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A Special Paper Presented to The Faculty of the College of Graduate Studies Central Philippine University Iloilo City
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master in Business Administration
EVELYN PEARL A. ARROYO
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Background and Rationale of the Study In the last two decades, there has been a distinct shift in tourism trends from the mass beach tourism that characterised the 1970s and ‘80s, to more specialised and diverse tourism. With increased public awareness and concern for the environment, there has also developed a corresponding growth in popularity of travel to sites of natural interest. Nature and wildlife tourism now account for 7 per cent of all tourism, and are the fastest growing segments of the industry. (www.devalt.org) Interest in ecotourism has been on the rise, as tourists from around the world began to appreciate the beauty of nature, which abounds in tropical archipelagos such as the Philippines. International visitor arrivals to the Philippines rose 1.5 percent year-onyear to a record 3.14 million in 2008 despite the global economic downturn, thanks to the rising interest for ecotourism among Europeans who are drawn to the country's natural wonders. The Tourism Department said new tourist products in the market such as diving and bird watching provide impetus to stimulate awareness of the country's tourist potentials and bring in high-value visitors, with greater propensity to stay longer and spend more. The department has been promoting the Philippines as a diving mecca and bird watching paradise in Europe. Despite the decline in arrivals from traditional markets (Korea, US, and Japan), international visitor arrivals to the Philippines managed to grow 1.5 percent to a new record of 3.14 million in 2008 from 3.09 million in 2007. "The last
four years has been the Renaissance period of Philippines tourism," said Durano. "But the best has yet to come for Philippine tourism." (www.enjoyphilippines.com) The Philippines is starting to develop its strength on ecotourism as the Department of Tourism
The Philippines provides many options for eco activities:
trekking/hiking/mountaineering, bird and other wildlife watching, diving and snorkeling, caving, kayaking/canoeing/rafting, and surfing.
Philippines ecotourism is varied and unlimited. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Department of Tourism (DoT), ABS-CBN Foundation, Inc.’s Bantay Kalikasan, and Conservation International Philippines have agreed to work together for the promotion of the “Magandang Pilipinas”, a project that will boost up the country’s ecotourism and as a world-class ecotourism destination. The pilot ecotourism project sites have been identified as a high ecotourism potential with beautiful scenic attractions and are endowed with rich biodiversity. These sites are mostly protected area in the Philippines. Under the agreement, the parties agreed to manage existing and pre-identified ecotourism sites in the Philippines and promote specific ecotourism sites. The sites include the Verde Island Marine Passage Corridor in Batangas (center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity’); Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (underground river); Donsol, Sorsogon (whale shark watching); El Nido, Palawan (marine protected area and limestone karst); Tubbataha National Marine Park (coral reef); Banawe Rice Terraces, Ifugao; Mayon Volcano, Albay; Pamilacan, Bohol; Hundred Islands, Alaminos, Pangasinan; Sapang Bato, Angeles City, Pampanga; Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. http://www.directoryofphilippines.com/blog/?p=17
DOT launches adventure tourism
05/08/2008 | 03:20 AM Share
CITY OF SAN FERNANDO - The Department of Tourism (DOT) under Secretary Joseph Ace Durano is set to embark on a nationwide campaign to increase awareness and promote the
country's adventure and ecotourism destinations and activities, said DOT Regional Director Ronaldo Tiotuico. Tiotuico said the tourism chief intends to absorb a bigger slice of the adventure and experiential travel market and consequently position the country as an adventure destination in Asia. Dubbed Adventure Philippines Campaign, the program aims to create positive awareness for the Philippines as an exciting outdoor travel destination, to educate the industry stakeholders (tour operators/travel agents, guides, suppliers, outdoor recreational clubs or societies) on adventure travel and its potentials, and to foster or strengthen networking capacity and working relationship between travel service providers and suppliers. To provide tourism stakeholders and major players an overview of the outdoor recreation industry and its potential for job-generation and social and economic benefits, the tourism department is set to conduct a seminar on the fundamentals of Adventure Tourism 101 slated for June 3-5, 2008 at Hotel Stotsenberg, Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga. The conference is organized by the Philippine Convention & Visitors Corp., in cooperation with the Recreational Outdoor Exchange (R.O.X.). Partnering with DOT are the Adventure Travel Trade Association (ATTA) and Philippine Airlines (PAL). Participants in the seminar are set to hold actual adventure travel to the wilds and rainforests of Subic Bay Freeport in Zambales on June 5 where they are bound to try the famous jungle safari, canopy ride and slide for life amidst thick vegetation and wildlife sanctuary. Administrator Armand Arreza of Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) will sponsor the one-day safari. A registration fee of P2,500 will be assessed each participant to cover cost of food and snacks for the duration of the seminar, seminar kit, including food and snacks, and transportation during the post-seminar activity at Subic Bay Freeport. Hotel accommodation and other incidental expenses will be shouldered by the participants. -
Adventure tourism is RP's newest jewel ADVENTURE tourism is slowly but effectively gaining grounds in the country blessed with numerous attractive natural resources that beckon the adventure spirit of visitors notwithstanding calamities and other destructions surrounding the area.
