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Baigiang18_Phuong Trinh Luong Giac

Baigiang18_Phuong Trinh Luong Giac

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Bili giang Sa 18

PHLlDNIi TRiNH LUONIi lilAc

Cling giong nhu cac bai toan v~ ham s6, cac bai toan v~ phuong trinh hrong giac la mot diu hoi b~t buoc co m~t trong moi d~ thi v~ men Toan vao cac tnrong Dai hoc, Cao diing cac nam 2002-2009.

Bai giang nay d~ cap d~n cac plurong phap giai plurong trinh 11I'Q'ng giac tuy theo dang cua chung,

Luoc d6 chung d~ giai cac plurong trinh luong giac diroc ti~n hanli nhir sau:

II D~t dieu kien d6 plurong trinh co nghia. Ngoai cac dieu kien thong thirong nlur d6i voi rnoi phuong trinh khac (thi du nlur di~u kien v~ milu s6, cac bieu tlurc trong can cua cac can bac ch~n co mat trong phuong trinh ... ), rieng d6i veri plurong trinh luong giac dn chu ~' d~c biet d~n cac di~u kien sau:

+ d~ tan x co nghia, di~u kien la x -t ~ + kn , k E Z

. 2

+ D~ cot x co nghla, di~u kien la x -t k n , k E Z. 21 Giai phuong trinh bang cac luoc d6 quen thuoc.

31 So sanh nghiem tim duoc voi di~u kien d~t ra d~ loai bo di cac nghiem ngoai lai.

" A "" J, "

§l. PHUONG TRINH BAC NHAT DOl VOl SINX VA COSX

1. Dang phuong trinh: asin x + bcos x =, 2 (a, b -t 0)

2. Di~u ki~n co nghi~m: Phuong trinh co nghiern khi va chi khi a2 + b2 ~ c2 •.

3. each giai: C6 hai each giai plurong trinh nay:

Phuong phap I: DU:I pluroug trinh v~ dang:

a. b

-;===- =- S 111 X + -;===

Ja2+b2 ~a2+b2

D~ a. b

at cos c= r= .,;SIl1<P= ,;==.,==

\Ia~+b~ \Ia~+b2

Khi do (I) ¢::> sin (x + a) = sin n.

Phuong phap 2: Xet hai kha nang sau:

c

cosx = (I)

..fa2 + b2

+ N0u b + c = 0 => cos ~ = 0 thoa man plurong trinh 2

=> x = n +k2 n, k E Z thuoc vao tap IlQ'P nghiern.

+ N~u b+c -to => cos~ -t 0, khi do dat tan ~ = t.

2 . 2

, 2

A' d ~ hu 2t 1 - t 1 ' 1 d h

p ung cong t ire Sill X = --2 ,COS X = --2' ta quy p urong tnn 1 Ii c 0

1 + t 1 + t

vS phirong trinh bac 2 d6i voi t, sau do giai tan ~ = t Chuy:

Khi Slr dung plurong phap nay ngiroi ta thuong hay quen xet kha nang cos ~ = 0, 2

rna d~t ngay tan ~ = t, khi do se d~n dSn kha nang co th~ mAt nghiem cua phirong trinh.

TIIi d(1 1: (DJ thi Illyill sinh D(li lu,Jc khDi D - 2007)

GiAi phuong trinh hrong giac: (sin ~ +COS ~ )2+'J3 COSX = 2 (1).

Giai

Taco(l) <=> l+sinx:l-J3cosx=2<=>_!_sinx+ J3 cosx=_!_

2 2 2

r1t1t 'r1t

x+-=-+k21t x=--+k21t

. ( 1t) . 1t 3 6 6

<=> Sill X + - = SII1- <=> <=>

3 6 1t 51t 1t

X + - = - + 2k1t X = - + k21t

363

(k E Z)

Thl (/(1 2: (DJ IIIi luyill sinh D(li hoc khDi A - 2009) Giai phuong trinh IUQ'ng giac:

(J-2sinx)cosx t:

--:--'-----:--:-'---:- = -.J 3 (I). (1 + 2sin x)(l-sinx)

Giai

DiSu kien d~ (1) co nghia la sin x#-I va sin x #- ~ Khi do:

(1) <=> cos x - J3 s inx = sin 2x + J3cos2x

1 J3. I." J3 2

<=> -cosx --SIllX = -Sill LX + -COS x

2 2 2 2

(2).

