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1-The-Tich-Khoi-Da-Dien-MATHVN

1-The-Tich-Khoi-Da-Dien-MATHVN

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Bai giang sa 1

TH~ TicH KHDI DA DI~N

Cac bai toan thuoc chu d~ nay co trong cac d~ thi tuy~n sinh Dl;li hoc, Cao d~ng

(] cau s6 4. Hai nQi dung chinh diroc hoi d8n la: .

- Tinh th~ tich cua mQt kh6i da dien (hinh chop hoac hinh lang tru) cho tnroc nao do.

- Sli dung phirong phap th~ tich d~ tim khoang each gifra mQt di~m d~n mQt m~t phang hoac khoang each gifra hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

Cac nQi dung sau day tuy chua duoc d~ c~p d~n trong cac d~ thi Tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao d~ng tir nam 2002 d8n nam 2009, nhirng rAt co ban va d~u narn trong han ch~ ki8n thirc v~ mon Toan ap dung cho cac ki thi tuyen sinh do BQ Giao due va Dao tao quy dinh.

- Cac hili toan v~ the tich kh6i da dien co k8t hop voi vi~c tim gia tr] Ian nh~t va nho nhat.

- Cac bai toan v~ so sanh th~ tich.

Bai giang nay se d~ c~p d~n cac nQi dung do.

§ 1. TjNH THE TiCH CVA MOT KH61 DA D~N

1. Cae ki~n thirc co ban cin bi~t

(Xem sach giao khoa Hinh hoc 12).

2. Cac dang toan thuong g~p v~ tinh th~ tich Ta thuong g~p hai loai toan chinh sau day:

Loai 1: Tinh th~ tich bang cac sli dung true ti8p cac cong thirc toan, Phuong phap giai cac bai roan thuoc loai nay duoc ti~n hanh nhu sau: - Xac djnh chien cao cua kh6i da dien dn tinh th~ tich.

Trong nhieu tnrong hop chieu cao nay ducc xac dinh ngay tir d~u hili, nhung cling co tnrong hop viec xac djnh nay phai dua vao cac dinh Ii v~ quan M vuong goc dii hoc (y lap II (hay dung nh~t la cac dinh Ii v~ ba dirong vuong goc, cac dinh Ii v~ di~u kien d~ mot dirong thang vuong goc voi mQt m~t phang ... ). Vi~c tinh cac chieu cao thong thuong nho vao viec slr dung dinh Ii Pitago, hoac nho d~n phep tinh hrong giac.

- Tim dien tich day bang cac cong thirc quen biet.

Nhin chung cac bai toan thuoc loai nay r~t co ban, chi doi hoi viec tinh toan dn than va chinh xac,

i", du I: (Di thi tllyi" sinh DlJi IUle kl,/jj A - 2009)

Cho hinh chop S.ABCD co day la hinh thang vuong tai A va D; AB = AD = 2a; CD = a, goc gitta hai m~t phang (SBC) va (ABCD) bang 60°. GQi I la trung di~m cua canh AD. Bi~t m~t phang (SBJ) va (SCI) cung vuong goc voi m~t phang (ABCD).

Tinh th~ tich khoi chop S.ABCD.

3

Giai

Vi (SBI) va (SCI) curig vuong goc vci day (ABCD), nen giao tuyen SI1. (ABCD).

Ke IH 1. BC =:> SH 1. BC (dinh Ii ba dirong vuong goc).

Ta eo: SHi = 60" la goc giifa hai m~it phang (SBC) va (ABeD). Trong tam giac

vuong SIH, ta eo SI = IH tan 60° = IH. J3 .

GQi M, N nrong irng la trung di~m ella AB, Be. Vi IN la dirong trung binh ella hinh thang ABCD, nell ta eo:

IN = AB + CD = 2a a = 3a . 222

Ta eo: IH = INeosHIN = INeosMCB (do HIN va MCB la cac goc eo canh nrong irng vuong goc)

s

3a MC 3a

2a

3afS

-----;=====

2 BC 2.J 4a 2 + a 2 5

• 1 1 (2a + a)2a tz; 3a' JI5

V~y VS,\I3("D =)SAIlCO.SI =) 2 .sH.,,3 = 5 (dvtt).

Thl d!1 2: (DJ tilyi" sinh D{li "(Jc klu1i B - 2(09)

Cho hinh lang tru dung ABe.A 'B'C' eo canh ben BB' = a va BB' tao voi l11~t

phang ABC goc 60°. Gia sir ABC la tam giac vuong tai C va SAC = 60°. Hinh chien vuong goc B' len (ABC) trung voi trong tam tam giac ABe. Tinh the tieh nr dien A'ABC

A'

~------------~~

~"'--r-+--r------=7 C D~t AB = 2x, trong tam giac vuong ABC ta eo:

AC = x ; BC = xJi (do ABC = 60")

Giai

GQi G la trong Him tam giac ABC ta eo B'G 1.

