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[ToanHocTHPT]TuyenTapChuyenDeHinhGiaiTichPhang

[ToanHocTHPT]TuyenTapChuyenDeHinhGiaiTichPhang

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ChU'dngIV.

cAc CHUYEN DE

Chuyende'l

BAI ToAN VIET PHUONG TRINH MOT DUONG, MOT M~ T

v m viec dua he toa do vao mat phang va khong gian, ta c6 the nghien CUu Hlnh hoc bang cac phuong phap cua Dai s6. a d6, m6i Sl;l' kien trong Hlnh hQC diroc cho nrong irng vm mot sl;l' kien trong Dai s6. N6i each khac, ta "phien dich" cac su kien trong Hlnh hoc sang ngon ngu cua Dai s6. Cac d6i nrong dau tien can "phien dich'' la cac khai niem chfnh cua hinh hoc : diem, vecto; dU<mg thfutg, mat phang, dirong tron, m~t cau ... (va sau d6 la cac tfnh chat cua chiing). Cac khai niem nrong U'ng vm nhtmg d6i nrong tren trong Dai s6 diroc goi la phuqrg trinh cua d6i nrong d6 (rieng d6i vm diem, vecto, cluing duoc goi la toa d~). C6 the hieu mot each don gian phirong trmh (rong quat) cua mot dU<mg hay mot mat la mot phirong trtnh hay he phuong trinh da thirc (rut gon) sao cho diem M thuoc dircng hay mar d6 (su kien cua hlnh hoc) khi va chi khi toa do diem M thoa man phirong trtnh hay h¢ phirong trinh n6i tren (su kien cua Dai so). Bai toan viet phuong trinh cua mot duong thang haymot m~t la bai toan co ban nhat cua hlnh hoc gilii tfch, Trong cac ki thi dai hoc, cac bai toan loai nay luOnc6 mat trong de thi va chiern phan nhieu s6 diem danh cho phan hlnh hoc, Trong chuyen de nay, ta phan tfch cac phuong phap khi giiii bai loan loai nay.

Bai toan vie't phirong trinh cua duong hay mat thuong diroc giai quyet bang

mot trong cac each sau. "

each 1 : Dung dinh nghia de vie't phirong trmh.

Cach nay diroc bat dau bang viec xem xet dieu kien can va du de mot diem M(x; y ; z) thuoc hlnh (~) dang can viet plnrong trinh. Diem M(x ; y ; z) thuoc (~ khi va chi khi x, y, z thoa man phirong trmh hay h¢ phuong trinh nao d6, thl phtrong trtnh, he phirong trinh tim diroc se la phirong trinh cua (~. Cin lw y rang c6 the c6 nhieu tieu chuan de kiem tra diem M thuoc (i)~ Dhung ·~can l~a chon lieu chuan de the hien bang Hlnh hoc gild tfch va gay ra phoong triM D~i s6.

Cach nay thirong ducc dung trong cac bai toan vitt .~ trlnh cuafn"t direng (hay mat) (~ rna nhitng diem thuoc (~ c6 d~ trdI1g (N th~ hi~bbang Hlnh hoc giai tfch.

137

each 2 : Dung If thuyet da hoc d~ viet phirong trinh,

Trong If thuyet da trinh bay cac each khac nhau d~ xac dinh phuong trmh cua mot duong h~ mot mat. VI du plnrong trinh cua mot duong thang trong mat phang toa d¢ hoan toan xac dinh neu biet mot trong cac thong tin sau :

+ Mot di~m thuoc n6 va phap vecto ;

+ Mot di~m thuoc n6 va vecto chi phirong ; + Hai di~m thuoc n6 ;

+ Mot di~m thuoc n6 va he s6 g6c.

Do vay, muon viet phuong trinh mot dirong hay mot mat, ta c6 th~ xac dinh cac thong tin rna each viet phuong trinh cua n6 b If thuyet yeu c~u.

Cach 3 : DUng If thuyet d~ goi (gia dinh) phirong trtnh, sau d6 tfnh cac he s6 chua bi€t cua phirong trinh vita goi.

Trong If thuyet, chung ta da biet cac dang phirong trinh cua tung loai duong cu th~. Nho d6, ta c6 th~ goi phuong trinh cua dircng (mat) can tim theo dang nrong 6ng cua n6 trong If thuyet, Trong khi goi phirong trinh cua duong (mat), can hru y hra chon each goi sao cho trong phirong trtnh d6 c6 It an chua bi€t nhat. Viec goi phuong trinh cua mot dirong hay mot m~t sao cho con It an nh~t phu thuoc vao tung hom canh cu th~, sau day lit met s6 g¢ ytrong mot s6 ttnh hu6ng :

+ Neu di~m M thuoc mot dirong thing 6. cho tnroc trong m~t phang hay trong khong gian thl c6 th~ goi toa d¢ cua M vm mot an, bang each vi€t phuong trinh duong thang 6. dum dang tham s6.

+ Neu di~m M thuoc mat phang (a) cho tnroc thl c6 th~ goi toa d¢ cua M vm.

hai ~il. .

+ C6 th~ goi phirong trinh m¢t duang thing 6. trong mat phang toa d¢ dum dang 6. : x = m va ,6. : y = ax + b (thay vi 6. : Ax + By + C = 0).

+ Neu dmmg thing 6.'trong mat phang toa d¢ di qua mot di~m M cho mroc tht c6 th~ goi he s6 g6c k (neu c6) cua duang thang 6. d~ til d6 thiet lap phirong trinh dirong thang 6. vm mot an la k.

+ N€u duong thing 6. trong mat phang toa d¢ c6 phap vecto hay he s6 g6c cho tnroc thi c6 th~ goi phirong trinh cua duong thing 6. voi mot an chua biet la he s6 nr do. Chu y rang c6 nhieu each th~ hien khac nhau d~ hI do suy Ta phap vecto (hay he s6 goc) cua dirong thang 6.. VI du nhir cho biet dtreng thAng 6. vuOng g6c, hoac song song voi m¢t duong da biet, hoac tao voi mot dirong da bier mot g6c cho tnroc.

138

+ Neu mot mat phang trong khong gian chua dirong thang cho tnroc thl co the goi phirong trinh m~t phang dum dang chum, khi do trong phirong trinh xac dinh m~t phang chi con mot an.