(3)

318

319

~ ,~ " 1t

De y rang nghiem x ='"2 + k21t bi loai (vi khong thoa man (2)), va ro rang

1t k 21t I' - (2)' 1 " , (1) I' . 1t k 21t k 71

X=--+ - thoa man nenng11emclla a X=--+ -,' E /LJ,

18 3 . 18 3

Nhdn xet:

Mac du (; day (1) khong co dang asinx + bcosx = c, nhung thuc chfit each giai (3) la slr dung phirong phap cua each giai phirong trinh asinx + bcosx = c, nen ta s~p x~p no vao dang nay.

Thi £II! 3: (DJ thi 11Iyi" sinh D!,j hoc kh/Ji B - 2009) Giai phuong trinh 11I'Q'ng giac:

s in x + cos X sin 2x + Jjcos3x = 2 ( cos4x + sin:' x) (1),

Ghii

Ta co: (I) <=> sin x + cos xsin 2x + Jjcos3x - 2sin3 x = 2cos4x

<=> sin x( 1 - 2sin2 x) + cos x sin 2x + Jjcos3x = 2cos4x

<=> sin xcos2x + cosxsin 2x + Jjcos3x = 2cos4x

<=>sin3x+Jjcos3x=2cos4x <=>J..sin3x+ Jj cos3x=cos4x

2 2

<=> cos( 3x - %) = cos4x <=> 3x - % = ±4x + k21t

<=> rx = -% + k21t (k E Z)

1t 21t

x=,-+k-

42 7

TIIf £I{I 4: (DJ thi 11IYO" sinh D(li IUIC khiJi D - 2009)

Gilii plurong trinh: Jjcos5x-2sin3xcos2x-sinx=O (I), Ghli

Taco: (1) <=> Jjcos5x-(sin5x+sinx)-sinx=O

Jj 5 I, 5' '( 1t 5) ,

<=> -cos x - -SIl1 X = S II1X <=> S111 - - X = S II1X

223

<=> r x = 1~ + k ~ (k E Z)

1t 1t

x=--+k-,

6 2

tt« £I{I 5:

Gilii plurong trinh 4(sin4x+cos4x)+ Jjsin4x = 2 (1)

Ghii

Taco:(I) <=> 4(1-~Sin22x)+.J3sin4X=2

<=> 4 - 2 1+ cos4x +.J3 sin 4x = 2 <=> .J3 sin 4x + cos4x =-1 2

.J3 . 4 I 4 I . (4 7t) . ( 7t)

<=>--SII1 x+-cos X=--- <=> Sill x+- =SII1 --

2 2 2 6 6

<=> lX = : I~ +: ~ , k E Z

X =-+ k- 4 2

TM tI(t 6: Giai phuong trinh: 2J2 (s inx + cos x )cos x = 3 + cos2x (I).

Gi~li

Ta co: (I) <=> J2 sin2x + J2 (I + cos2x) = 3 + cos2x

<=> J2 sin2x + (J2 -1)cos2x = 3 - J2

Ta co: (J2)2 + ( J2 _1)2 = 5 - 2J2 < 11- 6J2 = (3 _ J2)2 . V<.ly (I) vo nghiern (vi vi pham di~u ki~n a2 + b2 ~ c2)

TM tI(t 7: Giai plnrong trinh: x + JI3 - x2 + xJI3 - x2 = II .

Giiii

N ~ x 0 I" o· '"' 1 X 1 I khi de kl • I .

+ eu cos-- = tll Sill X == va cosx == LCOS-- - = , '11 0 lOng tnoa

2 2

man phuong trinh.

V• x -J. 0 ay cos- T .

. 2

1

t=-

fj

<=> I +.J3

t = ------

I-fj

, (k E Z)

NMIl xct: N~u dung plurong phap I I, sau khi bi~n d6i

320

321

1+J3. I-J3 I'

(1)<=>~sll1x+~cosx=~ (2)

2,,2 2,,2 ,,2

Vi~c giai (2) bang phuong phap I v~ nguyen tilc thi lam duoc, nhirng d~ ra dap s6 nhu tren thi rAt kho khan. V~y vci thi du nay. phuong phap 2 la thich hQ'P.

