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Zvcxqhš

A a¨vq

_gAa¨vq
12 ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
msw¶ß DËi cÖ‡kœvËi cÖ‡qvRb wPÎmnKv‡i e¨vL¨v Ki|
cÖkœ : 1| Zvc BwÄb Kv‡K e‡j? KZ cÖKvi I (h.†ev. 2004)
wK wK? cÖkœ : 2| wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ GKwU †c‡Ævj
(ewi.†ev. wm.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. Bwćbi MVb I Kvh©cÖYvwj eY©bv
2000 ; iv.†ev. Õ99 ; P.†ev. 2001) Ki| (Xv.†ev. h.†ev. Õ04; iv.†ev.
cÖkœ : 2| Aš マ `©n I ewn`©n BwÄb ej‡Z Õ99 ; e.†ev. 2001)
wK eyS? cÖkœ : 3| A‡UvPµ ej‡Z wK eyS? wP‡Îi
(Kz.†ev. 2002; P.†ev. 2003) mvnv‡h¨ GKwU †c‡Ævj Bwćbi
cÖkœ : 3| A‡UvPµ Kv‡K e‡j? (Xv. †ev. P. PviwU Nv‡Zi wµqv e¨vL¨v Ki|
†ev. Õ99 ; Kz. †ev. Õ05; 2000; (Xv.†ev. Õ06; Õ99; 2001 ; ewi.†ev.
h.†ev. Õ06; Õ04; Õ02; Xv.†ev. Õ06; P. †ev. 2001;2005; h.†ev.
Õ04; Õ01; e.†ev. iv.†ev. Õ03; Kz.†ev. 2000; 2002;2005; e.†ev.
wm.†ev. Kz.†ev. Õ05) iv.†ev. 2003; wm.†ev. 2003; 2005;
cÖkœ : 4| †c‡Ævj BwÄb‡K PZzN©vZ P.†ev. 2005)
BwÄb †Kb e‡j? (P.†ev. 2005) cÖkœ : 4| GKwU †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii MVb I
cÖkœ : 5| †c‡Ævj Bwćbi PviwU Nv‡Zi Kvh©bxwZ eY©bv Ki|
bvg wK? Kvh©Ki NvZ †Kvb&wU? (P.†ev. Õ99 ; iv.†ev. 2001)
cÖkœ : 6| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii K‡¤•ªmv‡ii KvR
wK? (h.†ev. Kz.†ev. 2002) AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 7| ev®•xfeb KzÊjxi KvR wK? cÖkœ : 1| Mvwoi BwÄb VvÊv ivLvi Rb¨
cÖkœ : 8| Nbxfeb KzÊjx‡Z Drcbœ Zvc cvwb e¨envi Kiv nq †Kb? (h.†ev.
†Kv_vq wKfv‡e hvq? 2006)
cÖkœ : 9| †d«qb wK? (iv.ev. wm.†ev. cÖkœ : 2| cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki−
2006; Xv. †ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. ewi. K. ev®•xq BwÄb I †c‡Ævj BwÄb
†ev. 2002; P.†ev. wm.†ev. 2003; A_ev, ewn`©vn I Aš マ`©vn BwÄb
h.†ev. 2003; 2005) L. †c‡Ævj BwÄb I wW‡Rj BwÄb|
cÖkœ : 10| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i K‡¤•ªmvi wK cÖkœ : 3| wW‡Rj Bwćb ˆe`y¨wZK ùzwj½
KvR K‡i? (h.†ev. 2003) m„wói cÖ‡qvRb nq bv †Kb?
cÖkœ : 11| ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b †iwd«Rv‡iUi cÖkœ : 4| Aš マ`©n Bwćb ivmvqwbK kw³
Avgv‡`i wK Kv‡R jv‡M? (h. †ev. wKfv‡e MwZkw³‡Z iƒcvš マ wiZ nq?
Õ99) cÖkœ : 5| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i ivLv `ªe¨vw`i
Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK DòZv Av‡iv †ewk Kgv‡bvi R‡b¨ wK
cÖkœ : 1| BwÄb wK? Zvckw³‡K Kv‡R wK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i?
jvMv‡bvi Rb¨ Bwćb wK e¨e¯’v _vKv cÖkœ : 6| A‡Uv Pµ Kv‡K e‡j? (Kz.†ev.
2005)
12 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Abykxjbxi
msw¶ßÑDËi
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Zvc BwÄb Kv‡K e‡j? KZ cÖKvi I wK wK? (ewi.†ev.
wm.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2000 ; iv.†ev. Õ99 ; P.†ev. 2001)
DËi : Zvc BwÄb :
msÁv : †h me h‡š ミ Zvckw³‡K hvwš ミ K kw³‡Z iƒcvš マ wiZ Kiv nq
†m¸‡jv‡K Zvc BwÄb e‡j|
cÖKvi‡f` : R¡vjvwb †cvov‡bvi e¨e¯’vi Dci wbf©i K‡i BwÄb‡K cÖavbZ
`yB fv‡M fvM Kiv nq| h_vÑ
1. Aš マ`©vn BwÄb, †hgbÑ †c‡Uªvj BwÄb
2. ewn`©vn BwÄb, †hgbÑ ev®•xq BwÄb|
cÖkœ : 2| Aš マ`©n I ewn`©n BwÄb ej‡Z wK eyS? (Kz.†ev. 2002; P.†ev.
2003)
DËi : Aš マ`©n BwÄb :
msÁv : †h Bwćb R¡vjvwbi `nb wµqv Bwćbi g チ j As‡ki wfZ‡i N‡U Zv‡K
Aš マ`©n BwÄb e‡j|
†hgbÑ †c‡Ævj BwÄb, wW‡Rj BwÄb BZ¨vw`|
G mKj Bwćb g チ j Bwćbi wfZ‡i †c‡Ævj ev wW‡Rj `nb K‡i †h kw³ cvIqv
hvq Zv Kv‡R jvMv‡bv nq| †gvUi Mvwo I G‡iv‡c‡b G ai‡bi BwÄb e¨envi
Kiv nq|
ewn`©n BwÄb :
msÁv : †h Bwćb R¡vjvwbi `nb wµqv Bwćbi g チ j As‡ki evB‡i N‡U Zv‡K
ewn`©n BwÄb e‡j|
†hgbÑ ev®•xq BwÄb GKwU ewn`©n BwÄb|
GB Bwćb g チ j Bwćbi evB‡i eqjv‡i Kqjvi Av¸‡b cvwb dzwU‡q ev®•
ˆZwi Kiv nq Ges GB ev®• kw³‡K BwÄb Pvjv‡bvi Kv‡R e¨envi Kiv nq|
cÖkœ : 3| A‡UvPµ Kv‡K e‡j? (Xv. †ev. P. †ev. Õ99 ; Kz. †ev. Õ05; 2000;
h.†ev. Õ06; Õ04; Õ02; Xv.†ev. Õ04; Õ01; e.†ev. iv.†ev. Õ03; wm.†ev. Kz.†ev.
Õ05)
DËi : A‡UvPµ :
msÁv : †c‡Ævj Bwćb wc÷‡bi `yÕevi mvg‡b Ges `yÕevi wcQ‡b GB
Pvievi NvZ cÖ`v‡b GKwU c チ Y© Pµ m¤•bœ nq| GRb¨ G‡K PviNvZ BwÄb
e‡j| 1886 mv‡j Wt A‡Uv me©cÖ_g mdjZvi mv‡_ GB BwÄb Pvjy K‡ib e‡j
P‡µi ci ci PviwU Nv‡Zi wµqv‡K ÔA‡UvPµÕ e‡j|
A‡UvP‡µi PviwU NvZ wbæiƒc :
1. cÖ_g  MÖnY NvZ 3. Z…Zxq  Kvh©Ki
K¨vjwiwgwZ 13

