# ﻿Bal giang sa 19

PHUOI\IIi TRil\lH vA' BAT PHUDI\IIi TRil\lH D~ !iO

Bai giang nay d~ c,p dSn mQt trong nheng nQi dung chu yau dUQ'c d~ c,p dan trong d~ ctrong an luy~n man TOM vao cac tnrong D~i hoc, Cao ding do BQ Giao due va Dao tao ban hanh: P,huO'Ilg trinh va bAt ~huO'Ilg t~nh D~i s6. Cac d~ toan v~ loai, nay thuong xuyen xuat hi~n trong cac de thi tuyen sinh nhtrng nam 2002- 2009.

Trong bai giang nay, chung tai trinh bay cac phirong phap co ban d~ giai phirong trinh va bAt phirong trlnh dai s6.

§1. He PHUONG TRINH KHCNG CHUA CAN THUC A. He.PHUON6TRiNH £Jol XlrN6

H~ phuong trinh d6i xirng Ia h~ phuong trinh co tinh chAt: N~u ta trao d6i vai tro giea cac An x, y, z ... cua h~ thi h~ khong thay d6i.

D~ giai cac h~ nay nguoi ta hay Slr dung dinh li Viet dao hoac thirc hien cac phep bien d6i nrong dirong d~ dira v~ cac M don gian hon.

Lo~i 1: Slr dung dinh li Viet dao gia] cac h~ d6i xirng.

D~ Slr dung diroc plnrong phap nay, nguoi taphai tinh x+y va xy, sau do se Slr dung dinh Ii Viet dao, Xet cac thi du sau:

TIIi (/1;11: (Di thi luyin sill" D{li II(Jc kl16i D - 2007)

jx + _!_ + Y + _!_ = 5

Cho h~ phirong trinh: x y

2 I 3 I

x +-+y +-=15m-l0 (2)

x3 y3

Tim m d~ h~ co nghiern.

Giai

D~t u = x + _!_; v = y + _!_ , khi do lui ~ 2; lvl ~ 2.

x y

Lai co: x3+ ~3 =(x+~r -3(X+~)=u3_3V. Tirong tu: l + ~ = v3 -3v.

y

. ~ . {u+v=s {u+v=s

Vltheh~(1)(2)<=> 3 3_ _ _ <=> uv=8-m

. u +v 3(u+v)-ISm 10 lul~2,lvl~2.

(I)

333

2 +00

~2~

4

VA • •• • l , • I' 22 hoa 7 2 (lY cae gia tTl can tim eua m a m ~ oac - ::s m ::s .

4

, Thl d(l 2: (Bi th! luyln sinh Cao ddng Tiii chinl, KI loan - 2005)

{x+Y+XY=3 (I)

Giai h~ phuong trinh: 2 2 '

X y +xy =2 (2)

Giii

{xY+(X+Y)=3 (3)

Taco (1)(2) ~ () (4)

xy x+ Y =2

Theo dinh If Viet dlio thi x + Y vit xy lit hai nghiem ella phirong trinh:

t2 _ 3t + 2 ~ [t = 1

t =2.

Tir do suy ra h~ (I) vit (2) co nghiem khi vit chi khi phuong trinh: f(t) = t2 - 5t + 8 - m = 0

i~m thoa man It I ~ 2. Ta co f'(t) = 2t - 5 vit co bang sau: 5 2

-2

2

+00

Tir do suy ra (3)(4) ~

{X + y = 1 xy=2

(5) (6)

(7) (8)

{x+y =2 xy =1

Lai theo dinh If Viet dlio tir (5) (6) suy ra x, y lit cac nghiern ella phirong trinh:

e - t + 2 = 0 (9).

Do (9) vo nghiern nen h~ (5) (6) vo nghiern.

Tir (8) (9) suy ra x, y lit cac nghiemcua phuongtrtnh e - 2t+ 1 = 0 ~ t =1. Vjy h~ (7) (8) (tire lit h~ (I) (2» co nghiem duy nhAt (x; y) = (l; I)

Thl d(l3: (B2.II'; luyln sinl, Bpi I,pc Hoi Phimg - 2006)

{X 2 + y2 + X + Y = 8 (1) Gilii h~ phuong trinh:

, xy + x + y = 5 (2)

Giii

Ta co (1)(2) ~ {(X + y)2 -2xy+ (x + y) =8 xy =5-(x+ y)

Thay (4) vito (3) vit co:

(3) (4)

334

Vi th~ suy ra: (1) (2) ~

{X~2 .

( x - 2)2 ( X + 4)2 = m ( X - 2)

(5) (6) (7) (8)

{x+ y=-6 xy = 11

{x+ y=3 xy=2

L~p lu~n nlur thi du 2 suy ra h~ (5) (6) .vo nghiern, con h~ (7) (8) co nghiem (x; y) = (l; 2) va (x; y) = (2; 1). Do cling la nghiem ella h~ (l) (2).

Till dfl4

{( x2 + y2 )xy =78 Giai M phuong trlnh:

x4 +y4 =97

(1) (2)

{Xy = 278 2 . (3)

Taco: (1)(2)~' x +y ..

. . (x2+y2t _2x2y2 =97 (4)

Thay (3) vao (4) va co

(x2+y2t -2 6084 2 =97~(x2+y2)2 _97(x2+y2)2 -12168=0

(x2+y2) .

~ (x 2 + y2 t = 169 ~ x2 + y2 = 13 .

{X +y=5 Do do: (1)(2) ~ {x2 + l = 13 ~{(X + y)2 +Zxy =13 ~ xy =6

xy = y xy = 6 {x + y = -5

xy=6

4P lu~n nhu tren suy ra h~ (1) (2) co 4 nghiem sau:(3; 2); (2;3); (-3; -2); (-2; -J) Loai 2: Dung phep bi~n d6i nrong duong quy h~ d6i xirng v~ nhi~u h~ don

gian:

TIM dfll: (lJ2 IIIi luyin sin" D{li IIpc kllai B - 2003)

y2 +2

3y=- (1)

x2

x2 +2

3x=-- (2) y2

Giai M phuong trinh:

Giai Tic (1) (2) suy ra x > 0, Y > 0, do d6

335

{3yx2 =y2 +2 {3yx2 =y2 +2

(1)(2) ~ 3xy2 =x2 +2~ 3xy(x-y)=x2 _y2

X > 0, y > 0 x > 0, y > 0

{ 22 {2 2'

3yx = y + 2 3yx = y + 2

~ (x -y)(3xy + x t y] =0 ~ x -y = 0

x>~y>O x>~y>O

{X =y >0

~ ~ x=y=I

. (x-I)(3x2+2x+2)=0 .