Thi d,! 8:

Tim m d~ phirong trinh: 2sin x + m cos x = 1- m co nghiem thuoc [- ~;~J Giiii

Lap lu~n nhtr thl du 7, thi ~os ~ ;f:. 0 V rn, vi th~ d~t t = tan~. thi phuong trinh da cho co dang (sau khi bien d6i):

f(t) = e --' 4t + I = 2m

Dox E[-~;~J~ -I StS1

Bai toan da cho tro' thanh: Tim m d~ h~ (1) (2) co nghiem.

Ta c6 f'('~ r 2, - 4 va co ~;g bi~n 'hien ~au:

f~:~: 16 ~-21

(I)

(2)

2 o

Tir do suy ra (1) va (2) conghiern <=> -2 S 2m S 6 <=> -I S m S 3. Do Ia cac gia tr] dn tim ella m.

Nhdn xet:

V&i thl du nay phuong phap 2 to ro hieu luc hon h~n phuong phap I.

Qua 'cac thi du tren cac ban chac da tv" rut ra k~t luan khi nao nen Slr dung

phuong phap I, hoac phuong phap 2. .

§2. PHUONG TRINH DANG CAP BAc 2, BAc 3 D61 VOl SINX vA COSX

1. D~ng phuong trinh

a! Phuong trinh d~ng dp b~c 2 d6i voi sinx va cosx co dang asin'x + bcos'x + csinxcosx + d = O. . bl Phuong trinh d~ng dp b~c 3 d6i voi sinx va cosx co dang asirr'x + bsirr'xcosx + csinxcos/x + dcos'x = O.

Cung voi bl ta xet plurong trinh d~ng dp b~c 3 d6i voi sinx va cosx (dang suy

rQng) sau: asirr'x + bsirr'xcosx + csinxcos/x + dcos'x + (msinx + ncosx) = 0 2. each giiii

- Kiem tra cos x = 0 co phai la nghiem hay khong?

- Sau do xet ti~p tnrong hQ'P cos x:f; O. D~t tan x = t.

ltanx =-Ji

~ tan x e I ~ tanx=-I

1t

X = -3 + kn [ 1t

X =--+ kn

1t . 3

x = - + kn ~ , k E Z .

4 1t 1t

x=-+k-

1t 4 2

x =--+ kx

4

B~ng each chia ca hai v~ cua plurong trinh cho cos'x voi phuong trinh dAng cAp b~c hai va cho cos'x voi phuong trinh d~ng cAp b~c 3, ta quy v~ phuong trinh b~c hai (ho~c b~c ba) d6i voi t. Tim duoc t, ta giai ti~p phirong trinh co ban: tan x = t ta se di d~n nghiern x cAn tim.

Till du l: (Bi thi tuyin slnlt kllJi B ~ 2009) " Giai plurong trinh luong giac:

sin3 x - Ji cos'' x = sin xcos2 x - Ji sin2 xcosx (I).

Giai

N~u cos x=O thi tu (I) ta co sirr'x = 0 va do Ia di~u v6Iy, nen cosx *- O.

Do cos x *- 0, nen chia cli hai v~ cua (I) eho cos'x, ta eo '

tarr' x - Ji - tan x + Ji tan2 x = 0 ~ (tan x + Ji)( tan2 x -I} = 0

Tlti dfl2,:

Giai phirong trinh sin2 x( tan x + I) = 3sin x( cosx - sin x) + 3 (I).

Giai

f)i~u kien d~ (I) co nghia la x *- ~ + kn , k E Z (2).

. 2

Khido:

(I) ~ sin2x(sinx+cosx)=3sinxcosx(cosx-sinx)+3sinx (3).

Do di~u kien (2) nen chia ca hai v~ cua (3) eho cos'x va co

tan 3 x + tati2 x - 3 tan x + 3 tan 2 x - 3 ( 1 + tan 2 x) = 0

~ (tan x +1}(tan2 x -3) =0 <"> [x =-:+ kn ,k E Z (4).

X =±-+ kn

. 3

Ro rang (4) thoa man (2), nen la nghiern cua (1). tt« dfl3:

Giai phuong trinh: Scos3 (x + ~ ) = eos 3x (I).

Giai

T' (1t) 1t.. 1t I Ji ,

a eo cos x + - = cos xcos- - SIl1 X SIIl- = -:-cos- --S1l1 X .