NvZ
2. wØZxq  ms‡KvPb NvZ 4. PZz_© 
wbtmib NvZ|
cÖkœ : 4| †c‡Ævj BwÄb‡K PZzN©vZ BwÄb †Kb e‡j? (P.†ev. 2005)
DËi : †c‡Ævj Bwćb wc÷‡bi `yÕevi mvg‡b Ges `yÕevi wcQ‡b GB
Pvievi NvZ cÖ`v‡b GKwU c チ Y© Pµ m¤•bœ nq| GRb¨ G‡K PviNvZ BwÄb
e‡j|
cÖkœ : 5| †c‡Ævj Bwćbi PviwU Nv‡Zi bvg wK? Kvh©Ki NvZ
†Kvb&wU?
DËi : †c‡Ævj Bwćbi PviwU NvZ : †c‡Ævj Bwćbi mgMÖ cÖwµqvwU
PviwU Nv‡Z wef³ Kiv hvq| h_vÑ
1. cÖ_g  MÖnY NvZ
2. wØZxq  ms‡KvPb NvZ
3. Z…Zxq  Kvh©Ki NvZ
4. PZz_©  wbtmib NvZ|
Z…Zxq NvZB Kvh©Ki NvZ|
cÖkœ : 6| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii K‡¤•ªmv‡ii KvR wK? (h.†ev. Kz.†ev. 2002)
DËi : K‡¤•ªmv‡ii KvR : †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii K‡¤•ªmvi `yBfv‡e KvR K‡i _v‡K|
h_vÑ
1. K‡¤•ªmv‡ii cÖavb KvR nj M¨vmxq †d«qb‡K msµwgZ K‡i AwZ
D”PPvc I ZvcgvÎvq wb‡q hvIqv| hv‡Z K‡i †d«qb Nbxfeb KzÊjx‡Z
evZv‡mi ms¯•‡k© G‡m Zvc †Q‡o w`‡q Zij †d«q‡b cwiYZ n‡Z cv‡i
Ges GKB †d«qb‡K ev®•xfeb KzÊjx‡Z Pvjbv K‡i cybt cybt e¨envi
Kiv m¤¢e nq|
2. c‡i ev®•xfeb KzÊjx‡Z Zij †d«qb ev®•xf‚Z n‡q K‡¤•ªmv‡i cÖ‡ek
K‡i| K‡¤•ªmvi Pvjy Kiv n‡j Gi †cQ‡b A_©vr ev®•xfeb KzÊjx‡Z Pvc
n«vm cvq, d‡j †d«qb `ª“Z ev®•xf‚Z n‡Z cv‡i|
cÖkœ : 7| ev®•xfeb KzÊjxi KvR wK?
DËi : ev®•xfeb KzÊjxi KvR :
†iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii kxZjxKiY cÖ‡Kvô‡K wN‡i Zvgvi ˆZwi duvKv b‡ji KzÊjx
_v‡K| G‡K ev®•xfeb KzÊjx e‡j| GB KzÊjxi g‡a¨ DØvqx c`v_© †d«qb
_v‡K| ev®•xfeb KzÊjxi KvR n‡”Q cv¤• Pvjyi mv‡_ b‡ji wfZ‡ii Pvc hLb K‡g
hvq, ZLb †d«qb‡K `ª~Z ev®•xf‚Z n‡Z mvnvh¨ Kiv|
cÖkœ : 8| Nbxfeb KzÊjx‡Z Drcbœ Zvc †Kv_vq wKfv‡e hvq?
DËi : K‡¤•ªmvi †_‡K D”P Pvc I ZvcgvÎvi M¨vmxq †d«qb Nbxfeb KzÊjxi
ga¨w`‡q cÖevwnZ nIqvi mgq KzÊjxi mv‡_ mshy³ Zvgvi Rvwji gva¨‡g
14 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Zvc cwievwnZ nq Ges †mLvb †_‡K Zvc cwiPjb I wewKiY cÖwµqvq