Department of Tourism (DOT)-Northern Mindanao Director Catalino Chan pointed this out during the second day of the 9th national convention of the Association Tourism Officers of the Philippines (Atop) in Iloilo City.
Chan founded the Atop in 2001 to mobilize tourism officers, especially in the countryside, to show off and market the many tourism potentials of their own place. Today, Atop is a major tourism industry player in the country.
Chan, a former provincial tourism officer of the province of Camiguin, said adventure tourism is rising to the challenge of climate change from aquatic to highland sports.
However, challenges posed by adventure tourism must be met by tourism officers in order to sell and promote the locality as a major tourist destination. These cover affordability, accessibility, communication facilities, no language barrier and diverse people and culture in 7,017 islands.
The future is bright on tourism with the emergence of the cruise industry, eco adventure and cultural tourism, the rise of health care facilities, destinations targeted for children, rise of male influences and gay travel fair, and a hectic 10-day travel package.
Chan told more than 500 tourism officers the advantages of adventure tourism in the use of natural resources and in increasing awareness of bio-diversity to give livelihood opportunity for the community. (Lydia C. Pendon) http://www.sunstar.com.ph/static/ilo/2008/10/06/news/adventure.tourism.is.rp.s.newe st.jewel.html
Foreign travel agencies that attended the recently concluded Phitex Philippine Travel Exchange or Phitex 2009 have agreed to promote the Philippines as an ecotourism destination. Xpert Holidays, a dynamic travel company from Hong Kong which provides personal & professional services to people who are looking for adventurous, exotic and unique holidays, said it will include the Philippines in the promotion of ecotourism to their segment. “The Hong Kong market is high on eco-travels, and we respond to this by offering one-ofa-kind tours. We have found that the Philippines appealed to a wide range of clients,” said Chi Ping Phoebe Tang, assistant operations manager. “The Philippines is a good place to start educating people on responsible travel; where one’s ‘save the earth’ advocacy can truly be nurtured,“ Tan added, citing El Nido, Palawan, as one of the most beautiful places she’s ever been to, and a destination widely popular with families in Hong Kong. Hoi Kuen Wong, the market representative of the Tourism Department in Hong Kong. Macau, and South China, noted that the Philippines has steadily gained a following on ecotourism, with beaches and adventure trails all over the islands, such as Palawan, Bohol, and the Cordillera. “We are confident that the Philippines' growth in tourism can surpass that of the previous years," Wong added. Phitex 2009 attracted 205 foreign buyers - carefully selected and matched with a formidable list of sellers in the country, offering expert market knowledge and appropriate travel services and products. Held at the SMX Convention Center, the Phitex allowed for dedicated sessions that ensured fruitful meetings, bookings, and partnerships. After the business-to-business appointments and the Philippine Travel Mart, the buyers attending the Phitex will be brought to post-tours around the country, highlighting ecoadventures in Palawan, Bohol, and Cebu.
Tess Mauricio, OIC for Travel Trade Promotions of the Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation said the plan is to let the foreign buyers experience first-hand the unique adventures in the country, to further allow them to promote the Philippines as a multi-faceted destination. Tourism Secretary Ace Durano said Phitex 2009 is the largest yet, with intensive business appointments lined up for the most influential buyers from different market segments. “In light of the economic scenario and the issues of global warming and climate change, we continue to position the Philippines as an ecotourism destination. Our natural wonders are what we could be proud of the most, with our unspoilt beaches, pristine rainforests, vast mountains, and numerous islands,” Durano added. “As we persist in moving the Philippines forward in ecotourism efforts, we enjoin travelers to not only explore the many marvels of the country, but more importantly, help in preserving them through responsible tourism," the tourism chief said. The markets were all well-represented in Phitex, with key buyers from Asian countries such as India, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Oceania was also represented with New Zealand and Australia. European buyers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom comprised the biggest delegation. The fast growing Middle East market was also represented by companies from the United Arab Emirates; and retailers and wholesalers from Canada and the United States were also in the roster of buyers. Undersecretary for Tourism Planning and Promotions Eduardo Jarque, Jr. said that despite the seeming global challenges, the country’s tourism industry has remained vibrant, with all sectors working together to stimulate activity and movement. “There is no better time to visit the Philippines than now. We have more destinations beyond the usual; and more flights around the country,” Jarque said. Walter Sultan, Phitex Secretary-General, said Phitex 2009 has been envisioned as a profitable and fruitful undertaking for both buyers and sellers, to discuss business relations for tourism. "Aside from the intensive appointments, we continually enjoin foreign buyers to continue to discover the wonders of the archipelago and experience the warmth of Filipino culture,” Sultan said.