(ABC). Tir do B'BG = 60° la goc rna BB' tao voi mat phang (ABC). Trong tam giac vuong BB'G ta eo ngay:

BG =~; B'G = aJi

2 2

B Gia slr BO n AC thl BN = l BG = 3a .

2 4

Ap dung djnh Ii Pitago trong tam giac vuong BNC ta eo:

BN2 NC~ BC~ 9a~ x2 32 2 9a2 (I)

= + =>-=-+ X =>x =-.

16 4 52

, I, I I a Jj a Ji t: ax 2

Ta eo: V" All(' = - S \II( ,B G = -- AB.BC.- = _- X.x" 3 = - . (2)

'" 3' 3 2 2 12 4

4

9a3

Thay (I) vao (2), ta co: VA' ABC = - (dvtt), 208

TId tl(t 3: (lJi thl Illyin sinh lJ(li hoc kllJi D - 2009)

Cho hinh lang tru dung A'B'C' ABC co day Ia tam giac vuong ABC tai B. Gia slr AB = a, AA' = 2a; AC = 3a. GQi M la trung diem cua A'C' va I la giao diem cua AM va A 'C.

Tinh th~ tich tu di~n IABC.

2a

I B' I, \ I \

I' \

I' \

I' \

I' \\

_ _J _

Il

Trong tam giac vuong A' AC ta co:

AC = ,hac - 4a2 = aFs .

Tir do trong tam giac vuong ABC, thi:

BC = J Sa 2 - a 2 = 2a .

Do (AA'CC) .l (ABC) IH~n trong (AA'C'C) ke IH .l AC (H e AC) ~ IH .l (ABC).

A

Theo dinh If Talet ta co: __!.!:!_ = £ .

. AA' CAl

Vi CI = AC = 2 ~ CI = 2

lA' A'M IA'+CI 3

~__!.!:!_::;:£=3_~IH=3_AA'= 4a.

AA' CA' 3 3 3

I I I I ') 4a 4a3

V'ABC = -Si\llC,.IH = -.-AB.BC.lH =-a.~a.-:= - (dvtt).

3 . 32 6 3 9

B

Ta c6:

TIIi tift 4: (lJi thi IlIyJ" sinh lJ{li II!JC kllai A - 2007)

Cho hinh chop S.ARCD day la hinh vuong ABCD canh a, m~t ben SAD la tam giac d~u va nftm trong ll1~t phang vuong goc voi day ABCD. G9i M, N, PIAn 11I'qt la trung diem ella SB, SC, SD. Tinh th~ tich nr dien CMNP.

Giai

GQi H lit trung diem cua AD, thi SH.l AD. Do (SAD).l(ABCD) nen suy ra:

SH j_ (ABCD) va SH = aJj (vi ABC la tam 2

s

KeMK/ISM(KeHB) ~ K.l(ABCD)va MK = SH = aJj .

2 4

, I I a2 aJj a ' Jj

Vav: V'l(>'P =-S( .•. p.MK =--.-=--(dvtt) .

. _ "" 3" 3 8 4 96

S

TIll d(l 5: B€ thi tuy€n sin" Bpi "pc k"Ji B _ 2006)

Cho hinh chop S.ABCD co day ABCD la hinh chu nh~t voi AB :::; a, AD = a.fi , SA = a va SA vuong goc voi m~t phang (ABCD). Gia Slr I la giao di~m cua BM va AC. GQi M, N IAn IUQ1la trung diem cua AD va SC. Tim th~ tich tir dien ANlB.

Giiii .

s GQi 0 la tam cua day ABCD. Trong

tam giac SAC, ta co NO Iii. dirong trung binh nen NO//SA, nrc NO .L (ABeD) va a

NO=-.

2

Do do AI2 + BI2 = a2 = AB2, nen AlB Iii tam giac vuong dinh l.

Yay SAIB =!..IA.IB =!... aJ3. aJ6. a2J2 .(2)

. 2 2 3 3 6

Thay (2) vao (I) ta co: V ANIB = a3 J2 (dvtt)

36

M

D

a

==-SAIB' (I) 6

Ta tinh dien tich tam.giac AlB:

Xet hinh chu nhat ABCD. Do MA = MD

:::::> MA =..!.BD => AI =~-IC

2 2

:::::>AI=.!..AC:::::>Af=AC2 =22+a2 =a2

3 9 9 3

Lai co: BI =~BM

3

BI2_ 4BM'2_ 4( 2 a2)_2a2

:::::> _- _- a +-- _-.