evqy‡Z ev cwi‡e‡k Qwo‡q hvq|
cÖkœ : 9| †d«qb wK? (iv.ev. wm.†ev. 2006; Xv. †ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. ewi. †ev.
2002; P.†ev. wm.†ev. 2003; h.†ev. 2003; 2005)
DËi : †d«qb :
†d«qb GK cÖKvi ivmvqwbK c`v_©| c`v_©wUi ivmvqwbK bvg WvB
†K¬v‡iv WvB-†d¬v‡iv wg‡_b (CCl2F2)| GwU GKwU DØvqx c`v_©, hvi
ùzUbvsK AZ¨š マ Kg A_©vr AwZ wbæPv‡cI wbæ ZvcgvÎvq mn‡RB ev‡®•
cwiYZ n‡Z cv‡i| Avevi †d«q‡bi wngvsK AZ¨š マ †ewk, A_©vr D”P Pv‡c Ges
D”P ZvcgvÎvq Zvc †Q‡o w`‡q M¨vmxq †d«qb Zi‡j cwiYZ n‡Z cv‡i| GBRb¨
G‡K †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i wngvqK c`v_© wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kiv nq|
cÖkœ : 10| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i K‡¤•ªmvi wK KvR K‡i? (h.†ev. 2003)
DËi : 1. K‡¤•ªmi-Gi cÖavb KvR nj M¨vmxq †d«qb‡K msbwgZ K‡i AwZ
D”PPvc I ZvcgvÎvq wb‡q hvIqv|
2. Kg‡cÖmi Pvjy Kiv n‡j ev®•xfeb KzÊjx‡Z Pvc n«vm cvq d‡j
†d«qb `ª“Z ev®•xf‚Z n‡Z cv‡i|
cÖkœ : 11| ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b †iwd«Rv‡iUi Avgv‡`i wK Kv‡R jv‡M?
(h. †ev. Õ99)
DËi : ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii KvR : ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b †iwd«Rv‡iUi
Avgv‡`i eû Kv‡R jv‡M| †hgbÑ
1. Lv`¨e¯‘ ev Ab¨vb¨ cPbkxj mvgMÖx‡K wbæ ZvcgvÎvq msi¶Y Kiv
hvq|
2. Lv`¨e¯‘ ev Ab¨vb¨ mvgMÖx‡K A‡bK w`b ch©š マ UvUKv ivLv hvq|
†hgbÑ gvQ, gvsk, kvK-me&wR BZ¨vw`|
3. Wv³vix Kv‡R i³ msi¶Y Kiv nq|
4. †Kvwb©qv ms‡hvR‡bi c チ‡e© msi¶‡Yi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv nq|
5. wewfbœ Jla, Bb‡RKkb, wUKv hv ¯^vfvweK ZvcgvÎvq bó n‡q hvq
Zv †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i msi¶Y Kiv nq| †hgbÑ †cvwjI, abyósKvi BZ¨vw`
wUKv|
6. wewfbœ ai‡bi cvwbq VvÊv ivLvi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv nq| †hgbÑ
dvb&Uv, †KvKv‡Kvjv, †ccwm BZ¨vw`|

Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ
jK cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| BwÄb wK? Zvckw³‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi Rb¨ Bwćb wK e¨e¯’v
_vKv cÖ‡qvRb wPÎmnKv‡i e¨vL¨v Ki| (h.†ev. 2004)
DËi : BwÄb :
msÁv : Zvckw³‡K w`‡q KvR Kiv‡Z n‡j GKwU hvwš ミ K e¨e¯’vi cÖ‡qvRb|
GB hvwš ミ K e¨e¯’vB BwÄb| Avevi †h hš ミ Zvckw³‡K hvwš ミ K kw³‡Z
iƒcvš マ wiZ K‡i Zv‡K Zvc BwÄb e‡j|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 15

†hgbÑ †c‡Uªvj BwÄb, wW‡Rj BwÄb, M¨vm BwÄb BZ¨vw`|


Zvckw³‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi Rb¨ Bwćbi cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v :
Zvckw³‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi Rb¨ Bwćb wbæwjwLZ wZbwU e¨e¯’v _vKv
AZ¨vek¨K|
1. D”PZi ZvcgvÎvi Zvc Drm
2. Bwćbi hvwš ミ K e¨e¯’v
3. wbæZi ZvcgvÎvi Zvc MÖvnK|
e¨vL¨v : Bwćb Zvckw³i Drm wn‡m‡e R¡vjvwb e¨envi Kiv nq| GB
R¡vjvwb‡K cywo‡q Gi wfZi mwÂZ ivmvqwbK kw³ Zvckw³‡Z wbM©Z nq|
Avgiv Rvwb, Zvc me©`v D”P ZvcgvÎv †_‡K wbæZi ZvcgvÎvi w`‡K
cÖevwnZ nq| BwÄb Drm †_‡K Zvc MÖnY K‡i Zvi LvwbKUv hvwš ミ K kw³‡Z
iƒcvš マ wiZ nq| KviY mg¯マ Zvc‡K KLbI Kv‡R iƒcvš マ wiZ Kiv m¤¢e bq| Aiƒcvš マ
wiZ Zvckw³ hv Bwćb i‡q hvq Zv Bwćbi ZvcgvÎv Zvc Dr‡mi mgvb ev Zvi
†P‡q †ewk K‡i †`q|
G Ae¯’vq BwÄb‡K KvR Kivi Rb¨ cybivq Drm †_‡K Zvc wb‡Z n‡j Zv‡K kxZj
n‡Z n‡e| GR‡b¨ Bwćb Ggb e¨e¯’v _vK‡Z n‡e hv‡Z Kv‡R iƒcvš マ wiZ nIqvi
ci †hUzKz Zvckw³ D×…Ë _v‡K Zv cwi‡e‡k ev Ab¨ †Kvb Dchy³ RvqMv hv
Zvc MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv‡Z †Q‡o w`‡q Avw` Ae¯’vq wd‡i Av‡m|