V~y h~ d! eho eo nghiem duy nhAt (1; 1) Chu y: 0 day ta d! Slr dung hroc d6 sau:

{PI (x,y) = P2 (x,y) {PI (x,y) = P2 (x,y)

QI ( x, y) = Q2 ( x, y) ~ PI (x, y) - QI (x, v) = P2 ( x, y) - Q2 ( x, y) .

(1)

(2)

{X3+3X=SY TId dfl 2: Giai h~ phuong trinh:

l +3y =Sx

Ta eo h~: (1) (2)

{x3 + 3x = 8y {x3 + 3x = Sy

~ (x3_y3)+3(X-Y)=S(Y-x)~ (x_y)(x2+xy+y2+II)=0

(3) (4)

. ( )2 3 2 .

Do x2 + xy + y2 + 11 = x + r + _l_ + 11 > 0 V x, y nen

2 4.

{x-y =0 {x=y

(3) (4) ~ ~ 2

x3+3x=Sy x(x -11)=0

Til'do suy ra h~ (1) (2) eo cac nghiem: (0;0); (JIt; JIt); ( -Jlt; -Jlt) .

1 . Y

x-3y=4- (1)

Till d(l 3: Giai h~ phuong trinh: :

y-3x=4- (2)

y

Giiii

{X2-3XY=4Y {X2-3XY=4Y

Tae6h~(I)(2) ~ y2-3xy=4x~ (x-y)(x+y+4)=0

x :;t: 0, Y :;t: 0' x :;t: 0, Y :;t: 0

336

<:::::> {X2-3XY=4Y<:::::> {Y=-4-X <:::::> x=y=-2

x+y+4:;t:0 x2+4x+4=0

x :;t: 0, Y :;t: 0 x :;t: 0, Y :;t: 0

V~y h~ co nghiem duy nhllt (x; y) =(- 2; - 2)

{X = y:;t: 0 2x2 + 4x = 0

B. Ht PHUONG TRiNH DANG cAp

H~ phirong trinh dAng cAp (hay ehinh xac honla h~ plurong trinh rna cac phirong trinh v~ trai la dAng cap) la cac h~ phuong trinh trong do v~ phai cua cac phtrong trlnh la cac bi~u tlurc khong chira bien, con v~ trai cua plurong trinh la cac da thirc clura bi~n rna moi s6 hang cua no d~u cung mQt b~e.

B~ng phuong phap cong dai s6 tir h~ phirong trinh da eho ta Iuon thu diroc m{>t phuong trinh h~ qua co dang f(x, y) = 0, trong do f(x, y) la bi~u tlnrc g6m cac s6 hang cung mQt b~e (gia su co b~e k). TI1\fc hien phep chia eho l (hoac x''), sau do khao sat xem y = 0 (hoac x = 0) co thoa man h~ hay khong, ta d{it An phu

t = ~ (hoac 2: ) va se thu diroc mQt phirong trinh d6i voi t. Giai phirong trinh nay

y x

va voi m6i nghiem t tim diroc, ta tim diroc mQt phep th~ x = ty (hoac y = tx). Tir do se d~ dang gia] duoc h~ ban dAu.

TIll d{l 1: (Di II,i luyi" sinh ClIO ad"K klt6i A-2005)

{2X2Y+X/=15 (I)

Giai h~ plurong trinh:

8x3 + y3 = 35. (2)

Giai

Xet h~ dAng cap b~e ba (l ) (2). Tir (I) (2) bang phep cong d\li s6 ta co:

24x3 +3 i - 14xy2- 7xl= O. (3)

Ro rang y:f. 0 (vi n~u y = 0 tu (I) ta co 0 = 15 va dota di~lI vo li). Chia eli hai

v~ cua (3) eho i va d~t t = ~, ta co:

y

I

t=-

3

24e-14t2-7t+3 =0 <:::::> (t-i)(24t2 -6t-9)=0<:::::> t=~±

3

t=-

4

337

~ 1 x 1

+ Neu t = - => - = - => y = 3x.

3 y 3

V,y(I)(2) ~ {~X:~27X3 =35 ~t:~

L~p lu~n tuong tu ta c6:

+ N~u t =_J.. thi hHl)(2) va nghiem. 2

+ N~u t =~ thl h~ (1) (2) c6 nghiem x =%, y = 2.

T6m I\\i h~ (1) (2) c6 hai nghiern (t ;3) va ( ~; 2). 2

TIll d(l2:

{3x2 -5xy-4l ==-3 (1)

Giai M plurong trinh: .

9y2 + II xy - 8x 2 == 6. (2)

Ghli

Xet h~ d~ng dp b~c 2 (1) (2). Ta c6 sau khi thuc hi~n phep cong d~i s6

. _2X2+xy+y2=O(3). .

L~p lu~n nhu thi du I, d~ thfty y * 0, nen sau khi chia ca hai v8 cho l

. . [t == 1

va d~t t = ~ ta c6 phuong trinh: -2e + t + I = 0 ¢:> I .

y t=-"2

+ N8u t = I ~ = I x = y. Thay lai vao h~ (I) (2) va c6 [x= y = ~ '" (4)

y • ,,2

x=y=--

2

+ Tuong tv n~u t = _J.. y = -2x . Thay lai vao M (I) (2) va C6:[x=tY==-2 (5)

2 x==-ty==2

T6m I~i (4) (5) la b6n nghiem cua h~ (I) (2).

C. cAc PHUONG PHAp CO BAN GIAI H-= PHUONG TRiNH KHONG CD cAU TRUC D~C Bltr

Duoi day chung ta se xet cac phuong phap C<Y ban giai cac h~ phirong trinh khong c6 cftu true d~c bi~t nhir tinh d6i xirng, tinh d~ng cAp ... da trinh bay trong m\1C A va muc B.