9 9 2 3

c

Loai 2: Cdc bai loan tinh th~ tich kh6i da dien dira VCIO phdn tieh kh6i cdn tinh thanh tdng hoac hieu cua cac kh6i co ban hade bang each so sanh tM tich voi I11{Jt kh6i da di¢n co ball khac.

Trong nhieu bai toan, viec tinh true ti~p th~ tich kh6i da dien nhtr trong loai I co th~ g~p kho khan vi hai Ii do: Hoac Iii. kho xac dinh va tinh diroc chien cao. hoac tinh duoc dien tich day nhimg cilng khong d~ dang. Khi do trong nhieu tnrong hop ta co th~ lam nhir sau:

- Phan chia khoi cAn tinh th~ tich thanh tong hoac hi~u cac kh6i co ban (hinh ch6p hoac hinh lang tru) rna cac kh6i nay d~ tinh hon.

- Hoac la so sanh th~ tich khoi cAn tinh voi mQt kh6i da dien khac da bi~t truce th~ tich.

6

- V oi loai toan nay nguoi ta rAt hay sir dung k~t qua sau day.

Bai todn ca him:

Cho hinh chop S.ABC. LAy A', B', C' tirong irng tren canh SA, SB, SC. Khi do •

VSA'B'C' _ SA' SB' SC'

V- SA' SB' SC

SABC

C Chu-ng minh

Ke A'H' va AH cung vuong goc m~t phang (SBC). Khi do A'H'IIAH va S, H', H thang hang.

Ta co: B

V V !SsB,C'.A'H' -~SB'.sC'sina.A'H' SB' SC' SA'

SA'S'C' _ A'SB'C __ -3____ 2 d

- = =-.-.-=:> pcm.

VSA11C - VASIlC - !SsBC .. AH 2SRSc.sina.AH SB SC SA

3 2

. .-;--, "-

Odaya= BSC =BSC

Chu y : K~t qua tren v§:n dung n~u nhu trong cac di~m A', B', C' co th~ co di~m A=A'; B=B'; C=C'.

TIIi t1{1 1: (Vi IIIj luyill sinlt D{li IIrc kl,[ii A - 2004)

Cho hinh chop S.ABCO co day ABCO la hinh thoi canh bftng J5 ern, duong cheo AC = 4clll. Doan thang SO = 2J2 COl va vuong goc voi day, a day 0 la giao diem cua hai duong cheo AC va BO. GQi M lit trung di~m cua canh SC. Gia sti m~t phang (ABM) dt SO tai N. Tim th~ tich hinh chop.

Giiii

Ta co ABIIDC =:> AB II (SOC)

=:> (SAB)n(SOC) = MN II AB (N E SO).

Vi M la trung di~m cua SC nen N lit trung di~m cua SO.

Ta co: VSABMN = Vs ABN + Vs BMN (I)

C Theo bai toan CCY ban ta co:

VSABN SN I I I

-- = SO = - =:> Vs AI3N ="2 VS.ABD ="4 VSABCl)

VSABD 2

Vs BMN SN SM I I'

-- = -.- = - =:> VSBMN = - VSABCD .

VSBCD SO SC 4 S

ro (I) suy ra: VSABMN = i Vs ABCD (2)

;:- ~ I I I I t: sJ2

De thay: VSABCD = "3SABCD.sO = "2'"3.AC.BO.SO = 6.4.2·2,,2 = -3- (3)

7

Tir (2) va (3) suy ra: Vs ABCD = J2 (dvtt).

Nhdn xet:

- Hinh thang ABMN co th~ tinh duoc dien tich (tuy khong d~ dang).

- Vi~c xac dinh chieu cao tir S xuong ABMN va tinh no con phirc tap han.

(Ban co th~ tinh toan xem no d~ kiem tra tinh phirc tap). - Cach giai nlur tren lil hop Ii!

TI,' d(l 2: (Di II,; IlIyi" S;Il" DCI; "pc k"ai D - 2006)

Cho hinh chop tam giac S.ABC co day la tam giac d~u canh bang a. SA = 2a va SA vuong goc voi m~t phang (ABC). GOi M, N nrong irng la hinh chieu vuong goc cua A tren SB, Se. Tim th~ tich khoi chop A.BMNe.

Ghli

s

B

Ta co: V A.BMNC = VSA[K - VSAMN (I) Theo bai toan co ban thi:

VSAMN SM SN VSABC = SB' SC

Vi AB ='AC => SB = SC.