3 3 3, 2" 2

322

323

V(iy(l) ¢> s(~cosx- ~ sin x)' =4co,3x-3oo,x

<=> .fj sirr' 'X + cos3 x + .fjcos2 xsin x -3cosxsin2 x -cosx = 0 (2) Ro rang cosx =/; 0 (vi n~u cosx = 0 :;:::> sinx = 0: vo ll)

Vi th~ chia ca hai v~ cua (2) cho cos'x va co:

.fj tan3 x + 1 +.fj tan x -3tan2x -1- tan2 x = 0

tan x e O

.fj

tanx=-<=>

3

tan x =.fj

1t

x=-+k1t, k e Z 6

x== kn

1t

X =-+ kn,

3

Thi dfl4: .

Giai phuong trinh: sinx + cosx - 4sin3x = ·0 (1).

Giai + N~u cosx=O, nr (1) ta co M:

{cosx = 0 {cosx =0

sinx-4cos3x=0 <=> sinx=O;sinx=±1 Tir (2) (3) suy ra vo Ii. V~y cosx =/; 0

+ Do cos x =/; 0, nen chia ca hai v~ cua (1) cho cos'x va co

tanx( 1 + tarrx) + 1 + tan2x - 4tan3x = 0 <=> 3tan3x - tan'x - tanx - 1 = 0

<=> (tanx - 1 )(3tan2x + 2tanx + I) = O<=> tanx = 1 <=> x = ~ + kx, k E Z .

4

TIll dfl5:

Cho phtrong trinh: sirr'x + (2m - 2)sinxcosx - (m + 1 jcos'x = m (I) Tim m d~ ph~ong trinh (1) co nghiem

Giai

{cosx = 0 (2)

+ N~u cosx = 0, thi nr (1) ta co: .. 2

. sm x =m (3)

H~ (2) (3) co nghiem <=> m = I. V~y m =1 la mQt gia tri cAn tim. + N~u cosx =/; o. Khi do chia ca hai v~ cua (1) cho cos'x va

(I) <=> tan 2 x + (2m - 2) tan x - ( m + I) = m + m tan 2 x

<=> (m - 1 )tall2x - 2(m - 1 )tanx + 2m + 1 = 0 (2) D~thAYLl'=-m2-m+2,v~YLl'~O <=> -2 ~ m<1 (do m s 1). K~t hop lai: -2 ~ m ~ 1 la cac gia tr] cfrn tim cua tham s6 m.

Till dfl 6:·Cho plurong trinh: mcos'x - 4sinxcosx + m - 2 = 0 (1). Tim m d~

(I) co nghiem thuoc (o;~).

Ghii

Khi 0< x < 2: , thi cosx > 0 (noi rieng cosx Of 0). Vi th~ sau khi chia ca hai v~ . 4

cua (l)cho cos'x va rut gon, ta co:

. 2 2 2tan2x + 4tan Xv+ 2

(I) co mttan x+2)=2tanx+4tanx+2 <=> 2 =m

tan x+2

Khi 0< x < ~, thi 0 < ~an x < I. V~y sau khi d~t t = tanx bai to an tro thanh:

. {f(t)= 2t2 +4t+2 =m ( )

Tim m de h~ . t2 + 2 2 co nghiem.

O<t<1 (3)

-4(t2 -t-2) .

Ta co: fl( t)= 2 . va co bang bi~n thien sau:

(t2 + 2) .

t -I 0 I 2

f(t) +

Yay I < m < ~ lit cac gia tri dn tim.cua tham s6 m.

. 3 .

§3. PHUONG TRINH D61 XUNG Val SIN x vA cos x

. .

1. Dang cua plnrong trinh

a(sinx+cosx)k +b(sinxcosxt +c=O (1)

ho~c a(sinx-cosx)k +b(sinxcosxt +c=O (2).

2. each giai

-V6i phuong trinh (1) dua vito M thirc:

'. (sinx + cosx)2 -1

S1l1 xcosx = ,

2

sau do dung phep thay bien t = sinx + cosx ( - .J2 ::;; t ::;; .J2 ). - V 6i plurong trinh (2) dua vito h~ thirc

. I-(sin x -cosx)2

S1l1 XCOS X = -~---~

2

324

325

sau do dung phep thay bi~n t = sinx - cosx ( - J2 ::; t ::; J2 ).

Nhir v~y ta da quy diroc (I) (ho~c (2» v~ dang phuong trinh dai s6 cua t. Sau do giai phirong trinh sinx+cosx = t d~ suy ra dap s6 cAn tim.