Lo,i 1: Sir dung dinh Ii Viet d~ giai cac h~ plnrong trinh:

Xet cac thi du sau day:

338

Till d(ll:

, {X(2X+3Y)(X-I)=14

Giai h~ phirong trlnh: 2

x +x+3y=9

(I) (2)

Giai

{X( x-I).(2x+ 3y) = 14 (3)

Taeoh~:(1)(2) (:::) .

x( x-I) + (2 x + 3 y) = 9 . ( 4 )

Tu (3) (4) va theo djnh li Viet dilo suy ra x(x - I) va 2x + 3y la cac nghiem

cua phuongtrinh t2 - 9t + 14 = 0 (:::) f1 = 2

It =7.

[X =-I;y =3

. x(x-I)=2 x=2;y=1

{X(X-I)=7 2 ,y 3

2x+3y=2 I-m I+m

X= . 'y= .

2' 3

V~y M (1) (2) eo 4 nghiem k~ tren, Till d(l2

Giai h~ phuong trinhsau:.

{(3X+ y)' -:(9X' - /)-10(3x- y)' ~O

3x+ y+--=6 3x- y

(I) , (2)

Giai

Di~uki~n d~ (I) (2) eo nghia la 3x - y "* O. Khi do:

(3X+y)2 _33x+y -10=0 j3X+Y =5 v 3x+Y~_2

(I) (2) (:::) 3x - y 3x - y (:::) 3x - y 3x - Y

1 1

3x+y+--=6 3x+y+--=6

, 3x-y 3x-y

j(3X + y)_I- = 5 (3)

3x-y

(3x+y)+_I_=6 (4)

3x-y

(:::) j. 1

(3x+y)--=-2 (5)

3x-y

(3x +y)+_I- = 6 (6).

3x-y

339

Tir h~ (3) (4) va theo dinh Ii Viet dao suy ra 3x + y va _1_ la cac nghiern

. 3x- y

J [t = 2

cua phirong trinh t" - 5t + 6 = 0 <=> .

t=3

{3'X+ y= 2

_1_=3 [x= I' y=2

3x- y '.

V~y (3) (4) <=> <=> 1 2

{3 x + Y = 3 x = 5'; y = 5'

_1_=2

3x- y

(7)

Tuong tv- suy ra h~ (5) (6) co cac nghiern (ban doc W nghiern lAy)

3 + JIl 3(3 + JIl)

x- 'y-

. - 12 ,- 4 (8)

3-JIl 3(3-JIl)

X= ·v= .

2'J 4

V ~y h~ (1) (2) co bon nghiem bieu di€n boi (7) va (8) noi tren, T'" tI(1 3:

{x+y+Z=6 (I)

Giai h~ plurong trlnh: xy + yz - zx = 7 (2)

2 2 2 ( )

X + Y + Z = 14 3

Ghli

Tac6(3) <=> (x+y+z)2-2(xy+yz+zx)= 14 (4)

Tlr(I),(4)suyra:xy+yz+zx=11 (5)

Tir (2),(5) SlIY ra: xy + yz = 9 (6)

{Y+(X+Z)=6

V ~y tir ( I ), (6) SlIY ra (

y x+z)=9

Vi th~ theo dinh li Viet dao suy ra y va x + z la nghiern cua phuong trinh

e - 6t + 9 = 0 <=> t = 3

Do do y = 3 va x + z = 3 (7)

Tir (2), (5) ta co xz = 2 (8)

Bay gio tir (7) (8) va theo dinh Ii Viet dao SlIY ra x, y la hai nghiem cua

t2 _ 3t + 2 = 0 <=> [t = 1 ..

t=2

Tom lai h~ (1) (2) (3) co hai nghiem (x; y; z) = (1; 3; 2) va (x; y; z) = (2; 3; 1). Loai 2: Phuong phap th~ va d~t An s6 phu

Nhtr da bi~t day la mot trong nhirng phirong phap thong dung nhAt d~ giai h~ phuong trinh noi chung va h~ plurong trinh khong chua din thirc noi rieng,

340

f)~ giam ~n s6 ella h~ phuong trinh co Ie kh6ng co plurong phap m10 dan gian va t6t han plurong phap th~, con viec d~t An phu thich hop se lam cho h~ phuong trinh tro nen gon gang han.

Till du l: (Di thi luyin sin" D{li IIpc khai D - 2009)

{X(X+Y=I)-3=0 (I)

Giiii h~ plurong trinh: (. 2 5

x+y) --+1=0 (2)

x2

Ghli

f)i~u kien d~ h~ (I) (2) co nghia la x i- O. Sau khi ehia ca hai v~ ella (1) eho x, ta co

13. 3

( ) <=> x + Y + 1 - - = 0 <=> x + Y = - - 1 (3).

x x

Th~ (3) vao (2) va co:

(3 )2 5 4 6 [~= 1 [x = 1

--I --+1=0<=>---+2=0 <=> <=> .

X x2 x2 xII x = 2

x 2

+ Khi x = I, thay lai vao (3) va co y = I.

+ Khi x =2, thay lai vao (3) ~a co y = %.

v ~y (I; I) va (2; % ) la hai nghiem ella (I) (2).

TIIi c/I;l 2: (Di th! luyill sinh D!li IIrc kllai B - 2009)

{Xy + x + 1 = 7y

Giai M plurong trinh: " ,

x -y- + xy + 1 = 13y-.

Giili

Ro rang y = 0 khong thea man (1) (2), nen ta co:

x + ~ + ~ = 7 ( x + ~) + ~ = 7 (3)

(I )(2) <=> <=>

x' +~+ y'2 =13 (x+~)' +~='3. (4)

Tlr(3)SUyra~=7-(x+~) (5)

Th~ (5) vao (4) va co:

(X + _!_)2 + (x + _!_) _ 20 = 0 <=>.[x + t = -5 (6)

y y x+-=4.

Y

(I) (2)

341

Th~ (6) vao (5) ta duoc:

(;~~2=-5

(I<=>

x+y=5

~=3

y

V~y h~ (I) (2) co hai nghiem (I;.!.) va (3;1) 3

Till d(l 3: (D2 th! tuyin sin" D{li II(lc kllai A - 2008)

. {X2 + Y + x3y + x2y + xy =-~

Giai M phuong trinh: 4

x4 +y2 +xy(I+2x)=-~.