Ta co: SA~ = SM.SB = SN.SC => SM = SN.

C ,

V •. VSMIr-> _ SM- ("_)

~y. -----, .

VSABC SB-

2 Ta co SA2 = SM.sB => SM = SA SB

s

B

V~y tir (2) co

VSAMN SA4 [SA2]2 [ 4a2 ]216 VSARN = SB4 = SB2 = 4a2 + a2 25

16

C =>VSA~IN=25VSABC' (3)

Tir(I)va(3)co:

_ 9 _ 9 1 a 2 J3 " _ 3a:; J3

V'II(""I --Vs \ Be- ---.-.-- .... a --- (dvtt)

r "" 25" 25 3 4 50

Nhdn xet: Cac ban hay 50 sanh each giai tren voi each giai bang "tinh toan true

tiep" (theo plurong phap cua loai I) voi thi du nay.

Goi E la trung di~111 ella Be. Ta co AE j_ BC, SA j_ BC => BC j_ (SEA) => (SBC) j_ (SEA)

Ke AH j_ SE (1-1 ESE) => AI-I j_ (SBC).

Vay AH la chieu cao cua hinh chop A.BMNe.

T . , • SAE ' 1 1 1 1 4

rong tam giac vuong -, ta co: --2 - --2 + --2 = -, +-,

A 1-1 SA AE 4a~ 3a-

=>AH =2a {3

~19

8

Ta eo' SS~IN __ SM . SN __ (SM J~ SA 4 16 .. )

--4 = -- (xem a tren

SSllC SB SC SB SB 25

~SU~INC =_2_SSIlC =_2_._!_BC.SE 9aF¥- 3a" 9a~. tr:

25 25 2 =- 4a +- =-'-/19.

50 4 100

. I I 9a2J19 J3 3a3J3

Yay V i\ MNCB = -SBMNC·AH = -. .2a ~ = -- (dvtt)

. - 3 3 100 'V 19 50

Ta thu 1<.1i k~t qua tren.

Theo h(/II each giai nuo hi JWp Ii?

Thi t/{I 3: (DJ thi fuyJ" sill" D{li IIpc kluJi A - 2003)

Cho hinh hop ehfr nh~t ABCD.A'B'CU' day la hinh vuong canh b5ng a, chieu eao AA '= b. Goi M la trung d!~111 ella canh CC'. Tim th~ tich nr dien BDA'M.

A

o

Trong(ACC'A'): A'MnAC = E.

GQi 0 IiI tarn ella day ABCD vi M la trung diem ella CC', nen ta co CE = AC = aJ2 .

Ta co: VA'BDr-.1 = V:\,BDE - VMBDE = ~SB[)E.AAI -~SBD[.MC =~SBDdAAI - MC)

I I (bJ I 3 b alb

= --.-BD.EO b-- =-.a!i.-a!i.-=--(dvtt).

32 2 6 2 2 4

Thl du_j: (D~ thi tuyen sinh Cao d~ng khoi A - 2009)

Cho hinh chop nr giac S.ABCD eo canh day AB = a, canh ben SA = aJ2.

GQi M, N, P I~n luot la trung diem ella SA, SB, CD. Tim th~ rich nr dien AMNP.

s

c

A

A

9

Do MS = MA => d(A,(MNP») =d(S,(MNP»)(*) :=) V A.MNP = VS.MNP

Theo bai toan cc han, ta co:

VSMNP SM SN ~=SA·SB=4

S.ABP

1 1 I 1 1

=> VSMNP =-.-SABp·SO=-.-.-AB.HP.SO

4 3 4 3 2

(0 vit H tirong irng lit tam cua day ABCD vit trung di~m cua AB)

=_1 .a.a.~a2 _ a2 = a3J6 .

24 . 2 48 (2)

re (I) vit (2) suy ra: V A.MNP = a:~ (dvtt).

§2. SU Dl)NG PHUONG PHAP lliE TICH DE TIM KHoANG CACH

Cdc hoi todn tim khodng cdch:

Khoang each tu mot di~m d~n mot m~t phang, khoang each gifra hai duong thang, trong nhieu tnrong hop co th~ quy v~ bai toan th~ tich kh6i da dien. Viec tinh cac khoang each nay dua vito cong thirc hi~n nhien sau:

h=3V

S

iJ day v, S, h IAn hrot lit th~ tieh, dien tieh day vit chieu eao cua mot hinh chop nao

do (hoac h = ~ d6i voi hinh lang tru).