Objectives of the Study Generally, this study aims to determine the feasibility of operating an ecoadventure tourism travel agency in Iloilo City. Target destination areas are municipalities and provinces in Panay that can offer nature-based tourism activities to the visitors. Specifically, this study aims to determine the different areas of the business, namely its marketing, management, technical, legal, taxation, socio-economic and financial aspects.
Specific Objectives Marketing Aspect 1. To determine the degree of willingness of prospective clients for eco-adventure tours. 2. To determine eco-adventure activities prospective clients prefer. 3. To determine the amount prospective clients are willing to spend for ecoadventure tours.
To determine a market niche for the proposed eco-adventure tourism travel agency.
To determine the total amount needed as capital, Net Present Value, Payback Period, Liquidity, Return on Investment and Financial Leverage of the project as a basis for financial analysis. Management Aspect To present the form of business, organizational chart, job specifications, description and compensation scheme of workers. Legal Aspect To determine the mandatory and statutory requirements needed for starting the business and for its continuous operation. Taxation Aspect To determine the tax dues and schedule of payment for a sole proprietorship. Socio-Economic Aspect To determine the contribution of the business to the community.
Operational Definition of Terms Ecotourism. Ecotourism is an enlightening nature travel experience that contributes to conservation of the ecosystem, while respecting the integrity of host communities” (Wight 1996). The official Philippine definition of ecotourism, as adopted by the National Ecotourism Development Council, is that it is “a form of sustainable tourism within a natural and cultural heritage area where community participation, protection and management of natural resources, culture and indigenous knowledge and
practices, environmental education and ethics as well as economic benefits are fostered and pursued for the enrichment of host communities and satisfaction of visitors”
Significance of the Study The Clients. Clients will be able to experience new places offering nature-based activities. In addition, the visitors will learn more about biodiversity, and will be able to help out in environmental conservation through the activities imbedded into the travel packages. The community. Jobs will be made available to the locals. The proposed travel agency will work with the locals in providing for the services and products (specifically in the form of souvenirs) needed or requested by the tourist. Also, the environment of the host community will further be conserved with the help of the tourists. Others. The results of this study may be used as a basis for future researchers.
Scope and Limitation The target respondents were college students from three Universities namely Central Philippine University, . College student
respondents were enrolled during first semester of school year 2010-2011.
CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE
The Changing Tourism Industry Tourism is the second largest industry on the planet, after the industrial military complex. The Madrid based World Tourism Organization’s (WTO) most recent figures show that there were 595 million travelers worldwide in 1997. These spent about US $425 billion. The number of tourist "arrivals" in the world is expected to grow at a rate of 4.3% during the next 20 years, while expenditure will grow by 6.7%. Tourism comprises 7% of the world trade in goods and services. However, the nature of tourism is changing and travelers are changing, too. The 60’s and 70’s brought a new awareness of our planet and of ourselves. In the 80’s environmentalists managed to have their concerns included in the national agendas in most nations. This thirst to better understand the world we live in and to become environmentally involved and responsible has powered a demand for culture and nature based experiences. In the 90s this demand is definitely on the rise. Travelers seek to have real contact and make direct contributions to parks and protected areas and to the preservation of endangered species, as well as to the communities who live close to them. Before setting out they carefully study offers that are both friendly with the environment and respectful of the people and local traditions. This "purposeful travel" as the ECOTOURISM SOCIETY, based in Vermont, defines ecotourism has the potential to transform the way we "understand culture and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local
people." It is also transforming the way we do business. A responsible ecotour operator or ecolodge owner should be able to quantify these economic opportunities while offering authentic, educational and experiential trips. Babyboomers, now in their mid 30’s to their 50’s, want to meet real people and see real places. They prefer jungles, rivers and caves to the props, traps and souvenirs of a consumer oriented trip to a "traditional" destination. Advertising for small groups to walk on the Himalayas with Sherpas or walk through the Maya jungle with the Lacandones is more appealing to those with an environmental consciousness than Vegas. The eco-operator knows this. Statistically, ecotourism is considered a specialty segment within the broader nature tourism market, which represents 7% of all tourism. In recent years, the latter has become the industry’s fastest growing segment, increasing at an annual rate of 30%, according to the Stanford Research Institute. (www.ecotourism-adventure.com)
Defining Nature-based Tourism Nature-based tourism is any type of tourism that relies on attractions directly related to the natural environment. Accordingly, ecotourism is a sub-set of nature-based tourism, allowing for the supplementary portion of ecotourism that focuses on the cultural attributes of a destination and the cultural influences on the natural environment. Other categories of nature-based tourism include 3S tourism (sun, sea and sand), adventure tourism, wildlife tourism, captive tourism (i.e. zoological parks, botanical gardens, aquariums and aviaries), extractive tourism (e.g. hunting and fishing) and some types of health tourism. Unlike ecotourism, none of these is explicitly required to have a learning component or a mandate to be managed with sustainability objects on mind.
