Just after its formation,

iibz ad 'a':' Aftab Ah amd Kh a n--' wen t to" M····,:: U·· sso iorie d·!ue·· to h iis a ilm ent

.JL . ~l . : .. ' '':, ," " " . ',' .' '. ', ... '.. '_:_ •• t. ,_ .. I •. ,' .. -_. "" .. ,.-.' ....• : __ .. "," r ...... ~ .-!!II

- ~ ~,e'nty' two members of the /~. MU Court and most of the staff

- _ mbers includin .. g· Dr" Ziauddin gave their statements regarding the

t" f" h .. I ~ F'"' 1'1 .. hi h

~ctloning 0".' 1. e umversity. Fma y a report: was written wntcr came

". e· known as "Abdullah Committee Report' .. One of its copies was

Sahib d ,~. .' 'II Ii! . ' 9- 6 183 . hi

en to Salubzada Sahib 1:D Mussoorie on. Sept 4, l'·2·.'~· ..... In. ,:15 report,

.ong all tile recommendations, the recommendation about the - . issi on of students was quite considerable, It was said that the nssion ofthe students should b·e started from the month of'October closed in] November, and no student should be admitted afterwai ds,

.AlvIUIAn Educational &. Political history 1920· .... 47

!

The 'students 'were requested '7'5% attendance for a-ppe.'aring in -

exams, 'But as far 'as foreign students were concerned they' rn'ght

', .. !I! . -. . .. '. rt r . -: -.. '. '. ',.' ... ,.., . -','. ~ ", .-. d b .". a' d .... itte d t·, '~'ll' the e' - d of t h e" t rst te" "

gIven. ce ,·aIn [c·oncessl:o:ns an· r- e .~_·_m.1 ·1, . '." .. n .. " .. ', .1 ', r.

f - "" h d hi h '"' h h ~ h d ._

o the university .. T· te secon i. t .. mg wl I.C~. t: ie committee .' ac pau

attention was about the result of the examinations .. Because manv students were admitted witho'ut so\v\.\\g the\I re'sidentai\_ pOIb\ems They were bound ·tohtre rooms 'in, th.e city outside the unrversi :.

C·' i ',' :-'.' . ". B"'~ e .. '1." :.- '1· A·-·· bd I'~I', I'~ IC' '. .... . itt ..... R···· ,''' . rt o h ib -' r sr- ,' ds A'· ··ftl· .,L

. am.pus .... -~y tOlfwolng.,. U an .. omm nee ·epo. ua l_..za,:a"",.aJu

Ahmad Khan wrote 'a review (0 '. 319, pages) Ion the report and send ~ to the P.ro- Vice Chancellor Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad on .21 s;t ;Septmber 1. :92·6

To surn up of the review it was urged that there should not b any laxity in the matters of law even at the time of necessity and tru laws should take precedence over necessity."? Sahibzada Sahib alsc gave instruction about the admission of the students and the da.te oj admission was fixed. The: same was ordered for immediate implementation, He wrote ," you consider Acts and Ordinances without caring for the Regulations."! 86 Sahibzada a so accepted that th .. , Regulations which were against the Acts and Ordinances were being prepared by Dr, Ziauddin and placed before' the Academic Council but. as Vice Chancellor he had the right to veto those Regulations 'but he di d. not do so, that's why he was arso responsible for mismanagement. But ~ ow there was an urgent need not to epeat such mistakes.1.81'

Dr4> Ziauddi n ,gave· a very harsh reply to the criticism ofSahibzada

S hib 11 . ent .'- ,.'" s folh ,,', U'··f:'.· 'rt·· ,- te' th··, ... ·, .'''' .. '

~ a_.l, 'a ~ew seen- ences were as lO",OWS· . "~'."" -.:.nlO·':lunae V .. -IS time

_"J

you have been in ailment for' whole year and due to heart desease land

paralysis you are' unaware of the details of the university affairs, This point shows that you have made so many improper objections in your letter. Amongst :a11 of your orders mos of them are 'being implemen ed,"

"'1 remind Y'iOU, that in my absence WI, en I was in England you had droppedthe Regulations prepared by me and formed a committee to

, . -:" ,- .' th" -. '. I . ti '. . .. . . !' B"" &; .'. .-..,. tu .' ., . .- -- E - . '1' I th

prepare I.' : e regul_a' Ions agaIn" :~. elore my :re' ._' :nln,g .. om _",. ,g an.· .. ·e

Academic 'Council presided oy you had accepted most of' th Re gu 'c' ilatio i' s The :y" w·e. ere a ccepte sd co m" plete Iy by Ju n 'e:--', 1- 9···I2·;' an' :d' yo -

~ .,'. ,", ", • r _'-!IJ!~....! .' ,'," ~ ._~"."'.:. ',"_" ' . I", .• _:"._ ... '. i 11. __ ..... ,_,' ~-J .' -'_-'_ ~_'._

~~. " .

had an;·' mo m c··e·· d tha iti' by." 10": c:-4-o .. ibe r 19·· .. ,2· 5· .. L1lf:J;Y·· would b····e .. ·· im plern tented ,.

I.,.' '.. . .•... , '. _ ,:,'< ·.,,·t , .- ' u. ~ .. ',; 1:.- .',,' :.' .. 1.1:. "._'. '. ." ..

"1· . wi iter 1925' the practical life of the university \i4laS paralise due' to jubilee celebrations.i..; I am working on certain proposa which . edtc Ix "'.~"" ·1:[' ..... mted --., "1 "f-th':" .... ········ ..... al· · r ha '1: b·' ~ .. ·l··· "',,' W ucr n~el.: .o.-·e nnpremente ... ,. res 0." ie prop'o.s_· s s. ·a ..... e pace.

before the concerned Idep.a:rttn.en.tS.a."lS:S

S- - h- .. b - d A" fta b' Ahm d Kh' '( . , ill . - d fro . M- . , - f!i t A" l~ .

a iozana A '.'[':' .. .r ao r an re' rnec rrom _·;~.ussoorl·e,o :': 19l

on 16th Ocotber, 1926 at: the time of lOP: en ing of the university v. H

- . _ - - .. , .., .. .. '. - -' I • ':.' _. .' '

~-. 1- of Vice Chancellorship 'was abo t to end in December 1·926.~ He . ided to 'be o·n.e of the candidates for the election [of the Vice ancellor which was going to be held in December ·9'26·~ Sir Wi . .iam _ . rris Governor of'U .P~ suggested the name ofNawab 'Sir Mohammad

.. - 11 hB 11 d f h did ~ h V'" C- h 1

uzammilu ua t _- _3Tna.[·11f as one oi u e candidates .. ortl e ice Chancel or

-'.-'-:' . iti "·;C1 t . S···h·· ib '. d A,;Ct··· b A-' h -;.- .. d K[· hs - 'N:""·:,··-··· ..... b 'S·'··· . In·· .. .b h ad "._.. ," lid

_ opposi non 0:.> lal za "a·· II"a' .~ ,m.a·.' ". lan.~ a.wa· "-a. I ee- a: SO~ll;"

r= '_. : port in the Court and Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad was also one of the .;;:~ pp orter s 189 Th ",'.1' le··~ sup 'P .0·' rte .• rs of Naw va b S' ah bib tried ever .. Y··: b 1 l'·t." to d.' efa ·m·· i: e,'

~ ... ,' -. ' ,.,. ,,'111 ," ' 'Uj, ,_ r' , _ •... ' ..•.. ' _ . .,' . ~ • . .,. - . ... . - .,1. - -

~~'e SahibzadaSahib, In order to defame Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan .' e supporters ofthe Nawab Sahib wrote four lettes and d~ stributed

h C' b d h b 1'"' h d i h-

• ._. - .' ',: '" :' .• ' ' 'j ~', •• -'-. .'. ~ [.' , . _'" • , . " ..-, ,'. :,'. - ." , •. :. '-', .=- . ,:. I : ' '. - .. :,' . ,'. " ..' . , -~.' =". n '._ .

mong t te 'O.urt m:em -/·ers ian,r . got t iem pu .. , IS': le __ ,.n t . e new~pap:ers.

Ihese letters included different question related to' different matters of tho e" 'U: mivers ity and demand ed a n swe rs fr om S . 1"1 a ib zad a Sah .... ib The

oJ t-,,, ~ . '._ ..... j_., _.' !1iv11, I. ':_ ',':;;l, ._ . I .. :.' .'. ,·:V'''f '." t., •.. ,. , ... ' , ", ,':", .••• _1.·"" ... 1 •.. 0'1 ._'. '. i _.'

f t idi I' Aft · I

__ one 0 tne letters was 'very norcutous. Ar er an enquiry two e" ers

'illy sigi .. ed by Haji Maulvi Muqtada Khan Sherwani, Manager University Press, were found. Sahibzada Aftab Ahamd Khan, placed he matter 'before Executive Council but no action was taken against · .. he convict except rebuking.'?'

C · deri o;:lh t 'o!! • ." h +-: ble t h ""

onsicermg that the university atmosphere unravourat e to aim.