Phuong phap nay ap dung diroc trong tnrong hop sau:

Gia sir ta co th~ quy bai toan tim khoang each v~ bai toan tim chieu eao cua mot hinh chop (hoac mQt lang tru) nao do. Di nhien cac chieu eao nay thirong lit khong tinh tnrc ti~p diroc bang each sir dung cac phuong phap thong thirong nhu dung dinh Ii Pitago, dung cac cong thirc hrong giac ... Tuy nhien cac kh6i da dien nay lai d~ dang tinh duoc th~ tieh va dien tich day. Nhtr v~y chieu cao cua no Sf duoc xac djnh boi cac cong thirc dan gian tren,

- Liroc d6 sir dung plurong phap th~ tich d~ tim khoang each nhu sau:

II Sir dung cac dinh Ii cua hinh hoc khong gian sau day: + N~u ABII(P) trong do m~t phang (P) chua CD thi

d(AB,CD) = d(AB,(P».

+ Neu (P)II(Q), trong do cac m~t phang (P), (Q) IAn hrot chua AB, CD thi d(AB,CD) = d«P),(Q».

Ta quy bai toan tim khoang each thea yeu du dAu bai ra v~ viec tim chien cao cua mQt kh6i chop (hoac mQt kh6i lang tru nao do).

10

21 Gia su bai toan quy v€ tim chieu cao ke tir S cua mQt hinh chop (hoac mot lang tru) nao do. Ta tim th~ tich cua hinh chop (hoac lang tru) nay thea met con dirong khac mit khong dua vito dinh S nay (thi du tinh th~ tich hinh chop Ay voi quan niem no lit hinh chop vci dinh S'* S).

Tinh dien tich day d6i dien voi dinh S. Tir do ta co chieu cao ke tir S cAn tim.

Xet m(lt viti vi du minh hoa sau day. .

Till d(lJ: IJ€ thi tuy€n sin" IJft; IUIC k"ai A - 2004

Cho hinh chop S.ABCD day lit hinh thoi ABCD co SO vuong goc voi day va °

lit giao di~m ella AC vit BD. Gia sir SO = 2J2 • dirong cheo AC=4, canh day AB=J5 . GQi M lit trung di~m cua SC. Tinh khoang each giua hai dirong thang SA va BM.

Ghii

GQi M lit trung di~m cua Sc. Khi do ta co OMIISA ~ SAil (OMB)

~ d(SA,MB) = d (SA, (MOB)) = d(S, (MOB) = d(C,(MOB) (do MS = MC)

Ta eo: OB2 = AB2 - OA 2 = I ~ OB = I

Ke MH j_ (ABC D) ~ MH = _!_SO = J2. 2

V~y VM.OBC =~SOBC.MH =~.~OB.OC.MH

= _!_ 1.2.J2 = J2,- . (2)

6 3

(1)

s

Ta eo: OM = _!_SA = _!_v'8 + 4 =.Jj .

2 2

A

GQi h lit khoang each tir C tci (MOB), ta eo:

I 1 1 h.Jj

VC.MOB =3"SMOB.h =3·"20B.OM.h =-6- (3)

" .Jjh J2 216

Tir (2) va (3) suy ra -- =- ~ h =--. (4)

633

Tir (I) vit (4) di d~n: d(SA, MB) = 2~ .

Thl d(l2: (IJi thi tuyi" sin" IJpi I,pc k"ai D - 2009)

M Cho hinh lang tru dung ABC.A'B'C' day la tam

giac ABC vuong tai B. Gia str AB = a, AA' = 2a; AC = 3a. GQi M lit trung di~m cua A'C' va I lit giao di~m cua AM va A 'C.

1. Tim th~ tich tu di~n IABC.

2. Tim khoang each tir A toi m~t phAng IBC.

Giai

1. Theo thi du J, loai 1, §I, ta co

4a3

VIABC =-

9

B

11 .

2. Ke IH 1. AC =:> IH 1. (ABC)

Ke HE 1. BC =:> IE 1. BC (dinh Iy ba dirong vuong goc)

Ta co: HE = CH = CB' =~ =:> HE =~AB= 2a .

AB CA CA' 3 3 3

D • IE - IIH~ HE~ _ I6a~ 4a~ _ 2aJ5

o vay - "1/ + - -9- + 9 - -3 - ;

Ke AK 1. (IBC), ta co VI ABC = VA IBt' = _!_ SlBcAK

. 3

Tit diu I suy ra:

4a~ = _!__!_a. 2aJ5 .AK =:> AK = d( A (lBC») = 2av's

9 32 3 '5

TId til! 2: (DJ thi IlIyi" sin" iI(li II!Jc khai D - 2007)

Cho hinh chop nr giac S.ABCD co day ABCD hi hinh thang vuong trong do

- -

ABC = BAD = 90°; BA = BC = a; AD = 2a. Gia sit SA vuong goc voi day ABCD

va SA=aJ2. GQi H la hinh chieu cua A tren SB.

