Sei sulla pagina 1di 25

A a¨vq


_gAa¨vq
11
Zvcm
Âvj b ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
msw¶ß DËi cÖ‡kœvËi kxZKv‡j Mig _v‡K †Kb? (h.†ev.
cÖkœ : 1| cwienb Kv‡K e‡j? cwienb 2004)
c×wZ‡Z Zvc mÂvj‡bi mgq cÖkœ : 13| K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j gvby‡li †`n
gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jv wK f‚wgKv cvjb kx‡Zi w`‡b Mig _v‡K, A_P GK UzKiv
K‡i _v‡K eY©bv Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2000) eid K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j Mi‡gi w`‡b
cÖkœ : 2| wewKiY c×wZ‡Z wKfv‡e Zvc VvÊv _v‡K| Gi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.
mÂvwjZ nq eY©bv Ki| (P. †ev. †ev. 2000)
Õ99) cÖkœ : 15| Kuv‡Pi Ni ev meyR evwo
cÖkœ : 3| Zvc mÂvj‡bi wZbwU c×wZi memgq Mig _v‡K| KviY e¨vL¨v Ki|
g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (iv. †ev. (P.†ev. 2003; ewi.†ev. 2005)
Õ99)
cÖkœ : 4| †Kvb cwievn‡Ki ga¨ w`‡q
Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK
cwienb c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ Zvc cÖkœ : 1| Zvc mÂvj‡bi wewfbœ c×wZ
†Kvb& †Kvb& wel‡qi Dci wbf©i D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki|
K‡i? A_ev, Zvc mÂvjb ej‡Z wK eyS? Zvc
cÖkœ : 5| Zvc cwievn‡Ki msÁv `vI| Gi mÂvj‡bi
GKK D‡jL Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2000, 2001 ; cwienb/cwiPjb/wewKiYc×wZ
e.†ev. 2001 ; iv.†ev.Õ06` Õ99; D`vniY mn e¨vL¨v Ki| (wm.†ev.
h.†ev. 2002;2005) 2006)
cÖkœ : 6| Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i GKK wbY©q A_ev, UxKv wjL : 1. Zv‡ci cwienb; 2.
Ki | Zv‡ci cwiPjb; 3. Zv‡ci wewKiY
cÖkœ : 7| †jvnvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 80 Wm−1k−1 cÖkœ : 2| Zvc mÂvj‡bi cwiPjb c×wZ
ej‡Z wK eyS? (P. †ev. Õ99; Xv.†ev. e¨vL¨v Ki| KwVb c`v‡_©i g‡a¨
2004; 2005) Zv‡ci cwiPjb nq bv †Kb?
cÖkœ : 8| Zv‡ci mycwievnK, KzcwievnK cÖkœ : 3| wewfbœ avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc
Ges AcwievnK ej‡Z wK eyS? cwievnKZ¡ Zzjbv Kivi GKwU cix¶v
D`vniY `vI| eY©bv Ki|
cÖkœ : 9| †iv‡` ivLv GKLÊ †jvnv I GKLÊ cÖkœ : 4| avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡
KvV‡K ¯•k© Ki‡j †Kvb&wU AwaKZi wbY©‡qi mvwj©i c×wZ eY©bv Ki|
DËß g‡b n‡e? †Kb? (Xv.†ev. Kz.†ev. P.†ev. 2000 ;
cÖkœ : 10| Av¸‡bi cv‡ki †Kvb ¯’vb †_‡K h.†ev.2000;Õ05; e.†ev. Õ06; Õ04;
Av¸b †_‡K GKB `チ i‡Z¡ Gi wVK Dc‡i Õ02; iv.†ev. Õ06; Õ02; wm.†ev.
†Kvb ¯’vb †ewk Õ04; Õ02; Kz.†ev. Õ04; Õ02;
DËß nq †Kb? (h.†ev.2001) Xv.†ev. Õ04; Õ02)
cÖkœ : 11| gi“ A‡j w`‡b Zxeª Mig Avi
iv‡Z Zxeª kxZ Abyf‚Z nq| Gi KviY AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi
e¨vL¨v Ki| cÖkœ : 1| MigKv‡j cyKz‡ii DciKvi
cÖkœ : 12| L‡oi Qv`hy³ Ni MigKv‡j VvÊv I cvwb Mig Ges wb‡Pi cvwb VvÊv
248 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
_v‡K Avevi Lye VvÊvi w`‡b Dc‡ii kw³ ¶‡qi nvi KZ? (L) GKw`‡b KZ
cvwb VvÊv Ges wb‡Pi cvwb Mig kw³ ¶q n‡e?
_v‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| mgm¨v : 3| GKwU †fovi Mv‡q 2cm cyi“
ck‡gi ¯ マ i Av‡Q| ck‡gi Zvc
MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n cwievnKZ¡ 0.05 Wm−1k−1| hw` †fovi
D`v-1| GKRb †jvK Zvi kix‡i 6mm cyi“ wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 370C nq Ges
d¬v‡b‡j Rwo‡q iv‡Lb| evqyi
†fovwU hw` 00C ZvcgvÎvi ei‡d ï‡q
ZvcgvÎv 270C n‡j Zvi kix‡ii cÖwZ
_v‡K Z‡e †fovwUi Zvc nviv‡bvi
eM© †m.wg. ¯’vb †_‡K cÖwZ NÈvq
nvi †ei Ki| ei‡di ms¯•‡k© _vKv
wK cwigvY Zvc evqy‡Z cwievwnZ
Mv‡qi †¶Îdj 0.15m2| (h.†ev. 2004)
n‡e? d¬v‡b‡ji Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 0.05
mgm¨v : 4| †Kvb N‡ii †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj 100m2
Wm−1k−1 Ges H †jv‡Ki kix‡ii ZvcgvÎv
Ges cyi“Z¡ 25cm| †`Iqv‡ji `yB
370C|
cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ 100C n‡j
D`v-2| †Kvb N‡ii evB‡ii ZvcgvÎv 300C| 1m2
†¶Îdj Ges 2mm cyi“ GKwU Kv‡Pi Gi ga¨ w`‡q cÖwZ wgwb‡U 3 ×
Rvbvjvi ga¨ w`‡q 4000W nv‡i Zvc 105J k Zvc cwievwnZ nq| †`Iqv‡ji
wfZ‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i| Kuv‡Pi Zvc Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ wbY©q
cwievnKZ¡ 0.8Wm−1k−1 n‡j N‡ii wfZ‡ii Ki| (ewi.†ev. 2004; m.†ev. Õ98)
ZvcgvÎv wbY©q Ki| mgm¨v : 5| †jvnvi GKwU eqjv‡ii cvZ 2cm
D`v : 3| GKwU N‡ii †Kvb †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj cyi“| †jvnvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 80Wm−
1 −1
30m2| †`IqvjwU B‡Ui ˆZwi Ges Gi k | cvZwUi cÖwZ 1cm2 †¶Îd‡ji
cyi“Z¡ 25 cm| N‡ii evB‡ii ZvcgvÎv ga¨w`‡q cÖwZ wgwb‡U 240J Zvc
300C Ges wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 260C n‡j cwievwnZ n‡j Gi `yB cv‡ki
†`qvj w`‡q wK nv‡i Zvc N‡ii g‡a¨ ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ wbY©q Ki|
cÖ‡ek Ki‡Q wbY©q Ki| B‡Ui Zvc (Kz.†ev. 2004; 2002; e.†ev. 2006;
cwievnKZ¡ 0.6 Wm−1k−1| (iv. †ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2004)
Õ99)
D`v : 4| 1.2m `xN© Ges 3cm2 cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i
†¶Îdj wewkó GKwU Zvgvi `‡Êi GK
cÖvš マ 00C ZvcgvÎvi eid Ges Aci
cÖvš マ 1000C ZvcgvÎvi dzUš マ cvwbi
ms¯•‡k© ivLv Av‡Q| 10g eid Mj‡Z
KZ mgq jvM‡e? Zvgvi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 385Wm−1k−1 Ges eid Mj‡bi
Av‡cw¶K myßZvc 336000Jkg−1|
Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨v
mgm¨v : 1| GKwU N‡ii evB‡ii Ges wfZ‡ii
ZvcgvÎv h_vµ‡g 350C Ges 250C|
NiwU‡Z 4m `xN© 1m cÖ¯’ GKwU
Kuv‡Pi Rvbvjv Av‡Q| Kuv‡Pi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 0.8Wm−1k−1 n‡j cÖwZ
wgwb‡U cwievwnZ Zv‡ci cwigvY
wbY©q Ki| Rvbvjvi cyi“Z¡ O.5cm|
mgm¨v : 2| kxZcÖavb †`‡ki †Kvb evwoi
†`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj 30m2 Ges cyi“Z¡
50cm| †`Iqv‡ji Dcv`v‡bi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 0.4Wm−1k−1 (K) hw`
evwoi wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 150C Ges
evwn‡ii ZvcgvÎv − 50C nq Z‡e
K¨vjwiwgwZ 249