D”PZi DòZvi
Zvc Drm

Zvc Bw
Äb hvw  kw
šK ³ ‡Z
 i Z kw
i ƒcvšw ³

w
bæZi DòZvi
Zvc MÖ
vnK
A_©vr BwÄb‡K D”PZi DòZvi †Kvb Drm †_‡K Zvc msMÖn K‡i †mB Zv‡ci
LvwbKUv Kv‡R cwiYZ K‡i evwKUv wbæZi DòZvq †Q‡o w`‡Z n‡e| †Kvb
R¡vjvwb cywo‡q Bwćb Zvckw³ mieivn Kiv nq|
cÖkœ : 2| wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ GKwU †c‡Ævj Bwćbi MVb I
Kvh©cÖYvwj eY©bv Ki| (Xv.†ev. h.†ev. Õ04; iv.†ev. Õ99 ; e.†ev.
2001)
DËi : †c‡Ævj BwÄb :
msÁv : †c‡Ævj BwÄb GK cÖKvi Aš マ`©n BwÄb hv‡Z R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e
DØvqx Zij, †c‡Uªvj e¨envi Kiv nq| †h Bwćb †c‡Uªvj ev®•‡K Dchy³
cwigvY evqyi (Aw·‡R‡bi) mv‡_ wgwkÖZ K‡i Bwćbi Af¨š マ ‡ i `nb K‡i Zvc
kw³‡K hvwš ミ K Z_v MwZkw³‡Z iƒcvš マ wiZ Kiv nq Zv‡K †c‡Uªvj BwÄb e‡j|
16 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

wb‡æ †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi MVb I Kvh©cÖYvwj eY©bv Kiv nj−


MVb :
1. †c‡Uªvj U¨vsK T : G‡Z †c‡Uªvj Rgv ivLv nq|
2. Pvc wbqš ミ Y K¶ : U¨vsK n‡Z †c‡Ævj cvB‡ci gva¨‡g GB K‡¶
cÖ‡ek K‡i Ges wbw`©ó cwigv‡Y †c‡Uªvj wbM©gb wbqš ミ Y K‡i|
3. Kvey©‡iUi : Pvc wbqš ミ Y cÖ‡Kvó †_‡K fvj‡ei gva¨‡g †c‡Ævj
Kve©y‡iU‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i| GLv‡b †c‡Uªvj ev®•xf‚Z nq Ges h_vh_
Abycv‡Zi evqyi mv‡_ wgwkÖZ n‡q g チ j R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ
nq|
4. `nb K¶ : R¡vjvwb Kve©y‡iU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ `nb K‡¶ cÖ‡ek K‡i Ges
¯•vK©- cvM †_‡K ùzwj½ ˆZwi K‡i `nb ïi“ Kiv nq|
5. wmwjÊvi : GwU `ywU fvj&e hy³ GKwU avZe †PvO we‡kl| Gi gv‡S
wc÷b PjvPj K‡i| wc÷‡bi cÖavb `Ê ev k¨vd&‡Ui mv‡_ N チ wY©Pµ hy³
_v‡K| wc÷‡bi PjvPj Øviv N チ wY©P‡µ N チ Y©‡bi m„wó nq| fvje `ywU
¯•ªxs Gi mvnv‡h¨ Ggbfv‡e wbqwš ミ Z _v‡K hv‡Z fvj‡ei Ly‡j hvIqv
ev eÜ nIqv Øviv wc÷‡bi MwZ wbqwš ミ Z nq|
6. R¨v‡KU : wmwjÊvi‡K AwaK DËvc n‡Z i¶v Kivi Rb¨ Pviw`‡K GKwU
cvwb fwZ© R¨v‡KU _v‡K|

wPÎ : †c‡Uªvj BwÄb


Kvh©cÖYvwj : GB Bwćb wc÷‡bi `yevi mvg‡b Ges `yevi wcQ‡b GB
Pvievi NvZ cÖ`v‡b GKwU c チ Y© Pµ m¤•bœ nq| GR‡b¨ G‡K Pvi NvZ
BwÄb e‡j|
1. cÖ_gÑ MÖnY NvZ : GB Nv‡Z wc÷b Dci †_‡K wb‡P bv‡g Ges
AvMg fvj&e I Ly‡j hvq| d‡j wKQy R¡vjvwb wmwjÊv‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i|
2. wØZxqÑ ms‡KvPb NvZ : GB Nv‡Z wc÷b Dc‡i D‡V| `ywU fvj&e-
B (I Ges E) eÜ _vKvq `vn¨ wgkÖY Gi AvqZ‡bi Ask msKzwPZ nq|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 17

3. Z…ZxqÑ Kvh©Ki NvZ : wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv `n‡bi Kvi‡Y e„w× cvq


e‡j wmwjÊv‡ii wfZ‡ii Pvc cÖvq 15 ¸Y e„w× cvq| d‡j M¨v‡mi
cÖmvi‡Yi Øviv wc÷bwU cÖPÊ e‡j evB‡i †b‡g Av‡m| G mgq fvj&e
`y‡Uv eÜ _v‡K|
4. PZz_©Ñ wbtmiY NvZ : GB Nv‡Z wc÷b Dc‡i D‡V Ges wbM©g
fvj&e E Øviv `ª M¨vm †ei n‡q hvq| wbM©gb †kl n‡j Avw` Ae¯’vq
wc÷bwU wd‡i Av‡m hv‡Z bZzb Pµ ïi“ nq|
Gfv‡e ch©vqµ‡g BwÄbwU Pj‡Z _v‡K|
Zij †c‡Uªvj → U¨vsK → Pvc wbqš ミ Y K¶ → Kvey©‡iUi → g チ j R¡vjvwb
wgkÖY → `nb K¶
↑ + ¯•vK©
evqy
Kvh© R¡vjvwbi `nb I
cÖYv M¨vm Drcv`b