Thi du L: (Bi thi tuyin sinh Bpi IIpc kllni A - 2007)

Giai plurong trinh: (I + sin2x)cosx + (I + cos'xjsinx = 1 + siri2x (1).

Giai

Ta co: (I) <=> sirr'xcosx + sinxcos'x + sinx + cosx = (sinx + cosxr' <=> (sinx + cosx)(sinxcosx + 1 - sinx:'" cosx) = 0

[sin x + cosx = 0 (2)

<=> sin xcosx + I-(sin x + cosx) = 0 (3)

D~ thAy (2) <=> sinx = -cosx <=> tan x = -I <=> x = -~ + kn , k E Z. 4 .

D~t sin x + cos x = t (J2 ::; t::; 2), khi do (2) co dang t2 -I '

-- + 1- t = 0 <=> t2 - 2t + 1 = 0 <=> t = 1 <=> sinx + cosx = 1 2

) [X = k21t

<=>J2cos(x-~ =I<=>COS(X-~)=cos~<=> 1t kEZ

4 4 4 x=-+k21t

. . 2

V~y nghiem cua (I) la x = -~ + kn.x = k21t;x =~ + k21t k E Z. TId d(l2:

G·,· h 'I 1 . 3 1 3. 2 (I) lat P uong trinh: + SIl1" x + cos' x = - SIn X .

2

Giai .

Ta co (I) <=> 1 + (sinx + cosxjtsirr'x - sinxcosx + cosx) = 3sinxcosx <=> 1 + (sinx + cosx)(1 -sinxcosx) - 3sinxcosx = 0 (2)

D~t t = sinxcosx ( -J2 ::; t ::; J2 ). Khi do (2) co dang

( t2 - I] t2 - 1 3 2

I+t 1--2- -3-2-'=0<=>t +3t -3t-5=0

<=>(t+ 1)(t2+2t-5)=0 <=> [:: =~-~ <.-J2 [Ioai]

t = -2 + ~ > J2 [loai]

[X = 1t + k21t

V~y sinx+cosx=-I <=> cos(x-~)=- ~ = cos 31t <=> 1t ,kE Z.

4 ....;2 4 x=--+k21t

. 2

Thi dfl3:

Giai phuong trinh 1 + tan x = 2~ s in x Giiii

Di~u ki~n d~ (1) co nghia lil x -:/: ~ + lot, k e Z (2).

2

Khi do It) <=> 1+ sinx =2~slnx <=> sinx+cosx-2~sinxcosx (3)

cos x

D~t t = sinx+cosx ( -~ s t s ~ ). Khi do (3) co dang:

• 2 1 [t =~

t-2~!_::_=0<=>~+e-t-.fi=0 <=> 1

2 t=- ~.

(1 ).

+ N~u t=~ , ta co sinx+cosx=~ <=> cos( x -~) = 1 <=> x = ~ + k21t, k e Z.

NJ.. 1 ,. 1

+ eut= -- taco smx + cosx = --

n:": ~

( ) 1 2 lx = II1t + k21t

<=> cos X - 1t = __ = cos~ <=> 12 , k E Z.

4 2 3 x = _ 51t + k21t

" 12

Vb phirong trinh co ba ho nghiem nhu tren

Thi dfl4:

Giili plurong trinh: [sinx-cosxl+dsinzx= 1 (1).

Giiii

D~t t= sinx -cosx (-~ s t ~ ~), khi do (1) co dang It I + 4(1 - t2) = 1 (2).

{O~t~~

4t2 - t - 3 = 0 [t = r

(2)<=> { <=>" <=>1 t 1= 1 <=> [sinx - cosx] = 1 <=> (sinx - COSX)2= 1

-~ s r so t=-l

4t2 +t-3 =0 ," .

<=> sin 2x = 0 <=> x = k1t , k E Z . 2

Thi dfl5: ,

Cho phuong trinh sirr'x - cos'x = m (1). Tim m d~ phuong trinh co nghiem.

Giiii

Ta co (1) <=> (sinx - cosx)(1 + sinxcosx) = m (2).

D~t t = sinx-cosx ( -~ s t ~ ~ ) khi do (2) co dang:

326

{I + I ~t')= m (c)-t' +3t='2m.