mgm¨v : 6| 4mm cyi“ wcZ‡ji cv‡Zi `yB eyb‡mb evb©v‡ii wkLvq Ges
c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎv h_vµ‡g 100C Ges Aci cÖvš マ ei‡d Av‡Q| DËß
300C| Gi †fZi w`‡q cÖwZ cÖv‡š マ i ZvcgvÎv 2000C| (K) DËß
†m‡K‡Ê 33KJ Zvc cwievwnZ nq| cÖvš マ † _‡K kxZj cÖv‡š マ 30
wcZ‡ji Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 110Wm−1k− wgwb‡U KZ Zvc mÂvwjZ n‡e
1
n‡j cv‡Zi †¶Îdj wbY©q Ki| wnmve Ki| (L) KZ wK‡jvMÖvg
(iv.†ev. 2005; 2001; P.†ev. eid Mj‡e †ei Ki| mxmvi Zvc
2004) cwievnKZ¡ 35Wm−1k−1| eid Mj‡bi
mgm¨v : 7| 50cm2 †¶Îdj Ges 2mm cyi“ Av‡cw¶K myßZvc 3.36 × 105J kg−1|
GKwU iƒcvi cv‡Zi ga¨ w`‡q
2.03MJ Zvc cwievwnZ n‡Z KZ
AwZwi³ MvwYwZK mgm¨v
mgq jvM‡e? iƒcvi Zvc
mgm¨v : 1| GKwU N‡ii †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj
cwievnKZ¡ 406Wm−1K−1 Ges cv‡Zi
50m2 Ges cyi“Z¡ 25cm †`Iqv‡ji
`yB cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ `yB cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ 200C
400C| (h.†ev.2005; 2002;
n‡j Gi ga¨ w`‡q 30 †m‡K‡Û 1.5 ×
wm.†ev. 2004)
105 J Zvc cwievwnZ nq| †`Iqv‡ji
mgm¨v : 8| 0.5m `xN© Ges 0.06m2
Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡
cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj wewkó GKwU
wbY©q Ki| (iv.†ev. 2003)
mxmvi `‡Êi GK cÖvš マ GKwU