Sahibzada Sahib decided to withdraw 'his name from. the candidature ofthe 'Vice Chancellorship.In December 1926 Sahibzada Sahib formaly a nou .. need that he was no more a candidate for the' 'Vice Chancellorship. 1:91

0" n 2,···4-th." .. De cern n ber - 9·.·'2~·6··- Nawab M··:··· uzamm rilullah .... Khan \' was elected

• • . . . - _. _. •• .." . - ". - . . .• .. r . ." ' _. _ ..• . .. '.' . .

by th" Court for the post of' Vice Chancellorship, who started his work, from 1st Jan, 1'927 ~ 192.n between Sahibzada Sahib published nuge pamphlet on 28th December 192·6 secretely out side Aligarh but from the university funds, Copies of the pamphlet were given to Sir William, Marris" Members of the Court, and its Urdu translation

t ) I I 'm LIni: . ~'ty' -- K""" --1· 7il;/,. .• - . da .. Ual;' t '" wa' s· al .. - b l~' s h e'" . - . -.

lVlUSI", untversi . v ~'lV1GUJU'lJA' rl'~".a'.::_· .... .: so pu.:. 1'.:." . on

arge scale."? According to the most of the Aligarh men this pamphlet ~ ecessitated the intervention of the government in the university affairs. But it sbould not be forgotten that before the propaganda made 'b.y the pamphlet of Sahibzada.Aftab Ahmad "Khan, the government

'-as 'fully aware of the situation in Aligarh Muslim University, This ~act is proved from a statement of Sahibzada Sahib given below:

"In August and September 19'26, I was in, Mussoorie Hills, I - ~ turned to' Aligarh on 6[th. October and learnt that govenment of India

-anted to enquir .about the standard of examination, in, the Muslim

= lniversity .. So as to know the real facts I met Education Commissioner xrr, RiC-Ii h Delhi on October .2.3, 19216. Mr, Richi said that he had

AMUIAn Educational &. Political history /920-47

asked Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad that government was not satisfied wi - - the resu Its of university ex .. a m : ina tions a . d D': - Z···'···· ;;;.~.": td dir ',; - --]'I'~ ed -th' '····1; h

"'- ->.. ..., - .J],- I" , .' I.,.:: ~I.n . r .. , . taU __ Jn rep·le-,. ' .. a,,, _

would pJI :":e" . th -.' .. ". ':":','. '"',' .... J: of en - "'~ .r b -&. ,-- th ." U'·": -ersit . c·:· .. · '. -,' ,

....... ro nrac tne proposai 0, enquiry oerore rne t.ruverst y .··ou,nCI

So government was waiting for the, answer from Dr, Ziauddi Ahmad "'194

, I,. ,~ .,

Some members of the Executive Council wanted that governmen itself should enquire but some others wanted, that the unversity authorities shoul d tak _-"e' its r esp .... on sibility ' Bu ·t" a s the A", b d i 11;., .. ih ·E,······ I",,' ,."'._'"

._.' ".1._'_ .•. "_ :c __ ,_._._ ',' '--,' ',I .'.iI. .. ,';0, ..... __ ' <_ e,~,. " ... u,:_l.·a" ,nquIry

Conunlttec Report was not 'fully' implemented, most of the members were of the: opinion that the government should set up the, enquiry

ittee.So it could clearl b id h h hl f Sh ib d

cornrmuee. '.,0 it cou '. C ear Y .'e sat r rat the p,am.p. :1 .. et 0 _. :< ::.; aioza '. a

Sahib was not fully responsible for setting tIP the euquiry commlrtec, but it l'n', ad ·e: the .• · ·w,',a·'···y···· ,e.~.·'a', .. sier, Before d .. ·' iscussin a the deta ils ofth ie·_· ·e::·n· quiry

. .. ,.'. ". . '.. - -' ~'. It -' .. " . '-" ' .. b ..... .. .'. '. . ,'. '!.' ".

committee, we must go through the pamphlet of Sahibzada Sahib.

N d-: b it 'h d'-'~ . tte k D .. · .. · Z·'~ 'd:d'"" Ah-' d d' it

. ''', .. ' i . '.' , ' .. ,:., , . -.".:". , " . . .... ". . .... ~' • r-. " : I r-: . I.... :,'. i. .. . .", ':.'. . .... " .... ,.. .,: : . .'.. ':', .' .' 01' '. . " I -

o ~. ,'ou,[ t] was t: :e nrect at ac, tlp,onr~,~ lau . ,In .' , mla ,an: 1

was 'his' moral responsibility to' answer th.e allegations, The present Vice Chancellor Nawab Muzamrnilullah also demanded an explanation

f D Z'~ ddi d ~ ff b .' h h

. rom Lnv z.iau .cm anu other stan members against. wnom t ··e

,.', .-., , tion ".' ' ·di. D-'-"',·- Z':"~"- . dd .0;":"', A:' hma d _. ,th·· .. st .. ,·"t·I"-·'_'I'··:'··~·' nt r, .. , '3:"5'··

la·c .. ·cusa to.n w,as ma'.,e,~ cr.!/ .I,aUI", In ,,', ,.1 ma~: gave !,"e s .. a:,.emen .. In .',

pa> ges 195

··c' .' - '. '. '.

T: '.- his ex pla natio 0"1'. fir stly Dr Z··:'·· .. iauddin expr 'essed .. a •. bout h is relation s

In 1_.... _ .. ... .. . ". _ OIl .••.. •. _ • . . ~ _. . _ _ . .• _ _ 1. _ _ _ _ .

. ' . ,

'with Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan which were 'very cordial in the be ~~I"~ , .. :- .• ~ ", .'. 'I-tl ,.':. -.,:' '.1-' 'd" th .. ,' ···t·, ": th '. ' ...... " .. , .. r ial nu -· .. ti •....... if'th '. c·: "".:. nt h eld 0'

, egJnn1n,g,~ , '. IS: prove" .. a In '. e sp,e:Cl.a m.e'e.Jng,o ,_:, e,_·o'ul . icru ,-fl

28th, Feb, 1926 for the appointment of ProVice Chancel lor, Sahibzada Sahib himself" moved for Dr, Ziauddin's re-appointment 'as Pro- Vice Chancellor in the follwing words:

"The present Pro-Vice Chancellor's term of' office will expire on the Znd March ] 92,6". I, therefore propose. that Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad be, re-appointed as Pro .... Vice Chancellor of the Muslim University for another term, Tile university is sti.ll young and is in the process of growth and expansion. It needs the guidance and experience of' Dr. Ziauddin 'who 'had great reputation in. the educatlonal world .. 11 needs a Pro .... Vice Chancellor who knows the special requirements of tile community as well as the educational system which is in the vogue in, the: co un try .. And our Pro-Vice Chancellor should also be in direct

tot ch with the -. '''C ····-, .. -:·1·'·- of .'t d ··-· .. ts ,"'_., different nart .. ·,:,'s of the country .

IOU'C . Wl,,~ 1~'le' parents 0,. s_u .. en S In ·'.l11eren·, p,aj,~,-,,:, .~" ':, ".~

Dr, Ziauddin fulfills all these conditions, I therefore, recommend his

'r:::!'.p;;.·.·,p-_·o·· ·~:n·:t,:.m:-:le.';-:-t: too, the m iemb r ers 0:" "f." the Court."'196

u I j. n .... , " . . _ _lIJ _ _ __ . _

!, .......

It was surprts ing, that Sahibzada Sahib who supported Dr.

Ziauddin for giving 'him, second term as P'VC,., after eight: months he wrote against him in his pamphlet. It says, "I tried my best to work with him but bitter experiences has opended my eyes as it has shown

AkfUlAn Educational &: Politic'ol history 1920-4"7

70

" other side of' his personality, After having served for three as Vice IC 11 an 'C e-l lor, I am ofthe opinion that the most vital interests *_ ,-- university are at stake and that its chief characteristics are in :,' dy. ,,·'~;97

:. rom all the anove facts it becomes clear that the relations between ibzada Sahib and. Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad became extremely 'bitter in ~ last months of Sahibzada's Vice Chancellorship which adversely ____ ected their working relationship.

Sahibzada Sahib comp aind about the non-existence of the . gulations at the time of' his assuming the office, About that Dr, =~~a,'udd.in, Ahmad said that the Afv1U Act itself provided that at first - dinances of the university were to be framed under he direction of

"""'

overnor General in Council, These Ordinances were received 'by

Ie university in 1923~ TIley did not provide details of the conduct of " .aminations nor the standard of marks for the classification ocf' successful candidates in various divisions, 'Fhe framing ofRegulations began soon after that and, comp eted in June ] 924~ 'The Regulati ons

vere to come in forc-e from October 1924 but during the absence of te Pro Vice Chancellor while he 'was in, England in October ] 924, Sahibzada Sahib declared that the Regulations previously made should, - e reared ,as null and void and he appointed 'his own committee which

k - c h 'R 1-· .. · h ot

'010 more than a year to, rrame u e new kegu at" ons wrnc - carne 'Into

. peration from January 1926~ ]9.8

Another accusation of Shaibzada Sahib was that of vsingling out Maulana Sulaiman Ashrar99an_d Lt. M~ Hamiduddin K,'han200 for extra ordinary promotion" .. Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad refuted that charge and said that the procedure in every such, case was that the promotion was fi ~stly introduced by Pro-Vice Chancellor whose suggestions were scrutinised by the Fincance Committee. Th .. e recommendati ons ofthe Finance Committee were laid before the Executive Council fo ' final approval, Dr; Zianddir further said that now only two above , ..... entioned persons were singled out but a number ofteachers had

been promoted following that procedure.?"

As·- regard s 'S' a .hibz ad a- 's c-,'·o'm-:-~:p·- - aint a, ibout non .... ex I"S· ,t·-e,,-- nee 0·,-;-',f·'-I's:1' am - ic

; • ", : I. • ~ . ," & 1 . . _! .:~'. _ t '. • • ~' , _ r • ~., •• ' ~ _ •. .' • - ,a;' , I. • - • - • ' . _, '. '. I _.