Bai toan tro thanh: Tim m d~ h~:

{f(t)=-t3+3t=2m (3), .~

co nghiem,

-J2 :5,t:5,J2 (4)

Ta c6 f'(t) = -3e+ 3 va c6 bang bien thiensau: .

t -J2 -1 1 J2

f '(t) 0 + 0

-J2~ ~2~

-2 . J2

V~y (3) va (4) c6 nghiern, tire la (1) c6 nghiem khi va chi khi: -2 s 2m s 2 <=> -1 s m s 1.

" , t: • A

§4. PHUONG TRINH LUONG GIAC SU D1)NG NHIEU

DEN PHEP BIEN D6I LUONG GIAc

Nhin chung khi dung tnroc met phuong trinh IUQ'ng giac da cho, n~u nhu thAy phuong trinh Ay khong thuoc vao cac dang co ban da neu trong cac muc § 1, §2, §3 6' tren, thi tnroc h~t cAn phai dung cac phep bi~n d6i hrong giac thong dung (cong thirc cong, cong thirc nhan, bi~n d6i t6ng thanh tich, tich thanh t6ng, cong thirc ha b~c ... ) d~ dua phtrong trinh ban dAu v~ cac dang co ban 6' tren, hoac dira v~ phuong trinh tich rna m6i thira s6 c6 dang plurong trinh co ban.

Day la phuong phap ph6 thong nhAt va rAt c6 hieu qua d~ giai phirong trinh

hrong giac.

Xet cac thi du sau:

Till dfll: (Bi thi luyin sin" Bpi IIpc kl,ai D - 2008)

Giai phuong trinh: 2sinx( I + cos2x) + sin2x = I + 2cosx (I).

Giiii

, Ta co (I) <=> 4sinxcos2x+ 2sinxcosx - (I + 2cosx) = 0

<=> 2sinxcosx(1 + 2cosx) - (I + 2cosx) = 0 <=> (2cosx + 1 )(sin2x - 1) = 0

[ . [2n

1 x=±-+k2n

cosx=-- 3

<=> 2<=> ,kE Z.

sin 2x = I x = ~ + kn

. 4

327

1t 21t

x=-+k- ,k E Z

18 3

x = 51t + k 21t .

18 3

TIIi d(l 3: (Bi thl luyin sinh B(li lu,Jc klr6i A - 2006)

2( sin6 x + cos6x) - sin xcosx .

Giai phirong trinh: = 0 (1).

J2 -2sinx

Giiii

D l (1)' h- x ,. -I- J2 (2)

e co ng ra can co sinx T 2 .

Khido(l) <=:> 2(1-~sin22x )-ksin2x=0

. [Sin 2x = 1

<=:> 3sin22x+sin2x - 4 =0 <=:>. 4 (sin2x= -.i3 loai vi Isin2xl ~ 1)

sm2x=--

3

<=:> sin2x=1 <=:> x='::+k1t,k EZ (3)

4

K8t hQ'P (2) va (3) suy ra x = 541t + k21t, k E Z 1a nghiem cAn tim.

T'" d(l4: (Bi thl tuyin sinlt B(li lu,Jc klr6i A .: 2005)

Giai phuong trinh: cos23xcos2x-cos2x=0 (1)

Giiii

Ap dung cong thirc "ha bac", ta co:'

( 1 ) 1 + cos6x 2 1 + cos2x 0

<=:> cos x - .

2 2

¢:> cos6xcos2x = 1 <=:> (4cos32x - 3cos2x)cos2x = 1 <=:> 4cos42x - 3cos22x - 1 = 0 <=:> cos22x = 1

[COS4X =0

<=:> I<=:>

sin3x =-

2

Till d(l 2: (Bi thi tuyin sinh B(li Ir(Jc klr6i B - 2007) Giai phirong trinh IUQ'ng giac: 2sin22x+sin7x-1 =sinx (1).

Giiii

Ta co (1) <=:> (2sin22x - 1) + (sin7x - sinx) = 0

<=:> -cos4x + 2cos4xsin3x = 0 <=:> cos4x(2sin3x - 1) = 0

k1t .

X=-

2

1t

<=:> 1 + cos4x = 2 <=:> cos4x = I <=:> x = k - , k E Z. 2

Thl d(l 5: (Bi thi luyin sinh B(li hoc klr6i D - 2003) .

Giai phirong trinh: sin2 (~-.::) tan2 x - cos2 ~ = 0 (1).