Adventure-tourism To qualify as adventure ecotourism, an activity or product generally incorporates three components: an element of risk, higher levels of physical exertion, and use of specialized skills to participate successfully and safely in the activity. Some forms of ecotourism (especially those that occur in a wilderness or marine environment) meet these requirements and hence qualify as adventure tourism. However, for several reasons, most adventure tourism does not qualify as ecotourism. First, adventure tourism attractions are not always nature-based, as indicated by the popularity of off-beat travel guides such as Fielding’s The World’s Most Dangerous Places, which features destinations beset by civil war and other conflict. Second, as with nature-based and wildlife tourism in general, adventure tourism has no inherent requirement of sustainability, although many adventure tourism businesses operate in a sustainable way. The third and arguably most important distinction between adventure tourism and ecotourism concerns the nature of the interaction between the participant and the attraction. While ecotourists seeks a learning/ educational experience, adventure tourists primarily desire an environment that facilitates the risk, challenge and physical exertion
that they seek. Steep mountain slopes and white water are valued as venues more for the thrills and challenges that they offer than for the opportunities they provide for studying nature in such specialized settings. The figure below shows ecotourism’s overlapping relationship with adventure tourism, which is similar to its link with cultural tourism except that the extent of the overlap is not as great. This is because only a small portion of all ecotourism activity entails the level of risk, exertion and skill that characterizes adventure tourism, even after allowing for the fact that perceptions of physical challenge are subjective. A mundane experience for a seasoned sea kayaker, for example, may be a highly challenging adventure for a person with physical disabilities. (David Weaver, Ecotourism, 2008 John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd)
Adventure Ecotouris m
Nature-based tourism Adventure Abseiling Cave diving Caving Cliff diving Dogsledding Downhill skiing Four-wheel driving Hang-gliding Heli-skiing Ice sailing Mountain biking Mountaineering Paragliding Pearl diving Rock climbing Sea kayaking Snowmobiling Whitewater rafting Wilderness flights Ecotourism Aboriginal tourism Birdwatching Celestial tourism • Comets • Northern lights • Skygazing • Stargazing Flower gazing Leaf-peeping Nature observation Nature photography Outdoor education Outdoor research Stargazing Whale watching • Onshore • Vessel-based Wolf-calling 3S Beachcombing Boating Sailing Sea-dooing Sunbathing Surfing Swimming Waterskiing Windsurfing Captive Aquariums Aviaries Arboretums Botanical gardens Garden tours Wildlife parks Zoos Extractive Health
Berrypicking Mudbathing Fishing Nature retreats Spas • Catch and release • Deep sea • Fly fishing • Freshwater • Ice fishing • Off-shore • Spearfishing Fossicking Gold Panning Hunting • Big game • Small game Mushroom picking
Canoeing Cross-country skiing Horseback riding Camel trekking Safaries Scuba-snorkeling Trekking Interactive whale watching Hiking/ bushwalking
The Ecotourist Market Ecotourists may be defined as those who seek nature-based learning experiences and behaving as much as possible in an environmentally and socioculturally sustainable manner, and as such they constitute a subset of the green traveler market. Ecotourists are regarded as a type of geotourist. However, as with green travel in general, Ecotourists are not a homogenous market but display a range of motivation, behavior and other characteristics that entail variable levels of anthropocentrism and biocentrism. Market segmentation is the process whereby a market such as ecotourists is divided into distinctive subcomponents or market segments (whose members share common traits) so that appropriate and cost-effective ‘target’ marketing, product development and management strategies can be formulated for each. Through market segmentation, marketing and management efforts can be focused in the most efficient way to serve existing customers, to attract new customers who are similar to existing clientele and to identify underrepresented markets for potential recruitment. With regard to ecotourism, market segmentation can be conducted at two levels. The first is to determine how ecotourists differ from consumers and tourists in general and the second is to identify distinctive ecotourist subgroups. Several standard criteria are used in market segmentation, including motivation, attitude and behavior, geographic location and demographics.