-. ,

Studies, Dr, Ziauddin said that much stress was given on framing the

syllabi, Ac tually the term Islamic Studies was at fit st used by Mr. Nathan in, the report ofDecca University. Islamic Stu, d ies as understood

. y M ~ Nathan included the study of'Arabic la __ guage, Muslim Religion

nd Muslim Theology. In tile Muslim University, Theology' was a me-re distinct subject anc Arabic was also a separate' subject. The t .ocess designing courses in a new subject presenting peculier phases ~ nust necessarily be slow, The university, under the guidance of ~ Iaulana Sulaiman Ashraf, framed C'OUlS,es in Islamic Studies more

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 192',0-·47'

than two years ago and the teaching had been started for the 'last two years and students would be' examined in Islamic Studies in ,April

19',:2'-:".'7' 202

.' . _. ~

Regarding Dr", Ataullah Butt, according to the pamphlet of Sahibz 'ad a S" sa h :1"I~'b~

.' . ",,,,. __ ll ....

(i) Dr. Ziauddin appointed him an. Honorary Reader of Zoology with out any reference to the Vice' Chancellor.

(ii) He maintained Chemist's shop and had a consulting room in the city.

Dr, Ziauddin g,ave the clarification that in the meeting of the Academic Council held on 20tl1 June 192'5, presided over 'by Sahibzada Sahib, it was recommended that Dr.Ai Butt be' appointed an 'Honorary Reader in Zoology, About the second point, ameeting ofthe Executive COU11Cil held 0 1 ,4th Dec, 1926". Khan Bahadur Syed Zainuddin formally put forward, a proposal to this effect .. "Dr .. Butt be given a Professor's grade and also permitted to' practice but he should not keep a consulting f100m in the cit)' .. " That reasonable proposal was ruled, out of order by Sahibzada Sahib . .203

Sahibzada's allegations that the Readers may not be Chairman of the department. Dr, Ziauddin explained that Readers were appointed Ch airm an, in, preference to' Professors only in case's where Professors were temporary or teaching in. more than one departments or engaged, '. l' !I' k 20"'; H k ,;!! S hib d Sah"'b d id In, other executive wor::s .. '''~' . "e attacked ·':a.l~:za.'a·:,·.·· '.,,1.· ,an. sal",

that he had given 'very incorrect picture of extention lectures and, of literary' societies in. this institution . Weekly lectures were arranged and 'many societies like: English Society, Persian Society, Arabic Society, Anjurnan Urdu: .. r-Mualla, Philosophical Society, Historical Society, Mathmatical Society, Physical Society, Scientific Society, Economic Society, Curzon Geographical Society, Poetical Society" Educational Society and Law' Society were functioning efficiently.~o,5

As far as objections regarding admission were concerned Dr, Ziauddin cleared that it was impossible to fix, a date' in the 'Muslim University, It could O'D',y be done in the institute which draw their students from, a limited area. living under uniform conditons where there was no such diversity. Hence in the Muslim University, the Intermediate C,olIe,ge and the school drew students from all parts of India and, even from abroad ... The' examinations of different universities were' held at different times of the' year .. A, supplementary list of successful candidates in some universities published as late as December and January, The Admission Committee had to take into consideration all these circumstances, 206

Sahibzada's claim about th:fe number of'students also did, not seem to 'be correct according to' Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, ,H,e' said "the total strength of the students is ,8,50 and those ofteachers excluding the

A MU/A n Educational &. Political history 1,920-47'

72

student demonstrators is .51 ,. So the number of students per teacher

~ 17~. Out of :850 students, 6,'72 reside in. hostels and remaining 1.78 i.e ~ ~ '0/0 reside with their parents and. bonafied gaurdians .. This percentage is within the number prescribed b',Y the clause ,2 chapter-Il of the ordinances where it is laid down t113t the number of non, ... resident students should not exceed 25%"i ,A, member ofthe staff is being' appointed as a 'Warden, of' day scholars who visit th.e housesof day sch 0··.·'1' a rs one ce a m'-"',' 0, m th. 0·.·.·· ···n·--· account of the jub rilee celebrations in

~'.. ,,'. !L.JII. .. .. .. • _, __ . .. ~ _... _ ."_ . L.J1... _.I.!' ' '._ ! I _ .. '. .' _ _.. . _~ I.. , .

. '.

October, 19,25 it was not possible to, scrutinize thoroughly the,

applications ofday scholars, whose number suddenly increased that

Y-'e:: 'a' r . 0·····' n a C: C: 0"', u nt o f th e',:-:, b re a: : k '.' d' o ':' 'w··· n , 0- ···;f:· n a ti Q:····' .. mal institu ti 0'· n S·'·· a, nd is':' ·t· ,1:!U: de. '. n t': s

..... ,", . ...:. ~ ,.;.' ~,I::._ '.....:.,.,", .. :: '." '; 1···.1_,., -'," '" .. J~, .. ; 1!Ir'. · .. L_:,. -, ,: " .. __ ", ..

had to rent hou 'S· es Ior them iselv es. They .. · .. '· were a" ske d not to.',' r 'ent t-h-e

I','" '-.' _ ._., _ ., ,_,r, ,_,;:::), J.~.. ., .. -.'_~. , '. ,'<_IIII!! .'.J ', (Y·-.- .. ", _":- ,.' "_",' ,··_·,A. ,\ :_'_ .. '

houses at the beginning of the new session.'?"

Sahibzada Sahib has also raised objections regarding staff member's election for the councils. Dr Ziauddin Ahmad said that this matter was raised many times in the. Court, 111, the Court meeting of December I 923 this question was raised. and Court passed the following resolution-

"Resolved that no paid servant of the university shall seek election

to tbe '. 'P:1!·'O·'1;},!'·n'''·C'··I''''a: '} L' .egi .. s la rive c.' "-0· ;·u, nci .. '}S··· L~ .eg .islative ,A····:, s sernbl y .. O·-···'t"'<C· -",o'-:,",un' c il

,c" , .... ' ,!l.: " .. ,. ,_- • "._,".'" ;._ " ..... ' ... ~ .. ", ... v," ..... ' .1, .. 1:.. ~ ~"' . .:;,.,., ,: ,Ii, ' ... _". ',_,!l

of State except with the previous sanction of the Executive Council, Further resolved that this decision will not have: retrospective effect, "208

This question was raised again at tile meeting of the Court on the 4th December '1926, Syed Nisar Husain moved that the members of the Court would not permit the 'me-mbers ofthe staff to seek election .. It was seconded by Maulvi Habibullah Khan but was lost by an almost absolute unanimity .. Only three persons out of 40 voted in favour of resolution. 209

D Z· --.'.' d di Ah d al the sui bl l- .. b . 1 '. •

., I', <,Ja'u,(1 '. 1n" .'. I n1.a,., [ a.s,o g,ave .. -e' surtable ex,p anation a rout relIgIous

side of the university, dining hall, efficiency of the staff" election 10'f' members or the CO'U11 and members of the staff' in the Executive Cou neil sta nda rd of exam .ination e" ·t·c··,

. _ '.', ,.; x , '_,.' " '. ,. . . . . .. . I "" .' ,]I,. " • I ': '"

-T-;--:;'h·--·e· na ':",.' h I'· ··t' .': f s·····~ . 'h- ibze d ·S·'· h ib w . ,-, 1 id br ..f; ", i th , __ , 'C"" . '., ut vith .. ," pc,mp' .. e '0'·. a H. :za.l~a ,a,l ]'as ~al':' . elore ' .. eou . WII,.

the explanation of the officers at its meeting held Ion. the l Sth March

19'2,7, and the Court passed a, vote of confi dence in the Vice Chancel lor and Pro-Vice Chancellor."? On. the other side the Governor of U~p~, Sir 'William Marris persuaded Governor General (Lord Rector) to s,et IIp an enquiry committee, The Viceroy as a Lord 'Rector ordered Her Highness the Begum of Bhopal (Chancellor) to appoint such a committee of enquiry about certain matters. indicated in the

73

.

AMU' rl A' Ed ~ I &-,. P li ,. I' h ~ 19"2""0" 4' 7'

",: ··jjln .... ' > ucattonai-a rouncat nistory ..... ,"~.' .... "."

pamphlet." t As a result the Cha:ncellor ofthe university appointed an

~ '"' ... II' fSi Ib b· h llah (C" h ~. )

enquiry committee consisting 0' xiru rra um Ra imatu ._: .'." c:" airman:

Sir Philip Hartog and Sir Gelorge Anderson (Members) with Mr. A~F.~

R h S" "']12

a .' m .. an. as .: ecretary .. ~ ,.

At first the members ofthe committee met at Bhopal on December 8:, 19·27' wl ... ere they were honoured 'b1y an interview with Her High'. ess, Begum of Bhopal. They assembl-ed at Aligarh o'n October 1]; 1927 and, then had frequent m,eet·ngs~ An invitation had "been sent through rnediur 1 of leading newspapers to all those interested in the welfare" of Aligarh that those who were 'willing to give evidence should send thelr names to the Secretary .. TIle committee had also, examined the

Present and P'I ast Vice' Chancellor the Pro-Vice Chancellor Treasurer

,,' ,._ .... . '. . : ' ,''',. '" " .", ' '_ c ':::, . , ...., ..'... . , _ . " ." I , " • ..I,'. ' . ,'.' , ... " .',C ..',.,

Registrar, old boys" members of the Court and many staff members

f th ... " d i lliedi ,.". Th I bl .'

o t, e umversrty an ... its a .neo institutions, .: ne va ua .~' ~ e' suggestions

of Sahibzada and helpfu .. pieces of advice were a so received."?

Shaibzada Sahib by enquiring into all the, papers, documents, files, books or registers, gave a detailed written statement of 12'7' pages to the Enquiry Committee."!