+ Neu mat phang trong khong gian da biet phap vecto thi co the goi phirong trinh mat phang dum dang phuong trinh t6ng quat vm mot an la he s6 tu do.

Cac bai toan viet phtrong trinh mat phang, duong th&ng, mat cau da duoc phan tfch va lam ro trong chuang m. Do do, trong chuyen d~ nay, chting ta xem xet them cac bai toan hlnh hQC gilti tfch trong mat phang,

Vi du I. Lap phirong trinh dirong thang di qua diem M(1 ; 1) va cung vm cac dU<mgthfuIg ~1 : 2x _ 3y + 4 = O'~2 : 3x + 2y + 5 = 0 tao thanh mot tam giac can.

Lifi gidi. (h.53)

Ta nhan thay ~1 ..L ~2' do do neu goi duong thang can I~p phirong trmh la ~, A la giao diem cua hai dU<mg thang ~1 va ~2' B, C Ian hrot Ia giao diem cua dircng thang ~ vm ~l va ~2 thl tam giac ABC vuong can tai A. Noi each khac, dU<mg

thang ~ Ia dU<mg thang qua M(l ; 1) va tao vm duong thang ~1 goc :.

2 4 ~1: y = -x +-.

3 3·

Gilt su k Ia h¢ s6 goc cua A Khi do

[

k1 = 5

1t 3k - 2

= tan- <=> = 1 <=> 1

4 13 + 2kl k, = -s"

Hinh53

Vay co hai dirong thang qua M(l ; 1) va tao voi cac dirong thang ~1' ~2 mot tam giac can Ia :

~ : y = 5(x _ 1) + 1 hay y = 5x _ 4,

S: y = _'!(x _ 1) + 1 hay y = _'!x +~.

5 5 5

Vi du 2. Viet phirong trtnh cac canh cua hlnh vuong ABeD biet A = (-4 ; 5)

va duong cheo BD co phirong trinh 7x _ y + 8 = O.

139

Ldi gidi (h.54)

Tnroc he't ta c6 nhan xet : AB, AD la cac dirong thang qua A va tao voi BD g6c

1t, C d6i ximg \1m A qua BD, CBIIAD, CDIIAB. Duong thAng d qua A c6 phirong 4

trlnh x = - 4 hoac y -5 = k(x + 4) hay y = kx + 5 + 4k. D

~ thay dl1Cmg thang x = - 4 tao vOi BD g6c CP:f.: :.

BD c6 phuong trlnh y = 7 x + 8 c6 h¢ s6 g6c bang 7 nen duong .thang y = kx + 5 + 4k tao vm BD g6c :

khi va chi khi

Hinh54

I~· I~ [kt =_4

k-7 -tan1t(:) k..:..7 -1(:) 3

1 + 7k - 4 1 + 7k - ~ = !.

Gia sir AB la duong thang c6 h¢ s6 g6c k = - ~ thl AD la dl1Cmg thang co h¢ ;( , k 3

Sv goc = - :

4

AB c6 phuong trlnh : y = - 4 x - !, 3 3

AD c6 phuong trlnh : y = ~ x + 8. 4

.{x = -4 + 7t AC .1. BD ~ AC c6 phirong trinb :

y = 5 - t.

GQi I la giao diem cua AC va ED tbi I = ( - ~ ; ~). Vi I Ia trung diem AC nen C = (3; 4), suy ra

CB c6 phuong trlnh y - 4 = ~(x - 3) hay y = 3 x + '2 . 446

4 4

va CD c6 phuong trlnh y - 4 = --(x - 3) hay y = --x + 8.

3 3

140

V~y phirong trlnh cac canh cua hlnh vuong ABCD la :

41- 3

AB : y = --x - - AD: y = -x + 8

3 3' 4'

374

CB: y = -x +-, CD: y =--x + 8.

4 6 3

Vi d u 3. Lap phirong trlnh cac canh cua DABC biei A = (1 ; 6) va hai trung tuyen eo phuong trinh : x - 2y + 1 = 0 va 3x - y - 2 = o.

LtYi gidi (h.55)

Gill sir ~1: x - 2 y + 1 = 0,

~2 : 3x - y - 2 = O.

Dt thay A ti!: ~1' A e ~2. V ~y ~1' ~2 Ia cac trung tuyen qua B va C. Gill sir ~1 la duong thAng qua B, ~2 la duemg thing qua C. GQi G Ia giao di~m cua ~1 va ~2 thl G Ia trong tam cua MBC va toa d<) cua G la nghiem cua he :

{X - 2y + 1 = 0

=> G = (1; 1). 3x - y - 2 = 0

{X = -1 + 2t ~1 eo phuong trinh tham s6:

y = t

~2 eo phirong trinh tham s6: {X"= S

\ Y = -2 + 3s.

Do B E ~1' C E ~2 nen B = (-1 + 2t ; t), C = (s ; -2 + 3s). Do G Ia trong tam cua ~C nen

{I + (-1 + 2t) + s = 3 => {2t + s = 3 => t = 2,s = -1

6 + t - 2 + 3s = 3 t + 3s = -I

Hinh 55

=> B = (3;2) va C = (-1;-5). x-I y-6

AB : -- = -- hay 2x + y - 8 = 0,

2 -4

x-I y-6

AC : -- = -- hay l l,r - 2y + I = 0,

-2 -11

x-3 y-2

BC : -- = -- hay 7x - 4y -13 = O. -4 -7

141

Chit Y : Ta eo nhieu each khac nhau d~ giiti bai toan tren. Chang han, neu goi A' la diem d6i xirng cua A qua G thi : BGCA' la hinh blnh hanh. Til do ta viet duoc phirong trtnh BA', CA' va tinh ducc toa d¢ cua B va C.

Vi d1;l4. Cho direng tron (~ : x2 + l - 2x + 6y - 15 = 0 va diem A(2 ; 1). Viet phirong trtnh dirong thang ~ elit (~ tai hai diem M, N sao eho A la trung diem euaMN.

La; gidi (h.56)

(~ : (x - 1)2 + (Y + 3)2 = 25,

(~

suy ra (~eo tarn 1(1 ; -3) va ban kinh R = 5. Do A Ia trung diem cua M N nen IA..l ~. V ~y ~ la duong thang qua A va nhan IA Hun vecto

__,

phap tuyen. IA = (1 ; 4) nen

~ : 1 (x - 2) + 4(y - 1) = 0 hay ~ : x + 4y - 6 = O.