. . 2 4 2

328

329

Giii Di~uki~nd~(I)conghialaxi ~+kn,k E Z (2) 2

Ap dung cong thirc "ha bac", ta co:

I-COS(X -~) ,

~ 2.I-cos2x l+cosx=O

(I) 2' cos2x 2

~ (I - sinx)(I - cosx)(1 + cosx) - cos'xt l + cosx) = 0 ~ (I + cosx)(I - sinx)(sinx + cosx) = 0

x = n + k2n

~ [:~:::/ ~ x =%+k2n (3), k E Z.

tan x = 1 x = _~ + krt

4

Tir (2) va (3) suy ra: X= n+ k2n;x= -~+ krt , k E Z. 4

Tid dfl6

Giai phirong trinh: (I - tanx)(1 + sin2x) = 1 + tanx (I)

. Giii

Di~u ki~n d~ (I) co nghia la x:;t ~ + kn , k' E Z (2)

. 2'

Khi do I l ) ~ (l-tanx)(I+ 2tan; )=l+tanx ~2tan2x(l+tanx)=0 I + tan: x

[X = kn

tan x = 0

~ ~ n ,kEZ.

[tanX=-1 x=-4+kn .

Till dfl 7:

Giai phuong trinh: 2sin3x(l - 4sin2x) = 1 (I).

Giii

D~ thdy cosx = 0 khong thoa man (1), tir do

(1) ~ 2sin3xcosx[ 1 - 4( 1 - cos2x)] = COSX ~ 2sin3x( 4cos3x - 3cosx) = cosx

r n 2n

~ 2sin3xcos3x=cosx ~ sin6x=sin (~_ x) ~ . x = 14 + k 7 , k E Z .

2 x=~=k2n

. 10 . 5

§5: NGH$M COA PHUONG TRINH LUONG GIAc THUOC MOT MIEN CHO TRUDC

Bai toan doi hoi tim nghiem cua phirong trinh IUQ1lg giac trong mQt mi~n cu tM cho tnr<Jc. V m cac bai toan nay, phuong phap giai duoc ti~n hanh theo cac biroc sau: ' 11 Giai phirong trinh IUQ1lg giac nhu binh tlurong,

21 Vm nghiem tim duoc, d~ xac dinh s6 k trong cong thee nghiem ta phai giai

mQt bAt phuong trinh (tim nghiem nguyen).

31 Thay gia tri k tim duc,lc vao cong tlurc nghiem tim duoc obucc 1. Thl dfl1: (B2 thi tuyin sinh Bpi IIpc kllai A - 2002)

Tim nghiem thuQc khoang (0; 21t ) cua phirong trinh:

5( .COs3x+sin3X) 3 2 (I) s lOX + = + cos X .

1 + 2sin2x

Giii

Di~u ki~n d~ (1) co nghiem la sin 2x =t:- -_!_ (2).

2

Kh· d' (1) 5sinx+2sin2xsinx+cos3x+sin3x 3 2

I 0 ~ = +cos x

l+ Zsin Zx

5sinx+cosx-cos3x+sin3x+cos3x 3 2 5 3 2 2 I'

~ . = + cos x ~ cosx= + cos x-

1+ 2sin2x

~ 2COS2X-5cosx+2=0~ cosx=_!_ (loai cosx=Zj c» x=±~ + k21t, k E Z.

2 3

+ Taco: O<~+ k21t <21t~ -_!_ < k <~ ~ k = 0 (do k nguyen).

3 6 6

+ Lai co 0< -~ + k21t < 21t ~ _!_ < k < 7.. ~ k =1 (do k nguyen).

3 6' 6

VA 1t, 51t I' h· h·A h' A (0 2 ) . (1) i

tly X = - va x = - a at ng rem t UQC ; 1t cua .

33.

Thl dfl2: (1J2 thi tuyin sinh IJpi IIpckllai D - 2002)

Tim nghiem ti:lUQc [0; 14] cua phuong trinh cos3x - 4cos2x + 3cosx - 4 =0 (1) Ghii

Taco I l) ~ 4cos3x-3cosx-4(2cos2x-l) + 3cosx-4 = 0

~ cos2x(cosx-2) = 0 ~ cosx = O~ x =~+ kn , k E Z. 2

1t 1 14 1 14 1

Tac6 0~-+k1t~14~0~-+k~-~--~k~---<4.