Motivation, Attitude and Behavior Motivation, attitude and behavior are often considered separately, but are combined here because (a) motivation and attitude influence behavior and (b) together
they comprise the underlying dynamics of the ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ spectrum. The idea of such a continuum is implicit in the array of definitions, which range from very rigid and prescriptive (i.e. hard) to more liberal (i.e. soft), and is also evident in the tourism literature.
Hard ecotourists The hard ecotourist ideal type is associated with a strongly biocentric attitude that entails a deep commitment to environmental issues, a belief that one’s activities should enhance the resource base, and a desire for a deep and meaningful interaction with the natural environment. As such, hard ecotourists are found at the more extreme environmentalist end of the population curve. These motivation and attitudes give rise to a preference for physically active and challenging experiences that involve close personal contact with nature and do not require on-site services or facilities. In terms of trip characteristics, hard ecotourists prefer as much as possible making their own travel arrangements, small group travel, and specialized trips that require enough time to reach the relatively undisturbed natural venues that they prefer. A ‘strong sustainability’ philosophy underlies such hard ecotourisn venues and activities. Volunteer activity constitutes a distinctive form of hard ecotourism that is closely aligned with comprehensive ecotourism.
Soft ecotourists Soft ecotourists display significant anthropocentric tendencies and hence tend to be dominated by the veneer environmentalist segment. Their commitment to
environmental issues is not as deep as that of hard ecotourists, their attitudes are more suggestive of steady state rather than enhancive sustainability, and their desired level of engagement with the natural environment is relative shallow, suggesting an alignment with minimalist ecotourism. The preferred experience of a soft ecotourist is physically less taxing and supported by accommodation, eating and toilet facilities, parking lots and other services. Large group travel is common, and soft ecotourists do not mind being in company of other soft ecotourists, as they have a much higher crowding threshold than hard ecotourists. The soft ecotourist typically engages in ecotourism as one component of a multi-purpose trip, thereby producing short duration experiences that are often on a day-only basis. To the extent that they seek involvement and learning experiences associated with nature, soft ecotourists are alleged to prefer mediation, whether through guided tours, interpretation trails, or interpretive centers. The soft ecotourist is also more likely to have travel arrangement made formally through travel agencies and tour operators. In essence, soft ecotourists are mass tourists who enjoy tangential contact with the natural environment often as a diversion from beach-based or other conventional forms of tourist activity. All these traits indicate also that a ‘weak sustainability’ approach is commonly encountered in sot ecotourism venues and activities.
Sociodemographic Criteria Two main observations are pertinent with respect to the relationship between gender and ecotourism. The first concerns the increasing ‘feminization’ of the sector. Most (although not all) ecotourist surveys conducted in the early 1990s or earlier revealed a pattern of disproportionately high male representation. For example, studies
show that in the early 1980s 73 percent of committed bird watchers were male, and males account for 55 percent of sampled Canadian ecotourists travelling in Costa Rica in the late 1980s. The opposite tendency has been observed since the mid-1990s. It has been found that females accounted for 57 percent of occasional and 54 percent of frequent ecotourists in the United Kingdom. Similarly, females accounted for 62 percent of respondents to the 1999 survey of ecotourism lodge consumers in Queensland’s Lamington National Park and notably, 73 percent of the cluster with the highest biocentric tendencies. A comprehensive study of major markets
Characteristics of the hard and soft ecotourists as ideal types HARD (active, deep) The ecotourism spectrum Strong environmental commitment………………………….... Moderate or superficial environmental commitment Enhancive sustainability……………………………..………… Steady state sustainability Specialized trips………………………………………………….…….Multi-purpose trips Long trips …………………………………………………………………….... Short trips Small groups…………………………………………………………………Larger groups Physically active………………………………………………………...Physically passive Physical challenge…………………………………………..……………Physical comfort No services expected……………………………………………...……..Services expected Deep interaction with nature .……………………………. Shallow interaction with nature Emphasis on personal experience……………………………...…..Emphasis on mediation Make own travel arrangements ………………………….... Rely on travel agents and tour operators Ecotourism in the Philippines SOFT (passive, shallow)
Interest in ecotourism has been on the rise, as tourists from around the world began to appreciate the beauty of nature, which abounds in tropical archipelagos such as the Philippines. International visitor arrivals to the Philippines rose 1.5 percent year-onyear to a record 3.14 million in 2008 despite the global economic downturn, thanks to the rising interest for ecotourism among Europeans who are drawn to the country's natural wonders. The Tourism Department said new tourist products in the market such as diving and bird watching provide impetus to stimulate awareness of the country's tourist potentials and bring in high-value visitors, with greater propensity to stay longer and spend more. The department has been promoting the Philippines as a diving mecca and bird watching paradise in Europe. Despite the decline in arrivals from traditional markets (Korea, US, and Japan), international visitor arrivals to the Philippines managed to grow 1.5 percent to a new record of 3.14 million in 2008 from 3.09 million in 2007. "The last four years has been the Renaissance period of Philippines tourism," said Durano. "But the best has yet to come for Philippines tourism." Recently, the Philippines was featured as the Destination of Honor at the Paris Dive Show, signifying the French market's renewed interest in the country. Tourism Secretary Ace Durano also hopes that bird watching will sustain the dramatic growth in European spending in the country.