Nhdn xet : Neu thay dirong tron (~ boi elip, hyperbol, ... thi each giai tren khong ap dung diroc. Cach giai sau eo the ap dung khi (~ la mot duong eong bat ki.

Hinh56

• , {x = 2 + at (2 2 )

~. eo phirong trmh tham s6 : a + {3 :-;; 0 .

Y = 1 + {3t

Toa d¢ giao diem cua dirong thang ~ va (~ Ia nghiem cua he :

{X2 + l- 2x + 6y -15 = 0 (1)

x = 2 + at

y = 1 + {3t.

Thay x = 2 + at,y = 1 + {3t vao (1), ta duoc plnrong trinh bac hai d6i voi t :

(a2 + {32)t2 + 2(a + 4{3)t ~ 8 = O. (2)

Phuong trinh (2) luon luon eo hai nghiem phan biet tI, t2• Khi do:

M(2 + atl ; 1 + {3tI),N(2 + at2; 1 + {3t2).

142

A IA trung di~m cua M N khi va chi khi

{XM + xN = 2xA {a (1) + (2) = 0

<=> <=> I) + 12 = 0

YM + YN = 2YA p(t) + t2) = 0

(t) + 12 phai bang 0 VI neu I) + 12 "* 0 thl a = 13 = 0, vO If).

Ap dung dinh If Vi-et cho phirong trinh (2), suy ra 2(a + 4P)

o :::I t1 + t2 = <=> a = -413.

a2 + 132

Lay a = 4, P = -1, ta diroc phirong trinh tham s6 cua f). la :

{X = 2 + 4t Y = 1 - t.

Vi du 5. Trong mat phang vai he toa dt') xOy, cho tam giac ABC co A(O ; 2), B(-2 ; -2) va C(4 ; -2). GQi H la chan duong cao ke til B ; M va N Ian hrot la trung di~m cua cac canh AB va Be. Viet phirong trinh dirong tron di qua cac di~m H,M,N.

LiJi gidi

Ta co: M = (~1; 0), N = (1 ; -2), AC = (4; -4). Gia sir H = (x; y), ta co:

{BH .l AC ~ {Bii.AC = O· ~ {4(X + 2) - 4(y + 2) = 0 ~ {x = 1 H E AC 4x + 4(y - 2) = 0 4x + 4y - 8 = 0 y = 1

~ H = (1; 1).

Gia sir dirong tron co plnrong trinh : x2 + l + 2ax + 2by + c = O. (1)

Do M, N, H thuoc dirong tron nen ta co :

{2a - c = 1

2a - 4b + c =-5 2a + 2b + c = -2.

Giai he ta diroc : a = -!, b = !, c = -2.

.. 2 2

Vay duong tron di qua cac diem H, M, Nco phuong trinh la : x2 + l - x + y - 2 = O.

143

Vi du 6. Trong mat phang vm he toa d() De-cac vuong g6e, eho dueng tron (~ : (x - 1)2 + (Y - 2)2 = 4 va dirong thang d : x - y - I = O.

Viet phirong trlnh direng tron (~')d6i ximg vm duong tron (~ qua direng tha.ng d va tim toa d() cac giao di~m ella (~va (~').

LOi gidi

Do (~ e6 phuong trlnh : (x - 1)2 + (Y .._ 2)2 = 4 nen (~ e6 'tam /(1 ; 2) va e6 ban kfnh R = 2.

Do (~') d6i ximg voi (~qua d nen (~') e6 tam J Ia diem d6i ximg voi / qua d va e6 ban kfnh R' = R = 2.

Gia si':t ~ la dirong thang qua / va vuong g6c voi d, ~ cat d tai mot di~m K.

Khi d6 KIa trung di~m ella IJ.

{X=I+t Phuong trmh ~ :

y = 2 - t.

{X=I+t

Xet he : y = 2 - t x-y-I=O

=> {x = 2 y = I

{X - 3

=> J - => J = (3; 0).

YJ = 0

- 2

Vay (~')e6 phuong trlnh: (x - 3) + l = 4.

Giao diem ella (~ va (~') cung Ia giao diem ella (~') va d nen toa d() giao diem ella (~ va (~') la nghiem ella h¢ :

{( x - 3)2 + l = 4

x - y -1 = O.

Suyra x = I, Y = 0 hoac x = 3, y = 2.

Vay (~ va (~') dt nhau tai hai di~m phan biet la A(1 ; 0) va 8(3; 2).

Vi du 7. Viet phirong trinh dircng tron noi tiep tam giac e6 ba dinh la A(-I ; 7),8(4; -3) va C(-4; 1).

144

LiYi gidi (h.57) Taco:

A

AB = ~(4 - (_1))2 + (-3 - 7)2 = 515, AC = 315.

GQi D III chan duong phan giac ke tir A, khi do: DB = AB = ~ => DB = -~DC

DC AC 3 3

Hinh57

XD = 3xB + 5xc {XD = -1

=> ~ + 5 => 1 => D = (-1 ; -.!.) => BD = ~15.

_ 3YB + 5yc 'YD = -- 2 2

YD - 3 + 5 2

GQi I III tam dirong tron nQi tiep MBC, khi do I la chan duong phan giac ke til Bella MBD. Tirong tt! nhu tren, ta tinh diroc toa dQ ella I III (-1 ; 2). GQi r III ban kinh duong tron noi tiep MBC thi r = d(I, BC).

Taco

BC: x + 2y + 2 = 0 nen r = d(1,BC) = 15.

V ~y, duong tron noi tiep MBC co plurong trinh : (x + 1)2 + (Y - 2)2 = 5 . Vi du 8. Cho cac duong tron

(~: x2 + l = 1,

(~m) : x2 + l - 2( m + I)x + 4my = 5.

a) Chung minh rang co hai. duong tron (~l)' (~) tiep xuc vOi (~ img vOi

hai gia hi cua m III ml va m2.

b) Viet phirong trtnh cac tiep tuyen chung ella hai dirong tron (~l) va (~). Lai gidi

a) Ta co : (~m) co phuong trlnh chinh tAc :

[x - (m + 1) J2 + (Y + 2m)2 = 5m2 + 2m + 6

10A· BTNC&MSCf)HH12

145

=> (~m) co tam 1m (m + 1,- 2m) va ban kfnh Rm = ~ 5m2 + 2m + 6 . (~co tam 0(0; 0) va ban kfnh R = 1. (~m) tiep xuc voi (~khi va chi khi

[Olm = R + Rm = ~5m2 + 2m + 6 + 1 (1)

Olm == IR - Rml == 1~5m2 + 2m + 6 - 11. (2)

(1) ~ ~(m + 1)2 + 4m2 = ~5m2 + 2m + 6 + 1 .