I. Chung minh SCD la tam giac vuong

2. Tfnh khoang each tit A toi m~t phang (SCD).

Ghli

1. Do AB 1.. BD =:> SB 1. BC (dinh Ii ba duong vuong goc)

Dua vito djnh Ii Pitago trong cac tam giac vuong SAB, ABC, SAD d~ dang tinh ducc: .

s

SB1 = 3a1; SC2 = 4a2; SDl = 6a2. Tit do co: DC2 = 2a2•

V~y suy ra: SD2 = Sc2 + SD2 =:> SCD la tam giac vuong tai C => dpcm.

2. Ke HK va BF cung vuong goc voi m~t phang (SCD) =:> HK//BF va S, K, F thang hang. Ta

. HK SH

co: -=- (1)

BF SB

Trong tam giac vuong SAB co:

SA 2 = SH.SB =:> SH = 2a J3 3

V ~y tit ( 1 ) co

(2)

Taco:

I 1 1 . 0 1 r: J2 r: a3 J2

VSBCD =-SBCD.sA =-.-BC.CDsmI35 .SA = -a.a"l/2.-a",2 =-- .

. 3 32 6 2 6

M~t khac: Vs BCD = ~ SSCD·BF = iSC.CD.BF .

12

JJ2 I

Tit do ta co: ~ = - 2a.a..j2.BF => BF = ~ . 662

Tir (2) va (3) suy ra: HK = d(H,(SCD») = ~.

3

TIIi tI{t 4: (Bi thi tuyin sinh Bpi IIrc klltJi A - 2006)

Cho hlnh I~p plurong ABCD.A'B'C'D' co canh bang 1. GQi M, N IAn hrot la trung diem cua AB va CD. Tinh khoang each gifra hai dirong thang A'C va MN .

Giai

(3 )

Ta co MNIIBC => MNII(A'BC)

=> d(MN.A'C) = d(MN.(A'BC» = d (M,(A'BC» (I)

- , I ,1 I I

De thay VA'MBC =-S~1Bc-A A =-.-.1.1.1=- (I)

3 3 2 12

Vi CB j_ (BAA'B) => CB j_ BA' => A'BC la u tam giac vuong tai B.

B

c Tit (I), (2) ta co

_I_ = _!_.-!- A 'B.BC.h = _!_ J2h => h = J2

12 3 2 6 4

Tir(I),(2),(3)suyra: d(MN.A'C)= J2, 4

(2)

(3)

§3. cAc BAI ToAN VE THE TICH KH61 DA Dle:N co KET HOP VOl vise TIM GIA TRI LON NHAT vA NH6 NHAT

Day co the xern nlur I11QI bai loan r~t co ban m~c du no chua mot IAn xuat hien trong cac bai thi tuyen sinh vao Dai hoc, Cao dAng nr narn 2002 d~n nay (cho du bai toan v~ gia tri 10'n nhat, IIh6 nhat voi ham s6 hAu nhir nam nao cling co m~t trong cac d~ thi tuyen sinh).

Cac bai roan nay co noi dung r~t CO" ban nhu sau: Th~ tich kh6i da dien trong cac dang loan nay phu thuoc m9t tham s6 nao do (tham s6 co th~ la goc, hoac la d<) dai canh), bai toan doi hoi xac dinh gia tri cua tham s6 d~ th~ tich nhan gia tri Ian nhat hoac I1h6 nl1<11.

Voi cac bai toan nay diroc giai theo cac buoc sau:

- Buoc I: Chon tham s6, thuc ch~t la ch911 frn. An nay co th~ la goc a thich hop trong khci da dien, hoac la m9t y~u t6 d9 dai nao d~y.

- Buoc 2: Voi frn s6 diroc chon 6 biroc 1, ta coi do nhir la cac y~u t6 dii cho d~ tinh th~ tich V cua kh6i da dien theo cac phirong phap dii bi~t.

- Buoc 3: D~n day nhiem vu cua bai toan hlnh hoc xem nhir dii "k~t thuc", Ta co mQt ham s6 f(x) voi XED rna cdn tim gia tri Ian nh~t, nho nh~t cua no. Dung b~t dftng thirc hoac Slr dung tinh d6ng bien va nghich bien cua ham s6 thong qua viec khao sal dao ham s6.