TIle committee said about the Aligarh "Aligarh is sacred trust of the whole Musalman community in India. It is a national, and not merely a local institution. Musalmans throughout India and fr01D

id I di I· " A' I'"' . l' "h 1

outside nora rave given generous .support to ~. igarr i rney rave

· d h 'Ii .. hev h h I devoti

intrustec to. eir sons to Its care, they .:: ave S;: own rove and devotion to

tile place and to, its traditions". Regarding Abdullah Committee the new committee opined "In Jail.1926, Mr3 Aftab Ahmad, the then Vice Chancellor, appointed a committee of four members of' the,

tp. ch ... ··· -'to ff ._ -d'" th C' h .of..,.,._ ", ... ' hi of Sh ik 1" A" bd "11' h tho _ eacrnng s,a-, un _,er .. e . ~ al1mal1s,I,·t.P' 0: u,'al>',_': xnn an, ',::,:e

Treasurer, to enquire to the discipline, teaching and other matters

d ... h .. I~, 'T'l, .. b III d" ..

connecte , witl university, . he committee submittec Its report In

S· eptem iber of th e' sa un e y' ear and ·W··, -e d -e' S'·I·'I!"'e" to" ad d that the re:..~p'·' "0"11' ha d

_ , ... , ..... 1" _ •.. .'" " ,",,' ::) .' .... ,.. ,:. ,., , .. , . .1, " '. .:, t, '. ll, _'. - ,. I" _I '; '. '. '. . '. : ..... ,:1,. .Ii. . .

been of great assistance to us during the course of our enquiry.'?"

The, Rahmatullah Enquiry' Committeee found about the admission of the students that in _ 92,6 the 'Regulations carne into force which '., rovided that at the beginning of each year, the Adrniss ~ on Committee would frame· rules for tIle' admission ofstudents and the PVC was authorised to' admit all such students fulfilling' the conditions .. The ,PVC had, been permitted by' Regulations (C'",. 12 section 4) to refuse admission to a student 011 his own. authority and without giving any reason .. The PVC therefore bacame responsible for all. admisions and except in, the special cases referred to committee for all refusals to admit. Not even a list of students thus admitted by' him had bee,n forwarded to the Admission Committee. The Enquriy Report

..... ; . - :., - .. :" d . '. d t h . t th . A" d .' :--- ~." ·C·-'·' . .;, ~,tt"" .. ..··,-1'" - . Id fu ", .. : ti _ 'I ~ ~ I '. f 'I t - 0

reCOlnm,en·e, ,l ~a : e ~ emiSSiOn·· om,mt, ee S lOU: _ I nc lon, In .U·_ ure

as required by the Act and Ordinances." '6

.A,MUIA,n Educational '& Political history .1920·_·,47'

74,

~r··h' renort admitt ed th ·t" the statutes 2':'0'·' ··h- ich . , ... , .. ", ib ed that .: ·.~e rep·Q a m.l,e .. ~ a,i,_e s· a.:.u~es:~ a : W:ll.CI; presc.rl,e" . a!

appointments of'the teaching staffwould be made from a list of persons recommended 'by a special committee of appointment i:. " .. each case.

,

First list furnished to the Enquiry Committee signed by the Registrar

showed that out of 4·0 appointments 011 the list 19 '_, ad been with' • ut committee of appointn ient, In. the second list only a. small number of such appointments was shown, A number of appointments were made by promotion confirmed in a meeting of the Executive Council without previous consideration as to whether the higher 'post was required or not, without definition of the coinditions ofpost, without advertisement and without a committee of appointment to consider qualifications of the persons promoted. The Enquiry Committee recommended that this practice should b·e discontinued .. ~ The 'Enquiry Committee registerer : strong objection to, the appointment of Honorary Readers without taking expert's advise upon the qualification in the subject of their Readership. The committee thought that advertisement should alsmost ~ nvariably 'be resorted 0 before any permanent teaching post was filled. 21'1 ~I\salaried officer and teacher must be appointed on written contract according to secti on 36· of the Act. A Reader

!II.-'

shoud not be appointed as. Head if there was a Professor in the

department. The report also said that the department should not be started if' the university was not able to afford. toappoint at least a

" .. td ,., H""'"~ ., .. -".' '. R' .-.'''- de .... - , ld r t b - ... ,'" .~l ,I' to act .," Hi '1"".'" . d of th

= ela; :er~ .' onorary l··.e,a. vIS SO I,I .. ' n'o ~ .e e Ig o.e ;..0 ac~ as . ea. 0·- e

departments.P" About attendance and discipline the report warned that the leave to the staff should only be grantee I when suitable arrangements had been made. About the attendance of the students the eport clarified that attendance 'for a. student must b,e 7)% of the prescribed lee tures .. The margin of ,25'% provided by the Ordinances shou d be ample to meet all ordinary cases, The PVC should sign . he attendance register each month. 219

.. -_eport further sald that the enrolment of'the students had advanced from 261 ~ n ],921 to 1174 in 1927 and th.is large increase 'had imposed an excessive strain on the; resources of the university. It had become impossible for a single provost to carryoi , t the duty of supervisir g the needs of as many as 73,9' resident students", Moreover, there had

been seri . di .' hi h 'I· '.. I .0; . h ddi ~ .-

een senor S overcrow : l',g in the hostels especrauy In those adcinona

hostels which had been rented by the university to accommodate large overflow 0'[ the stude : ts.The committee 'was not satisfied ove: the provision for supe vision which had been made 'in these additional

. .oste S~, ' hie present VC was in agreement with the committee a- d had already taken some steps to remove these defects, The present

M d·, ;: 0' ff · dditi to hi d -.. OJ hat ;0.. 1

e,' Iical O: . "leer In "'. :.', rtion to ;.':IS autres in t· at capac ty was aso

[Chairman of the deptt ... of Zoology and had been recently appointed

75

AlvIUlAn Educational & Political history 19,20-·47

.."..

Principle of the'I'ibbiya College. The committee recommended that in order to discharge efficiently 'his duties, Medical Officer of the university would be a whole time officer .. H.e should not 'merely 'be' concerned with the students when they actually fell ill but should take steps to, improve tl ,e health of the students 'by making proposals for

better sanitation and for other preventive measures. He shouio, report

to the appropriate authority every month on the general health of the students and sh .. ould 'be responsible for tile inspection of the university areas Many complaints had been made regarding dining hall which did not ,appear to the committee to be without justification. The: committee recommended therefore, that an enquiry should immediately be made into its management and supervision. 220

The report also opined about the department ofstudies that there was a tendency to intiate new departments without firstly taking into account the staff and the demand, for such departments. S,IO: the committee advised that before creating a new department, care should also be taken to ascertain that there was demand for the subject and . he necessary staff was available. The general working of these new

departments and expenditure to be incurred ?n them should be

carefully scrutinised by appropriate authorities.221

The problem about standard of examination was extremely

complex before Enquiry Committee. Yet it had given certain important suggestions. it suggested to improve the number ofexternal examine s and the suggestions made in their report should be carefully considered by the Academic Council, 'he percentage of' 'marks both for 'pass and for a different classes and divisions should be embodied in the Ordinances relating to all. degree .. The Registrar should make all arrangements for the appointment of invigilators subject to the approval of the PVC acting on behalf of the Academic Council, At each examination centre, a superintendent or head invigilator should be appo,~ nted with a necessary authority to take 'prompt action where

did d' d In usi c. " ' h

can _'1. ales 'were' , __ etected Il'l U.Sln,g 'u,nlalf me·ans .. In case Wl ... en

candidate detected in copying had b'een re-admitted in examination room and in, other similar cases must b,e suspended for two years instead of one. The question of suspension ill all cases, should b(

decided by the Academic Council. Special examination (takinj examination for the same degree course in later date than precribee by Academic council) should only be allowed in very exceptions circutnstanccs and with rhe previous sanction of the Academii Council. The committee was no satisfied with the way the student were allowed to appear in the university examinations and even t~ re~eiv~ degrees without paying dues. The committee regarded it a unjustified. In certain cases the results of degree examinations wer

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 1920-47 7j

ml hheld until the fees due. had been paid. No hall ticket should be =~ ued to, him till that 'was certified.F"

The report also threw light. upon the exam ination of private andidates, The right of appearing 'as a private candidate for the degree

~ - :_, ] ... ~ - 'h A .- iI' t -!Ii'

exammations was imited bv t. re r _ ct to' teachers 10 severai categories ..

~ .~. .

; , e right for the intermediate examinati ons was limited under certain

conditions to the teachers and also to such persons as had been certified as suitable by tile: Inspector of School appointed in this behalf by the .- ocal government .. There was no Ordinance in regulating the admission

0- f priv .. ' ate cand Id,' ares to the High School e xam nination U··--.· nd 0:' u rtcdly a

. . "" ".' .,' _ _ l ..,. .'~ .. ..l:IL JI.. " .. _ '. I. ._, "_ .. _' . ,., . ' . "\.;I,, .,

. '

libral policy had been adopted, it was clear from the figure that 237'

- d f '" did +. 925 4'02· - 926 -

students appearer tor pnvate cane 1 , ates In l)"_·.~.-,:"":.' t .. l_.-· .. :',:~: .. The

report suggested that those who were enrolled in a recognised school not have been admitted eithe as regular or as a private candidate except those enrolled in school maintained or affiliated by the university in accordance with section - 2 (ii) of the Act, For those wh .. o had

d b ll d' .. ii, d h l f ~ d f

cease tOI oe enroue I. in recognizee .. SC':r'OO, ror a penon ot seven

mo .. rths, special care should be taken to admit them.The report also

r---e,~-c-: 0: nn m end led tha 'It, it m ust be st a ted o n ea , ("i'1)-' c e' rtific a:' te W'· .. he ther t'h-' e

'.' .' , . .l.I"_"· "'. ',~ I JlJ.. I. '.' _ ''_'. ,-~I", , .", .... " . . \..t- "."'. _ " _' L '. "II..

successfull candidate had passed the examination as regular or a private candidate. 223

Another problem before the Enquiry Com:mitt.ee was contesting of staff members for election .. '0 a. Legislature and. taking part in it .. In 192'3 Dr, Ziauddin the ,P'VC ant Dr .. Hyder Professor of Economics were elected to the Legislative Council and to tile Legislative Assembly respectively, Mr. r : abib Professor of History was also elected a member of' the Provincial Legislative Council, Dr, Ziaudc in did. not stand for re-elec ion, The committee recommended thai the university teachers should not be permitted to stand for election to the Legisla ure .. If the Legislature allowed a seat to the university on its OWIl, there would be no objection to a teacher of the university' to standing for

h· .. . 224

t at seat. ..