Abykxjbxi
msw¶ßÑDËi
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| cwienb Kv‡K e‡j? cwienb c×wZ‡Z Zvc mÂvj‡bi mgq
gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jv wK f‚wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K eY©bv Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2000)
DËi : cwienb :
msÁv : †h c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jv Zv‡`i wbR¯^ ¯’vb cwieZ©b bv K‡i ïay
¯•›`‡bi gva¨‡g Zvi cvk¦©eZ©x AYy‡K Zvc cÖ`vb K‡i c`v‡_©i DòZi Ask
†_‡K kxZjZi As‡k Zvc mÂvwjZ K‡i †mB c×wZ‡K cwienb e‡j|
Zvc mÂvj‡b AYy¸‡jvi f‚wgKv :
Zvc cwien‡bi Rb¨ Ro gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb| GB c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i DòZi
AYy¸‡jv Zvc MÖnY K‡i wb‡Ri Ae¯’v‡b †_‡K ¯•w›`Z n‡Z _v‡K| GB ¯•›`‡bi
gva¨‡g DËß AYy¸‡jv cvk¦©eZ©x kxZj AYy¸‡jv‡K Zvc cÖ`vb K‡i, †m¸‡jv
DËß n‡q Avevi Zv‡`i cvk¦©eZ©x AYy¸‡jv‡Z Zvc mÂvwjZ K‡i| †h gva¨‡gi
AYy¸‡jv hZ †ewk my`„p †mLv‡b cwienb ZZ †ewk n‡q _v‡K| †mRb¨ KwVb
c`v‡_©i ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci cwienb me‡P‡q †ewk nq, Zi‡j Zvi †P‡q Kg,
evqexq c`v‡_© AZ¨š マ Kg Ges f¨vKzqv‡g †Kvb cwienb nq bv|
cÖkœ : 2| wewKiY c×wZ‡Z wKfv‡e Zvc mÂvwjZ nq eY©bv Ki| (P.
†ev. Õ99)
250 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

DËi : wewKiY :
msÁv : †h c×wZ‡Z Zvc Ro gva¨‡gi mvnvh¨ QvovB ZvwoZ †PŠ¤^K
Zi‡½i AvKv‡i Dò e¯‘ †_‡K kxZj e¯‘‡Z mÂvwjZ nq Zv‡K wewKiY e‡j|
Zvc mÂvj‡bi cÖwµqv :
GB c×wZ‡Z Zvc †Kvb gva¨g QvovB mÂvwjZ nq| Zvc GK cÖKvi ZvwoZ
†PŠ¤^K Zi½| Av‡jvi b¨vq Zv‡ci wewKi‡Yi Rb¨ †Kvb gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb nq
bv| GgbwK Zvc ¯^”Q gva¨‡gi (†hgbÑ evqy) ga¨ w`‡q mÂvj‡bi mgq
gva¨g‡K DËß K‡i bv|
D`vniY : Avgiv c„w_ex‡Z m チ h© †_‡K Zvc cvB| c„w_ex I m チ ‡ h©i g‡a¨
K‡qKk wK‡jvwgUvi evqygÊj e¨ZxZ Avi †Kvb Ro gva¨g †bB| m チ h© †_‡K
Zvc ZvwoZ †PŠ¤^K Zi‡½i AvKv‡i wewKiY c×wZ‡Z c„w_ex‡Z Av‡m|
cÖkœ : 3| Zvc mÂvj‡bi wZbwU c×wZi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (iv.
†ev. Õ99)
DËi : Zvc mÂvj‡bi wZbwU c×wZi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ : Zvc mÂvj‡bi
wZbwU wewkó c×wZ Av‡Q| h_v−
1. cwienb
2. cwiPjb
3. wewKiY|
DcwiD³ wZbwU c×wZi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbæiƒc−
cv_©‡K¨i cwienb cwiPjb wewKiY
welq
1. gva¨g gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb
nq| nq| nq bv|
2. gva¨‡gi gva¨g DËß nq| gva¨g DËß nq| gva¨g _vK‡jI DËß
Ae¯’v nq bv|
3. gva¨‡gi gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi Zvc ZvwoZ
KYv¸‡jvi ¯’vbPz¨wZ N‡U ¯’vbPz¨wZ N‡U| †PŠ¤^K Zi½vKv‡i
Ae¯’vb bv| mÂvwjZ nq|
4. Zvc mÂvj‡bi †h †Kvb c‡_ Zvc †h †Kvb c‡_ Zvc Zvc mÂvwjZ nq
w`K mÂvwjZ nq| mÂvwjZ nq| mij‡iLvq|
5. c×wZ GwU axi c×wZ| GwU cwien‡bi Zvc Av‡jvi †e‡M
†P‡q A‡c¶vK…Z mÂvwjZ nq|
`ª“Z c×wZ|
6. †h c`v‡_© mvaviYZ KwVb Zij I evqexq evqexq I
N‡U c`v‡_© GB c`v‡_© Zvc k チ b¨¯’v‡bi
c×wZ‡Z Zvc mÂvwjZ nq| ga¨w`‡q Zvc
mÂvwjZ nq| mÂvwjZ nq|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 251