N チ bx© P‡µ N チ bx© Drcv`b ← wc÷‡bi PjvPj (Pvi NvZ) → wc÷‡bi Dci Pvc
cÖ`vb ← wmwjÊv‡i cÖ‡ek
cÖkœ : 3| A‡UvPµ ej‡Z wK eyS? wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ GKwU †c‡Ævj
Bwćbi PviwU Nv‡Zi wµqv e¨vL¨v Ki|
(Xv.†ev. Õ06; Õ99; 2001 ; ewi.†ev. Õ06; P. †ev. 2001;2005; h.†ev. Kz.†ev.
2000; 2002;2005; e.†ev. iv.†ev. 2003; wm.†ev. 2003; 2005; P.†ev. 2005)
DËi : A‡UvPµ :
†c‡Uªvj Bwćb wc÷‡bi `yÕevi mvg‡b Ges `yÕevi wcQ‡b GB Pvievi NvZ
cÖ`v‡b GKwU c チ Y© Pµ m¤•bœ nq| GR‡b¨ G‡K PviNvZ BwÄb e‡j| 1886
mv‡j Wt A‡Uv me©cÖ_g GB BwÄb Pvjy K‡ib e‡j Zuvi bvgvbymv‡i P‡µi
PviwU Nv‡Zi wµqv‡K ÔA‡UvPµÕ e‡j|
A‡UvP‡µi PviwU NvZ wbæiƒc :
1. cÖ_g  MÖnY NvZ
2. wØZxq  ms‡KvPb NvZ
3. Z…Zxq  Kvh©Ki NvZ
4. PZz_©  wbtmib NvZ|
†c‡Uªvj Bwćbi PviwU Nv‡Zi wµqv :
†c‡Uªvj Bwćb wc÷‡bi `yÕevi mvg‡b Ges `yÕevi wcQ‡b GB Pvievi NvZ
cÖ`v‡b GKwU c チ Y© Pµ m¤•bœ nq| GR‡b¨ G‡K PviNvZ BwÄb e‡j| wb‡æ
GB PviwU Nv‡Zi wµqv e¨vL¨v Kiv nj−
e¨vL¨v :
1. cÖ_g Ñ MÖnY NvZ : GB Nv‡Z wc÷b Dci †_‡K wb‡P bv‡g Ges
AvMg fvj&e I Ly‡j hvq| d‡j wKQy R¡vjvwb wmwjÊv‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i|
2. wØZxq Ñ ms‡KvPb NvZ : GB Nv‡Z wc÷b Dc‡i D‡V| `ywU fvj&e-
18 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

B (I Ges E) eÜ _vKvq `vn¨ wgkÖY Gi AvqZ‡bi Ask msKzwPZ nq|

3. Z…ZxqÑ Kvh©Ki NvZ : wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv `n‡bi Kvi‡Y e„w× cvq


e‡j wmwjÊv‡ii wfZ‡ii Pvc cÖvq 15 ¸Y e„w× cvq| d‡j M¨v‡mi
cÖmvi‡Yi Øviv wc÷bwU cÖPÊ e‡j evB‡i †b‡g Av‡m| G mgq fvj&e
`y‡Uv eÜ _v‡K|
4. PZz_©Ñ wbtmiY NvZ : GB Nv‡Z wc÷b Dc‡i D‡V Ges wbM©g
fvj&e E Øviv `ª M¨vm †ei n‡q hvq| wbM©gb †kl n‡j Avw` Ae¯’vq
wc÷bwU wd‡i Av‡m hv‡Z bZzb Pµ ïi“ nq|
Gfv‡e ch©vqµ‡g BwÄbwU Pj‡Z _v‡K|
cÖkœ : 4| GKwU †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii MVb I Kvh©bxwZ eY©bv Ki|
(P.†ev. Õ99 ; iv.†ev. 2001)
DËi : †iwd«Rv‡iUi :
†iwd«Rv‡iUi (cÖPwjZ fvlvq wd«R) ev wngvqK AvRKvj GKwU eûj e¨eüZ
kxZjxKiY hš ミ| GB h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘ ev Ab¨vb¨ cPbkxj mvgMÖx‡K wbæ
ZvcgvÎvq msi¶Y Kiv nq| G‡Z Lv`¨e¯‘ ev Ab¨vb¨ mvgMÖx A‡bK w`b fvj I
UvUKv _v‡K|
GKwU †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii MVb I Kvh©bxwZ eY©bv Kiv nj−
MVb :
1. kxZjxKiY cÖ‡Kvô : GwU GKwU ev· we‡kl hvi g‡a¨ msi¶‡Yi Rb¨
Lv`¨e¯‘ ev Ab¨vb¨ cPbkxj mvgMÖx‡K kxZjxKiY K‡i ivLv nq|
2. ev®•xfeb KzÊjx : kxZjxKiY cÖ‡Kvô‡K wN‡i _v‡K Zvgvi ˆZwi
duvKv b‡ji KzÊjx| GB b‡ji ga¨ w`‡q ivmvqwbK `ªe¨ (Zij †d«qb)
PjvPj K‡i cÖ‡Kv‡ôi wfZ‡ii `ªe¨ †_‡K Zvc MÖnY K‡i ev‡®• cwiYZ K‡i
e‡j G‡K ev®•xfeb KzÊjx e‡j|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 19

