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Baigiang8_Cac Bai Toan Ve So Phuc

Baigiang8_Cac Bai Toan Ve So Phuc

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Bai giang sA 8

l:Al: HAl ToAN V~ 50 PHUi:

Cac bai toan v8 s6 phirc lit chu d8 moi xuAt hi~n IAn dAu trong cac d8 thi tuyen sinh vito cac tnrong Dai hoc va Cao d~ng nam 2009.

Bai giang nay gioi thieu cac bai toan co ban nhAt v~ s6 phirc: Cac bai toan v~ modun s6 plurc, dang IUQ"ng giac cua s6 plurc vit phuong trinh xet tren t~p cac s6 phirc.

§ 1. cAc PHEP TINH VE 56 PHUC vA MCDUN CVA 56 PHUC

1. Tom tit li thuy~t

- Cac phep tinh v~ s6 phirc:

Cho hai s6 phirc Z = a + bi va z' = a'+b'i. Ta dinh nghia Z + Z' = (a + a') + (b + b')i,

Z - z' = (a - a') + (b - b')i.

Cho s6 phirc Z = a + bi. se phirc Z = a - bi goi lit s6 plurc lien hop voi s6 phirc tren.

- MOdun cua s6 phirc:

Cho s6 phirc Z = a + bi, ta ki hieu [Zl la modun cua s6 phirc Z diroc xac dinh

nhir sau:

IZI=~a2+b2.

- Cho hai 56 phirc Z = a + bi va Z' = a' + b'i. Ta dinh nghia Z.Z' = aa' - bb' + (ab' + a'b)i.

_ Cho 56 plurc Z = a + bi ;f:. 0 (tire la a2 + b2 > 0). Ta dinh nghTa

Z-I = I Z = a - bi

a2+b2 a2+b2'

N8u Z ;f:. 0 thi Z' = Z' Z-I .

Z

2. Cac dgng toan CO' bin

Loai 1: Cac phep tinh v~ 56 phirc:

Cac bai toan thirong co. dang ho~c doi hoi tinh toan true ti8p mQt bi~u thirc v~ 56 phirc, hoac phai giai mQt phuong trinh dang dan gian d~ tim 56 phirc Z, rna thuc chAt cua phep giai phuong trinh nay chi doi hoi thuc hi~n cac phep tinh v8 56 phirc.

Thl d", 1: (IJi II'; luyin sinh Cao i1dng kltai A, B - 2009) Tim ph An thuc va phan ao cua s6 phirc Z, n8u nhir ta co

(1 + ii (2 - i)Z = 8+i + (1 + 2i)Z.

151

Ghii Taco (I +i)2(2-i)Z=8+i+(1 +2i)Z

<=> Z[( I +i)1(2-i) - (I +2i)] = 8 + i <=> Z[2i(2-i) - I - 2i] = 8 + i

<=> Z = 8 + i = (8 + i X 1- 2i) = 2 _ 3i . .

2i+ I 5

V~Y phAn tlurc cua Z Iii 2 vii phdn ao Iii -3. Till du 2:

Xet ~ac di~m A, B, C trong m~t phang phirc theo thu W bi~u di~n cac s6

.4i; (l-i)(1+2i); 2+6.i.

I-I 3-1

I) Chung minh ABC Iii tam giac vuong can.

2) Tim s6 phirc bi~u di~n boi di~m D, sao cho ABCD Iii hinh vuong,

. Ghii

I) T ' 4i - 4i(i + I) - 2 2' VA A - (2' 2)

a co - - - - I. ay - -.

i-I -2 . . ,

(l-i)(1+2i)=3+i~ B=(3; I).

2+6i = (2+6i)(3+i) =2i ~ C = (0' 2).

3-i 10 '

Tir do suy ra BC2 = 10;

BA2 = 10' CA2 = 20 nen co

. , ,

{BA=BC

AC2 = AB2 + BC2 .

y

x

V ~y ABC Iii tam giac vuong can dinh B. 2) GQi D Iii dinh tlur tir cua hinh

vuong ABCD. Ta co

- -_

BA=CD

<=> (-I; -3) = (XD; yo-2) <=> Xo = -I; Yo =-1 <=>D=(-I;-I)

V~y s6 plurc Z = -I-i ducc bieu di~n boi di~m D. Till dfl3:

Giai cac plurong trinh sau:

I) (2 - i)Z - 4 = 0;

2) 2 + i Z = -I + 3i .

I-i 2+i

B

A

Giii

I)T ' (2 ')-Z 4-0 -Z- 4 _ 4(2+i)

aco -I - _ <=> _C-_-'-

2-i 5.

- 8 4. <=> Z=-+-I. 5 5

152

..

Z= (-1+~i): (2+~)

2+1 I-I

2)T ,2+iZ_ -1+3i aco-- --- ~

I-i -2+i

~ Z= (-I +3i)(I-i) = 2+4i

(2 + i)1 3 + 4i

~ Z= (2+4i)(3-4i) = 22 +_±_i.