7. ˆewkó¨ KYv¸‡jvi ¯•›`‡bi KYv¸‡jvi Zvcmn Zi‡½i AvKv‡i


Øviv mÂvwjZ nq| cÖev‡ni Øviv mÂvwjZ nq|
mÂvwjZ nq|
cÖkœ : 4| †Kvb cwievn‡Ki ga¨ w`‡q cwienb c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ Zvc
†Kvb& †Kvb& wel‡qi Dci wbf©i K‡i?
DËi : †Kvb cwievn‡Ki ga¨w`‡q Zvc cwienb c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ Zvc (Q)
wbæwjwLZ wel‡qi Dci wbf©i K‡i|
K. cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ M. mgq
L. cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj N. cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi ga¨eZ©x `チ iZ¡|
m¤•K© : cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ ∆θ Gi mgvbycvwZK
A_©vr, Q ∝ ∆θ .............................(i)
cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj A Gi mgvbycvwZK
A_©vr, Q ∝ A...............................(ii)
Zvc cwien‡bi mgq t Gi mgvbycvwZK
A_©vr, Q ∝ t.................................(iii)
cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi `チ iZ¡ d Gi e¨¯マ vbycvwZK
A_©vr, Q ∝ ...............................(iv)
cÖkœ : 5| Zvc cwievn‡Ki msÁv `vI| Gi GKK D‡jL Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2000,
2001 ; e.†ev. 2001 ; iv.†ev.Õ06` Õ99; h.†ev. 2002;2005)
DËi : Zvc cwievnKZ¡ : †Kvb cwievnK cv‡Zi wecixZ mgvš マ ivj c„‡ô
ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ _vK‡j Gi Dò c„ô †_‡K kxZj c„‡ô j¤^fv‡e †h cwigvY Zvc
cwienY c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ nq Zvi gvb Q
1. cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ ∆θ Gi mgvbycvwZK
2. cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj A Gi mgvbycvwZK
3. Zvc cwien‡bi mgq t Gi mgvbycvwZK Ges
4. cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi `チ iZ¡ d Gi e¨¯マ vbycvwZK| A_©vr,
Q ∝ ∆θ hLb A, t, d w¯’i _v‡K
Q ∝ A hLb ∆θ, t, d Ó Ó
Q ∝ t hLb ∆θ , A, d Ó Ó
Q ∝ hLb ∆θ, A, t Ó Ó
hLb cÖ‡Z¨KwU ivwk cwiewZ©Z nq ZLb
Q∝ =
ev, Q = K ... ... ... .. (i)
GLv‡b K GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| Gi gvb cwievn‡Ki Dcv`v‡bi Dci
wbf©i K‡i| G‡K cwievn‡Ki Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ e‡j|
mgxKiY (1) bs †_‡K K = ... ... ... (ii)
GB mgxKiY hLb A = 1 GKK, d = 1 GKK, ∆θ = 1K Ges t = 1s nq, ZLb K = Q nq| Gi
†_‡K Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i wb‡æv³ msÁv †`Iqv hvq|
msÁv : †Kvb c`v‡_©i GKK cyi“Z¡ Ges GKK cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj wewkó †Kvb
L‡Êi `yB wecixZ mgvš マ ivj c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ 1K n‡j cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û
252 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Gi Dò c„ô †_‡K kxZj c„‡ô j¤^fv‡e †h cwigvY Zvc cwienY c×wZ‡Z


mÂvwjZ nq Zv‡K H c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ e‡j|
GKK : Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i GKK nj
A_ev, Wm−1K−1
cÖkœ : 6| Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i GKK wbY©q Ki |
DËi : Avgiv Rvwb,
Q= K
ev, K= ... ... ... (1)
GLv‡b, Q = cwievwnZ Zv‡ci cwigvY
d = cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi `チ iZ¡
A = cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj
∆θ = `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
t = Zvc cwien‡bi mgq|
myZivs (1) bs mgxKiY †_‡K †`Lv hvq
K Gi GKK n‡e
ev, Gi GKK|
K Gi GKK =
= = Jm−1 k−1s−1 = Wm−1k−1 ( 1W = 1Js−1)
myZivs Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i GKK nj = |
cÖkœ : 7| †jvnvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 80 Wm−1k−1 ej‡Z wK eyS? (P. †ev. Õ99;
Xv.†ev. 2004; 2005)
DËi : †jvnvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 80 Wm−1k−1 ej‡Z †evSvq 1m cyi“Z¡ Ges 1m2
cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îd‡ji †jvnvi †Kvb L‡Êi `yB wecixZ mgvš マ ivj c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi
cv_©K¨ 1k n‡j Gi Dò c„ô n‡Z kxZj c„ô j¤^fv‡e 80W nv‡i Zvc kw³ cwienb
c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ n‡e|
cÖkœ : 8| Zv‡ci mycwievnK, KzcwievnK Ges AcwievnK ej‡Z wK
eyS? D`vniY `vI|
DËi : mycwievnK :
msÁv : †h mKj c`v‡_©i ga¨w`‡q Zvc mn‡RB cwievwnZ n‡Z cv‡i Zv‡`i‡K
Zv‡ci mycwievnK e‡j| cÖvq mKj avZe c`v_©B Kg †ewk Zv‡ci
mycwievnK|
D`vniY : †jvnv, Zvgv, iƒcv BZ¨vw` Zv‡ci mycwievnK|
KzcwievnK :
msÁv : †h mKj c`v‡_©i ga¨w`‡q Zvc AvswkK cwievwnZ nq Zv‡`i‡K
Zv‡ci KzcwievnK e‡j|
A_ev, †h mKj c`v‡_©i ga¨w`‡q Zvc mn‡R cwievwnZ nq bv Zv‡`i‡K Zv‡ci
KzcwievnK e‡j|
D`vniY : KvV, KuvP, ivevi Ges cÖvq mKj Zij I evqexq c`v_© Zv‡ci
K¨vjwiwgwZ 253