. 4

{X = 12y

12y2+5y+I=O <=>[X=I;y=j

{X -3y

- X = 3;y = l.

3y2 -4y+ 1 = 0

(1) (2)

Taco

. {u +v+uv=-~

D.t An phu u = x' + y; v = xy, khi do (3)(4) co dang u' +v = -%- 4

Ttl (5)(6) suy ra: u + v + uv = u2 + V <=> u2 = U + v

<=> u(u - 1 _ v) = 0 <=> [u = 0

u=v+l.

+) N~u u = 0 thi (6) co v = -~ . Ttl do dua vao phep the, ta co h~ sau:

{x2 +y=O {y=_X2 X=~

5 <=> 3 5 <=> (7)

xY=-- x =-- ~5

4 4 y=-3-.

16

+) N~u u = v + I, th~ vao (4) ta co:

)2 5 ()2 3 1

(v + 1 + v = -- <=> 2v + 3 = 0 <=> v = -- => u = --.

422

342

(5) (6)

TiT phep d~t An phu, ta co:

{X2 + Y == -~ ~ {y == -~ - x2 ~ {X =::: 1 3 (8)

xy=-% (X-I)(2x2+2x+3)==0 y=-"2 .•.

Vay h~ (1) (2) c6 hai nghiem (7) va (8).

Till dfl 4: (B2 llIi luyin sinh Dpi I,pc, Cao dting kl,8i B - 2008)

{x4 +2x3y+x2y2 =-2x+9 (I)

Giai h~ phirong trlnh:

x2+2xy=6x+6. (2)

Giii

{x2(x+y)2 =2x+9 {(X2 +xy)2 ==2x+9 (3)

Ta co (1)(2) ~ ee 2

xl +2xy=6x+6 _ 6x+6-x (4)

, xy- 2 .

Thay (4) vao (3) rbi rut gon ta c6 phuong trlnh

[X =:::0 '

x4 + 12x3 + 48x3 +64x =O~ 3 2

x + t 2x + 48x '+ 64 =::: 0

~ [x = 0 3 ~ [x = 0

(x+4) =0 x =:::-4.

RO rang x=O loai vi kh6ng thoa man (4), con khi x=:::-4 thay vao (2) ta c6

y = .!2 . Vb (- 4; .!2 ) la nghiem duy nhAt cua M (I) (2).

4 4

Tllldfl5: (D2 II,; luyin silll, Dpi h{Jc kl,8i A - 2003)

{I, I (I)

Giai M phuong trlnh: x - ~ = y - y

. 2 y = x3 + 1. ( 2 )

Giii

f)i~u ki~n d~ (I) (2) c6 nghia la X:f. 0; y:f. o.

Tir(l) co: X-y-.!.+]_=O~(X-Y)(I+_I )=0 (3).

x y xy

Tir (3) xet hai phep th~ sau:

II N~u x = y, thay V80 (2) va c6

x' -2x+ I ~O ¢>(x-I)( x' + x-I)~O ¢>[:: ~I ~ JS.

21 N~u 1 + _1 = 0 => y =:::.!. . Thay vao (2) ta eo:

xy x

343

(4).

Do (4) vo nghiern, nen tnrong hop nay vo nghiern.

Yay h~ (1) (2) co nghiem (1; 1) ;(-1 + J5 ; -1 + J5];(-I-J5.; -1- J5).

. 2 2 2 2

T'" d(l6:

{2y2 +xy-x2 =0 Giai M phuong trinh:

. x2-xy_y2+3x+7y+3=0.

(1) (2)

Ghii

Tac6(I) ~y2_X2+l+xy=0 ~(y+xX2y"':x)=0 (3) Tit (3) suy ra hai phep th~ sau:

II N~u x + Y = 0 Y = -x. Th~ vao (2) ta co:

[y=-I=>X=I y2 +4y+3 =O~

y=-3=>x=3.

21 N~u 2y - x = 0 x = 2y. Th~ vao (2) ta co:

[y= -I3+M =>x=-I3+M

y2+I3y+3=0~ 2

y= -I3-M =>x=-I3-M.

2 .

V~y h~ (1) (2) co 4 nghiem k~ tren.

§2. PHUONG TRINH vA He: PHUONG TRINH CHUA CAN THUC A. PHU'ONG TRiNH CUU A CAN THUC

Trong muc nay, chung toi trinh bay cac plurong phap co ban d~ giai phirong trinh chua din thirc.

Lo,i 1: Phuong trinh chua can thirc quy v~ h~ phirong trinh khong chua can tlurc.

Quy mQt plurong trinh chua din thirc v~ viec gild m<)t h~ phirong trinh khong chua can tlurc la vi~c thirong xuyen khi giai cac phirong trinh chua can tlurc. Sau khi quy v~ mQt h~ phirong trinh huu ti ta se sir dung cac phirong phap dii trinh bay trong § 1 d~ giai chung. Xet cac thi du sau day: .

Thl d(lJ: (Di thi luyin sin" D(,; "pc k"ai A - 2009) Giai phuong trinh: 2~hx - 2 + 3../6 - 5x - 8 = 0 (1).

Giii

Di~u kien d~ (1) co nghia la 6 -. 5x ~ 0 ~ x ~ ~ (2). 5

344

. {2U+3V=8

Khi do d~t u = V3x - 2 , v =.J6 - 5 x va ta di d~n h~ sau: 3 2

. 5u +3v = 8

T' (3) 8-2u Th '(4)~" ,

II suy ra v = -3- . ay vao rOJ rut gon ta co:

15u3 + 4u2 - 32u + 40 = 0 <=> (u + 2)( 15u2 - 26u + 20) = 0 <=> u -+ 2 = 0 (do 152 - 26u + 20 >0 \f u) <=> u = -2 v = 4.

{V3X - 2 = -2 {3X - 2 = -8

V~y ta co,-;--;:- <=> <=> x = -2 .

'l/6-5x=4 6-5x=16

V~y x = -2 la nghiem duy nh~t cuat I ).