2 25 25

Nhdn xet:

Thuc chAt day Iii cac bai toan tlurc hi~n cac phep tinh tren sf:, phirc. TIIi {/(14:

Giai cac plurong trinh sau:

I) Z + 2Z = 2 - 4i , 2) Z1 + Z = O.

f) Xet phirong trinh Z + 2Z = 2 - 4i (I) D~t Z = x + yi => Z = x - yi . Khi do (I) <> (x + yi) + (2x - 2yi) = 2 - 4i

~ 3x - yi = 2 - 4i

~ {x=%

y=4.

~ {3X=2 -y=-4

"

Yay Z=~+4i.

. 3

2) x« phuong trinh Z~ + Z = 0 (I) D~t Z = x + yi => Z = x - yi. Tir do ( I ) ~ Xl - i + 2xyi + x - yi = 0

~ (Xl - y~ + X) + (2xy - y)i = 0

~ {X2_y2+X=0

y(2x -I) = 0

{y =0 {[x=:o
x ' + X = 0 x=-I
~ { I ~ { I
X=-
2 x=-
3 , . 2
4"-y- =0 y=± ~ V~y (I) co cac nghiern sau : ZI = 0; Z2 = -I ;

153

Z3 = _!_ + Ii i· Z4 = _!_ _ Ii i .

2 2' 2 2

Nhdn xet: Ta da Slr dung djnh nghia v~ su b~ng nhau cua hai s6 phirc

{a =a'

a + bi = a' + b' i <=>

b=b' .

TIIf til! 5:

Giai plurong trinh:

Ghli Xet phtrong trinh (Z + ~)4 = I. (I) Z-I

Ta co (I) <=>

(z + ~)2 = 1

Z-I

( Z + ~)2 =-1.

Z-I

(2)

(3)

D~ thay (2) <=> [~:: = I eo [Z + i = Z - i <=> [i = -i

Z+I=_I Z+i=-Z+i Z=O

Z-i

[Ioai]

Tirong tu (3) ~[E (i eo [~:::~; ~ I eo [:== JI:-:i~I_1

Z-i I+i

V~y (I) co 3 nghiem Z, = 0, Z2= I, Z3=-1

Lo,i 2 : Cac bai roan v~ rnodun cua s6 phirc:

Cac bai toan thuoc dang nay co cac dang co ban sau : - Tinh cac bieu tlurc co chua rnodun cua s6 phirc

- Tim t~p hop di~m cac s6 plurc n~u nlur chung thoa man mc)t di~u kien nao

do v~ modun.

- Giai cac phirong trinh co lien quan d~n modun s6 plurc. Till til! 1: (DJ thi IlIyi" sinh D(li "pc kllJi A - 2009)

Cho Z" Z2 hi nghiem cua plurong trinh Z2 + 2Z + 10 = o. Tinh dai IUQ"ng A = IZtl2 + IZ212.

Giai Xet plurong trinh Z2 + 2Z + 10 = om

taco:~'=I-10=-9=9i2~ ft=3i.

[ZJ =-1 +3i V ~y ( I) <=> Z2 = _I _ 3 i.

154

Ta co: IZd =IZ21=Ji+9 = JIO. V~y A = ZI2 + Z; = 20. TIIi d(.l 2 : (IJi thi luyi" sinh IJ!li IIpc kllai B - 2009) Cho s6 plurc Z thoa man:

"liz -(2 + i)1 = JIO va Z.Z = 25. Hay tim Z.

Ghii

D~t Z = x+yi => Z = x - yi => ZZ = (x + yi)( x - yi] = x2 + l.

TacoIZ-(2+i)l= J(x+2)2+(Y-I)2.

Tir do theo bai ra ta co h~ plurong trinh:

{{:-2)22 +(y_I)2 =10 <=> P(B2)=C~O(0,03)2(0,97y8

x + Y = 25 .

{X+2Y= 10 [X=3;y=4

<=> , , <=>

x" + y- = 25 x = 5; y = O.

[z =3 +4i· , ,

V~y Z = 5 lit hai s6 phirc can phai tim.

TIIi d(.l 3 (Di thi luyill sinh D!li hoc kllai D - 2009)

Tim t~p hop cac di~m bieu di~n s6 phirc Z bi~t rang IZ - (3 - 4i)1 = 2 Ghii

Gia Slr Z = x + yi, khi do: IZ - (3 - 4i)1 = 2

I( ) ( )'1 Il(I+3t)~I (1+3t)% 11

<=> x-3 + y+4 1=2 <=> 9" 5 --'---3--'--

- 0 - 0

2 2

<:::>(x-3)2+(y+4)2=4. (I)

Tir (I) suy ra cac di~m M(x; y) bieu

di~n s6 plurc Z = x + yi n~m tren duong tron tam 1(3; --4) ban kinh R = 2.