KzcwievnK|
AcwievnK :
msÁv : †h mKj c`v‡_©i ga¨w`‡q Zvc G‡Kev‡iB cwievwnZ nq bv Zv‡`i‡K
Zv‡ci AcwievnK e‡j|
D`vniY : †dÎ, ckgx Kvco, A¨vm‡e÷m BZ¨vw` Zv‡ci AcwievnK|
cÖkœ : 9| †iv‡` ivLv GKLÊ †jvnv I GKLÊ KvV‡K ¯•k© Ki‡j †Kvb&wU
AwaKZi DËß g‡b n‡e? †Kb?
DËi : †jvnv‡K †ewk DËß g‡b n‡e|
KviY : †h e¯‘ hZ mycwievnx †m ZZ `ª“Z Zvc MÖnY ev eR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i|
†jvnv Kv‡Vi †P‡q AwaKZi mycwievnx, ZvB ¯•k© Ki‡j †jvnv ZvovZvwo
†`‡n Zvc mÂvjb Ki‡e, wKš‘ KvV Kzcwievnx nIqvq ZvovZvwo Zvc mÂvjb
Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| Kv‡RB †jvnv‡K AwaKZi DËß g‡b n‡e|
cÖkœ : 10| Av¸‡bi cv‡ki †Kvb ¯’vb †_‡K Av¸b †_‡K GKB ` チ i‡Z¡ Gi
wVK Dc‡i †Kvb ¯’vb †ewk
DËß nq †Kb? (h.†ev.2001)
DËi : Av¸‡bi cv‡ki †Kvb ¯’v‡b †Kej wewKiY c×wZ‡Z Zvc mÂvwjZ nq|
wKš‘ Av¸‡bi Dc‡ii †Kvb ¯’v‡b cwiPjb I wewKiY GB `yB c×wZ‡Z Zvc
mÂvwjZ nq| G‡¶‡Î mÂvwjZ Zv‡ci cwigvY AwaK| AZGe, Av¸‡bi cv‡ki
†Kvb¯’vb A‡c¶v Av¸b n‡Z GKB `チ i‡Z¡ Gi wVK Dc‡ii †Kvb¯’v‡b AwaK Mig
†eva nq|
cÖkœ : 11| gi“ A‡j w`‡b Zxeª Mig Avi iv‡Z Zxeª kxZ Abyf‚Z nq|
Gi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki|
DËi : gi“ A‡j w`‡b Zxeª Mig KviY- w`‡bi †ejv m チ h© Zvc wewKiY
K‡i, Avi c„w_ex †m Zvc †kvlY K‡i f‚-c„ô DËß nq| f‚-c„ô hZ †ewk DËß n‡e
†ewk Mig Abyf‚Z n‡e, Avi f‚-f…ô Zvc wewKiY K‡i hZ kxZj n‡e ZZ †ewk
kxZ Abyf‚Z n‡e|
gi“ A‡ji evqy ﮋ _v‡K| GB ﮋ evqy wewKi‡Yi Rb¨ ¯^”Q c`v_©
wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i A_©vr, ﮋ evqyi ga¨ w`‡q Zvc mn‡R wewKwiZ n‡Z
cv‡i|
gi“ A‡ji w`‡bi †ejv ZvB ﮋ evqyi ga¨w`‡q m チ h© †_‡K weKxY© Zvc
mn‡RB f‚-c„‡ô †cuŠQvq Ges f‚-c„ô DËß nq| ZvB gi“ A‡j w`‡b Zxeª Mig
Abyf‚Z nq|
gi“ A‡j iv‡Z Zxeª kxZ :
iv‡Zi †ejvq f‚-c„ô Zvc wewKiY K‡i| gi“ A‡ji ﮋ evqyi ga¨w`‡q GB
weKxY© Zvc mn‡RB evqygÊj †f` K‡i P‡j hvq Ges f‚-c„ô Lye kxZj nq|
GRb¨ iv‡Zi †ejv Zxeª kxZ Abyf‚Z nq|
cÖkœ : 12| L‡oi Qv`hy³ Ni MigKv‡j VvÊv I kxZKv‡j Mig _v‡K †Kb?
254 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