wPÎ : †iwd«Rv‡iUi
3. K‡¤•ªmvi : ev®•xfeb KzÊjxi mv‡_ GKwU K‡¤•ªmvi mshy³ _v‡K|
Gi mvnv‡h¨ ev®•xf‚Z †d«qb‡K msKzwPZ Kiv nq|
4. Nbxfeb KzÊjx : ev®•xf‚Z †d«qb‡K †h KzÊjxi g‡a¨ G‡b K‡¤•ªmv‡ii
mvnv‡h¨ msKzwPZ K‡i cybivq Zi‡j cwiYZ Kiv nq †mB KzÊjx‡K
Nbxfeb KzÊjx e‡j| GwU K‡¤•ªmv‡ii mv‡_ mshy³ _v‡K| GB KzÊjxi
g‡a¨ †d«qb M¨vm myßZvc eR©b K‡i cybivq Zi‡j cwiYZ nq|
5. kxZjxKiY wdb&m : GwU Nbxfeb KzÊjxi mv‡_ mshy³ _v‡K|
ev®•xf‚Z †d«qb‡K Zij Kivi Rb¨ †h myßZvc ewR©Z nq Zv kxZjxKiY
wdb&‡m cwienb cÖwµqvq mÂvwjZ nq Ges †mLvb †_‡K cwiPjb I
wewKiY cÖwµqvq Zvc cwi‡e‡k Qwo‡q †`q|
6. _v‡g©v÷¨vU myBP : GB myBPwU K‡¤•ªmv‡ii ZvcgvÎvi mv‡_
m½wZ †i‡L K‡¤•ªmviwU‡K Ab-Ad Kivi gva¨‡g †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii
ZvcgvÎv wbqš ミ Y K‡i|
Kvh©c×wZ :
†Kvb e¯‘i ev®•xfe‡bi R‡b¨ †h AwZwi³ Zvckw³i cÖ‡qvRb nq (ev®•xfe‡bi
jxb Zvc) Zv wbKU cwi‡ek †_‡K msM„nxZ nq, d‡j ZvcgvÎv n«vm cvq|
†iwd«Rv‡iU‡i GB bxwZB AbymiY Kiv nq|
wb‡æ †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii Kvh©c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Kiv nj :
1. cÖ_‡g Zij †d«qb‡K †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii kxZjxKiY K‡¶i wfZi w`‡q
cwiPvwjZ Kiv nq| G mgq Zij †d«qb †iwd«Rv‡iU‡ii wfZ‡i Aew¯’Z
`ªe¨vw` †_‡K Zvc MÖnY K‡i ev‡®• cwiYZ nq Ges `ªe¨¸‡jv Zvc
nvwi‡q VvÊv nq| wKQy¶Y Gfv‡e Pjvi ci K‡¶i wfZ‡i iw¶Z `ªe¨¸‡jvi
ZvcgvÎv GZ wb‡P †b‡g hvq †h cPvi AvksKv _v‡K bv|
2. Gici †d«qb ev®•‡K K‡¤•ªmv‡ii ga¨w`‡q Pvjbv K‡i ms‡KvwPZ
Kiv nq| d‡j ev®• Avevi Zi‡j cwiYZ nq Ges ev®•ve¯’vq M„nxZ Zvc
cwiZ¨vM K‡i| GB Zvc evB‡i mwi‡q †bqv nq I Zij †d«qb‡K cybivq
kxZjxKiY cÖ‡Kv‡ô cwiPvwjZ Kiv nq|
Gfv‡e †iwd«Rv‡iUi KvR K‡i|
AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Mvwoi BwÄb VvÊv ivLvi Rb¨ cvwb e¨envi Kiv nq †Kb?
(h.†ev. 2006)
20 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
DËi : cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 4200Jkg−1k−1| Ab¨vb¨ c`v‡_©i Zzjbvq cvwbi
Av‡cw¶K Zvc A‡bK †ewk| Av‡cw¶K Zvc †ewk mn‡RB DËß e¯‘ †_‡K AwaK
cwigvY Zvc †kvlY Ki‡Z cv‡i| d‡j DËß e¯‘wU kxZj _v‡K| cvwbi GB D”P
Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci Kvi‡YB Mvwoi BwÄb VvÊv ivLvi Rb¨ cvwb e¨envi Kiv nq|
cÖkœ : 2| cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki−
K. ev®•xq BwÄb I †c‡Ævj BwÄb
A_ev, ewn`©vn I Aš マ`©vn BwÄb
L. †c‡Ævj BwÄb I wW‡Rj BwÄb|
DËi : ev®•xq BwÄb I †c‡Ævj BwÄb Gi cv_©K¨ :
ev®•xq BwÄb /ewn`©vn †c‡Uªvj BwÄb /Aš マ`©vn
1. GwU ewn`©vn BwÄb| 1. GwU GKwU Aš マ`©vn BwÄb|
2. GB Bwćb `yB Nv‡Z GKwU 2. GB Bwćb GKwU P‡µ PviwU
Pµ m¤•bœ nq| NvZ _v‡K|
3. GB Bwćbi `ywU NvZB 3. GB Bwćb GKwU Kvh©Ki NvZ
Kvh©Ki NvZ| Av‡Q|
4. Gi KvR ïi“ Kivi Rb¨ evB‡ii 4. Gi KvR ïi“ Kivi Rb¨ ÷vUv‡ii
†Kvb wKQyi cÖ‡qvRb nq cÖ‡qvRb|
bv|
5. Gi Kvh©Ki e¯‘ cvwb Z_v 5. Gi Kvh©Ki e¯‘ †c‡Uªvj Z_v
ev®•| †c‡Uªvj I evqyi wgkÖY|
6. Gi Kg©`¶Zv cÖvq 20%| 6. Gi Kg©`¶Zv cÖvq 70%|
7. Gi wmwjÊvi‡K VvÊv ivLvi 7. Gi wmwjÊvi‡K VvÊv ivLvi Rb¨
Rb¨ †Kvb e¨e¯’vi cÖ‡qvRb Avjv`v e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq|
nq bv|
L. †c‡Uªvj BwÄb I wW‡Rj BwÄb Gi cv_©K¨ :
†c‡Uªvj BwÄb wW‡Rj BwÄb
1. †c‡Uªvj‡K R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e 1. wW‡Rj‡K R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e
e¨envi K‡i †c‡Uªvj BwÄb e¨envi K‡i wW‡Rj BwÄb Pvjv‡bv
Pvjv‡bv nq| nq|
2. `nb NUv‡Z ˆe`y¨wZK 2. `nb NUv‡Z ˆe`y¨wZK ùzwj½
ùzwj½ m„wói cÖ‡qvRb nq| m„wó Kivi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|
3. ùzwj½ ˆZwi Ki‡Z ¯•vK© c- 3. ùzwj‡½i cÖ‡qvRb nq bv ZvB
vM e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| ¯•vK© cv‡Mi `iKvi nq bv|
4. GB Bwćb evqy I †c‡Uªvj 4. GB Bwćb Kvey©‡iUi e¨envi
wgkÖY mieivn Kivi Rb¨ Kiv nq bv|
Kvey©‡iUi e¨envi nq|
5. †gvUi Mvwo, ev‡m e¨eüZ 5. G‡iv‡cb, evm, jwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq|
nq|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 21