Till d(ll: Giai phirong trinh..x + J13 - x2 + xJI3 - x2 = II (I).

Giiii

D~t y = J13 - x2 ~O. Khi do tir (I) ta co h~:

{X + Y + xy = II. {x + Y + xy = II

2 2 <=> 2

X + Y = 13 (x + y) - 2xy = 13

Tir (2) suy ra xy = 11- (x + y). Thay vao (3) va sau khi rut gon ta co:

2 {x + Y = 5

(x+y) +2(x+y)-35=0<=>

x+y=-7.

V~y ta di d~n : (2)(3) <=>

{X + y == 5

xy=6

{:: ~ = -7 <=> [ : :~: ~ :~.

xy= 18 y;;::O

V~y x =2 va x =3 la nghiem cua (I).

Thl d(13:.Giai phirong trinh: ~18 - x + Vx -79 = 5 (I).

Giiii

D~t u= ~18 - x ;;:: 0; v = ~x -79 ;;:: 0 , tu (I) ta co h~:

u+v=5

[(u+v)2_2uvT _2u2v2=97 u ;;::O,v;;::O

(3) (4).

345

{u + v =5

<=> (uv)2 -50(u.v)+264=0<=> U 2: 0, v 2: 0

{~V+::5

u 2: 0, v 2: 0 <=> [U = 2; v = 3 <=> [X = 2

{U+'V=5 u=3;v=2. x=-63.

uv=44

u 2: 0, v 2: 0 V ~Y ngh i~m cua ( I) ia X = 2 va X = - 63.

Til; dfl4:

Giai phirong trinh: x3 + I = i~3x -I

Ghii D~t Y = V2x -I khi do tir (I) ta co h~:

{X3+1=2Y {x3+1=2Y {X3+1=2Y (2)

l+I=2x <=> x3-y3=2y-2x <=> (x-y)(x2+xy+y2+2)=0(3)'

(1)

Do x'+ xy + y+ 2 ~(x+~)' + 3~2 + 2 >0 (Vx, y), nen

{y - x rx =s = I

(2)(3) <=> 3- _ <=> _ _ -I ± J5

. x -2x+I-0 x-y----.

. 2

VA h . h 'b h'A I -I ± J5

ay p irong trm co a ng rem x = ; x = .

2

Lotti 2: SU dung phuong trinh h~ qua hoac phirong trinh nrong duong d~ giai phuong trinh chua can thirc:

Di~u quan trong nhAt khi su dung phuong phap nay la cAn phan biet cho ro diiu lil phep bien d6i tuong duong, diiu la phep bien d6i keo thea (hay con goi la phep bi~n d6i M qua),

- N~u dung phep bi~n d6i tirong duong thi sau khi tim dircc nghiem ta kh6ng cAn thu lai vao phuong trinh ban d~u.

- N~u dung phep bi~n d6i keo theo, ta chi thu duQ'c phuong trinh lil h~ qua cua phirong trinh ban d~u va vi th~ hie nay viec thir lai nghiem ia cAn thick

Thl dfll: (D2 thl luyin slnlt D(li II{1c kllJi D - 2006)

Giai phuong trlnh: .J2x -I + x2 - 3x + 1= 0 (I).

Giai

. {_x2 -3x -12: 0

Taco(l) <=> .J2x-1 =-x2-3x+l<=> (2 .)2

2x -I = -x - 3x + I

346

{3-Fs <x<3+Fs {3-Fs 5,X5,3+Fs x=l

<0> 2 - - 2 <0> 2 2 <0>[

X4 -6x3 + llx2 -8x+ 2 =0 (x_l)2( x2 -4x + 2) =0 x = 2-.J2.

Thl dfl 2: (Bi II'; luyin sinh B(li "pc kl,{ji D - 2005) Giai phuong trinh: 2Jx+2+2.Jx+l-rx+T =4 (1).

Giai

Ta eo (I) <=> {2~( rx+l + 1)2 - rx+l = 4 <=> {21rx+l + 11- rx+1 = 4

x~-l x~-l,

<=> {x(~ ~ ) r=r: <=> rx+l = 2 <=> x = 3 .

4 "IX + 1 + 1 - "IX + 1 = 4

TIll dfl3:

Giai phuong trinh: '~./2x -5 + ~3x + 7 = ~5x + 2 (1). 'Ghli

Taeo(i) <=> (~2x-5 +~3X+7)3 =5x+2

<=> (2x +5)+(3x + 7)+3(~2x-5 + ~3x + 7 )~2x +5~3x+ 7 = 5x + 2

l2X-5 =0

<=> (~2x-5 +~3x+7)~2x-5~hx+7 =0 <=> 3x+7=0 <=>

, 2x-5=-3x-7

5

X=-

2

7

X=--

3

5

X=--.

2

Nhqn xet:

- Thi du tren ta dtl Slr dung phep bi~n dbi tUO'I1g duong.

- Chu y r~ng f(x) = g(x). <=> f3(X) = g3(X), nhirng f(x) = g(x), f(x) = g2(X).

TI,I dfl4:

Giai phirong trinh: ~3x + 1 + ~2x -I = ~5x + 1 (I).

Giili

L~p phuong ea hai v~ cua (I) rbi rut gon, ta eo:

(1) <=> (~3x-1 +~2x-l)~3x-I~2x-1 =1 (2)

Thay (1) vao (2) ta eo phirong trinh M qua sau:

~5x + 1.~3x -1.~2x -I = 1 (3)

<=> (5x+ 1)(3x-l}(2x-l) = 1 <=> 30x3 -19x2 = 0 <=>l:: ~9 30

347

+) Thay x = 0 vao (1), ta co VT (I) = -2, VP (I) = 1 x = 0 b] loai. +) Thay x = ..!2. vao ( I ) ta th~y thea man vi VT( 1 ) = VP ( I) = 3~5 .

30 v30

V• (I)' I" d I~ 19

ay co ng uem uy n iat x = 30 .

Nhdn xet:

Vi day la phep bi~n d6i h~ qua, nen viec tlur lai nghiem la cAn thiet, N~u kh6ng thir lai ta se chap nhan nghiem x = 0 m~c dAu do la nghiern ngoai lai.