Chu y:

Ta c6 th~ giai bai toan tren nlur sau:

GQi M lit diem bieu di~n s6 plurc Z, can 1(3; --4) lit diem bieu di~n s6 phirc 3--4i. Khi.do ta co:

IZ - (3 - 4i)1 = 2 <=> MI = 2 (2)

Tir (2) suy ra M n~ll1 tren duong tron tam 1 ban kinh 2. Ta thu lai k~t quit tren,

T/Ii d(.l4

Tim s6 plurc Z n~u Z2 + IZI = o.

y

3

o x

-2 -~tD---- i

-4 - ...I

I

Gilii

D~t Z=x+yi => IZI = Jx2 + y2 , khi do Z2 + IZI = 0

155

-

¢:> (x + yi)2 + ~X2 + y2 = 0 ¢:> (X2 +y2) + ~X2 + y2 + 2xyi = 0

¢:> {x2 _y2 + JX2 +y2 =O~ (I)

2xy =0 (2)

{~;2:IYI=O i:~

¢:>

{y = 0 (5)

x2+lxl=0 (6)

Giai h~ (3) (4) va (5) (6) (d~ dang) tadi d~n h~ (I) (2) co nghiern .

rx =O:y =0 x =Ik y =-1 x =o;y = I.

V~y ba s6 plurc cAn tim Z = 0; Z= i; va Z = -i. TIIi t/(l5

Tim t~p hop cac di~m bieu di~n s6 plurc Z n~u nhir thoa man mot trong cac di~u kien sau:

I/IZ+21=li-ZI

21 IZ - 4il + IZ + 4il = 10.

GhH IITacoIZ+21=li-ZI ¢:> IZ-(-2)1=IZ-il(l)

GQi M In diem bieu di~n s6 plnrc Z, A la di~m.bi~u di~n s6 -2 (nrc la A = (-2;0), B 1<\ diem bi~u di~n s6 I (tire la B = (0; I).

Khi do (I) ¢:> MA = MB (2).

Tir (2) suy ra t~p hop nhfrng di~m M bieu di~n s6 plurc Z n~m tren duong trung true cua do a n AB.

Chi, )1: II 6 day ta da s(e dung nh~n xet salt: N~u M, M2 tirong (eng la hai di~m bieu di~n cac s6 plurc Z,- va Z2 thi:

y

156

IZ,-Z21 = M,M2

+ Ta co th~ giai each khac nlur sau: D~t Z = x +yi.

Ta co: IZ + 21 = [i - z]

¢:> I(x + 2) + yil = [x + (y - I )il

¢:> J(X+y)2+y2 =Jx2+(Y-I):!

., " .,.,

<> x" + y- +Ax + 4 = x" + y- - 2y + I

¢:> 4x + 2y + 3 = 0 (3)

V~y t~p hQ"P cac di~m M la duong th~ng (3). Cac ban co th~ th~y (3) chinh la trung true cua AB.

21 Gia Slr ta co: IZ - 4il + IZ + 4il = 10.

GQi M la di~m bieu di~n s6 phirc Z, A = (0, -4) va B = (0; 4) nrong ung la cac s6 phirc -4i va 4i. Khi do:

y

IZ-4il + IZ + 4il = 10

<=> MA + M B = 10 (*) ----""3 t-----t;.---~-r.3.----x

Til (*) suy ra M n~m tren elip co hai tieu di~m la A; B va true 16n bang 10.

Phuong trinh cua elip co dang:

x2 y2

-+-=1. 9 25

TId d(l6:

Tim t~p hop cac diem trong m~t phang phirc bi~lI di~n cac s6 phirc Z thoa man di~lI kien sau:

21Z - i] = IZ - Z + 2il Gi:ii

D~t Z = x + yi, thi

21Z - il = IZ - Z + 2il

<=> 21x + (y - I )il = 12(y + I )il

<=> Jx2+(Y-I)2=J(Y+I/

y

-4 -2

2

4

,

..,) " X"

<=> x + y- - 2y + I = y- + 2y + I ¢:::> Y = 4"

,

Vay tap hop nhfrng diem M la parabol y = ~-

Nh(i11 xet:

V6i cac thi du 3, 4. 5 nen sir dung bieu di~n hinh hoc cua s6 plnrc. Con trong thi du 6. thi str dung bang phep tinh v~ modun.

TIIi tI{t 7:

T' ~ I' I' - I' I' ~ =; I = I

1111 so p urc t toa man W: I 'I

Z -31

-- =1.

Z+i

Gi:li

V'· I . ~ Z' z· • (Z' . -I- 0) I 'I'Z I I Zj d d' I . d- I ".

O'! iat so, . T t 11 ._ =.-. 0 0 ie a c 10 nrong ung vor:

Z' IZ'I .