~ ~ 5m2 + 2m + 1 = ~ 5m2 + 2m + 6 + 1

vO nghiem.

(2) ~ ~ 5m2 + 2m + 1 == I~ 5m2 + 2m + 6 - 11 == ~ 5m2 + 2m + 6 - 1

~ ~ 5m2 + 2m + 1 + 1 == ~ 5m2 + 2m + 6 ~ ml = -1, ~ = ~

5

=> dpcm.

b) (~II): x2 + (Y - 2)2 == 9 co tarn 11(0; 2) va ban kfnh RI = 3,

(~) ; (x - ~r + + ~r = 9 c6 tamI'(~; -~) va ban kfnh R, = 3

,

Do RI = R2 = 3 va 11/2 < RI + R2 nen hai duong tron dt nhau tai hai diem phan biet, VI vay, chung chi co hai tiep tuyen chung ngoai, Do la cac dtrong thing .:1·song song va each 1/2 mot khoang bang 3. Ta co

11/2 : 2x + y - 2 = o.

VI 11// Ill! nen co phirong trlnh dang : 2x + y + c == o.

Ie + ~ Ie +..,1

d(1 I .:1) = d(1 .:1) == == -~.

12' I' ~22+12 ../5

Ie +~

=> d(/1/2,.:1) = 3 ~ ../5 == 3 ~ c == ±3../5 - 2.

V ~y hai tiep tuyen co phirong trlnh :

2x + y - 2 - 3../5 = 0 va 2x + y - 2 + 3../5 = 0,

146 10B- BTNC&MSCf)HH12

Vi du 9. Cho dirong tron (~ : x2 + l- 2x + 2y - 2 = 0 va dirong thang L\ : 2x + Y + 10 = O.

a) Chung minh rang ~ khong cat (~.

b) Til mot di~m M bat kl tren ~, ke cac tiep tuyen Mfl, Mh toi (~ (fl, f2 la cac tiep diem). Viet plurong trlnh dirong thang f/2 va clumg minh rang dirong th~g nay luon di qua mot diem c6 dinh.

LOi gidi (h.58)

a) Ta co (~ : (x - 1)2 + (Y + 1)2 = 4,

(~co tam /(1 ; -1) va co ban kinh R = 2. _ 12.1 - 1 + 1 ~ _ 11

d(/,L\) - ~ - r; => d(/,L\) > R,

22 + 12 ,,5

do do L\ khong cat direng tron (~.

b) Gia sir M = (xo ; Yo) va J, = (XI ; YI ), f2 == (~ ; Y2), khi do

Hinh 58

2Xo + Yo + 10 = 0,

dueng thang Mf I co phuong trinh : (XI - 1)( x-I) + (YI + 1 )(Y + 1) = 4, dirong thang Mf2 co phirong trinh : (~ - 1)(x - 1) + (Y2 + 1)(y + 1) = 4.

Do M E su; M E Mh nen :

{(Xo - 1)(XI - 1) + (Yo + 1)(YI + 1) = 4 (Xo - 1)(~ - 1) + (Yo + 1)(Y2 + 1) = 4.

Xet duong thAng d: (Xo - 1)(x - 1) + (Yo + 1)(y + 1) = 4. Til (*) suy ra

(*)

fl' J 2 E d nen d chfnh la dirong thang qua J I' J 2 hay J Ih co phirong trinh :

(Xo - I)(x - 1) + (Yo + l)(y + 1) = 4

(voi 2Xo + Yo + 10 = 0).

147

* ChUng minh J)J21uOn di qua mot ditm c6 dinh, Do 2Xo + Yo + 10 = 0 nen Yo = -(2Xo + 10), suy ra J)h : (Xo -1)(x -1) + (-2Xo - 9}(y + 1) = 4

(x - I)Xo - 2(y + I)Xo - x + 1 - 9y-- 9 = 4

(x - 2y - 3)Xo - x - 9y -12 = O.

Xet he : {x - 2y - 3 = 0 ~ jx = 131

. x + 9y + 12 = 0 y = _15.

11

V~y J)-'21uOn di qua diem c6 dinh : A(131 ; - ~~}

Vi du 10. Trong mat phang vm he toa d<) De-cac vuong g6c Oxy, cho duong tron (~ : x2 + / = 4va diem A(1 ; 0). GQi M la ditm di dong tren (~), ~Mla duong thang vuong g6c vm dirong thang AM tai M. Hay clnmg minh rang ~M luon tiep xiic voi m<)t duong cong c6 dinh ; xac dinh plnrong trinh duang cong d6.

LUi gidi (h.59)

M E (~) ~ M = (2cost; 2sint) => AM(2cost - 1; 2sint).

~M vuong g6c vm AM tai M nen nhan AM lam vecto phap tuyen va c6

phtrong trinh :

(2cost - 1)(x - 2cost) + 2sint(y - 2sint) = 0

~ (2cost -1)x + (2sint)y - 4(cos2t + sin2t) + 2cost = 0

~ (2cost - l)x + (2sint)y + 2cost - 4 = O.

N(x,y) e ~M khi M di dong tren (~n€u va chi neu (2cost - l)x + (2sint)y + 2cost - 4 = 0 vO nghiem t ~ 2(x + l)cost + 2y.sint - (x + 4) = 0 vO nghiem t

~ 4( x + 1)2 + 4/ < (x + 4)2

148

M

Hinh 59

~ 4x2 + 8x + 4 + 41 < X2 + 8x + 16 ~ 3x2 + 41 < 12

x2 l

~-+-<1.

4 3

2 2

Ta se chtmg minh rang t:.M luon ti~p xuc vOi elip (E) : ~ + L = 1. 4 3

Dat A = 2cost - 1, B = 2sint, C = 2cost - 4, a2 = 4, b2 = 3.