2 2 1t 2 1t2

Do k E Z nen k E {I, 2, 3, O}. Thaylai vao (2) va thAy tren [0;14], (1) co 4

gh.A 1t 31t 51t 71t

n iem sau: xl ="2;X2 =2;X3 =2;x4 =2·

330

331

, , 2 COS2X -cos2x-l

TIll dfl 3: Cho phuong tnnh coszx - tan x = 2 (1),

cos x

Tim tAng cac nghiem cua (1) tren [1; 70].

Giai

f)i~u kien d~ (1 ) co nghiern la x ~ 2: + kx , k E Z. 2

Khi do (1) ~ cos2x - tarr'x = 1 - cosx - (l + tan'x) ~ cos2x= -cosx ~ 2cos2x + COSX - 1 = 0

[COS x = -1 1t 21t

~ 1 ~ x = - + k-, k E Z (2)

cosX=- 3 3 .

. 2

Ta xem tren doan [1 ;70] co bao nhieu nghiem dang (2)

Ta co: 1 ~2:+ k 21t s 70 ~ ~ < 2k + 1 < 210 ~ .!..(~-1)< k <.!..(210 -I)

3 3 1t 1t 2 1t 2 1t

Do k nguyen nen k = 0; 1; 2; 3 .... ; 32.

V~y tren [1; 70] co 33 nghiem dang (2). Chung I~p thanh mQt cAp sA cQngv6-i

1t ,A • d 21t

u(= - va cong sal =-

3 3

. [2u)+{n-l}dJn

V~y tong S cac nghiem nay la: S = = 3631t

. 2

(. dA 1t d 21t, 33' )

o ay UI = '3 ; = 3 va n = .

BAI TJP tt: GIAI

Bai 1: Giai phuong trinh hrong giac: 4sin3x - 1 = 3sinx - Jj cos3x.

,,( 1t 21t 1t 21t ?I

Dapso: x=-+k-;x=-+k-,k E ILl.

18 3 2 3

eu z.

Giai phuong trinh hrong giac: 2sin4x + 3cos2x + ISsirr'xcosx - 5 = O.

D',( 1t (l k k ?I" 4,. 3

ap so: x = - - - + 1t, E ILl VCYI cosa. = - va sma. = - .

4 2 5 5

su s.

Giai phuong trinh hrong giac: sin 3x + ( .J3 - 2 )cos3x = 1.

,,( 1t 21t, ' 21t 21t ?I

Dapso: x=-+k- va x=-+k-,k E ILl.

6 3 9 3

Bai 4: Giai phirong trinh hrong giac: 4sin3x + 3cos3x - 3sinx - sin'xcosx = O.

D',( 1t k 1t k k' ?I

apso: X=-+ 1t;x=±-+ n , E ILl.

4 3

Daps6: x e kZn ; x=±2:+k21t,k EZ 3

Biii 12: Tim nghiern thuoc khoang (-2; 4) ella phirong trinh:

sinxcos4x + 2sin22x = 1- 4sin2 ( ~ - ;).

D' .: 1t

an so: x=-.

r. 2

Biii 5:

Giiii phirong trinh luong giac: 12 sin3 x( x + ~) = 2sin x.

Dap s6: x = 2:+ kn , k E Z.

4

Biii 6:

Giai plurong trinh IUQ'l1g giac sinx - cosx + 7sin2x = I.

Da'P s6: x = 2: + k21t· X = 1t + k21t· X = 2: - a + k2it· x = 51t + a + k21t k E Z

2' , 4 ' 4 "

, d" 312

0' ay sm c =--.

. 7

Biii 7:

Giiii phirong trinh IUQ'l1g giac sin2x + 12 sin ( x - ~ ) = 1 .

,1t 1t.

Ddp so: x=-+k1t;x=-+k21t;x=1t+k21t,k E Z.

4 2

Biii 8:

Tim m d~ phirong trinh: sin2x + 4(cosx - sinx) = m co nghiem.

Ddp s6: -412 - 1 ~ m ~ 412 - 1 .

Biii 9:

Giai phuong trinh luong giac: cos2x + 5 = 2(2 - cosx)(sinx - cosx).

Dap so: x=2:+k21t;x=1t+k21t,k E Z.

2

Biii 10:

Giai plurong trinh luong giac: sirr'x + cos'x = 2(sin5x + cos'x).

D,,: 1t k1t 1t k k 71

a'Pso: x =-+ _IX =-+ 1t E au ,

4 2'4 '

Biii 11:

. Giai phuong trinh hrong giac: 2cos2x - 8cosx + 7 = _1_. cosx

332

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