T'" d(1 5:

Giai phuong trinh: J2x + 3 + J;:;I = 3x + 2~2x2 + 5x + 3 = 16 (I).

Ghii f)~t u= J2x + 3 + J;:+I ;? 0 khi do ta co:

u2 =3x+4+2~2x2 +5x+3 =3x+2J2x2 +5x+3 -16+20 (2) Thay (I) vao (2) ta co u2 = U + 20 <=> u2 - 1I - 20 = 0

<=> u = 5 (do 1I ~O) V~y tu( I) dfrn d~n plurong trinh h~ qua sau:

J2x + 3 + J;:+I = 5 <=> x=3 (ban doc nr kiem tra lai)

Thay lai x = 3 vao (I) thAy thea man nen la nghiem duy nhAt cua (1).

B. Ht PHUONG TRiNH CHUA CAN THUC

Phuong phap co ban d~ giai cac h~ plurong trinh chua can tlurc la quy no v~ h~ phtrong trinh kh6ng chua can tlnrc va giai chung bang cac phuong phap da trinh bay trong § 1.

T/Ii d(1 1: (Di thl li,yin sill" D{li "!JC k"Ji D - 2008)

{Xy + x + y = x2 - 2/ Giai h~ plurong trinh:

xJ2Y -y~ =2x-2y

Ghli

f)i~u kien d~ (I) (2) co nghia la x ~ 1, y ~ 0 (3)

{y(x+ y)+(x+ y)+(x- y)(x+ y)=O

Khi do (1) (2) <=> r::;-: r=;

x~2y-y"x-I =2x-2y

(I) (2)

{( x + y) (2 y + 1 - x) = 0 {x = 2 y + 1 ( 4 )

<=> xfiY-yJx-I=2x-2y<=> xJiY-y~=2x-2y (5) (vi x ~ 1, Y ~ 0 ~ x+y > 0)

Thay (4) vao (5) va co:

(2y + I)JiY - yJiY = 2(y + I) <=> (y + I)JiY = 2(y + 1) JiY=2 (do y + I >O)<=> y=2 => x=5.

V~y h~ (I) (2) co nghiem (5;2) 348

TM dfl 2: (Di 1M luyJII sill" D!,i "pc kll6i B - 2002)

,., • ,{VX-y=.JX-Y (I)

Giai h~ plurong trinh:

x+Y==.Jx+y+2 (2)

Giai

D~t u == ~ ~ 0 , khi do (I) co dang: u2 = u3 <::> [u ~ 0 <::> [·x - Y == 0 .

u=1 x-y==1

D~t v = x + y, khi do (2) co dang:

v == Jv + 2 <::> {v_,~ 0 <::> v = 2 <::> x + Y == 2,

v: -v -2 =0

{X - y == ~ [X == y == 1

x+y=_

Tir do suy ra h~ (I )(2) <::> <::> 3 1

t:; x==2;y=2' x+2==2

V ~y h~ (I) (2) co hai ngh i~m ( 1 ; 1 ) va (%; ~ ) ,

, '.'. ,{xJY+yFx==30 (I)

TIll dfl4: Giai h~ phirong tnnh: r: I..

X-../X + YvY == 35 (2)

Giai

Di~u ki¢n d~ h~ (I) (2) co nghia Iii x ~ O. Y ~ O.

D~t u =Fx, v == fY (u, v ~ 0), khi do

{lI2V + uv2 = 30 jllV(U + v) =30

. (I)(2) C> 0' + v' ~ 35 "" (0 +V)' -30v( V+ 0) ~ 35

u, v ~ 0 1I, V ~ 0

jUV(U+V):=30 {U+V=5

3 [U==3;V=2 [X==9;Y==4

<::> ( II + v) == 125 <=> lIV = 6 <::> <::>

u==2;v==3 x=4;y==9.

u.v ~O U,v z O

{.J2X+ y+ I-Jx+ y == 1 Thl (Ifl 5: Gilii h~ plurong trinh:

3x+2y=4

(I) (2)

Ghli

D~t u =)2x+ y+ 1 ~O;v == Jx+ Y ~ 0 khi do nr (I) (2) ta co h~

{u - v == 1 {u - v = 1 {u - v == 1 {u == 2 {2X + Y + 1 == 4

. <::> 2 <::> <::> <::>

u2 + v2 == 5 (u - v) - 2uv = 5 lIV:::: 2 v:= 1 X + Y == 1

349

~ x=2;y= 1 Till d{l 3: (Bi thl tuyin sinll Dpi I,pc kl,ai A - 2006)

. {X+Y-FY=3 (1)

Giai h~ phuong trinh: r=r: ~

"x+1 +vy+1 =4 (2).

Til (2) ~ x+ y+2+2~xy+(x+ y)+ 1 = 16 (3). f)~t t = ~ ~ 0 x + y =·3 + t. Thay vao (3), ta co

{o < t < II .

2v't2+t+4=II-t~ .z - ~t=3.

3t +26t-I05=0

{X+Y=6

Til do suy ra:(I)(2) ~ ~ X= Y = 3.

xy=3

Vb (3; 3) la nghiem duy nhAt cua h~ (I) (2).

§3. BAT PHUONG TRiNH CHUA cAN THUC

D~ giai bAt phuong trinh chua din thirc ngiroi d€u quy v€ vi~c giai bAt phirong trinh khong chua can thirc (d~c bi~t la quy v€ bAt phirong trinh b~c hail.

f)~ lam di€u do, ngiroi ta tlurong dung cac phuong phap co ban nhir: D~t An phu, nhan lien hop hoac bi~n d6i tuong dirong d~ lam mAt cac can thirc co m~t trong bAt phuong trinh chua can thirc ban dAu.

CAn hru y hai dang co ban sau cua phuong trinh chua can tlurc:

{f(X) ~ 0

II ~f(x) <g(x)~ g(x)~O f(x) < g2 (x)

{f(X)~O , g(x)<O 21 ~f(x) >g(x)~ { ( )

g x ~O

f(x) > g2 (x)

Xet cac thi du sau:

Till d{lJ: (Di thi tuyill sinh D{,i I,pc kl,ai A - 2005)

Giili bAt phuong trinh: "/5x-1 -~ >'../2x-4 . (I)

350

D~ thAy:

5x-1 ;:::0 x-I ;:::0 (I) <=> .J5x-1 >~ +.J2x-4 <=>

2x-4;:::0

5x -I> 2x - 5 + 2~2x2 - 6x + 4

<=> {XI;::: 2 <=> 2 ::; X ::; 10 .