(h.†ev. 2004)
DËi : L‡oi Qv`hy³ Ni MigKv‡j VvÊv I kxZKv‡j Mig _v‡K KviY : †h
N‡ii Qv‡`i ga¨w`‡q MigKv‡j evB‡i †_‡K Zvc wfZ‡i Avm‡Z cv‡i bv Avi
kxZKv‡j evB‡ii ZvcgvÎv N‡ii wfZi †_‡K Kg _vKvq evB‡i Zvc †h‡Z cv‡i bv
A_©vr, †h N‡ii Qv` Kzcwievnx c`v‡_©i ˆZwi n‡e †mB Ni MigKv‡j VvÊv
Avi kxZKv‡j Mig _v‡K|
Lo Zv‡ci KzcwievnK| GQvov Qv` L‡oi ˆZwi n‡j L‡oi gv‡S gv‡S A‡bK duvK
_v‡K hv‡Z evqy Ave× _v‡K| evqy Zv‡ci KzcwievnK e‡j Mi‡gi w`‡b evB‡ii
ZvcgvÎv †ewk n‡jI L‡oi Qv‡`i ga¨w`‡q Zvc wfZ‡i Avm‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j Ni
VvÊv g‡b nq| Avevi kxZKv‡j evB‡ii ZvcgvÎv Kg _vK‡jI wfZ‡ii Zvc evB‡i
†h‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j Mig g‡b nq|
cÖkœ : 13| K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j gvby‡li †`n kx‡Zi w`‡b Mig _v‡K, A_P
GK UzKiv eid K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j Mi‡gi w`‡b VvÊv _v‡K| Gi KviY
e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv. †ev. 2000)
DËi : K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j gvby‡li †`n kx‡Zi w`‡b Mig _v‡K, A_P GK
UzKiv eid K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j Mi‡gi w`‡b VvÊv _v‡K, KviY- K¤^j Zv‡ci
KzcwievnK KviY K¤^‡ji duv‡K duv‡K AmsL¨ wQ`ª c‡_ evqy Ave× _v‡K|
evqy Zv‡ci KzcwievnK e‡j GB evqy¯マ i Zvc mÂvj‡b evav cÖ`vb K‡i|
kx‡Zi w`‡b gvby‡li †`n K¤^‡j †X‡K ivL‡j K¤^‡ji ga¨w`‡q gvby‡li †`‡ni
Zvc evB‡i †h‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j kixi Mig _v‡K| Aci c‡¶ Mi‡gi w`‡b evqygÊj
†_‡K Zvc MÖnY K‡i eid Mj‡Z _v‡K| wKš‘ K¤^‡j XvKv _vK‡j K¤^j Zv‡ci
KzcwievnK e‡j evB‡ii Zvc K¤^j †f` K‡i ei‡d Avm‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j eid †Kvb
Zvc MÖnY K‡i bv, ZvB GwU VvÊvB _v‡K|
cÖkœ : 14| Mi‡gi w`‡b mv`v Kvco I kx‡Zi w`‡b iwOb Kvco e¨envi Kiv
Avivg`vqK| KviY eywS‡q `vI| (h.†ev. 2006)
DËi : Mi‡gi w`‡b mv`v Kvco I kx‡Zi w`‡b iwOb Kvco e¨envi Kiv
Avivg`vqK| KviY- †h Kvco hZ †ewk Zvc †kvlY K‡i DËß nq †mB Kvco
e¨envi Ki‡j ZZ †ewk Mig jv‡M| Mi‡gi w`‡b Ggb Kvco e¨envi Kiv nq hv Zvc
Kg †kvlY K‡i Avi kx‡Zi w`‡b Ggb Kvco e¨envi Kiv nq hv †ewk Zvc †kvlY
K‡i|
e¯‘i Zvc †kvlY ¶gZv Zvi i‡Oi DciI wbf©i K‡i| mv`v e¯‘i Zvc †kvlY ¶gZv
G‡Kev‡iB Kg Ges AvcwZZ Zv‡ci †ewki fvMB cÖwZdwjZ K‡i, Acic‡¶ iwOb
e¯‘ †ewk Zvc †kvlY K‡i| Mi‡gi w`‡b mv`v Kvco e¨envi Ki‡j m チ ‡ h©i
weKxY© Zvc mv`v Kvc‡o c‡o †ewki fvMB cÖwZdwjZ n‡q hvq, Kvc‡oi
ZvcgvÎv Zv‡Z mvgvb¨ ev‡o| kx‡Zi w`‡b wewfbœ iwOb Kvco e¨envi Ki‡j
m チ ‡ h©i Zvc Kvc‡o c‡o †kvwlZ nq| d‡j Kvc‡oi ZvcgvÎv ev‡o Ges Avivg
jv‡M| G Kvi‡Y Mi‡gi w`‡b mv`v Kvco I kx‡Zi w`‡b iwOb Kvco e¨envi Kiv
AvivgcÖ`|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 255

cÖkœ : 15| Kuv‡Pi Ni ev meyR evwo memgq Mig _v‡K| KviY


e¨vL¨v Ki| (P.†ev. 2003; ewi.†ev. 2005)
DËi : meyR evwo : (Kz.†ev. 2006; Õ99 ; iv.†ev. Õ99 ; P.†ev. Õ99 ; h.†ev. 2001 ;
wm.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2006; 02; iv.†ev. 2002)
msÁv : kxZcÖavb †`‡k Zxeª kx‡Z †Kvb †Kvb Dw™¢` euvP‡Z cv‡i bv|
meyR Dw™¢‡`i †Kvb ¶wZ bv nq GRb¨ Zv‡`i Kuv‡Pi N‡ii wfZi ivLv nq e‡j
Giƒc Ni‡K meyR Ni ev meyR evwo ejv nq|
Kuv‡Pi Ni ev meyR evwo memgq Mig _v‡K| KviY- mh© ev Pzwji
weKxY© Zvc AwZ mn‡R KuvP †f` K‡i P‡j †h‡Z cv‡i d‡j H Zvc meyR
evwoi wfZ‡ii Dw™¢` I gvwU‡K DËß iv‡L Ges Dw™¢‡`i ZvcRwbZ †LvivK
†RvMvq| wKš‘ evwoi wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 1000C A‡c¶v Kg e‡j wfZi n‡Z Zvc
wewKiY cÖwµqvq evB‡i mÂvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| KviY weKxY© Zv‡ci 1000C-Gi
Kg n‡j KuvP A¯^”Q c`v‡_©i b¨vq wµqv K‡i| GRb¨ evwoi wfZ‡ii Zvc
wfZ‡iB Ave× _v‡K Ges evB‡i Zxeª kxZ ev ZzlvicvZ evwoi wfZ‡ii
Dw™¢‡`i †Kvb ¶wZ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|

Abykxjbxi
iPbvgjK
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Zvc mÂvj‡bi wewfbœ c×wZ D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki|
A_ev, Zvc mÂvjb ej‡Z wK eyS? Zvc mÂvj‡bi
cwienb/cwiPjb/wewKiYc×wZ D`vniY mn e¨vL¨v Ki|
(wm.†ev. 2006)
A_ev, UxKv wjL : 1. Zv‡ci cwienb; 2. Zv‡ci cwiPjb; 3. Zv‡ci
wewKiY
DËi : Zvc mÂvj‡bi wewfbœ c×wZ :
Zvc GK cÖKvi kw³| †ewk ZvcgvÎv wewkó ¯’vb †_‡K Zvc Kg ZvcgvÎv
wewkó ¯’v‡bi w`‡K cÖevwnZ nq, G‡K Zvc mÂvjb e‡j| GK ¯’vb †_‡K Ab¨
¯’v‡b Zvc wZb c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i| h_v−
1. cwienb
2. cwiPjb
3. wewKiY|
1. cwienY :
msÁv : †h c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jv Zv‡`i wbR¯^ ¯’vb cwieZ©b bv K‡i
ïay ¯•›`‡bi gva¨‡g Zvi cvk¦©eZ©x AYy‡K Zvc cÖ`vb K‡i c`v‡_©i
DòZi Ask †_‡K kxZjZi As‡k Zvc mÂvwjZ K‡i †mB c×wZ‡K cwienb e‡j|
256 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