'The renort also suggested about the allied institution o'f th/ .. u .. Jversity like Intermedate College, Training College and Muslim University School, It said about: the Inter College and school that.225

a. College and school should 'be regarded as separate institution.

b. The Managing Committee should 'be vested with responsiblle powers and duties.

c ~ A. S uitable grant should be provided annually by the university,

d. Subject to the provision of that grant all the arrangements for the management of the college and school should 'be made by a

co": .. m'-:-' ·'·m·· .-.' itt e e:

c' _-. '. - '" ' ...

e. The university should be represented on the committee of the

77

AMUIAn Educational & Political history 1920,-47

managment and should exercise the right of' auditing and inspection.It also advised that number of students in. I.nt.ermed .. iate College should. be curtailed and, more trained teachers be appointed in Training College.

As far as finance was concerned the report said that the expenditure needed m .. ore checking in detail than was exercised. Building department should be over hauled by a competent Architect or Engineer, who would be: asked to advise o,n its future organisation.t"

T·h··· ,.- 1' " nmend .d .- bo ·.-t·t·h-·.-· Courtth t writtei ,_. t·:·· s shc I'd' I

.' I e rep 01, recom,m,en e' al UI .. ' e .. 0:, .'., _ a. wrl : ,en vo,_,e:). S. .Qll,.:.

be permissible in the election ,of the member's of the Court, Tile financial y., eat should begin from 1 st October The meetins of the

.. _' ~., . " -' . . . ;.'_. - . . .' ,_" i ' . '. . ,0 '.' '.'

Court should be held in ,April for consideration of the budget and second meeting" in Decem be for supplementary budg let, It also said

.. _.. - . " _ . .' '. ~. . . .... = "_. . - I. , _ '_. • _, , • _ I .' . _ ,'" .• ' 'II '.' ~. .. , .

that no salaried officer or teacher of the university should be elected to the Court by any other body exc:e'pt the Academic Council.?"

Regarding Executive COUI1Cil, the Enquiry Committee Report opined that the number of the respsentative ofthe Academic Council should be reduced from six. to two. Members of the Executive Council living outside Aligar:h should receive travelling [expenees 0,0 a mode rate scale. Not more than seven of the members elected by Court should b ',.', ident outs de the Ll.P P ·' ... ib a d D Ih'··~228 A': lx ut A -. de _Ii.

e res] .. ·en. oust.e' " .e ... _~"<>" i unJa, an. ,:e' ·I.~'-··.I'O·U' ""c·a"·ernlC

Council the committee suggested that the 'Provost also should be the members along with the' Professors. The other new includes should be that one person not engaged in. teaching to 'be co-opted by the AC, tW10 members of the teaching staff lower in rank than a Professor to

b :\·'-t··,····O; mnuall .. v bv nembers rf the sraffoth ..... _. t·h'-:-··· AC229 e elec ec annuauy .,Y memoers or tne star ·0. er nanAx..

T'h···· ", ""-'' 11 ~ :-. ad d'~ aboutthe v .. ··' .. ··· Chanccll '. that .. .f at ".

'e' repo '. recommenc eo aoou rne x Ice :.' ranee 'or ,11a 1 any

e'me .. rgency arose which called fOI an urgent action, the Vice Chancellor would, take .:iti He would report within seven days to, the officer" authority having practical experience and they would inform on record about the action 5,·0- t a iken 230 A':'· S' far as th',e duties of th 'e: Registrar were

__ . [>. t.. _'-' ',: :.' l. ' _. -" ._ ... ' .. ,- . .Il !Ii' ,,'.,_, 1;'_ '_ ' .. _., _', . '.:.._. ",1·" _, __ - '. "I,' •. ,"" ,'_- -,..... . , ' . -,_ . ,"

concerned the report said that the Registrar should see that the reso utions of Academic and Executive Council 'were complied with, He should assist the ye' in enforcing the' Act, Statutes, Ordinances and Regulations.'?' The post ofTreasurer was also very important, The committee thought each cheque drawn on the university 'funds should have two signatures, one of which should be that of the Treasurer ~ so long as he was available: and the other signature should. be that of one of the three officers .... , th,e Vice Chancellor, th·e Pro-Vice

Chancellor, the Re~st(ar. In the ab~et\ce Q 1 t\\e l:te.a~\l\et; \\\~ s\gna\me

of two of the other three officers should be provided fOf,232

"' bl 1 I~ h di ,., Ii t .... ,

The report further said, that the 11 ain trou •. e lay 10 the divrsion o:

powers between Vice Chancellor and Pro-Vice Chancellor. Under the

- .' '., E'd ., I' & p" 1~ ~ 'j' h ~ 19"2"'0' 47

AMUl4n .·,·l·l,.Catlona,·'.· . otittcai .' iistory 1 .. ' :,~'-'-,-I

78

t . th V· C· 'h II ti h d d t h

ese n system the vice ·:.'anee' :'OJ was an execu rve nca ano rne

;. -Vice Chancellor was the academic head of the university; The ernie" authorities except in, matters. of' emergency were not the ~ '_ e Chancellor or the Pro- Vice Chanellor but the Court, the Executive

. , .. ', ~ It :1'-· d the A:,' ' " d '-'.' ,'," .. ("'Ii c,' '.' " .. ,',. -, "1 1ft, c h I' " : 1:d: b -, .' th ",,.,,: C r: '·f:~ b· . ,:·t! It 0'·· ffi' -, '!I. .. ", .'.::

,nc} an __ , , :e '.·,ca ,em.l\.j.", ou,n,CIL, "s ,QUJL"e t., e aIm 0 ,,0,1 , .. " leers

_ " " lie loyal to the AMU and to ensure that the quaility of its slaty and. _' opportunities gi ven ,to the students would 'be second to' 'none in _, idia .. Acting loyally in accordance with the constitution of university

I ey 'would set an example of loyalty and discipline among th,e' staff ~ nd students.?"

The committee also 'wrote about Dr. Ziaudd:inAhmad "'We favour ,~r, Ziauddin's educational ability, his long services in the college and. , ereafter university and deep passion of love with Aligarh, but we are sorry to say that in recent difficulties in view of his near relations

.. ., d .... h ., ,", h I be com .'.

,1'.1.5 continuec serVlce In t ·: -, e· university S ·:,a , '.-"e contrary to n,e'w spllr . .t

ofgood management and progress, which is necessary for subsequent success of university, Most probably this shall be tile better way for

D· Z" '.. , d d .' _ .. th ·t h ' t· ik .. ' 1: .- ,,,:, ... b'" t: .. . . th , " ',., it "23-4 r .. ~."J,aU···,lnla 'e ,a'ies .. eav'e ,·elore: relreme·n,c .. , -

After completing enquiry the committee submitted its re-port to Her Higl ness" the Chancellor Ion 9tl1 November 19'2'7 who very graciously wrote memorandum and, got both issued to the members of the Court towards the end of March I 9'28. Immediate steps were taken by' university bodies to give effect to as many recommendation as could be done without d'etay~,23S: Government of India was also

.. fi··- d th th · ... h '!!it· k" 'II d

saris: ier tnat t ··,.e university aut '. onnes 'were rna .ing sincere an. , earnest

efforts to remedy the defects in, the functioning of AMU as revealed by the re P' ort o"·,r: the. Enqu iiry IC, ",0, 'In' m · ... Itt' 'e.':·e'· 236

.' . ,.' '. . .. , ... -.' ~ . . . , '-. '. ',_;....,. ' .. '_ . , .' :. .

To give effect to the recommendations of the report, Dr. Ziauddin submitted his. resignation 0 the Vice Chance. lor on 2'6th March 1928 '-d it be , ..... ,. sffe ti , ~-.,- .. 2'7:'t·hA· .· .. 1·]'·9'·28·· 237

an,'- I 1 ' ".e'came, e I ·.eC,Jve tram. . ,.' .! . ,,:pr l , .. ' .. , ", .:,.,'= ,

The Pro- Vice Chancellor, Dr, Ziauddin's resignation was as follows " M,Y de,ar Nawab Sahib.. ... .For the. few' years ofthe existence of the miversity we h .. ad no Ordinances and 'no, Regulations. In, my annual repro , r e·' .ad in Feb, 19"'·24- I w vr ote the co' illwing passag e. .,2J.8

_.' ..,. .. .' ~ .... _ I, . , 1. ~ . . . a _ '-:, .-

"The Ordinances of th,e ,AMU were not received till June 1923 and during the first 18, months of its existence, tile V'C was invested by government ot~ India with power to frame any Ordinance or Regulation or to set aside any section of the Act or Statutes. In the universities it is the 'first occasion when a single individual, not on the spot has b'een investe d with autocratic powers extended for such a

79

A J IT r/« . E'" 'du, .ati "'1'.' al &:, P ... lir i-: l h 'stc 1· 9·' 2:··,0",: ... 4·' 7'

.1Vl'Ulnn··· ",uca ,lonra: '. 0 t. I·ca, ,,:·,1.5:, 011'· :. _.'_'. ~ ..

,.;"

longtime It is a miracle that we did not succumb altogether during this interval.'