13

Till dlj 1:

Cho hinh chop tu giac d~u S.ABCD rna khoang each til di~m A d€n m~t phang (SBC) b~llg 2a. Voi gia tr] nao cua a, voi a la goc giCi'a m~t phang ben va day cua hinh chop, thl th~ tich cua kh6i chop la nho nhat? Tim gia tri nho nhAt do.

Ghli

GQi M, N IAn hrot la trung di~ni cua AD, Be.

S I

Taco SNM=a

A

Do DA//BC ~ AD//(SBC)

=> d(A, (SBC)) = d(M,(SBC)) = MH = 2a. o day: MH .L SN (H E S'N)

(Chu y vi (MNS) j_ (SHC) nen MH j_ (SBC)).

'CT 'M· N MH 2a 'd'

aco =-.-=-.-, tu 0

sma sma

a sina a

SO = ON tan a = ---- = --. sin a cosa coso

V = ]_(~)2 _a_ = --::-4a_3 __

S.ABCD· • '

3 sma cosa Jsinc cosu

Til (I) suy ra V S.ABCD be nhAt khi va chi khi sin? acosa Ian nhat, Xet bi~u tlurc P == sirr' acosa = cosfl+ cosc.) = cosa - cos'u

Til (2) d~n d~n xet ham s6 y = x - x ' voi 0 < x < I.

Ta co y' = I - 3x2 va ta co bang bien thien sau:

x Jj 0 Jj

H

D

M_

o

N

B

Dodo

(I)

(2)

\

Til do Ymax = y(Jj) = 2Jj ~ x = Jj .

3 9 3

VA V han aia be h~ b! 4a3 2 (:;3 3 khi , hi khi Jj

ay: S.ABCD n an gra tn e n at ang 2Jj = -s s« . I va c I • I cosa = 3 .

3.---

9

Till dlj 2:

Hinh chop S.ABC co day la tam giac vuong can dinh C va SA vuong goc voi day (ABC). Gia Slr SC = a. Hay tim goc gitta hai m~t phang (SBC) va (ABO) sao cho th~ tich kh6i chop la Ian nhAt.

Giai

Ta thAy ngay ScA = a, SA = sino va AC = cosa.

1 a2cos2a. a3 •

Suy ra: VSABC = asma =-cos2asma (1)

3 2 6

14

TiT (I) suy ra: V SABC nhan gia tr] 1611 nhAt khi va chi khi bi~u thirc

P = cosu sin a nhan gia tri 1611 nhAt. Vi sin a >0, nen Pmax ~ P~ax

~ (I - sin" af sin ' a dat gia trj 1611 nhat.

'( .,)2., (l-sin2a)(I-sin2a)(2sin2a)

Taco I-sm-a smu > • .

2

Theo bfit d~ng thirc Cosi, thi

[(I-sin2a)+(I-sin2a)+2sin2a] 8

(I-sin" a)(I- sin ' a )(2sin2 a) ~ =-.

3 27

T' d' P 2Jj 1 ., 2" . Jj

U 0: max =--~ -sm"a= sm"a~sma=-.

9 3

V" V I"" '1' h~ b~ aJj . Jj

ay SABC n ian gia tn on n at ang n ~ sin a = 3" .

, " , A , ,?,

§4. CAC BAI TOAN VE SO SANH THE TICH

Cac bai roan thuoc loai nay thirong co dang sau day: Cho mot khQi da dien va mot m~t phang (P). M~t phang nay dt kh6i da dien theo mot thiet dien (a) nao do. Thi8t dien (a) se chia kh6i da dien thanh hai phftn co the tich Iftn hrot lit V, va V2•

Bai toan doi hoi tim ti s6 ~~ nrc lit so sanh th~ tich hai phan bj chia ra. Noi rieng

n~ll ~I = I, ta noi thi8t dien (a) chia kh6i da dien thanh hai phftn nrong dtrong, nrc

2

Iii co th~ tich bang nhau,

Cftn hru y rang mac du cac bai toan trong ky thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao d~ng khong co dang true ti~p nhir th~. nhung th~c· chAt nhieu bai toan d~u Slr dung d~n viec so sanh th~ tich nay. Th~t v~y, trong cac thi du I, 2, 4 loai 2 § I, d~ tinh th~ tich kh6i da dien theo yeu du, ta khong true ti8p tinh no mit thong qua mQt kh6i trung gian, sau do tim ti s6 gitra th~ tich kh6i da dien cAn tinh voi th~ tinh kh6i trung gian nay. TiT th~ tich khoi trung gian (rna viec tinh d~ dang hon) ta suy ra k~t qua cAn tinh. Nhir th8 Ih(I'(' chdt cua cac thi du nay la giai mot bai loan vJ so sdnh 1M tich.