{IZ -II =1Z - il

Iz -3il =Iz -( -i)1

(I) (2)

157

· GQi M la di~m bi~u di~n s6 phirc Z, A=( I ;0), B = (0; I) tirong irng bieu di~n cac s6 I va i; C (0;3) va 0 = (0; -I) tuong (eng bi~u di~n cac s6 plnrc 3i va -i thi:

{MA= MB (3)

y (1)(2) ~ MC = MD. (4)

C Tir (3) (4) suy ra M If giao di~m cua

y=x

duong trung true cua AB va duong trung .

tnrc cua CD.

D~ th~y Y = x \!a y == I nrong irng 1a hai duong trung tnrc cua AB va CD. -+--+---+---,fL---+.:.--+---+-----+- x V~yZ = I + i la s6 phirc dntim.

-3 3

3

2

-2

TIll duB

Tim sf, phirc thoa man h~

IZ-121=~

Z-8i 3

I~::I= I.

f)~t Z= x+yi khi do:

1 Z - 41 = I ~ [x - 4 + yi] = [x - 8 + yi] Z+8

~ (x-4i + l = (x- 8)2+ l ~x=6(1)

1 Z - I ~ 1 = ~ ~ [x - 12 + yi] = ~ 16 + (y - 8)il

Z - 81 3 3

~ 1-6+ yi] = ~ 16 + (y - 8)il (do x = 6)

3

~ 36+l = 2:[36+(y_8)2]

~ y2 _ 25y + 136 = 0

~ [y= 17

y=8.

V~y Co hai s6 plurc cAn tim: Z = 6 + 8i va Z = 6 + 17i. Nhdn xet:

Hai thi du 7 va 8 cung loai nlurng ta dung hai phirong phap giai thich hop khac nhau (phuong phap bieu di~n hinh hoc cua s6 phirc vai thl du 7, phuong phap tinh to an m6dun voi thi du 8).

158

§2. D~G LUONG GIAe eOA s6 PHue

1. Tom tit u thuy~t

Neu cp la mQt acgumen cua s6 phirc z thi moi acgumen cua no co dang

z = cp +k2 1t , k E Z •

N~u r > 0 la modun cua s6 plurc z, con cp la m(>t acgumen cua no, thl z = r( cos cp + is in cp) lil dang hrong giac cua s6 plurc z.

N~u

Z2= r2(cos CP2 + i sinrp-), r2> 0,

thi Zl Z2 = rlr2[ cos( cp) + CP1) + i sin( cp) -cp~)J;

~ =!L[ cos( CPI - ~2) + i sin (CPI - CP2) J.

z2 r2

Cong thirc Moivre: N~u z = r( cos rp +isin o ), r> 0

thl z'' = r'' (cosncp+ isin no]

2. Cac dang bai t~p co ban ,

Loai 1: Cac bai toan xac dinh acgumen cua so plnrc

Nhin chung cac loai bai t~p nay co each giai chung nhir sau: Gia Slr phai tim m(>t aegumen ella s6 plurc z. Ta cAn bien d6i sao eho z co dang:

z=r(cos cp+isin rp ) v6ir>0.

Khi do cp la mot acgumen cua z. TIIi li{1 I

Cho s6 plurc Z = 1- sin cp+ i cos cp

1t (O<cp<-)

2

Tim mot acgumen cua s6 plurc Z.

Ghii

T ' Z 1 . .. I (1t ) .. (1t 1 a co: = - Sill cp + I Sill cp = - cos "2 - cp + I Sin "2 - cp )

2 . ,(1t cp) 2· . (1t cp) (1t cp)

= SIIl- --- + ISIll --- cos ---

4 2 4 2 4 2

=2sin(~ -~)[ sin( ~ -~)+ iCOS( ~ -~)]

. (1t cp)[ (1t cp) .. (1t cp)]

= 2 SII1 4" -"2 cos 4" +"2 + I Sill 4" + "2 .

Do O<cp<~ ~ 2sin(~-!»0.

2 4 2

V ~y tu ( I ) suy ra ~ + ~ la mQt acgumen cua Z.

159

TIIi tift}

Cho 56 phirc Z co modun bang I va <p la m{>t acgurnen cua no.

II Tim m{>t acgumen cua 56 phuc ~ .

21 Tim m{>t acgumen cua 56 phirc Z + Z n~u cos <p =f:. O.

Giai Tir gia thi~t suy ra: Z= cos q> + isin q>.

liT' Z cosqi= i sintp cos(-q»+isin(-q» (2)·· (2)

a co - = .. = . . = cos - q> + 1 Sin - q> .

Z coso + 1 Sin q> coso + 1 Sin q>

V~y -2 q> Iii 1119t acgurnen cua 56 plurc Z,= ~ .

2/Taco Z+Z=cosq>+isinq>+cosq>-isin<p = Zcostp .

+ N~u q> >0, khi do Z + Z = 2cos q> - 1= 2cos q> (cosO + isinO) V~y hie nay 0 la 1119t acgumen cua 56 phirc Z2 = Z + Z .