Ta c6: a2 A2 + b2 B2 = 4(2cost - If + 3(2sint?

= 16cos2 t + 12sin2 t - 16cost + 4 = 4cos2 t - 16cost + 16

=(2cost - 4)2 = C2•

, .22

Suy ra t:.M luon tiep xuc vOi elip (E) : ~ + L = 1. 4 3

Bili b)p

I. Trong m~t phing toa d" xOy, cho tam giac ABC can tai A c6 :

AB : 2x - y + 5 = 0, '

AC : 3x + 6y - 1 = 0.

Vi~t phuong trinh canh BC, biet n6 di qua di~m M(2; -1).

2. Trong mat phang toa d¢ xOy cho :

t:.} : 2x - y - 2 = 0,. t:.2 : 2x + 4 y - 7 = 0, t:.3 : mx + y - 2m = 0.

TIm m sao cho t:.} ,t:.2 ,t:.3 lit ba duong thing chua ba canh cua tam giac can.

3. Trong m~t phang tOI;\ d¢ xOy, cho tam giac ABC can tai A c6 :

AB : y + 1 = 0,

BC : x + y - 2 = 0.

TInh dien tfch tam giac ABC biet AC di qua di~m M( -1 ; 2).

149

4. Tam giac ABC e6 C(-3 ; 1), dirong eao hA : x+ 7y + 32 = 0, phan giac fA : x + 3y + 12 = O. Viet phirong trinh cac canh ella tam giac,

S. Lap phirong trinh cac canh ella tam giac ABC e6 A(1 ; 3), hai dirong trung tuyen la mB : x - 2y + 1 = 0 ; me : y - 1 = o.

6. Tam giac ABC e6 A(1 ; 1), B(-2 ; 5), trong tam G thuoc duong thartg ~1 : 2x + 3y -1 = 0, dinh C thuoc dirong thang ~2 : x + y -1 = O. Tfnh dien tfch tam giac ABC.

7. Tam giac ABC e6 A(1 ; 3), trung tuyen mB: x + 3y - 1 = 0, dirong eao he : 2x + 3y + 5 = O. Lap plnrong trlnh cac canh ella tam giac ABC.

8. Tam giac ABC e6 hai duong eao

hB : x + 3y - 1 = 0, he: x +y + 1 = 0

va trung tuyen mA : 2x - y + 1 = O.

Viet phirong trlnh cac canh ella ~c.

9. Tam giac ABC e6 hai duong eao hA : 4x - y - 1 = 0, hB: x - y + 3 = 0, trong tam G(1 ; 2). Viet phirong trlnh cac canh ella tam giac ABC.

10. Tam gicicABC c6duOng trung myen mA :x- y+l=O, duOng eao hB :x+2y-l=0, doan AB e6 trung diem M(1 ; 1). Viet phirong trinh cac canh ella tam giaeABC.

11. Tam giac ABC e6 tam duong tron ngoai tiep /(4; 0), duong eao hA :x+ y-2=0, trung tuyen mA : x + 2y - 3 = O.

Viet phirong trinh cac canh CJJa tam giac ABC.

12. Tam giac ABC e6 duong phan giac fA: x + y - 3 = 0, duong trung tuyen mB : x - y + 1 = 0, dirong eao he : 2x + y + 1 = O. Tfnh toa dQ cac dinh ella tam giac,

13. Cho hai dirong tron (~: x2 + i = 16, (~'): x2 + i-lOx + 5 = 0 dt nhau tai hai diem A va A', trong d6 A e6 tung dQ dirong, Viet plnrong trinh duong thang ~ di qua A Ian hrot dt (~ va (~') tai cac diem thu hai B, C sao eho A la trung diem ella BC.

150

14. Viet phuong trinh tiep tuyen chung cua hai duong tron (~: x2 + l - 6x + 5 =: 0,

(~): x2 + l-12x - 6y + 44 = O.

15. Viet phuong trmh tiep tuyen chung cua hai dircng tron (~: x2 + l - 2x + 2 y - 7 = 0,

(~): x2 +' l - 4x + 6y + 4 = O.

16. Cho hai dtrong tron :

(~: x2 + l - 2x - 2y - 14 = 0,

(~): x2 + l - 4x + 2y - 20 = o.

Viet phuong trinh dUCmg thang !:l cat (~ tai A va B, cAt (~) tai C va D sao cho AB = 2J7, CD = 8.

17. Viet phuong trtnh duong tron (~ c6 tam /(1 ; 2) cat true hoanh tai A va B, cAt dirong thang y = 3 tai C va D sao cho AB + CD = 6.

..

LOi giai

1. Phuong trlnh duong phan giac g6c A cua tarn giac ABC : 12x - y + ~ _ 13x + 6 y - 11

~22 + (_1)2 - ~32 + 62

[3(2X - y + 5) = 3x + 6y - 1 (::> 3(2x - y + 5) = -3x - 6y + 1

[3X - 9y + 16 = 0 (::> 9x + 3y + 14 = 0

d} c6 vecto phap tuyen li} (1; -3) ; d2 c6 vecto phap tuyen ~ (3; 1). Tarn giac ABC can tai A nen BC vuong g6c v6i d} hoac d2 ..

+ BC la dirong thAng qua M(2 ; -1) va vuong g6c v6i d} nen BC c6 vecto chi phuong la li} (1; -3). Phuong trtnh BC: x- 2 = y + 1.

1 -3

151

2.

+ Be la ducng th~ng qua M(2 ; -1) va vuong g6c vm d2 nen Be c6 vecto chi

__, x-2 y+l '

phuong la nz (3 ; 1). Phuong trinh Be : -3 - = -1-·

~} : 2x - y - 2 = 0,

~2 : 2x + 4 y - 7 = 0,

~3 : mx + y - 2m = O.

Vi ~) ..l ~2 nen ~3 la duemg th~g chua canh day cua tam giac can. Phuong trlnh duemg phan giac cua g6c tao bCri hai duong th~g ~), ~2 la :

12x - y - ~ _ 12x + 4 y - ~ ~22 + (_1)2 - ~22 + 42

¢::> [2( 2x - y - 2) = 2x + 4 y - 7 2( -2x + y + 2) = 2x + 4 y - 7

[2X - 6y + 3 = 0 ¢::> 6x + 2y - 11 = O.