'lJ2x2 -6x+4 <x+2

Chu y: Bai t~p tirong W (IJi thl Cao ad"g kllai A, B - 2009) Giili bAt phirong trinh: rx+t + 2.Jx-2 ::; ~.

Giai hoan toan tuong ttr: Dap s6: 2 ::; x::; 3.

Till dfl 2: (Di thi tuyi" sinh Dgi lu,!c kllai A - 2004)

, ~2(x2_16) 7-x

Giili bat phirong trinh: ~ +.Jx-3 > ~ (I).

x-3 x-3

Ghii

T~ co (I) <=>.{~2( x2 -16) + X -3> 7 -x <=> {~2( x2 -16) > 10-2x

x c- J x>3

. {X2-16;:::0 x>3

1O-2x<0 <=>

{X>3

1O-2x;:::0

2x2 -32>IOO-40x+x2

TI'd 3· Giai b~ I . h Ix+21-lxl 0 (I) ~ III fl.: lal at p urong trinh: r=r» .

-v4-x3

[X>5

x>5

<=> {3<X::;5 <=> [ tr: <=>x> 10-54

2 10-v34 < x::; 5

X -20x+66<0

{4-X3>0 {x<V4 r:

Ta co ( I) <=> <=> <=> -I ::; X < v 4 .

Ix + 21 ;::: Ixl x2 + 4x + 4;::: x2

Till dfl 4: (Di thl tuyi" sinh D(li I,pc kllai D - 2002) Giai bAt phuong trinh: (x2 - 3x )~2x2 - 3x - 2.;::: 0 (I).

351

[2X2 - 3x - 2 = 0

. Ta co: (I) <=> {2x2 - 3x - 2 > 0 <=> x2 - 3x ~ 0

[::~~

{X <-i

X\$;O

hoac x > 2 hoac x ~ 3

V~y x s -_!_ hoac x ~ 3. 2

§4. PHUONG TRINH vA BAT PHUONG TRINH CHUA THAM so

Muc nay danh d~ trinh bay cac plurong phap giai phirong trinh va bAt phuong trinh khong co din thirc va co chua din tlnrc trong do co m~t tham s6. Do lit cac bai toan doi hoi bien luan thea tham s6 nhirng tinh chAt nao do d~t lim nghiern cua bai toan. Hai phuong phap hay dung nh~t la:

- Phuong phap chien bi~n thien ham s6.

- Phuong phap tani tlurc b~c hai.

A. PHUONG PHAp Slr DUNG I:HIEU BIEN THn~N HAM sO

Day la phirong phap hay dung nhAt va co hieu qua d~ giai cac bai toan trong

cac d~ thi vao cac tnrong Dai hoc, Cao dAng trong nhirng narn 2002-2009.

TIIi tift 1:

Cho plurong trinh: if];. + Ex + 2#6 - x 2J6 - x = m (I). Tim m d~ (I) co hai nghiern ph an biet,

Giai Di~lI kien xac dinh cua (I) la 0 ~ x ~ 6.

D~t f(x)=Ex+2J6-x va g(x)=~+2~6-x,v6'iO~x~6 .

. , {h(X)=g(x)+ f(x)=m

Khi do (I) <=>

0\$;x\$;6

T 'f'() I 1 ~-Ex A 'b' b'~ I·A (ba I)

a co x = r;;- - r;-- = I ' nen co ang len t lien ang :

,,2x ,,6-x ,,2x{6-x)

x 0 2 6 x 0 2 6

f '(x) ~ + 0 ~ f(x) ~~ ~;_,

(Bang l )

g'(x):; + 0 - r;

g(x) . § ____. ~ ~

(Bang 2)

352

h'(x) ~ + 0 - ~

h(x) -:: .> <, ~

~......-- <, ~

Ta tinh duoc h(O) = 2.J6 + 2~;h(2) = 6 + 3~;h(6) = 2J3 + ~ (c6 th~

lAy h(O» h(6»

Tir do suy ra (I) co hai nghiem phan biet khi:

h(O) :s m :s h (2) <=> 2(.J6 +~) ~ m < 6 + 3~ . Till d{t 1: (Di llIi luyin S;II" Dpi "{IC kl,6; B -1006) Cho phuong trinh: J x2 + mx + 2 = 2x + I (I).

Tim m d~ phuong trinh co hai nghiem pban biet.

Ghli Taco:

{2X+I~0 {x~-_!_ (2)

(l)<=> 2 2 <=> 2 .

x +mx+2=4x +4x+1 3x2+4x-I=mx(3)

Do x = 0 khong phai hl nghiem cua (3) vci moi m, nen ta co:

(2)(3)<=>lx~-~ 2

f(x)=3x +x4X-1=m.

2

T 6 f'() 3x + 1 ~ 'b' b'~ h'~

a c x = 2 nen co ang len t len sau:

x

I

2

TU<Jng tV' cling c6 bang bi~n thien (bang 2) d6i v6i g(x). Tu do suy ra bang bj~n thien d6i vci hex), 0 :s x :s 6 Ill:

x 0 2 6

x

o

+00

+00

->

-<X)

Tir bang bi~n thien suy ra m ~ % lil cac gia trj dn tim cua tham s6 m. Till d{t 3: (DJ thi luyin stnh Bpi /I{JC k"6; A - 2007)

Cho phuong trinh: 3~ + m.J;:+l = 2~ x2 - 1 . (I)

Tim m d~ phirong trinh co nghiem.

Giii Di~u ki~n d~ (1) c6 nghia lil x ~ I. Khi do

353

(1) <=> 3 !x=l +m=2~X-1 .

V~ x+ l

f)~tt= ~X-I (khidoO:::;t< I).

x+ 1

Bai toan da cho trcr thanh: Tim m d~ M:

{f(t) = -3t2 + 2t = m O~t<1

(2)

(3) co nghiem.