+ Neu q> <0, khi do Z + Z = (-2cosq> )(-1) =( -2 cos q> )( COS1t + i sin 1t)

Do -2cos q> > 0 nen Z2 = Z + Z co mot acgumen la 1t.

Lm}i 2: Cac bai toan xac dinh 56 phirc Z dua vao di~u kien v~ acgumen:

TIll tI(t J

Xet cac 56 phtrc Z thoa man di~u kien

12Z-J2-iJ2I=1 (I)

I I Tim t~p hop cac di~m M bieu di~n 56 plurc Z thoa man di~u ki~n (I)

21 Trong cac 56 plurc da cho (tire 1ft thoa man di~lI kien (I », tim 56 phirc co acgurnen dirong va nho nhAt.

I rJ2 .J2] I

(I) ~ ,z- ,2+12 ="2.(2)

Goi I (J2. J2]la di~m bieu di~n so

. 2 ' 2

h' J2 . J2 Kh· d'

p ire -+1-. 1 0

2 2

I

(2) ~ MI = -. (3)

. 2

Tir (3) suy ra t~p hop cac di~m bieu di~n 56 phtrc Z thoa man (I) hi duong tron tam

I ban kinh _!_.

2

II Ta co:

y

160

21 Ke ti~p tuyen OK voi dirong tron {:1 diu 1. D~ thAy 01 = 1, nen

-- IK 1 ~ 7t

sin 10K = - = - ~ 10K = - .

10 2 6

- 7t7t 7t

Taco: KOx =---=-. 4 6 12

Yay s6 plurc Z = OK (cos~ + i Sin~)

. 12 12

J3( 7t .• 7t)

= 2 cos12+lsJn12 '

la s6 phtrc thoa man (I) va co acgumen dirong va nho nhAt. TId dl! 2:

T' ~ h . . Z h I Z - i I 1 s z 1 ' A bX 7t

rm so p ire cua sao c 0 --. = va + co mot acgumen ang --.

Z+31 6

Giai

ro I Z-i.I=1 C> IZ-ij=IZ+3il Z+31

C> IX+(Y-I)il=lx+(Y+3)il, :r:+E~-3l= x2+(y+3i

ly=-1

(6' day Z = x + yi)

V~y Z = x-i

Ta co: Z + I = (x + I) -i (I). Vi Z + 1 co mQt acgumen b~ng-~ nen Z+1 co 6

Z+I=r[coS(-~)+iSin(-~)] vci t>O =~(J3-i) (2)

{X+I=rJi {r=2

Tu(J)(2)suyra 2 C> ._ h_

-I = _~ x - 2v3 1.

2

V~y Z = 2J3 - I-i la s6 phirc dn tim. TIIi du 3:

Xac dinh t~p hop cac di~m tren m~t phing phtrc bi~u di~n cac s6 phuc Z sao

~ . Z-2 , A ~ 7t

cho so phuc -- co mot acgumen bang - .

Z+2 3

Giai

Gia su Z = x + yi, thi:

16 J

Z-2 (x-2}+yi [(x-2}+YiJ[(x+2}-YiJ x2+l-4 4y.

Z+2 = (x+2}+yi = (X_2)2 +y2 = (X_2)2 +y2 + (X_2)2 +y21.

-if

D Z - 2 ,. b! 1t. ,

o Z + 2 co mot acgumen ang 3"' nen ta co:

x2 + y2 - 4 4 Y . ( 1t'.. 1t) 0

= , + , 1 =t cos-+Ism- ,t> .

( x - 2 t + l ( x - 2 t + y2 3 3

Tir do suy ra:

x2+/-4 r

=

(x_2)2+y2 2

(1)

(2)

Tu (1) (2) d~n d~n y>O (do r >0) va

4; =J3¢::>x2+(y- ~)2 =( ~)\3)

(x-2) +l -n -n

K~t hop (3) va y >0 suy ra t~p hop cac di~m M dn tim la phAn duong trim

tam tai di~m 1(0; ~) ban kinh ~ n~m phia tren true thuc (true Ox) Loai 3: Dang lirong giac cua s6 phirc:

Khi giai cac bai t~p cftn hru y d~n cac di~u sau day:

- Dang IUQ'ng giac cua s6 plnrc co dang: r [coso + i sine , voi r> O.

- Thuoc cac cong tlurc nhan, chia va cong thirc Moivre d6i voi s6 phirc duoi

dang IUQ'ng giac, Tili d(l 1:

Tim phAn thuc va phan ao cua m6i s6 plurc sau:

_ (l+i)12 .

11 ZI - 9 '

(J3 + i)

21 Z2 = (cosj - isinj J i3 (1 + J3if .

Ghii

II Ta co:

t: . 2[J3 I'J 2( 1t .. 1t)

vJ +1 = 2+"21 = cos"6+lsm"6'

Theo cong tlurc Moivre ta co:

162

z, = (1 + i)I2, = (J2)12 (cos3n + isin3n) =_!,( cos 3n + isin 3n).