(www.enjoyphilippines.com) In Western Visayas’ Tourism Action Plan, Antique and Aklan/ Boracay has been identified as focus areas for nature-based tourism (resort, ecotourism and adventure tourism) development. The United Nations, in declaring 2002 as the International Year for Ecotourism, has acknowledged that “there is not a universal definition of ecotourism.”
Nevertheless, it attempts to provide some parameters for ecotourism by describing its general characteristics as:
All nature-based forms of tourism whose main motivation is the observation and appreciation of nature as well as the traditional cultures prevailing in natural areas.
It contains educational and interpretation features. It is generally, but not exclusively, organized for small groups by specialized and small locally owned businesses. Foreign operators of varying sizes also organize, operate, and/or market ecotourism tours, generally for small groups.
It minimizes negative impacts upon the natural and socio-cultural environment.
• It supports the protection of natural areas by:
generating economic benefits for host communities, organizations, and authorities managing natural areas with conservation purposes;
providing alternative employment and income opportunities for local communities; increasing awareness of the conservation of natural and cultural assets among locals and tourists alike.
A Comparison of Shallow vs. Deep Ecotourism Shallow Ecotourism Surface understanding of a culture; tourists are spectators of cultural traditions, performances, and artifacts. Deep Ecotourism Visitors ask more searching questions about human life and society; tourists gain meaningful understanding of culture by immersion (when appropriate) and/or self education. Tourist does not require western-oriented comforts (especially if these put a strain on local resources); tourists may want to try local dishes as part of the cultural learning. Tourist destination need not be preserved and protected from the influence of humans as long as human activity is integrated with efforts to maintain biodiversity and ecological integrity of land. Recognition of intrinsic values of all elements of nature (not just those needed by humans)
Experiencing the culture of the host community
Western standards of safety, Tourist service standards comfort, and hygiene are maintained where possible; tourist may want to consume western food and drink. Preference for “pristine” natural Preserving the quality of the natural resource enclaves may result in preservationist policies where humans (including indigenous peoples) are excluded from natural areas. The value(s) of Nature Instrumental valuation of nature
Acott et al. (1998), A Framework for Classifying Ecotourism Initiatives in the Philippines Ramon Benedicto A. Alampay and Carlos Libosada
Summary of Ecotourism Programs in the Philippines By Location and By Type of Tourism Resource Base
Region Tourism Region Resource* Luzon Visayas Mindanao Marine ecosystem 36 38 17 Terrestrial 66 25 23 Freshwater 36 15 24 Cultural sites 23 7 2 Manmade 3 4 3 Total 164 89 69 *Categories: Marine – marine-protected areas, coral reefs, islands, beaches, bays Terrestrial – mountains, volcanoes, caves, trails, forest areas Freshwater – lakes, rivers, hot and cold springs, waterfalls Cultural – churches, historic sites, festivals Manmade – urban parks, reforestation sites Examples of Ecotourism Sites or Programs Identified For Each Type of Tourism Resource Base Resource Base Marine Ecosystem Example of Ecotourism Sites and Programs • El Nido Protected Areas – Palawan • Whale shark watching - Donsol, Sorsogon • Boracay Island – Aklan • Danjugan Island and reef system – Negros Oriental • Agoo-Damortis Seashore – La Union • Mt. Pinatubo – Pampanga/Tarlac • Calbiga Caves – Samar • Chocolate Hills – Bohol • Mt. Apo – Davao • Paoay Lake – Ilocos Norte • Tinago Falls – Iligan City • Governor’s Rapids – Quirino • Siraan Hot Spring – Antique • Cape Bojeador Lighthouse – Ilocos Norte • Banaue/Ifugao Rice Terraces – Ifugao • Guling-Guling Festival – Ilocos Norte • Farm Tourism Village – Tangalan, Aklan • Capas Death March National Monument – Tarlac
Total 91 114 75 32 10 322
• San Jose Ecotourism Park – Tarlac • Bucari-Aganan Reforestation – Iloilo Ecotourism programs based on terrestrial resources (e.g., mountains, forests,
caves) represent the single largest grouping with 91 items on the list (Table 3). This
accounts for more than a fourth of the entries in the list. Combined with some 75 freshwater resource- based projects (e.g., lakes, rivers, falls), the inland ecotourism destinations represent about half (52 percent) of the national inventory. However, the predominantly island-based nature of the tourist product in the Visayas is reflected by the fact that marine ecosystem programs comprise its largest grouping. About half (164) of the programs on the list are found in Luzon (which includes Palawan and the other island provinces of Regions 4 and 5); the Visayas and Mindanao account for 89 and 69 entries, respectively. This does not mean, however, that Luzon is richer in terms of ecotourism resources. It could only mean that the Luzon tourism sector is more prepared to identify ecotourism products than its counterparts in the Visayas and Mindanao.