e¨vL¨v :
Zvc cwien‡bi Rb¨ Ro gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb| GB c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i DòZi AYy¸‡jv
Zvc MÖnY K‡i wb‡Ri Ae¯’v‡b †_‡K ¯•w›`Z n‡Z _v‡K| GB ¯•›`‡bi gva¨‡g
DËß AYy¸‡jv cvk¦©eZ©x kxZj AYy¸‡jv‡K Zvc cÖ`vb K‡i, †m¸‡jv DËß n‡q
Avevi Zv‡`i cvk¦©eZ©x AYy¸‡jv‡Z Zvc mÂvwjZ K‡i| †h gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jv
hZ †ewk my`„p †mLv‡b cwienb ZZ †ewk n‡q _v‡K| †mRb¨ KwVb c`v‡_©i
ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci cwienb me‡P‡q †ewk nq, Zi‡j Zvi †P‡q Kg, evqexq c`v‡_©
AZ¨š マ Kg Ges k チ b¨¯’v‡b †Kvb cwienb nq bv|
D`vniY : GKwU avZe `Ê R (†hgb †jvnv) -Gi
GK cÖvš マ Av¸b F G ai‡j wKQy¶Y ci Aci
cÖv‡š マ Mig AYyf‚Z nq| KviY- avZe `‡Êi †h
Ask Av¸‡bi g‡a¨ _v‡K H As‡ki AYy¸‡jv Av¸b
n‡Z Zvc MÖnY Kivi mv‡_ mv‡_ c チ e©v‡c¶v
†ewk †Rv‡i ¯^-¯^ ¯’vb‡K †K›`ª K‡i ¯•w›`Z
n‡Z _v‡K| d‡j DËß Aby¸‡jv ¯^-¯^ ¯’v‡b †_‡K
cvk¦©eZ©x A‡c¶vK…Z kxZj AYy¸‡jv‡Z Zvc
mÂvjb K‡i| Giƒ‡c Zvc `‡Êi Ask n‡Z kxZj As‡k
mÂvwjZ nIqvq `‡Êi Aci cÖv‡š マ Mig Abyf‚Z
nq| myZivs Zvc mÂvj‡bi Giƒc cÖwµqvB
cwienb cÖwµqv| wPÎ : avZe `‡Êi Zvc cwienb
2. cwiPjb :
msÁv : †h c×wZ‡Z Zvc †Kvb c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jvi PjvPj Øviv DòZi Ask †_‡K
kxZjZi As‡k mÂvwjZ nq Zv‡K cwiPjb e‡j|
e¨vL¨v : Zv‡ci cwiPj‡bi Rb¨ Ro
gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb nq| Zij I evqexq
c`v‡_© Zvc cwiPjb c×wZ‡Z
mÂvwjZ nq| Zvc MÖnY K‡i c`v‡_©i
DòZi As‡ki AYy¸‡jv kxZjZi As‡k
P‡j hvq, Gfv‡e Ab¨ AYy¸‡jv ¯’vb
cwieZ©b K‡i wb‡Ri MwZi
mvnv‡h¨ Zvc mÂvwjZ K‡i|
D`vniY : GKwU Kuv‡Pi cv‡Î cvwb
wb‡q Gi mv‡_ wKQy is wgkv‡bv
nq| Gici cv‡Îi wb‡P Zvc cÖ‡qvM
Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, cv‡Îi Zjv †_‡K
GKwU iwOb cvwbi †mªvZ Dc‡ii
w`‡K D‡V hvq Ges cv‡Îi †`qvj
†e‡q Avi wPÎ : Zv‡ci cwiPjb
GKwU †mªvZ wb‡P †b‡g Av‡m| cv‡Îi Zjvi cvwb cÖ_‡g Zvc MÖnY K‡i, d‡j
K¨vjwiwgwZ 257