(-.13+ i) 29(eos321t+iSin3;) 2 2 2

V~y ph§n thtrc cua ZI la 0, ph§n ao cua no la -_!_ .

8

2/ T· 1t .. 1t (1t) .. ( 1t)

aco: eos--Istn-=eos -- +ISIO -- .

3 3 3 3 '

.3. (31t). . ( 31t )

1 -I = cos -2 +ISIO -2 ;

1 +J3i =2( ~+ ~ i)=2(COS~+iSinn

Tir do thea cong thtrc Moivre ta co:

Z [ ( 51t) .. (51t)][ (31t) .. ( 31t)] 27[ 71t .. 71tJ

2= cos -3 +ISIO -3 cos -"2 +ISIO -"2 . eos3+lsI03·

Theo quy t~e nhan s6 phirc duoi dang hrong giac ta co:

Z2 = 27 [ COs( - 5: ) + i sin ( _ 5: )]

V~y phAn thirc cua Z2 la _26.-./3 = -64-./3 , phAn ao cua Z2 la -64. Till (/(12

Bi~t rang s6 phirc Z thoa man Z + _!_ = I . Hay tinh Z2010 + . 2~1O .

Z Z

Giai'

Tti

I ,

Z+-=I~Z--Z+I=O ~ Z

Z I -.13. 1t .. 1t

=-+-1 =eOS-+ISIO-

2 2 3 3

Z 1 -.13 . (1t) .. ( 1t)

='2-T1=cOS -'3 +r sm -'3 .

aIN~ Z 1t .. 1t Z'OIO 20101t .. 2010 (I)

eu =eos-+Ism-~ - =eos--+Ism--.

3 3 3 3

T . 1 I 1t .. 1t (1t) .. ( 1t)

aeo: ~= =eOS--ISIO-=eos -- +ISIO --

Z 1t .. 1t 3 3 3 3

eos- + 1 SIO-

3 3

I ( 20101t) .. ( 20101t)

~--=eos --- +ISIO --- .(2)

Z:?OIO 3 3

Tti(I)(2) suy ra: Z2010+ 2~1O =2eos(6701t}=2.

Z

163

bl N~u Z = COS( -~) + i sin( -~) => ~ = cos~ + i sin~ => Z:!OIO + Z~~IO = 2.

T' I' I' , Z2010 1 2

om 1;11 ta uon co : + ---wJo = .

Z

Till dl) 3

Cho s6 phirc Z = ( 7 + i.)m . Tim m nguyen duong dS Z la s6 thuc; la s6 ao. 4-31

Ghii

Taco: ~=(7+i)(4+3i)=I+i=J2( ~+ ~i)=J2(Cos2:+isin2:)

4-3i 25 ,,2 ,,2 4 4

Theo cong tlurc Moivre ta co: Z = 2 ~ ( cos 1:1t + i sin :1t) (1)

Tir (1) suy ra:

Z la s6 thuc <=:> sin :1t = 0 <=:> ; = k <=:> m = 4k; voi k = I, 2, ....

Z la s6 ao <=:> cos m1t =0 <=:> m = 4k + 2, vai k = 0, 1,2 ....

4

§3. GW PHUONG TRINH THEN TAP 56 PHUC

Trong rnuc nay se xet vi~c giai plurong trlnh trong do ~n s6 cua m6i phuong trinh la mot s6 phirc z. f)S gia] dircc plurong trlnh tren t~p s6 plurc dn n~m vtrng cac kien thirc sau:

II Bi~t each khai can b~c hai cua mot s6 ~hlrc Z = a+bi. ,

21 Biet each giai plurong trlnh bac hai ax+bx+c =0, trong do cac h~ so a, b, c noi chung la cac s6 plurc,

31 Thanh thao each giai phuong trlnh va h~ plurong trlnh hiru ti.

Cl1n nho r~ng vi~c giai phuong trlnh tren t~p s6 phirc v~ co ban gi6ng nhtr giai phuong trinh tren t~p s6 thirc, chi co cai khac la phep tinh 6 day la cac phep tinh cQng, tnr, nhan, chia va khai can s6 plurc,

Ctk ti{l"g hiii t{ip ell bdn

LoalI: Giai phuong trinh b~c hai tren t~p cac s6 plurc:

Phuong phap giai: SU dung cong tlurc nghiem nlur cong thirc nghiem d6i voi phirong trlnh b~c hai tren t~p cac s6 thuc.

Till (II) 1: (D2 thi tuyill slnl: Cao d&"g kllai A, B - 2009) Giai plurong trinh sau tren t~p s6 plurc:

4Z - 3 - 7i = Z _ 2i .