(~) (dz)

~) '~2 chua hai canh ben clla tam giac can nen ~3 ..l d} hoac ~3 ..l dz. d) c6 vecto phap tuyen ;;;(1; - 3), ~ c6 vecto phap tuyen ;;;(3; 1), ~3 c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(m ; 1).

-+_

~3 .L d) ¢::> n.n} = 0 ¢::> m - 3 = 0 ¢::> m = 3.

-+ __,. 1

~3 .L dz ¢::> n·nz = 0 ¢::> 3m + 1 = 0 ¢::> m = --. 3

v l\y m = 3 hoac m = _.!..

. . 3

3. AB: y + 1 = 0, M(-I; 2), Be: x + y - 2 = o.

TOI;\ dQ di~m B la nghiem cua he phirong trlnh :

{Y+l=O {X=3

x + y - 2 = 0 ¢::> Y = -1

=> B = (3 ; -1).

GQi d la dirong th~g di qua M, song song voi Be thl d c6 vecto phap tuyen (1 ; 1) nen c6 phirong trlnh :

l(x + 1) + l(y - 2) = 0 ¢::> x,+ y -1 = O.

152

Toa d() giao ditm N clla d va AB la nghiem cua he phuong trlnh :

{Y+l=O {X=2

<=> ~ N = (2; -1).

x+y-l=O y=-1

Tam giac ABC can tai A nen A thuoc trung tnrc cua MN. GQi K lit trung diem

cua M N thl K = (! ;-!-). Duong trung true cua M N di qua K(!;!) va co

2 2 . 2 2

1-

vecto phap tuyen : - M N = (1; -1) nen c6 phirong trlnh : 3

(x -~) - {Y - ~) = 0 <=> x - Y = O.

Toa d() diem A la nghiem cua he :

{y + 1 = 0 <=> {x = -1

x - y = 0 y =-1.

~A = (-1; -1).

Tit d6 AC = 4, AB = 4 va de thay AB .L AC. Suyra

1

SABC = 2 AB.AC = 8.

4. hA: x + 7y + 32 = 0 c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(1; 7).

Vi BC j_ hA nen BC co vecto chi phuong ~(1; 7). D.uemg thang BC di qua C( -3; 1) va co vecto chi phirong ~ (1 ; 7) co plurong trlnh lit x + 3 = y - 1.

1 7

Toa d() diem A Ia nghiem cua he plnrong trlnh :

{X + 7y + 32 = 0 {x = 3 ()

<=> ~ A = 3; -5.

x + 3y + 12 = 0 y = -5

GQi C I lit ditm d6i xung v<1i C qua LA thl CI E AR

LA : x + 3y + 12 = 0 co vecto phap tuyen ;;;'(1; 3).

Vi CCI L LA nen CCI c6 vecto chiplnrong la ;;;' (1 ; 3).

153

Phuong trlnh dirong thing CCI di qua dit~m C( - 3 ; 1) va co vecto chi phuong la ;;;(1 ; 3) la x 7 3 = y ; 1.

TOi;\ dl') giao diem I cua CCI va I A la nghiem cua he :

{X + 3 y - 1 jx = -~

--=- 5

1 3. ¢:) 13

x + 3 y + 12 = 0 y= -S

=> I = (-~.-~).

5' 5

Ita trung diem cua CCI nen

AB di qua A(3; -5) va co vecto chi phuong (7 ; 1) nen phuong trlnh dirong thangAB Ia :

x-3 y+5 -7-=-1-'

AC di qua A(3 ; -5) va co vecto chi phirong '!_JiC = (-1; 1) nen phirong trlnh 6

duemg thang AC la :

x-3 y+5

--=--

-1 1

S. B thuoc rnB : x - 2y + 1 = 0 nen goi B(2t - 1; t).

C thuoc me : y - 1 = 0 nen goi C(u ; 1).

154

M I. trung diem M ~ua AC thl M ~ C ~ u ; 2 ). l+u

ME mB <=> -- - 2.2 + 1 = 0 <=> u = 5. 2

V ~y C = (5 ; 1).

To~ dO trung diem N cua AB 13.: N = (t ; t ~ 3)-

t+3

N E me <=> -2- - 1 = 0 <=> t = -1.

V~y B = (-3;-1), AB = (-4;-4); AC = (4;-2) ; BC = (8;2).

Duong thartg AB di qua A( 1 ; 3), c6 vecto chi phirong (1 ; 1) c6 phirong trlnh : x-I y-3

-1-=1·

Duong thartg AC diqua A( 1 ; 3), c6 vecto chi phuong (2 ;-1) c6 phirong trlnh : x-I y-3

-2-=-=1·

Duong thartg BC di qua B( - 3 ;-1), c6 vecto chi phirong (4 ; 1) c6 phuong trlnh : x+3 y+l

-4-=-1-·

{X = t

6. ~l: 2~ + 3y - 1 = 0 <=> y = 1 ~ 21.

. ( 1 - 2U) ( )

GQI G u; 3 E ~1' C v; 1 - V E ~2·

Vi A(I; 1), B(-2; 5) nen toa dO trong tam G cua tam giac ABC la :

1 -1 + v

XG =

3

7-v YG =-- . . 3

1.55

Vay :

j -I + v

u = 3 ¢:> {" = 5 ~ C(16;-15).

1- 2u 7 - v v = 16

=--

3 3

Ta c6 Ail = (-3 ; 4), AB = 5.

DuOng thang AB di qua di~m A( 1 ; 1), c6 vecto chi phuong (-3; 4) nen c6 phuong trlnh :

x-I y-l

-- = -- 6 4x + 3y - 7 = o.

-3 4 .

1..1.16 - 3.15 - "71 12

Suy ra d = d(C,AB) = 1""'1 = ~,

~42 + 32 5

1 1 12

SABe = -AB.d = -.5.- = 6.

2 2 5

7. he: 2x + 3y + 5 = 0 c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(2; 3).

Vi AB .1 he nenAB c6 vecto chi phuong ~(2; 3). x-I y-3

V~y phirong trlnh AB : -2- = -3-·

G9i C( t ; - 2t ; 5) E he.

To~ dQ trung di~m M cua AC la M( t ; 1 ; 2; t ). t + 1

M E rnB ¢:> - + 2 - t - I = 0 ¢:> t = 3. Do d6 2

C = (3. -!.!.) AC = (2.- 20).