Cac bai toan v~ so sanh th~ tich co luoc db chung d~ giai nhu sau: - Xac dinh thi~t dien.

- Chon m{>t trong hai phAn d~ tim th~ tich.

15

- V 6i phan duoc chon ra d~ so sanh th~ tich cua no voi V la th~ tich cua kh6i da dien ban dau. Gia sir ta tinh diroc:

VI=kV(O<k<J)

Khi d' , ~ ~ , I' VI k

loti so can tun a - = -- .

V2 J-k

Trong muc nay ta luon sir dung hai k~t qua co ban hien nhien nhu sau:

I I Bai toan co ban trinh bay trong ph An rna dAu cua Ioai 2 § I. 21 K~t qua quen bi~t sau day cua hinh hoc phang,

Cho tam giac ABC, B' va C' IAn hrot Iii cac di~m tren cac canh AB vii AC (ho~c phAn keo dai cua no). Khi do ta co:

A

~.

B C

c

B

SAlK AB' AC

D~ Illy lam vi du minh hoa cho muc nay, eo th~ sir dung cac thi du J, 2, 4 loai 2 § I. 6 day xet them cac vi du co dang "tnrc ti~p" doi hoi so sanh th~ tich cua hai phan khM da dien b] chia boi mot thi~t dien (a) eho truce.

Tlti t1!t1:

SAB'C' AB' AC'

--=--

Cho hinh chop S.ABC. GQi M Iii trung di~m cua SB. DV'Ilg thi~t dien voi hinh chop qua M, song song vci SA vii song song voi BC. Clnrng minh thi~t dien chia kh6i chop thanh hai ph An tirong duong.

Giai

s

B

Ke MNIISA (N E AB), MQIIBC (QE SC) Ke NP/IBC (PE AC) ~ QP/ISA.

Thi~t dien Iii hinh binh hanh MNQP.

D~ thlly M, N, Q, PIAn hrot Iii trung di~m cua SB, AB, AC va sc.

c GQi V I Iii th~ tich ph An hinh chop n~m

ben trai thi~t dien MNPQ. Tir M ke MR//AB (RE SA va eo RS = RA).

Ta co RMQ.ANP Iii hinh lang tru va co:

VI = VS.RMQ + VRMQANP (I)

16

(P) qua AC' va song song voi BD e~t cac canh SB, SO cua hinh chop I~n hrot t~i B' 0'. Tim th~ tieh hinh chop S.AB'C'D.

D' 1 a3J3 apso: --.

18

Bai 7: Cho hinh vuong ABCD e6 canh b4ng a. Qua trung di~m I cua canh AB dung dirong thang (d) vuong goc voi m?t phing (ABCD). Tren (d) I~y di~m S sao

eho Sf = ~~ . Tim khoang each tir C d~n m?t phang (SAD).

D' : aJ3 apso: 2'

BaiS:

Cho hlnh chop S.ABC c6SA = 3a va SA vuong goc vai m?t ph~ng (ABC).

Tam giac ABC e6 AB = BC = 2a; ABC = 1200. Tim khoang each tir A d~n m?t phing (SBC).

D' ,I. 3am ap so. -1-3 -.

Bai 9:

Cho hinh I~p plurong ABCD.A'B'C'D' co canh bang a. GQi K la trung di~m

cua DD'. Tim khoang each gitra CK va A'D.

D' : a apso: 3"'

Gitii cae hai loan va so stinh IltJ,icl, B(1i 10:

Cho lang tru dung ABC.A'B'C'. GQi M la trung di~m cua AA'. Chung minh riing thi~t dien C'MB chia lang tru thanh hai phAn nrong dirong.

Bai 11: .

Cho hinh chop tam giac S.ABC. Gia su M, N, P la ba di~m IAn hrot tren SA,

h N ' I' d·l• SA BC ' AP 1 TI d

BC, AB sao cho M, tirong irng a trung rem cua , con - = - . net

AB 3

dien voi hinh chop S.ABC tao boi m?t phang (MNP) cAt sc tai Q.

I. Chung minh: SQ == _!_ • SC 3

2. Chung minh thi~t dien chia hinh chop thanh hai phAn nrong <luang.

Bai 12: Cho hinh chop tu giac d~u S.ABCD c6 cac m~t ben tao voi mat phang

day g6c 60°.

I. Ve thi~t dien qua AC va vuong goc voi nt?t phang (SAD).

2. Thi~t di~n chia kh6i chop thanh hai phAn co th~ tich nrong irng la V" V 2.

T' . ~ VI Im ti so: -

V2

D' : 1 apso: -.

4

19

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