"During my term of office I unfortunately 'has to face three special difficulties :

(i) Honarary Secretary and VC did not give me: sufficient support and, at times, they delebrately created rival party In the staff .. (ii) I neverhad a complete office ..

(iii) Some members of the staff never cooperated with '111e and they formed a. solid group ,"11. the Academic Counci ~ On assumi A- g the' charge ofyour office, )"OU made honest efforrt to restore solidarity among the staff and you know' yourself how your effort were defe ated "

I .: .• ~l 1 ~i·· .~:. _ J I . ~ .. ',,' . s

"The PV:C according to the present constitution, 'has got responsibilities 'for running the entire institution, but he has no power even to stop' the ordinary increment of an insufficient and negligent member ofstaff Every thing depend on the will of the VC, who may or may not .place the suggestion of the 'PVC 'before the: Executive Council. The late VC Raja of Mahmoodabad gave orders in wri ing that the PVC had no right ·to send any suggestion dierct to Executive Council. This practic has since 'been followed, His position is just opposite to that of the dictator.'

"I wish better luck to my successor but I feel that the institution is faced with crucial difficulty, The PV'C· has got all the responsibilites without power and VC has got 'power without tile responsibilities .. ~~ .. .Ever since 19'25 I have been attempting to resign my post as P·V',C. On the 2.7tll April 19,2.5 after completing 3,0 years service, I. requested the late VC to 'relieve me of my duties as .pvle from October 1925, but .he in his letter dated lst May, 1925 induced

ne not to resign in. the interest of tile university, A year. ater in }'926 he proposed my' e-appointment."

"After the retirement ofthe Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan I requested you in May 1927 to relieve me from my present duties, YO'U, 'verbally told me to wait till the committee of enquiry had submitted its report. I also add, that during my stay in Aligarh .I had offers of several 'posts in various deptts. But I declined them all in order to be true to the promise which .I had made at the time of my appointment,'

'~'I am n,QW' convinced that I can do better service 'tl(; the institution by withdrawing my formal connection with university and I most readily do, the servrce 'by' submitting my resignation W'11icl1 I request you to accept at an early date in manner that may be acceptable to you and Executive Council"

When his resignation 'was accepted, many 'farewell parties were given IJY different personalities, societies and deptts .. Curzon

AMUIA,n Educational '& Political history 192'O~47

80

.eographica.l. Society durir g the farewe -l said.... .. "Sir y:ou have devoted ~',3 long years of your precious life to the cause of education "and the

....... -: "~"" r 'f~' th ,"".- :-, -.~,., t nati "' .. ' ;.,. ~,: .. , ain tier -' .. ' h .', , ... '. '·1' ', ..... :. '. '~," ",,;!i' .. ,.

service 0 .,I:IS grea na ronai msutunon.i.cyou . "ave a ways remain

rue to' your national institution, inspite ofso many temptation, your services have been unrevelled and invaluable ... u"2J.9 Scientific Society?" Economic sccietly+", members of the Math's deptt~242g,'ave: an impressive address during tile farewell to Dr, Ziauddin Ahmad, Dr, L.K. Hyd er Prof of Economics and member of Royal Agricultural

'e" . I .,!!.. "'~'" " de . -·C· .. '.- '0"""" b 11· ." . ····h· .' t' the "t,· -" e '.- f D'""

ommssion arso mace a memorat 'fie speec at tne .irne o: ,'f ..

Ziauddin's farewell.r" Mohd Imamullah Khan", a brilliant students of M.,A made a cordial speech during his farewell. 244

Reterences

m ~ 2 3.,

4.

.-

).

6. 7,. 8,,,

9. 10., 1. 1 ., 12. 13.

14. ! 5. 16. 17,.

1 a. 19. 20.

2.I ., 22. 23~ '4'""

-- ~

25~

26+ 2 7 ~

2'8" 2'9.

30. 31 .

-

32"

81

Hayat-ul-Bashir, 'p~89

AMU Calender, J9,2J~25., p~513 Ibld

Fikr-o-Nazar, Vol,. 11; p.288

Indian Annual Register, Vol. I' ~ 19.3"5,~ p.440 (Here after cited as 'IAR'~) lA'R" Vol It 1939p~488

lAo • R:·.· "\"o'J 11. ~ 9"·J·4 "'-0. 5":,4, 0,,, ... 4

11 VI • -" Jt .... ~ ,t",t"~ .. m,

Ibid, pp. 50,4-42

Fikr-o-Nazar, Vol. II, p. 160

u R'" '\frot rr, 19 3 8,~ pp~ 482 -4-84 Ibid'~p,,: .. , 407

",

Ibid p. ,490

Hasan Abul; AMU Aligarh Addresses and Speeches, Aligarh, 1987" p. 53 (Here after cited as" Addresses and Speeches ')

Ibid, p.S

File No. J 117, .l922~23' (M)

F'l N X'?!2 '~'9'23' 24 (AA')

. ite a, ,: 0, ., . ,r I .. ·.~ t I·.·· .... ,_'".. .., ....

File ]Vro~ 4(/)" 19',30,~3J (AA) lA,R~ Vol. II, p., 480

Ibid

The word Turkish coa.t is a .misnormer. There is nothing Turkihs about it. [t is really a, coat designed in Aligar " and it should more appropriately be called a coat of Aligarh cut (A1G, 14 No,v,.1935)

A,MU Calender) J.93'2~ pp;297-298 (AA) and File No:" 11//1,192.4 (M) AIG, 14th Nov, 1935

A/G" 12th December 1935 ,File s». Xf/2~ 1923-24 (A.A) A.lG',~ lOth October 1935

,AMU Calender, 192J~25'" 'Pp~104 ... 107

Zia ... i-Hayat, pp, 87-'90 See also' Fikr ... o-Nazar. V:ol~'II~ 1',.,304 File No. 511 19'23',-,24 (.AA)

Vice, .... Chancellor's Report to the A1vlU Court meeing held on, 24th Dec, 1'923", File ,No.51 19'23-24 (.AA)

The Times, London, 8, August, '19'24, (File NCA 4/2 (J)~ 19,24) (AA)

Khan, Habibullah Hayat-i ... Aftab, Al .ahabad, 1947", pp. 306-'9 (Here after cited, as 'Hayat-i-Aftab '}

Zta-i ee Hayat, pp. 90~'91

A MUfl A Ed. ,"' I & p .. liti I hi J'9'20 4'7

. ':·':.In,n Educattona .: Politica history ... '. ,.'~",.

33. 34. 35. ~6 ..),.: ..

37

J' ••

3,8·

. I ,al

39"

40"

._ ,'"

4'1 ; 42~ ,43.

44 .. 4·5., 46. 47 .. 4·8.

·49. SO. 5. ~

52 .. 53, 54 .. 5 5 ~ 56~ 57. 58. S9~ ,60 ..

61 ~ 62~ 63~ 64 .. 65. 66~ ,67 ..

68. "'9 (). ~

70. 7 I ~

7,2;

lbi II' .. : i{JJ

.' .

IbId

Ibid lbi,d

Lueknow, Rs; 493720 Allahbad Rs. 6667"50, 'SHU :Rs" ]230000, .AMU·.Rs 43308 (Ibid)

Hayat-i-Aftab, pp. 3 I 0 ... 11, In Zia-i-Hayat, Aftab Ahrnd is said t.o have praised the working and organisation of training college.

Zia--i=liay'at~ p, I'll

Hayat-i ... Aftab, p, 31.1

lb' d 1 I 2- "'1 3

., i : '" pp, J. .. ... ~ , .

Ibid, pp, 320 & 324 Ibid, pp, 313· ... 314 Ibid

Ibid, pp~ 314 ... 3'15· tu« pp. 320 1&. 324 Ibid." pp. 317 -329

Fikr-o-Nazar Vol Il, pp., 76-,77; 'See also' Qureshi, Isthrat Ali) Ali,ga.rh Past

and Present, Aligarh, 19'92.:t' p. 98 (Hereafter q roted as PIQSl and Present) Hayat-i-Aftab, p. 34·2

Ibid

In 192.0 when the Mf'U carne into existence there were 261. students. Gradually . he number went on increasing .. But many students get their admissions transferred to the National Muslim University' during 'the eventfu years of 1'920· .. 22 .. This naturally led 1-0 the decline in the number of students 'in the

AMU,. DI. Ziauddin as PVC made vigorous efforts not only to maintain the interest of the students but also, in increasing the number of students through fresh .. admissions, In Macrh 1924, he instituted ten rewards to the students to

f h dmi 'L. ~ ."..,.,)' h ~ ~ d

encourage , resn acrmssons to tJSJJe unrverstty, I'here were 01., er sociat an'.

charitable organisations in the campus 'which through their generous contributions to the needy students helped in increasing the number of students .. (Zia-i-Havat, p .. 109)

Ibid, pp_ 109'

Ibid, pp. J. I.' 112

Ibid, pp. 11. J..~ 112

J'btd

Ibid, pp, I 13-114· .Ibid

Ibid, p .. 117 Ibid

Court Minutes of /iMU, 192,6·) p. 7' HaYJaf-i-Ajta'b, 'PP, 3,46 & 35.2 Zia-i-Hayat, p. 96

File- No. "51., J 926 ·2? (AA) Past and Present, p, 9:8 Zia-i-Hayat, p .. 98

A·la. rth March .. ] 926

File No. ./Jl/ J~. 192'6-, .. :-7 (AI\) File' .No+. }(~/3? J 925 ... ·2·6 (l\A)

Aligarh Magazine, Oct Dec. (1929'p(K)

Urdu (Masood Number), 19'37, pp. 837 ... ,838 See. also Fikr-o-Nazar, 'Vot D, p, 298

Aligari: Magazine, Jan & Feb .. 1929 pp, 4-5- See also Urdu (Massed Number), 1937, P+ 836

Urdu (Masood Number), 193.7,~ pp, 875· .. ·876" p, 887

AMUIAn Educational 1& Political history 1920-47

82

.