, 3' , 3

Duong thang AC di qua A(1 ; 3), c6 vecto chi phuong ~AC = (3; -10) nen 2

x-I y-3

plurong trtnh AC: -- = -.

3 -10

156

Toa d., diem B lit nghiem ella he :

1 7

x-I y-3 X=--

-2- = -'-3 - ¢::> 11

t + 3y - 1 = 0 y = ~.

11

Do d6 B = (_]_ .~) BC = (40 . _ 139).

11 '11 ' 11' 33

11 y+-

Phuong trinh dirong thing BC: x - 3 = 3 .

120 -139

{~ = -3t + 1 8. h8: x + 3 y - 1 = 0 ¢::>

y = t

{X = -t-l

he:x+y+I=O¢::> .

y = t

e6 vecto chi phuong ;;; (-3 ; I).

co vecto chi phuong -;;;(-1 ; 1).

GQi B(I- 3t;t) E h8' C(-I- u;u) E he,A(v;2v + I) E rnA-

Toa dQ trung diem Mella BC III

1 - 3t - 1 - u 3t + u t + U

xM = 2 = --2-' YM = -2-·

( 3t + u) t + u

M E rnA¢::> 2 --2-, - -2- + 1 = 0 ¢::> 7 t + 3u = 2.

(1)

Tae6 AB(I- 3t - v;t - 2v -1),

A"C(-I- u - v;;u - 2v -1).

Vi he III duong eao ella tam giac ABC nen

--

AB."'2_ = 0 ¢::> -1 + 3, + v + t - 2v - 1 = 0 ¢::> 4t - v - 2 = O. (2)

Vi be III duong eao ella tam giac MEC nen

A"C.;;; = 0 ¢::> (-I - u - v)(-3) + (u - 2v -1)1 = 0 ¢::> 4u + v + 2 = O. (3) Giai he (1), (2), (3) ta duqc :

1

u = - 2' v = 0,

1

t =-.

2

157

( 1 1) (1 1)

Yay B = -_.- C = -_._- A=(O·I).

. 2' 2 ' 2' 2' ,

* Vi BC( 0 ; -I) nen phuong trtnh duong thang I!C : 1

x= --.

2

* AC di qua A(O ; 1), co vecto phap tuyen ~(-3;1) nen phirong trinh duong thangAC la :

-3(x - 0) + I(Y - 1) = 0 <=> -3x + Y - 1 =0.

* AB di qua A( 0; 1), co vecto phap tuyen ;;; ( - ~ ; 1) nen co plnrong trinh la : -I(x - 0) + l(y - 1) = 0 <=> -x + Y - 1 = O.

9. "A: 4x - Y - 1 = 0 co vecto chi phuong ~(I; 4),

"B : x - Y + 3 = 0 co vecto chi phirong ;;;(1; 1).

GQi A(t;4t -1) E "A' B(u;u + 3) E "B. Vi G Ia trong tam cua tam giac ABC nen :

jXG = _x!,!..A _+_x~:,--+_xe",YA + YB + Ye YG =

3

{Xc = 3xG - xA - xB= 3 - t - u

~ Ye = 3YG - )'A - YB = 6 - (4t - 1) - (u + 3) = 4 - 4t - u.

Do do AC = (3 - 2t - u ; 5 - 8t - u), CB = (2u + t - 3 ; 2u + 4t - 1).

-->_

AC .L "B <=> AC.~ = 0 <=> 3 - 2t - u + 5 - 8t - u = 0

<=> 4 - 5t - u = 0 .

BC .L "A <=> CB.~ = 0 <=> 2u + t - 3 + 4(2u + 4t -1) = 0 <=> lOu + I7t - 7 = O.

(1)

(2)

158

Giai he (l) va (2) ta duqc u = -I, t = 1.

V~yA=(1;3), B=(-1;2), C=(3;1).

-+ x-I y-3

* AB( - 2 ; -1) nen phirong trinh ducng thing AB : -- = --.

2 1

* AC di qua A( 1 ; 3) co vecto phap tuyen ;;;(1 ; 1). Phuong trinh dirong thing AC :

x-I + y - 3 = 0 <=> x + y -4 = o.

* BC di qua C(3 ; 1), co vecto phap tuyen ~ (1 ; 4) Phuong trinh duong thing BC :

x - 3 + 4(y - 1) = 0 <=> x + 4 y - 7 = o.

10. rnA : x - y + 1 = o.

hB : x + 2y - 1 = 0 co vecto phap tuyen ~(1 ; 2). GQi A(t;t + 1) E rnA' B(I- 2u;u) E hB.

jXM =_1+1_-2u

Toa d<) trung diem M cua AB la : 2

, 1+1+u

YM = .

2

jl = t + 12- 2u {u = 0

Tit do suy ra : .1 <=>_

l=t I 1+u t-1.

2

Vay A = (l ; 2), B = (1 ; 0).

Suy ra AS = (0 ; - 2) va phuong trlnh duong thang AB :

{X = 1

y = 2 + t.

159

* Duong thAng AC di qua A(I; 2) c6 vecto chi phirong ~(1; 2) nen c6 phuong trinh :

x-I y-2

-- = -- ¢::> y = 2x.

1 2

V~yA=(l; 1).

GQi MIa trung di~m cua Be thl 1M .1 BC, suy ra 1M II hA.

Duong thAng 1M di qua 1(4 ; 0), c6 vecto phap tuyen (1 ; 1) nen c6 phirong trinh :

l(x - 4) + l(y - 0) = 0 ¢::> x + Y - 4 = O.

MErnA n 1M nen toa dQ cua MIa nghiem cua he :

{X + 2y - 3 ; 0 {x = 5 ()

¢::> ~M= 5;-1.

x+y-4=0 y=-I

Vi BC la dtrong thAng di qua M(5; -I) va vuong g6c voi hA nen BC c6

, x-5 y+1

phirong tnnh : -- = --.

1 1

160

GQiB(t + 5; t - 1). Taco IA = IB hay

(t + 1)2 + (t - 1)2 = (1 _ 4)2 + 12 ¢:> 2t2 + 2 = 10 ¢:> t = ±2.

Do do B = (7; 1) hoac B = (3; -3).