Z-i

164

Giii

V oi di~u ki~n Z * i, phuong trinh d1i cho tirong duong voi phuong trinh sau: 4Z - 3 - 7i = (Z - i)(Z - 2i)

~Z2-(3i+4)Z+ 1 +7i=0(l) Tac6~=(3i+4i-4(1 +7i)=3-4i

Gia 5li Z = x + yi (x, y E R) hl din b~c hai cua ~ khi do ta 'co h~ sau d~ xac djnh x, y:

{X2 _y2 =3 ~[X=2;y=-1 2xy-4 x=-2;y=1.

[ZI = 3i+4+(2-1) =3+i

V" (I) 2'

~y ~ 3i+4-(2-1) .

Z2 = = 1 + 21.

2

V~y Zh Z2 la nghiem cua h~ phuong trinh d1i cho. Tid d(l2

Giai plurong trinh tren t~p 56 plurc:

(l_i)2 -2(1+2i)Z-4=0 ..

Do I - i * 0 nen ta co:

(l-i)Z2 -2(1 + 2i)Z-4 = 0 ~ Z2 -2 1 + ~i Z-(I + i) = 0 I-I

~ Z2-(1+2i)(l+i)Z-2(I+i)=0~ Z2+(1-3i)Z-2(I+i)=0. (I)

Ta co: ~ = (1 - 3i)2 + 8(1 + i) = 2i

GQi x+yi (x,y E IR) la can b~c hai cua 2i ta co

{x2 _y2 =0 ~[x=l;y=1

xy=1 x=-I;y=-l.

'[z - 3i - 1 + 1 + i - 2· ,

1- - I

V~y(J) ~ 3i_12_I_i .

Z2 = = -I + I.

2

TIIi dfl3:

Giai phuoug trinh sau tren t~p 56 plurc:

(2 - 3i)Z2 + (4i - 3)Z + 1- i = O.

Giii Taco: (2-3i)+(4i-3)+I-i=0.

V~y phirong trinh d1i cho co nghiem ZI=I va nghiem

Z2 = ~ = J.=i_ = _I (I _ i)( 2 _ 3 i) = _ 1 + 5 i .

a 2-3i 13 13

165

Nhdn xet:

- Cac quy lAc nh§m nghiern va djnh li Viet vAn dung trong tnrong hQ'P xet phuong trinh b~e hai tren t~p s6 plnrc,

- Xet thi du sau: Xet phirong trinh b~c hai CJ thi du 2 Z2+(1-3i)Z-2(1 +i)=O(*)

Ta co: 2i + (-I + i) = 3i-1

2i(-1 +i)=-2(1 +i).

V~y theo djnh ly Vi-t suy ra: (*) co hai nghiem Z, == 2i va Z2 = -I + i. Ta co each khac giai thi du Z.

LOfi 2: Phuong trinh quy v~ b~e hai va h~ phuong trlnh:

TId d(l 1: Giai phirong trinh vcri Z lil s6 phirc

(Z2 +Z)2 +4(Z2+Z)-12=0.

Giai

, 2 [t=~

f)~t t == Z- + Z, ta co: t + 4t - 12 = 0 <=>

t=2

V~y phirong trinh da cho tirong dirong voi:

[Z2 +Z+6==0 [z = -l+m i.Z '= -I-mi

. <=> I 2 ' 2 2

2 .

Z +Z-2=0 Z3=I;Z4=-2.

Phuong trinh da cho co b6n nghiern k~ tren,

2

TI.1 d(l2 : Giai phirong trinh voi Z lit s6 plurc: Z4 - Z3 + ~ + Z + I = O.

Giai

Vi Z == 0 khong phai lit nghiern cua phuong trlnh dA eho, nen ta co:

Z2_Z+_!_+_!_+_1 =0 ¢::) (Z _ _!_)2 -(z-_!_)+~==o.(l)

2 Z Z2 Z Z 2

f)~t t == ( Z - ~ J ' thi (1) co dang:

t2 _ t + ~ = 0 <=> 2e _ 2t + 5 == 0 <=> [t = 1 ~ 3i

2 1-3i

t=--.

2

~ I + 3i , I 1 + 3i , ( .)

+Neu t=--,taco: Z--==-- <=> 2Z-- 1+31 Z-2=0 (2)

2 Z 2

Vi A = 8+6i, co din b~c hai lit 3 + i va -3 - i, nen

lz - 1 + 3i + 3 + i -1 .

)- - +1

(2) <=> 4

Z2 = 1+3i-3-i =-_!_+_!_i. 422

66

+N~u t= 1-3i ,taeo2Z2-(1-3i)Z-2=O

2

G··, lur tre . Z 1 . ZIt.

lain ir tren ta co: 3= -I; 4=----1.

2 2

V~y plurong trinh dii eho eo 4 nghiern k~ tren .

TIt'd(l3 : Giai h~ phirong trinh hai lin Z, ; Z2 sau tren t~p cac 56 plurc :

.. {ZI +Z2 =4+i .

Z~ + Z~ = 5 - 2i.