(4) .

= -6t + 2, va co bang bi~n thien sau: 1

3

°

Tit do suy ra -I <m :::; -} la cac gia tri dn tim cua tham s6 m. Till d{l 4: (Di thi tuyin sinh Dpi "pc k"ti B - 2007)

Cho phirong trinh x 2 + 2x - 8 = ~ m ( x - 2) (I).

Chung minh r~ng voi moi m> 0, plurong trinh lu6n co hai nghiem thtrc, ~

Ta co (I) <=> (x-2)(x+ 4) = ~m( x- 2)

<=> {X ~ 2 2 2 (do m >0)

(x-2) (x+4) =m(x-2).

<=> {~x"_22)( x' + 6x' _ 32 _ m) ~ 0 "" [{x:: 2 " (2)

f(x)=x +6x -32=m (3)

Ta co rex) = 3x2+12x >0, \:Ix> 2, nen ta co bang bj~n thien sau:

x 2 -00

o Do f(2) = 0 nen tit bang bi~n thien suy ra voi moi m>O, M (2) (3) luon co m<}t nghiern, tuc la (1) co hai nghiem thuc voi rnoi m>O dpcm.

TI,I d{l 5: (Bi thi luyin sinh Bpi "pc kl,8i B - 2004) Cho phuong trinh:

m(~ -~1-x2 +2)=2~I-x4 +~ -~1-x2 .(1)

Tim m d~ (1) co nghiem,

354

Giiii Dat t= ~ -~ (khidot~O). ~ t2 = 2 - 2~ S; 2 , v~y 0 ~ t ~ .Ji .

Ta ciing co: 2~ =2_t2. Khi do (I) co dang

, -t2+t+2

m( t + 2) == -t- + t + 2 ~ f( t) = = m .

t+2

B" , , h' I T' d~I,{f(t)=m , I"

at toan tro t an 1: im mew t: co ng 11~m.

. OS;ts~2

2

T S f'(t) -t -4t , 'b' b'~ I"

a co t = 2 va co ang len tluen sau:

(t + 2)

f(t)

f '(t)

V~y Ji -I s m ~ I.

B. 50 Ll.JI)'C vt PHUONG PHAp TAM THUr: B~C HAl

Thi dlJ 1: (DR thi u{li hoc, Cat) U{j"g kl,ai D - 2004)

{Fx+JY=1 (I)

Cho h~ phuong trinh: r: C

x~x+Yvy=I-3m (2)

Tim m d~ h~ co nghiem.

Ghli

D~t u = J;.,v = JY (u ~ 0, v ~ 0). Khi do h~ (1 )(2) co dang

{:,+: v~ ~ Hm c> {;'u++vv~,1_3UV(U + v) = I-3m c> {::: ~ I gi

u.v z O u.v z O u.v z O. (5)

Tir do suy ra h~ (3) (4) (5) co nghiem (nrc la h~ (I) (2) co nghiem) khi va chi

hi phuong trinh:

t2 - t + m = 0 (6) co hai nghiem khong am.

Di~u do xay ra khi va chi khi (do S =1 >0)

{.1 ~ 0 {I - 4m ~ 0 I

~ ~OS;mS;-.

P~O m z O 4

355

rill d(l2: (Bi thl tuyln sinh Bpi hoc khai D - 2006) Cho phirong trinh: 'J"x2 + mx + 2 = 2x + 1 (l).

Tim m d~ ( 1) c6 hai nghiem thuc phan biet.

. Ghii

_, {3X2+X(4-m)-I=0 (2)

De thay: (1) ~ 1

X~-2' (3)

Bai toan trc thanh tim m d~ h~ (2) (3) c6 hai nghiem Xl, X2 sao cho 1

x.> X2 ~ -- (4).

2

[\>0 {I 1

1 1 X X +- X +x +->0

(4)xayrakhi va chi khi: (X2+2)(XI+2)~0~ 12 2( I 2) 4-

xI +x2 >-1

xI + x2 >-1

c 1

(do -=--<O~[\>O)

a 3

{_.! + m-4 ..' > 0

~ 3 6 4 - ~m~2..

m-4 >-1 2

3

Chit y: Cac ban hay so sanh voiloi giai cling cua thi du nay b5ng plurong phap chi~u bien thien ham s6 trong thi du 2, muc A.

Bizi 1:

{X2+y2=1 Giai h~ phuong trinh:

x3 + l;= 1

Dap s6: (1 ;0) va (0; 1)

Bizi 2:

{3XY-X2 _y2 =5 Giai he phirong trinh:

. 7x2l- x4 - y4 = 155.

Ddp s6: (3;2), (-2; -3), (-3; -2), (2;3)

Bizi 3:

{( X - y)( x2 - y2) = 3

Giai M plurong trinh:

( X + y) ( X 2 + y2 ) = 1 5

Dap s6: (1 ;2), (2; 1).

356

Giili h~ phuong trinh: Ix - 3y = 4 : y-3x=4-.

. y

Dap so: (-2; -2)

Bai 5:

{X2 + y2 + X == 1 Giili h¢ plurong trinh: x2 + y + z2 =.1 x+l +z2 =1.

D£ip.wi: (-I; -I; -I), (i;~;i) (1;0;0), (0;1;0), (0;0;1). Btli 6:

{2XY + y2 - 4x - 3y + 2 == 0 Giai h~ phuong trinh:

xy+3l-2x-14y+J6==0.

Ddp .'16: (-I ;3), (-~ ;2) (2;a), voi a tuy y thuoc lR.. Bai 7:

Giili phuong trinh: xV16 - x3 (x + VI6 - x3 ) = 16. Daps6: x= 2.

BaiS:

Giai phirong trlnh: J17 - x2 = (3 _ .Jx)2 . Dap .'16: x =4; x= 1 .

{rx+1 +J2-y =Jj

Bili 9: Giai h~ phuong trinh. rz=:': r::-:1

-n-.« +"y+l =Jj.

Daps6: (-I; -1) (2;2).

B"10 G"'b~ h . I I-JI-4x2 3

QI : lal at p uong trm 1: < ,

x

{II

. --<x<-

Dapso: 2 - - 2

x ee O.

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