Adventure Tourism in the Philippines In the United States alone, adventure tourism is a US$450 million industry. The Philippines is seen to generate more as it is blessed with ample sites that can be developed for this type of activity to generate good tourism revenue, while providing local residents, especially rural people to earn from tourism revenues. The Philippine Star reports that the Philippines has identified its niche in nature tripping and adventure tourism. Tourism secretary Joseph Ace Durano cites that foreign travelers are now demanding for nature-based activities and make use of the existing natural resources of a certain place. “Eco-tourism is our niche. Let’s not try to be what we are not, or let us not try to be ‘Bangkok’. He further urged Local Government Units to start more tourism projects, since this is the ripe opportunity for LGUs to develop their areas and make use of their natural resources as products for tourism. The municipality of Danao in Bohol led
by Mayor Tom Gonzaga has spent P25 million for the development of the Danao Adventure Park, that is branded as E.A.T Danao or Eco-Extreme-Educational Adventure Tour. This time, the municipality is earning at least P1 million a month of this attraction that initially offers exotic and nature-based activities, like organic farm visit, historical tours, SkyRide, Suislide, Caving, Rappel, root climbing, kayaking, river tubing, Plunge, and others. (www.philstar.com) In an article entitled “Adventure Tourism is RP’s Newest Jewel”, Department of Tourism (DOT)-Northern Mindanao Director Catalino Chan pointed out that adventure tourism is slowly but effectively gaining grounds in the country blessed with numerous attractive natural resources that beckon the adventure spirit of visitors notwithstanding calamities and other destructions surrounding the area. This type of tourism is rising to the challenge of climate change from aquatic to highland sports. However, challenges posed by adventure tourism must be met by tourism officers in order to sell and promote the locality as a major tourist destination. These cover affordability, accessibility, communication facilities, no language barrier and diverse people and culture in 7,017 islands. Chan told more than 500 tourism officers the advantages of adventure tourism in the use of natural resources and in increasing awareness of bio-diversity to give livelihood opportunity for the community. (www.sunstar.com.ph) During the official launching of the first extreme adventure park established in Bohol called Danao Adventure Park, Tourism secretary Ace Durano urged the local government units (LGUs) to initiate tourism projects in their respective communities to make tourism as the economic driver especially in the rural areas. Since the Philippines has identified its niche in nature tripping, adventure tourism, this is the ripe opportunity
for LGUs to develop their areas, and make use of their natural resources as product for tourism. Eco-tourism should be taken into serious consideration. Foreign travelers now, he said are demanding for nature-based activities and make use of the existing natural resources of a certain place. “Eco-tourism is our niche. Let’s not try to be what we are not, or let us not try to be ‘Bangkok’. We have to see the example of some young LGU executives who are proactive in maximizing their respective area’s potential,” Durano said. The municipality of Danao in Bohol led by Mayor Tom Gonzaga has spent P25 million for the development of the Danao Adventure Park, that is branded as E.A.T Danao or Eco-Extreme-Educational Adventure Tour. This time, the municipality is earning at least P1 million a month of this attraction that initially offers exotic and naturebased activities, like organic farm visit, historical tours, SkyRide, Suislide,Caving, Rappel, root climbing, kayaking, river tubing, Plunge, and others. (www.philstar.com) In an article entitled Adventure Tourism Revs Up In 2008 published in The Philippine Star, Ace Durano cites that huge fun-seeker tourists right now are demanding for more adventure-type of activities in the Philippines. In the United States alone, adventure tourism is a US$450 million industry. The Philippines is seen to generate more as it is blessed with ample sites that can be developed for this type of activity to generate good tourism revenue, while providing local residents, especially rural people to earn from tourism revenues. Durano urged LGUs in Cebu and private sector players to start capitalizing on this avenue, as every town in the province could develop its own "adventure tourism" attraction, may it be trekking, bird watching, island hopping, and caving, among others. Last January 10-11, 2009, the Philippine Department of Tourism (PDOT) announced the availability of Philippine tour packages that combines the thrills
of adventure travel with nature conservation. The tour packages, which are part of the Adventure Philippines campaign, were formally launched at the Adventure Travel Expo held in Chicago, Illinois and were designed in cooperation with the members of Philippine Tour Operators Association (PHILTOA), the different PDOT Regional Offices and the private sector, to highlight the huge potentials of the Philippines as a multiadventure and multi-activity destination, as well as a major eco-tourism