Aligarh Magazine; Oct~.D'ec~ J 929~p~(L) File No. 51) J 92'·8~2,9 (AA)

A ligarh Magazine, O'ct~Dec.19'29 p. (L.) Fikr-o-Nazar, VoL I" p .. 298

AMU' Annual Report, ] 931,. p, 2.

Anderson, Sir George, Progress of Education in India J 92'7-32.) Del hi,p, 73 (Hereafter cited as 'Progress J 927-·32·~)

IA,R" 1931 ~ 'VoL n, p, 1 13

Ibid' (AA) .Sc!e also File No.. 5 J (1) J sso-s I (AA)

File No. /V/2 1.9.3.1-3'2 (A.A) See also AMU Annual Report 193.3;t. p .. 2 File No'. 5 J 1 .J 933-.3·4 (AA)

File- ~Vo,. XVII12'J J9.30~3./ (M)

Past & .P res em, p. '99

,4MU Annual Report, 19J 1 (AA)

F;"/· .. · ~l 5" J J9-'3~"4:", '3'5'· ('M" A)

, I·e .1'",,0. ,_.~ ," =.·c, ,"".,

File No. 51!> 1929 .... 30 and 1931-3'2 (AA)

~ilMU Annual Report, 19.33:t p. 20 (AA) See also File' No. 5J" .J934·~,.35 (AA) Coatman J., India J93,3~34~ Del j., 193.5" p .. .I 1'9 See also Aligarh Magazine, December 193.2~. p. .3; File No,. 1 V-2';, .193.1-32, P~7 (A.A);, Urdu" (Masood Number), pp. 763·-765 and Past & Present, p. 10

,. 'rdu (·'M·· aso od -N' lumb er) p p '840-4']' See 8'11("0" A'MU" A' nnual Repo rt om '9: "3"4' 'p Ji

v.' .. · .. ··r~·,'-I .r': ~'~"~/.'.J ,I }:.. . - ' .. , ,l_"I''IJ ':._·-r.·I---_ [ :' :.' : .. E~!:. ,'" ,'- __ . >~"·t-.i : :.::; -, . .Il.'_ .. ~_':", ",.;.

(AA)

Aggarwal, J .. C~ Landmarks ill the History ofModern Indian. Education, New Delhi, 1984, p. 49-

Alvf,U Annual Report, 1'935" pp, ",2. and 5 fAA) See also lA,R'; 11937~Vol I p'.4·11

93~ fAR, 1.935~ VoL 1/, p~36

94. File' N:o,.5.J~ 19,3.5··,36 (.AA)

95. Addresses and' Speeches, p,. 65

96. File No~604136 (UPSAL) S·ee also A'M',U' Annual Report, 1936 (AA)

9'7" Fire No' .. 62·~ 1938-44 (A.A)

98~ Ibid

99~ ,Fil:e No, st. /935-·40' (M)

l OO~ A.AIU Annual Report, 194,4" p~2

o 1 ~ File No. 5 J J' J 94'j' ... ·4'2 (AA) See also Aly['U' Annual Report, l. 944·~ pp, I '& 2

02. Past and Present, p.. 10'4

03. AMU Annual Report, 1944~ ,.p .. 2.

04.. Ibid, p.J

05 F"J:: ~J 51 1'9' 4' - 4'6 ('A- A' )'

_ '~i •. ,·l €' j~O,. ':, 1 '., ' .. ~':J- ,"> ,; .,..

~ 06. Ibid

~ .' '7 .. Past & Present, p, 1,03

~ . 8. Zia-i-H. ayat .p, ,11'7

: . 9., A fG ~ l5th ,. uly, ] 943:t See also File No. 51 J .194.2 -4,3 (AA) and Zia-i-Hayat, p .. 179

9., O.

. I. 2. 83,,,

, . I

, .

85. 86.

87. 8S. so.

90.

92.

_ .' 0", AIG 1.5 July, 1'943 See also Zia ... i-Hayat, p, 177 -

_~ l. Ala l Sth July, 1943 See also File No. 5'j~.l942-4.3 (M) and Zia-i-Hayat, p, 18'0 _ L 2. A1G, i Sth July, 1943 See also Zta-i-Hayat, p~ 18.2

~3,. Ibid ~ ,'~ Ibid'

s. lAR~ 1 st June 1943 . '.Ala 1 st June 1943

, F'· t: N "\ t: -~ II n 3 '1 4

',.' IN..r .... O» I'·· azar. v'Oi . Il: . J.'.

II •• ' .•. , ...... ".~!.~.

File No .. XV!l, 19'23~24 (AA)

AMU/An Educational & Political his t ory 19'20-47

'li'119'" F' "~. Nc,-, X'J!/,/-:;j 1;9'2,',6' "7: (A- A-: )'

I I. ' •. .r t e ' '0. _" ~ I J, ,',' ,-',' -.& .' ",- ,

I 20, Fikr~O~iVaZQT~ Vol, .II~ p, i 4

12.). A AlU' .. Annual Report, p, 1944 ~ p. 2

.

'112:2'_- P- ast &1,'. Present p 1- O!4-'

I :.. ~ _~.L.J ~. _ . d _ Ir l- 7' 'l . .. ! •

123. Ibiddd

124. A1\4U' Annual' Report, 1947~ p.Z 1.25. File No~ XVI], 1926~27 (AA) 126., File- lvo~ 51, 1924-25 (AA)

12 7'~ File 1"'10'. 51 f. }' ,93' 7 ... 38 (Al\_')

1, 2' 8" Ib~ id

_ •••.• ". ','" • r,~ ,I" ", .

129,~ Fikr-o-Nazar, VoL l~~ p. '14 1.30., ,Ftle »».s). 1938'-39

131 + File. No. 51 ~ ./94'0-41 (AA) 132+ Past 1& Present, P 102 1.33._F.ile No~ 5,314~ 1940~41 (AA) 'I34,~ Ftle No. 51, 1942~43 (A.A) '13:S~ .1410, .28th April" 1926

13-"6: ru N tv/: }'9' 2"7" 28'" (AA)

. '," ",.,: I' e ,'.'~ ·0 ... ' V ( ",p .r . ._c., ~',;,l'1J=\"

137., India in 1929-30, p, 347 '138. India in 1930-3 I, P+ 472

139,. AAI,U Annual Report, 1933), p. 1.61 140 .. File No~51~ ./931-32 (AA)

141,. AJ\1U Annual Report, 1933) p, '161 ,142 .. File No.5}'. 1935=3,6 fAA)

143., Ibid, J938~3'91 (AA)

144·~ Ibid, J939-40 (M)

145 .. Fi.le No'. 51, 1942' .. 43 (AA.) See also File No,5J~ 1943~44 (AA) 146. AMU Annual Report, 1944" p. 11

I' ,....:t7·~ In .dia in 193'O-3J':' p-' 4' 7,'2::

"it . ' ,J" ".' . - '.' -, -; ,.,. , r "

148. AMU Annual Report 1931 ~ p.,4

149" Muslim University Girls High School Magazine, 1964~6.5-66.~p. 28 See a

F-,I' ik: r-o-Naz ... or" 1.';"01 11[1' p I' 7:,'

, v=., - ';i 'Ill" ,.Il. ~ ,. -"

150" Hayat-i-Abdullah, PI, i 98, I S. 'I.. Ibid, pp. I '98- I 99'

15-2 .. , Hayat-i ... Abdullah, pp. 200~20 1; In the Muslim University Girls High Sen Magazine of 1·964, .. 65,~66~ it is said that the Governor granted Rs. 7000 for the building purposes. (Muslim' University Girls High' School Magazi 1964~65-,66.; p. 28)

153. Hamid Hasan 'Iehsildar spread the tumour that. once an Ekkawala who, , carrying a girl students, entered his vieled Ekka and came out after a long ti and then he car. ied her '_0 the school, This rumour created a bad [effect to school, Shaikh Abdullah went to the school for further enquiry then he 1 the Tehsildar. The Tehsiidar began to swear and refused to even know ~ tumour, iHayat-i-Abdullah, pp.202 ,203)

I 54., Ibid, pp~ 203~20·4 Ibid, pp. 205 .. 203 ibid, pp. 207~208

lb sd '") 1 1 2' l' 2

"'i", pp. r,...' ! .", .. " 1.. :

Ibid~ p. 220 Ibid, -p ,. 2,2, '1

Abdullah, Shaikh Mahammad, Mushahidat-o-Taassurat, Delhi- 1969" p, Ibid; p. 334

J'b' 'd

,,' I':'

}' ~ 5 ,~, '.

1 S:6.

] 57. ISS ., 159. 160. 1.61 + 162~

AMUIAn Educational .& Political history 1920-47

g,.

~n

_ 7.

. -'0

- "

F ,""" 2'-

~, J -'.

: . .3 ,. _ 4., , 75,

: 76. 177. 178,.

179~

180. 181.. 182

iii 8''-'

11 ','.' .JI ~,

ill 8:4 _

ill 85 ~ 186~ m.8:7~ ill 88", I 8:9,.

190~ t 91 ~ 1.92- 193 ~ 194. 19'5. 1'96.

1'9'7. 198,.

19'9"

200~

201.

85

,

Hayat-i-Abdullah, p, 22,}, ... ,2,22 Ibid" p, 223

Ibid'" p. 2123

Ibid, p, 22,4

Ibid, p. 2.,23 .. 225,

Ibid, p, ,226

F'lle iVO. 41/3~, J 939,-,40 fAA)

IA' , H' '1,lA,']- 'I I' . 'J 94'- I p' 'mI 2c, I

.f.. :'::;' vo' .. ' '~ ," .. ,. Jj,.