cÖkœ : 3| wW‡Rj Bwćb ˆe`y¨wZK ùzwj½ m„wói cÖ‡qvRb nq bv


†Kb?
DËi : wW‡Rj Bwćb ˆe`y¨wZK ùzwj½ m„wói cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| KviY
Kvh©Ki Nv‡Zi mgq wc÷b Dc‡i
D‡V M¨vm‡K G‡Zv †ewk ms‡KvPb K‡i †h AZ¨waK Zv‡ci DrcwË nq, d‡j
wgkÖ‡Y wbR †_‡KB Av¸b a‡i
we‡ùviY N‡U|
cÖkœ : 4| Aš マ `©n Bwćb ivmvqwbK kw³ wKfv‡e MwZkw³‡Z
iƒcvš マ wiZ nq?
DËi : Mvwoi Bwćbi ivmvqwbK kw³ MwZkw³‡Z wKfv‡e iƒcvš マ wiZ nq
Zv wb‡æ †`Iqv nj−
1. Kve©b I nvB‡Wªv‡R‡bi ivmvqwbK †hŠM †c‡Uªvj‡K evqyi g‡a¨ `nb
Kivi d‡j Kve©b-WvB A·vBW I cvwb Drcbœ nq|
2. ivmvqwbK wewµqvi d‡j Zvckw³ wbM©Z nq|
3. DËv‡c wmwjÊv‡ii ga¨w¯’Z M¨vm m¤•ªmvwiZ nq|
4. m¤•ªmvwiZ M¨vm wmwjÊv‡ii ga¨Kvi wc÷‡bi Dci ej cÖ‡qvM K‡i,
d‡j wc÷bwU wb‡P †b‡g Av‡m Ges KvR m¤•vw`Z nq|
5. wc÷bwU µvsK k¨vdU bv‡g GKwU †jŠn`‡Êi mv‡_ mshy³ _v‡K|
wc÷‡bi DVvbvgvi d‡j G‡Z N チ Y©‡bi m„wó nq| µvsK k¨vd‡Ui mv‡_
mshy³ GKwU fvix PvKv| GB N チ Y©‡b mnvqZv K‡i| PvKvwU‡K
d¬vB ûBj ejv nq|
cÖkœ : 5| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i ivLv `ªe¨vw`i DòZv Av‡iv †ewk Kgv‡bvi
R‡b¨ wK wK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i?
DËi : †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i ivLv `ªe¨vw`i ZvcgvÎv Kgvevi R‡b¨ Ggb e¨e¯’v
MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z Gi wfZ‡i Nbxfeb I ev®•xfeb cÖwµqv Z¡ivwš^Z nq|
GR‡b¨,
i) e¨eüZ Zi‡ji cÖK…wZ Ggb n‡Z n‡e †hb GwU Av‡iv Kg Pvc cÖ‡qv‡M
ev we‡qv‡M Zij Ae¯’v †_‡K ev®•xq Ae¯’v Ges ev®•xq Ae¯’v n‡Z
Zij Ae¯’vq cwiewZ©Z Kiv hvq|
ii) GQvovI Zi‡ji ev®•‡K msKzwPZ K‡i Avevi Zi‡j cwiYZ Kivi Rb¨
kw³kvjx cv¤• e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e|
cÖkœ : 6| A‡Uv Pµ Kv‡K e‡j? (Kz.†ev. 2005)
DËi : Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK 3bs cÖkœ `ªóe¨|

ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
22 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

1. wb‡Pi †Kvb& BwÄbwU K. cÖ_g NvZ L. wØZxq NvZ


Aš マ`©n BwÄb bq? ✓ M. Z…Zxq NvZ N. PZz_© NvZ
(Kz.†ev. 2002; P.†ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 5| †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi `¶Zv KZ? (Kz.
2003) †ev. 2006; 2004; 2000;
K. †c‡Ævj BwÄb L. wW‡Rj Xv.†ev.Õ99; h.†ev. Õ99; wm.†ev.
2004; iv.†ev. 2003)
BwÄb A_ev, †c‡Uªvj Bwćb mieivnK…Z
M. G‡iv‡c‡bi BwÄb ✓ Zvckw³i kZKiv KZ fvM hvwšK
N.ev®•xq BwÄb kw³‡Z iƒcvšwiZ nq?
2. †c‡Ævj BwÄb mdjZvi mv‡_ (P.†ev. Õ04;Õ02; h.†ev. Õ06;
cÖ_g Pvjy K‡ib †K? Õ03)
(iv.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2001; m.†ev. Õ98) K. cÖvq 20% L. cÖvq 10%
K. †Rgm IqvU✓ L. Wt A‡Uv ✓ M. cÖvq 30% N. cÖvq 40%
M. †Kjwfb N. Kv‡b©v 6| †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi †Kvb As‡k
†c‡Uªvj‡K ev‡®• iƒcvšwiZ Kiv
3. †c‡Ævj Bwćbi GKwU cY©
nq?
P‡µ †gvU Nv‡Zi msL¨v− (P.†ev. wm.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev.
(Xv.†ev. 2006; 2004; P.†ev. 2000) Kz.†ev. h.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. Õ99)
K. GKwU L. `ywU K. †c‡Uªvj U¨vs‡K L.`nb cÖ‡Kv‡ô
M. wZbwU ✓ N. PviwU| M. wmwjÛv‡i ✓N. Kvi‡ev‡iU‡i
7| †d«qb Avm‡j wK?
AwZwi³ (iv.†ev. Õ99)
ˆbe©¨w³K ✓ K. wngvwqZ c`v_©mg‡ni
mw¤§wjZ bvg
cÖ‡kœvËi L. wngvwqZ wewfbœ c`v_©
1| †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi ms‡KvPb Nv‡Z M. GK cÖKvi Nbxf‚Z M¨vm
wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv KZ? N. ev®•xf‚Z M¨v‡mi bvg
(wm. 2005; 2002; iv. 2000 Kz. 8| †c‡Uªvj Bwćb Kve©‡iU‡ii KvR
2001) wK?
✓ K. 6000C L. 5000C (e.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. Õ99)
K. Bwćb Zij †c‡Uªvj mieivn Kiv
M. 4000C N. 7000C L. ev®•xf‚Z †c‡Uªvj‡K Zi‡j cwiYZ
2| wngvqb c`v_© †d«q‡bi Kiv
ivmvqwbK bvg wK? ✓ M. †c‡Uªvj‡K ev‡®• iƒcvši Kiv
K. WvB †d¬v‡iv WvB †K¬v‡iv N. M¨vm‡K Zi‡j iƒcvši Kiv
wg‡_b (iv. †ev. 2002) 9| W. A‡Uv mdjZvi mv‡_ †c‡Uªvj
BwÄb Pvjy K‡ib KZ mv‡j?
✓ L. WvB †K¬v‡iv WvB †d¬v‡iv (P.†ev. iv.†ev. 2003)
wg‡_b A_ev, KZ mv‡j me©cÖ_g
M. WvB †K¬v‡iv WvB †d¬v‡iv PZzN©vZ BwÄb Pvjy nq?
B‡_b (h.†ev. 2004)
N. WvB †d¬v‡iv WvB †K¬v‡iv K. 1686 mv‡j L. 1786 mv‡j
B‡_b ✓ M. 1886 mv‡j N. 1986 mv‡j
3| GKwU †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi cÖavb 10| †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi Kvh©Ki Nv‡Zi
Ask− (h. 2000) ZvcgvÎv KZ?
K. †c‡Uªvj U¨vsK L. Pvc wbqšY (h.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev. 2002)
cÖ‡Kvô A_ev, A‡UvP‡µ Z…Zxq NvZ ev
M. Kviey‡iUi ✓ N. Dc‡ii me¸‡jvB Kvh©Ki Nv‡Z wgkÖ‡Yi
4| †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi Kvh©Ki NvZ ZvcgvÎv KZ‡Z DbœxZ nq?
†KvbwU? (Xv.†ev. 2000) (iv.†ev. 2005)
K¨vjwiwgwZ 23