destination. Under the leadership of Tourism Secretary Joseph H. Durano, the PDOT has given much effort to the promotion of the Philippines as an Adventure destination amongst North Americans. Taking the cue from environmentally-concerned nongovernment organizations and the heightened national awareness of global environmental issues, the Philippines positions itself as a logical choice for adventure enthusiasts and green tourism advocates. With a commitment to sustainable eco-tourism development and nature conservation, the PDOT and its Region 4 office are jointly promoting exciting “green” eco-tourism-adventure packages that encourage tourists to help local communities and preserve the environment while enjoying the thrills and pleasures of an adventure in the midst of beautiful and pristine locales in Palawan province. Adventure activities from snorkeling to rock climbing, and from kayaking to spelunking are combined with eco-adventures like bird, firefly and dolphin watching and the unique nature trekking in thick mangrove forests, to provide tourists a grand adventure experience in nature. Most tourism activities in Palawan are community-based, ensuring that the community benefits from whatever income is generated by the different tourist activities. By giving the communities the responsibility for their local tourist destination,
they do not only become tourism ambassadors, but they also become stewards of the environment-- a basic foundation of green tourism. (www.experiencephilippines.ph) In an article entitled “Adventure Tourism: So Many Islands, So Little Time”, author Ben Jimena pointed out the potential of Panay and Guimaras Islands as adventure tourism destinations. There are various hot spots around the region which could provide natural reserves, heritage interaction and cultural immersions. Investors may provide recreational facilities such as canopy walk and other tree top adventure activities. In Dingle and Lambunao, there are still many unexplored areas for spelunking and mountain trekking. The Antique mountains are waiting to be harnessed for activities like hiking, bird watching, bicycling and its coastal waters for skin and scuba diving, snorkeling and fishing. Guimaras has lush forest and hills, white sand beaches and long coastal lines, inland flora and fauna havens, and community-based tourism in Guisi. All these are just waiting to be discovered, promoted and marketed to the world. We have great potentials. What we need are people with money and managerial expertise; we need projects and programs that match the demands of the market; and we need government to provide the basic infrastructure and a business-friendly environment for the sustainability and feasibility of the endeavor. These are motherhood statements which we hope would stir people to do something. (http://www.iloiloviews.com/adventure-tourism-so-manyislands-so-little-time-2.html)
Concern for the Environment The consumer insight and strategic planning experts at McCann Worldgroup Philippines have discovered that the most important concerns facing today’s Filipinos
encompass a whole slew of topics. They disclosed these findings in a new McCann Intergeneration Study, a comprehensive survey which tracked 2,000 urban Filipinos, aged 12-60, and analyzed their lifestyle, school/work ethic, consumer behavior, moral standards and perception of society. As in McCann’s previous groundbreaking studies, this survey is an eye opener. For one, it shows that older generations of adults share the same worries as teenagers, indicating that, possibly for the first time, Filipinos are starting to become united on the “burning issues” that confront society today. At the top of their worry is the environment, in particularly air and water pollution. While concern for the environment has always surfaced in one way or another in McCann’s past market researches, it was only something that existed under the surface: some people were concerned about it, others were not. And among those who were, their concern for the environment didn’t appear very intense or pressing to the point of consolidating toward large percentages in McCann’s surveys. But this time around, it seems that concern for Mother Earth has already reached a tipping point -- becoming the single most important issue today across different age groups in the Philippines. Maybe it was the most recent harsh experiences with nature -- both here (landslides in Southern Luzon) and abroad (the tsunamis of recent past) that triggered it ... or possibly even Al Gore’s film “An Inconvenient Truth” that stirred people’s attention toward the issue of global warming. Regardless, one thing is clear. Filipinos today feel a larger stake in the environment, and are extremely worried about it more so than any other time in the past. (www.inquirer.net)
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
Research Design Study Population and Sampling Procedures for the Market Study Component
Data Collection and Instrument Design
Methods for the Determination of Marketing, Technical, Legal and Financial Aspects I. Marketing Aspect II. Technical Aspect III. Legal Aspect IV. Financial Aspect
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