KhOng mat tfnh tong quat, ta gia sir B = (7 ; 1) ; C = (3; -3). Khi do:

AB = (6;0), AC = (2;-4).

. {X=I+t

Phuong trinh duong thang AB :

y=l.

. {X=I+t

Phuong trtnh duong thang AC :

y = 1 - 2t.

12. fA: x + y - 3 = 0, mB: x - Y + 1 = o.

he : 2x + y + 1 = 0 co vecto chi plurong ~(-1; 2). Nh~n xet : fA ..L m.B'

Gia sir: A = (t ; 3 - t), B = (u ; u + 1), C = (v ; -1 - 2 v). Khi d6

AB( u - t ; u + t - 2).

AB ..L he ~ AB.~ = 0 ~ -(u - t) + 2(u + t - 2) = 0 ¢:> u + 3t - 4 = O. (1)

G . M l' d'd' AC M (t + v 2 - t - 2V)

Q1 a trung iem cua , = -2-; 2 .

t + v 2 - t - 2v 3

M E mB ~ -- - . + 1 = 0 ¢:> t + -v = O. (2)

2 2 2

VI fA .1 mB nen B d6i xtrng vci M qua LA' Do d6, trung diem N cua BM thuoc LA'

N(2U + t + v . 2u -:- t - 2v + 4) E I

4' 4 A

2u + t + v 2u -. t - 2v + 4 3 0

~ + - =

4 4

¢:> 4u - v - 8 = O.

(3)

11A· BTNC&MSCElHH12

161

Giai he (1), (2), (3) ta diroc : 32

U=-

17

12

t=-

17

8

=> A - (g. 39) B = (32. 49) C = (_~. __ 1 )

- 17'17' 17'17' 17' 17·

v=--

17

13. (h.60) (YE): x2 + l = 16 e6 tarn 0(0; 0), ban ~inh R = 4. (~') : x2 + l - lOx + 5 = 0 ¢:> (x - 5)2 + l = 20. (~') e6 tam 0'(5 ; 0), ban kfnh R' = 2J5.

Toa.do diem A la nghiern ella he :

x2 + l = 16 {-5 + lOx = 16 .

x2 + l - lOx + 5 = 0 ¢:> . x2 + l = 16

y>O y>O

21

X=-

10

Jill9

y= 10·

VA A = (~. Jill9J .

. Y 10' 10

Hlnh 60

GQi H, Klan hrot la hlnh chieu ella 0, 0' tren fl, I la trung diem ella 00'. Khi d6

I = (~; 0), HA = _!_AB, AK = _!_AC.

2 2 2

Vi A Ia trung diem ella Be nen.A la trung diem ella HK. Do d6, AlIa duong trung blnh ella hlnh thangvuong OHKO'. Suy ra

-AI (2 ~1159J ". A

= -; - vuong goe vm ti.

5 10

162

11 B· BTNC&MSCElHH12

Duong thang f.,. di qua A(~; v'i159], co vecto phap tuyen (4; -.J1159) nen

10 10 .

f.,. co vecto chi phuong (.J1159 ; 4). Phuong trinh dirong thang f.,. :

21 v'i159

x-- y-

--===1=-0 _ 10

.J1159 - 4

14. (~): x2 + l - 6x + 5 = 0 <=> (x - 3)2 + l = 4. (~)co tam 0)(3; 0), ban kfnh R) =2.

(~): x2 + l - 12x - 6y + 44 = 0 <=> (x - 6f + (y - 3)2 = 1. (~) co tarn 02(6 ; 3), ban kinh R2 =1.

• Duong thang x = m la tiep tuyen chung cua (~) va (~) khi va chi khi

{13-ml::::2 _

I I<=> m - 5.

6-m = 1

• Duong thang f.,. : y = ax + b la tiep tuyen chung cua (~va (~) khi va chi khi

{13a + hi = 216a - 3 + hi j[h = 6 - 9a .

<=> b = 2 - 5a <=>

13a + hi = 2~a2 + 1 13a + hi = 2.jr--a2-+-1

{h = 6 - 9a

(6 - 6a)2 = 4(a2 + 1)

{h = 2 - 5a

(2 - 2a)2 = 4(a2 -+ 1)

8 . hoac

-33 - 9m .

b=---- 8

a=

9-m

a=---

8 {a = 0

hoac

-33 + 9m . b = 2. b=---

8

v ~y (?! I) va (?! 2) co 4 tiep tuyen chung la :

x = 5 y = 2 y = 9 + m x _ 33 + 9m y = 9 - m x + -33 + 9m.

, , 8 8' 8 8

163

15. (~: X2 + l - 2x + 2y - 7 = 0 <=> (x _1)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9. (~c6 tam 01(1 ; -1), ban kfnh R1 =3.

(~): x2 + l - 4x + 6y + 4 = 0 <=> (x - 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9. ($2) c6 tam O2(2 ; -3), ban kfnh R2 =3.

Vi Q02 = ~(2 - 1)2 + (-3 + 1)2 =..[5 < R1 + R2 nen (~), ($2) dt nhau tai hai diem phan biet. Nhtmg R1 = R2 = 3 nen (~, ($2) c6 hai tiep tuyen chung la cac dirong thang song song voi q °2, each q 02 mot khoang bang 3.

Ta c6 Q02 = (1; -2).

Gilt sir tiep tuyen chung L\ cua (~), ($2) c6 phirong trinh 2x + y + c = o.

() 12 - 1 + cl [c = 3..[5 - 1

d q ,L\ = 3 <=> = 3 <=>

../22 + 1 c = -3..[5 - 1.

Vay (~, ($2) c6 hai tiep tuyen chung la :

2x + y + 3..[5 - 1= 0 va 2x + y - 3.;5. - 1 = 0 .

16. (~: x2 + l - 2x - 2y - 14 = 0 <=> (x - 1)2 + (y - 1)2 = 16. (~c6 tam 01(1 ; 1), ban kfnh R1 = 4 .

. ($2): x2 + l- 4x + 2y - 20 = 0 <=> (x - 2f + (y + 1)2 = 25. ($2) c6 tam O2(2 ; -1), ban kfnh R2 = 5.

Tir gilt thiet ta c6

d(Ot.ll) = F(¥f = ../16 -7 = 3.

d(o,. ll) = Rz2- (C: J = ../25 - 16 = 3.

164

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