Ibid'

Havat i. Abdullah p'p' 22'~-,226'"

[' J t " 'J l' I' ~ ~ ~ -,'. ,..." , , " :. ..!~ r _ :," 'Il _:,:",,~ ~.' ._ ,

J~ "I" r. l' 4-' I'll /' 9' 4-3- I 4' 4 (.,,\ A' )

~ r e iii/' 0" " i. ':I' .~,""~,;~" ~ - r~., ','

Fikr-o-Nazar, VoL II;t p. 155

1 b -, ld·· '.'

1. ,,',~ _

Hayat-t-Abdullah, pp. 349 ... 50 P ast ,&' Present, 'P'.97

He has been the collector in Aligarh and had 'bitter discord with Viqarul Mulk ']'0 which he was insulted, He had also, written aritcles against the' M.AO' College • 'f 914 r e .. - 'E 1 d IF k N'" ;. J I 1'1 1 ~ 7)

In 'cl: _ ., •. _ ,m.J n1 newspapers m '_. ng .an 1 ,. ,'r' r r-o-Nazar, vor. u, p. ,.J. ~ .

He was having personal commotion not only with the university' but Dr.

'"7' d di , d H h fi h - d d ~ 'h . .

Ziau :I.tn Ahma :1. re was t- e : irst person W,:_O tried to erame tie unrversity

by talking about the standard, of examination .. (Fikr-o-Nazar, Vol. II, p. 1.57) Zia-i-Hayat, p, '99

F-·/ -V- 78/~ 1 '('12' 7- 2--8" (AA")

ite ) O. \ / ,~: ~ .}I ~ , - . .•... ,':,,'

Shaikh Abdullah said ~(. Dr, Ziauddin carne to see me at my residence and said that he would 'not oppose the committee ifhe was. also included the committee. Then I told him, that this committee was for the inspection of your '\NOr:K .. Would it be right to make you to judge your own' work?", (Havat-i-Abduilah. p. 327)

Hayat-i-Abdullah, p. 328-

Hayat-i-Aftab, P'P: . .3 5 8-.35'9

Zia-i ... Hayat, p. 9'9

ibid

tu«, '~~L 't .0,0

Ibid, 'p,., 100 See also, Hayat-t-Aftab, pp. 359 ... 36.0'

Zia ... i-Havat Ii" 10· :3· See also F· 'ikr -o-Naz 'ar "0' ~ II n '1 ~'7::

_. ,_1 J 1.1 I_ -_.r M _ ~ ,~. i , .:. '. ~ "., ~ , v. ,J. lJfr !. . . . l.,. V I. l... . . '., ~-... J

Hayat-i-Aftab, pp, 362~363 Ibid, p~ .364

Ibid"

Zia-i-Hayat, p. 1'03 See also Fikr-o-Nazar, 'Vol. 11~, p. 18

}7 U'rO:a t=i-A' tta h' - n:p'.l,,, 3,: 6,6' ; ..... 3, .• ,~:,7·

- J ~ - . . v'~ - v ~ rill. -, .. u

Zia-l-Hayat, pp, 1. 03-1 04

Explanation of Dr: Ziauddtn Ahmad. Vilayat Manzil, Aligarh, 1928 p.Z (here: after quoted as 'Exaplanation'Y

Ibld

Ibid, pp. 4~5

He 'was appointed 'in the year I 909' by the late Nawab Viqarnl Mnlk in tbe Deptt, of Theology The grade as Assistant Professor 'was given 'to him a 'year later at the time [of his confirmation. Not only Theology but h:e had also 'been given, teaching: classes 'in, Arabic & Persian to the post gardaate level, Since the inception of the, university Maulana Sulaiman Ashraf 'had the sole charge of teaching Sunni Theology (Explanation 1',,6)

Mr. Harniduddin Khan rendered valuable services. during Non Cooperation crisis A- e a teac h pr of Pe rsian Mr H: amid uddin K" han 'C'-'O'" rnp ara ble with anv

, . ~I.I! '". ~ " ~ ' .• _" I' .'-' ~'~', ' ~, ..• 1 . . ... ~'.~ p, , ~ .. '!i ~"~,,It· . ,I., '.' ,~,: . 1 ,',' Y'~" . ,", .~,: .' IU, .' ,,", ~ .', :.' ~ I - ~ ~ • J'

Professor of 'Persian in any other University. (Explanation p. [6)

Messrs, Inamullah Khan, Allah, Baksh, F~:D," Murad and A,~M~ Qureishy had belen promoted to the ranks or Readers in April 1'92,,1,. Messrs, Mohammad Habib and A,.,B,.A .. Haleem promoted to lank of Professor, in, September 1912,3 ..

,AMU!An Educational &, Political history' 1.92,0"~,47

L~L.~.

2 O· '"li

. '. ,j.,

204.

20· ..... .. ,'<) ..

206,. .2·07,.

2'0'8

.... '.' ,'. s.

20·9···

, . _. . ' .. ~. -I'

2- '1' 0'

...

zi r. 212~

213

' '

, ,_ .• l

214~ 215 .. 216~ '217,. 2 :18~ 2.19

22···0··'

, .•.• ',' "II

221 ~ 222+ 2,23~ 2.24~

22' .-

.,~I,.

2·.26m 227 ..

2.2·8. 2.29. 2-.3 O.

23· ]'1

, '.' ,.'

2~2··'

. .j .....

23.3. .234.

') 3' 5~-'

.J-". .' •.

,236 .. 237. 23,8. 2.39,. 240~ 241 ~ 242., 243 .. 244.

\l\h'\l\a~~ ~):),ti~\ ~n~C\\ ~l{jm(l\'\t~ '~~, ~~ ~t.~tx~f·~ ~~\'~t {jl\. '\L~ \)~~" \<}"1 \ ".\!

Mukhtar Ahmad Kl~i,arfs grade W,8S revised on. \ne' )'1ln De·c,. \9"1.) .. M}\abl Rahman's grade was, revised on 3rd Nov. ~92.4~ Mr.Hadi Hasan was appoin P"\)~)lte.SS(],i 01\\ 1. ()t\, 'M.'afc\1 \925,. (Exp [an,al iort, \?l' 5 -,6)

t.xp\,unlo.\ion~ 'VV, ~ l-~ Ibid, p, 8~I 0

u.u. ,po I,D-I I

Ibid, p. _. I '1 ... 12

Ib id p.I 3·

" .: .' ~ 1_ .• ,1

Ibid, p. 1.5 Ibid, IL 15 Ibid, p.19

File tv/t, 192'7~2,8 (A:-A) Zia-i-Hayat, p. '123

Sir Ibrahim Rahmatullah 'was the Chairman of Bombay, Sir PhHmp Hartoj member 'In Public Service Commission, Sir George Anderson was Direct Education in Punjab 31J.d Mr. A.F. Rahman was: the provost of the Muslim in Decca. University, iHayat-i-Aftab, p, 383 See also File No. 1llI1,. J 9~ (A .. A))

Report 0/ the ,AMU' Enquiry Committee, pp. l~2 (Hereafter quoted as En Rep'lort)

Hayat-i ... Aftab, :p .. 375~78 See also File No. 78,913: 1'.92'7=28 (AA) Enquiry Report, pp' .. 7-·g,

Ibid~ pp, 8-9

Ibid, pp .. 7 ... 8

L b id. P'··I'P' ~ 8,-.-9-·

, c - J :, .

tu« 9'" 10'· toia, pp._" .... ; ...

'"

Ibid, pp. 10',,! I

Ibid, 'pp .. 11·~12

lb"d .. , 13··' 114 , .. l::~ pp... ~'-.I . L

Ibid, pp. See also Hayat-i-Aftab, pp, 396·~97

Enquiry Report, p. 17 See also Hayat-i ... Ajatb, pp. 3'97 ... 9'8, Enquiry Report, p, 19-21

ibid" p, 21

Ibid, pp, 22: .. ·231~ See also Executive Council' Report, 9th Apri! 1928, PI (Hereafter quoted as ,EC Reports

Enquiry Report, p ... 24 See also EC Report, ]9·28 pp.S-I 0 Enqiry Report, p. 2,4

tu«, p, 27

Ibid; p~2.8 See also EC Report, 192 8~ :p, . .l l Enq uirv Report p 18·

__ - _.: - - I:"? ~ _ ,; .. __ ~ " _ •

Ibid, p. 27 Zia-Hayat, p .. 216,

File No. 7814.~ 1'9.2'9-,3·0 (M) ,See: also Hayat-i-Aftab, P', 3,88 Ibid, 1929-30 (M), See also Hayat-i ... Aftab, 'p.,2.88

Past and Present, p. 9:8 -

~41~garh Magazine" 1928:;. pp.iv-v

Ibid. '1' 9'2.8·, pp iv -v

.. , "'-':.t." ~ It

Ib id, 1'92.8.,)\ :p .xxi V' Ibid,,}),. xxv

Ibid, p. xxvil

fL··d· L·· ota, P+ _J

"tlah) Shave Gham Men Itna To, Ho,

Koi Jhoot kah De Sahar Ho Gat" (Aligarh Magazine, 1929,,~ Pl. xxi)

AM'U' Y::4 .. 1 '. E' 'd"· - xti ./:, &.' p ... l ui l J' ~. 1:9-·2·"0·-· 4·:'7:

• 1 .. ' _' '. .. . - . .": .1 .• :" -, i. l I' . .~,.' . . ' ' ',' .. ~ - ..,,".... -, ' . ", l -,' 1 . I, " , ' . ,... I " J .'

'I, ;i n ..... ,. uca .lO,no,. . ,0 j .. l,ca, tustoryt .... c-- _ ' .

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