K. 2000C L. 200000C K. 1wU L. 2wU


0
✓ M. 2000 C N. 200C M. 3wU ✓ N. 4wU
11| Mvwoi BwÄb VvÊv ivLvi Rb¨ 18| PZzN©vZ Bwćb †Kvb Nv‡Z
†Kb cvwb e¨eüZ nq? R¡vjvwb `nb cÖ‡Kv‡ô cÖ‡ek
(h.†ev. 2002; 2004; e.†ev. 2000) K‡i?
K. cvwb mnRjf¨ e‡j ✓ K. 1g Nv‡Z L. 2q Nv‡Z
✓ L. cvwbi D”P Avt Zv‡ci Kvi‡Y M. 3q Nv‡Z M. 4_© Nv‡Z
M. cvwbi ZvovZvwo ev‡®• 19| PZzN©vZ Bwćbi Z…Zxq
iƒcvšwiZ nq e‡j Nv‡Zi ZvcgvÎv I Pv‡ci cwigvY
N. cvwb Bwćbi ¶wZ K‡i bv e‡j
KZ? (ewi.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2003)
12| GKwU †c‡Uªvj Bwćbi wbtmiY
K. 20000C I 10 evqygÛjxq Pvc
NvZ ejv nq †KvbwU‡K?
L. 6000C I 15 evqygÊjq Pvc cÖvq
(h.†ev. 2002)
M. 20000C I 1 evqygÊjxq Pvc cÖvq
K. cÖ_g NvZ‡K L. wØZxq
✓ N. 20000C I 15 evqygÛjxq Pvc
NvZ‡K
cÖvq|
M. Z…Zxq NvZ‡K ✓ N.
20| GKwU PZzN©vZ Bwćbi
PZz_© NvZ‡K
wØZxq Nv‡Z `vn¨ wgkÖ‡Yi
13| †Kvb Nv‡Z `vn¨ wgkÖY‡K GK
ZvcgvÎv KZ wWMÖx
cÂgvs‡k msKzwPZ Kiv hvq?
†mjwmqvm DbœxZ nq? (e.†ev.
K. MÖnY Nv‡Z ✓ L. ms‡KvPb
2003)
Nv‡Z
K. 16000C L. 20000C
M. Kvh©Ki Nv‡Z N. wbtmiY
✓ M. 6000C N. 2000C.
Nv‡Z
14| †Kvb Nv‡Z BwÄbwU Kvh©Ki 21| †h ¶z`ªZg Wvqbv‡gv †_‡K
_v‡K? Zwor cÖevn mieivn K‡i `nb
K. MÖnY Nv‡Z L. ms‡KvPb Nv‡Z cÖ‡Kv‡ô ùzwj½ m„wó Kiv nq
✓ M. Kvh©Ki Nv‡Z N. wbtmiY Zvi bvg wK?
Nv‡Z [h.†ev. 2006]
15| R¡vjvwb cyov‡bvi e¨e¯’vi Ici K. Kve©y‡iUi L. ¯•vK©cvM
wbf©i K‡i BwÄb‡K cÖavbZ KZ ✓ M. g¨vM‡b‡Uv N. †_ªvUvjfvjf
fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq? (Xv.†ev. 22| K‡¤•Ömvi †Kvb Zvcxq h‡ši
2004) mv‡_ m¤•„³?
✓ K. `yB fv‡M L. wZb fv‡M [ewi.†ev. 2006]
M. Pvi fv‡M N. cuvP fv‡M K. †c‡Uªvj BwÄb L.
16| †c‡Uªvj Bwćb wb‡Pi †Kvb wW‡Rj BwÄb
AskwU _v‡K bv? M. ev®•xq BwÄb ✓ N.
K. wmwjÛvi L. `nb cÖ‡Kvô wd«R
✓ M. ev®• cÖ‡Kvô N. PvcwbqšY 23| †iwd«Rv‡iU‡i †Kvb kw³ e¨‡q
cÖ‡Kvô Zvc kw³ wbM©Z nq?
17| PZzN©vZ Bwćb cici KZwU [P.†ev. 2005; ewi.†ev. 2006]
Nv‡Zi wµqv‡K ÔA‡UvPµÕ ejv K. Av‡jvK kw³ L. Zvc kw³
nq?
M. Zvc kw³ ✓ N. hvwšK kw³