Giii

Taeo:

v ~y dira h~ dii eho v~ dang tuong duong:

{Z, +Z2 =4+i (I)

Z,Z2=5+5i. (2)

Theo dinh Ii Viet, Z, va Z2 la cac nghiern cua phirong trinh sau (xet tren ~p 56 phirc)

t2 - (4 + i)t +5+5i = 0 (3) Giai nlur cac thi du I, 2 ta eo:

[t, = 3 - i

(3) <::> .

t2 = 1 + 21.

V~y h~ dii eho eo hai nghiern nhu sau:

[Z, = 3 - i; Z2 = 1 + 2i Z, = 1 + 2i; Z2 = 3 - i.

TIIi d(l4

Giai h~ plurong trinh hai lin Z, W tren t~p 56 plurc:

{Z+W=3(I+i)

Z3 + W3 = 9( -I + i). Giii

Taeo:

Z3 +W3 = (Z + W)3 -3ZW(Z + W) => 9(-1 + i) = 27(1 + i)3 -3ZW.3(1 + i)

=>ZW(I+i)=3(I+i)3-(-I+i)=-5+5i => ZW=5i.

. {Z+W=3(1+i)

V~y h~ dii eho tirong duong voi h~ sau: .

ZW =51.

Theo dinh Ii Viet thi Z,W la cac nghiem cua phuong trinh b~e hai sau (xet tren t~p 56 phirc)

t2_ 3(1 + i)t + 5i = 0 (3).

167

ltl =2 + i

(3) <::> .

t2 =1+21

Vb M phuong trinh co hai nghiem:

[Z:::= 2 + i;W:::: I + 2i

Z :::= 1 + 2i; W = 2 + i,

BAI TJP TV GI.41

Bai 1:

Tim s6 plurc Z n~u (2 + 3i)Z ::: Z- 1.

D' .: Z 1 3.

apso: =--+-1.

10 10

Ba;l

Gia sir M la di~m tren m~t phang toa dQ bi~u di~n s6 phirc Z. Tim t~p hop

hung di~m M thea man mQt trong nhirng di~u ki~n sau: 1/ IZ - 1 + i] = 2.

2/12 + ZI > IZ - 21.

3/ 1 :5IZ + I - il :5 2.

Daps6:

1/ Duong tron tam I (I; -I) ban kinh R::: 2 2/T~p hop cac di~m M (x, y) rna x > 0

31 Hinh vanh khan tam tai J( -I; I) va cac ban klnh lou va nho IAn hrot 1a 2 va 1.

80; 3:

(ac djnh t~p hop cac di~m Mbi~u di~n cac s6 phirc Z thoa mall mQt trong cac i~n sau:

I/IZ+ Z +31=4 2/1z2- (2)11 = 4.

u s6: 11 x:::: _!_ va x:::: _'!_ .

2 2

[xy:= 1

21 xy =-1.

f:

tinh t~p hop cac di~m trong m~t ph~ng phec bi~u di~n cac s6 phirc Z ~ tlurc:

1~1:=3.

Z-I

Duong tron tam 1(0; -i) ban kinh R == i·

Bili 5:

Tim tAt ca cac di~m cua m~t phang plurc bieu di~n cac s6 phuc Z sao cho:

Z + i I' ~ h =-- a so t ire.

Z+i .

Dap s6: G6m hai true toa dQ be:'> di di~m A(O; I ). Bili 6

Cho s6 plurc Z co modun bAng I va cp la mQt acgumen cua no. Hay tim mQt

acgumen cua cac s6 phrrc sau:

I/-~ 2Z

21 Z2 - Z, n~u sin! i: 0 2

~ -. 3cp

31 Z-+ Z, neu cos- i: O. 2

Daps6:

II 1t +4

21 ~ + 3cp. n~u sin! > 0 .

2 2' 2'

3cp 1t l • cp

--- neu sm-<O.

2 2' 2

cp. 31t

31 -, neu cos->O;

2 2

cp ~. 31t 0

- + 1t, neu cos - < .

2 2

Blii 7:

G ilii phirong trinh Z ~ - ( coso + i sin cp) Z + coso sin cpi = 0 .

Dap s6: ZI = cos cp; Z2= isin cp.

Bili 8:

Giai phirong trinh (Z~ +3Z +6f +2Z(Z~ +3Z +6)-3Z2 =0.

Dap s6: ZI = -3 + J3; Z2 =-3 -J3; Z) =-1 +J5i; Z4 = -1-J5i.

Bili 9:

Giai phuong trlnh:

Z4 -4ZJ + 7Z2 -16Z + 12 =0 Hutmg dan: Dtra v~ dang (Z - I )(Z - 3)(Z2 + 4) = O.

Ddp s6: ZI = I; Z2 = 3; Z3 = 2i; Z4= -2i.

Bili 10:

{Z-W=i Giai h~ plurong trlnh .

,Z -W= I

Daps6: Z = -I, W =-1- i.

169

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