GwU DËß n‡q nvjKv nq Ges Dc‡i D‡V hvq| Dc‡ii VvÊv cvwb wb‡P †b‡g
Av‡m| Gfv‡e µgvMZ Dò cvwbi Dc‡i hvIqv Ges kxZj cvwbi wb‡P Avmvi
d‡j mg¯ マ cvwb DËß nq| myZivs GB c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jv ¯’vb
cwieZ©b K‡i Zvc mÂvjb K‡i e‡j GB c×wZ‡K cwiPjb e‡j|
3. wewKiY :
msÁv : †h c×wZ‡Z Zvc Ro gva¨‡gi mvnvh¨ QvovB ZvwoZ †PŠ¤^K
Zi‡½i AvKv‡i Dò e¯‘ †_‡K kxZj e¯‘‡Z mÂvwjZ nq Zv‡K wewKiY e‡j|
e¨vL¨v : wewKiY c×wZ‡Z Zvc mÂvwjZ nIqvi Rb¨ †Kvb Ro gva¨‡gi
cÖ‡qvRb nq bv ev Ro gva¨g _vK‡jI Zv‡K DËß K‡i bv| ¯^”Q e¯‘i ga¨ w`‡qI
Zv‡ci wewKiY n‡Z cv‡i; †hgbÑ KvP, †KvqvU©R BZ¨vw`| wKš‘ A¯^”Q e¯‘i
ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci wewKiY nq bv| †hgbÑ KvV, †jvnv, cv_i BZ¨vw`| K‡qKwU
Zi‡ji ga¨ w`‡q wewKiY m¤¢e; †hgbÑ Kve©b WvB-mvjdvBW (C2S)| wKš‘
mvaviYZ Zi‡ji ga¨ w`‡q wewKiY m¤¢e nq bv| cvwbi ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci
AvswkK wewKiY N‡U|
D`vniY : Avgiv c„w_ex‡Z m チ h© †_‡K Zvc cvB| c„w_ex I m チ ‡ h©i g‡a¨
K‡qKk wK‡jvwgUvi evqygÊj e¨ZxZ Avi †Kvb Ro gva¨g †bB| m チ h© †_‡K
Zvc ZvwoZ †PŠ¤^K Zi‡½i AvKv‡i wewKiY c×wZ‡Z c„w_ex‡Z Av‡m|
cÖkœ : 2| Zvc mÂvj‡bi cwiPjb c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki| KwVb c`v‡_©i
g‡a¨ Zv‡ci cwiPjb nq bv †Kb?
DËi : Zvc mÂvj‡bi cwiPjb c×wZ :
cwiPj‡bi msÁv : †h c×wZ‡Z Zvc †Kvb c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jvi PjvPj Øviv DòZi
Ask †_‡K kxZjZi As‡k mÂvwjZ nq Zv‡K cwiPjb e‡j|
e¨vL¨v : Zvc mÂvjb c×wZ e¨vL¨vi Rb¨ GKwU cix¶v wb‡æ Dc¯’vcb Kiv
nj :
Zvc mÂvj‡bi cix¶v :
GKwU Kuv‡Pi cv‡Î cvwb wb‡q Gi mv‡_
wKQy is wgkv‡bv nq| Gici cv‡Îi wb‡P
Zvc cÖ‡qvM Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, cv‡Îi Zjv
†_‡K GKwU iwOb cvwbi †mªvZ Dc‡ii
w`‡K D‡V hvq Ges cv‡Îi †`qvj †e‡q Avi
GKwU †mªvZ wb‡P †b‡g Av‡m| cv‡Îi
Zjvi cvwb cÖ_‡g Zvc MÖnY K‡i, d‡j
GwU DËß n‡q nvjKv nq Ges Dc‡i D‡V
hvq| Dc‡ii VvÊv cvwb wb‡P †b‡g Av‡m|
Gfv‡e µgvMZ Dò cvwbi Dc‡i hvIqv Ges
kxZj cvwbi wb‡P Avmvi d‡j mg¯ マ cvwb
DËß nq| myZivs GB c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i
AYy¸‡jv ¯’vb cwieZ©b K‡i Zvc mÂvjb
K‡i e‡j GB c×wZ‡K cwiPjb e‡j|
wPÎ : Zv‡ci cwiPjb
KwVb c`v‡_©i g‡a¨ Zv‡ci cwiPjb bv
258 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

nIqvi KviY : KwVb c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jvi


g‡a¨ eÜb LyeB cÖej| ZvQvov KwVb
c`v‡_©i AYy¸‡jvi gv‡S Avš マ t AvYweK
duvK Kg _v‡K| d‡j KwVb c`v‡_© Zvc
cÖ‡qvM Ki‡j AYy¸‡jv †h MwZkw³ jvf K‡i
Zv AYymg チ n‡K ¯’vbvš マ wiZ Ki‡Z cv‡i
bv| d‡j KwVb c`v‡_© Zv‡ci cwiPjb N‡U
bv| Zvc cÖvwßi d‡j AYy¸‡jv ¯•w›`Z nq
gvÎ Ges GB ¯•›`b cvk¦©eZ©x AYy‡K
¯•w›`Z K‡i Zv‡ci cwienb K‡i| wPÎ t
KwVb c`v_© A‡c¶v Zi‡ji Avš マ t AvYweK
duvK †ewk
cÖkœ : 3| wewfbœ avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ Zzjbv Kivi GKwU
cix¶v eY©bv Ki|
DËi : wewfbœ avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ Zzjbv Kivi cix¶v :
wewfbœ avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ wewfbœ Zv Bb‡Rb n‡Ri cix¶v Øviv
cÖgvY Kiv hvq| wb‡æ cix¶vwU eY©bv Kiv nj−
g チ jZË¡ : †Kvb cwievnK cv‡Zi wecixZ mgvš マ ivj c„‡ô ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
_vK‡j Gi Dò c„ô †_‡K kxZj c„‡ô j¤^fv‡e †h cwigvY Zvc cwienb c×wZ‡Z
mÂvwjZ nq Zvi gvb Q,
1. cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ ∆θ Gi mgvbycvwZK
2. cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj A Gi mgvbycvwZK
3. Zvc cwien‡bi mgq t Gi mgvbycvwZK Ges
4. cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi `チ iZ¡ d Gi e¨¯マ vbycvwZK| A_©vr,
Q ∝ ∆θ hLb A, t, d w¯’i _v‡K
Q ∝ A hLb ∆θ, t, d w¯’i _v‡K
Q ∝ t hLb Aθ , A, d w¯’i _v‡K
Q ∝ hLb ∆θ, A, t w¯’i _v‡K
hLb cÖ‡Z¨KwU ivwk cwiewZ©Z nq ZLbÑ
Q∝ ev, Q ∝
ev, Q = K ... ... ... (1)
GLv‡b, K GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| Gi gvb cwievn‡Ki Dcv`v‡bi Dci
wbf©i K‡i| G‡K cwievn‡Ki Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ e‡j|
mgxKiY (1) bs †_‡K
K = ... ... ... ... (2)
GLv‡b, Q = cwievwnZ Zv‡ci cwigvY
d = cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi `チ iZ¡
A = cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj
∆θ = `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
t = Zvc cwien‡Yi mgq|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 259

Bb‡Rbn‡Ri cix¶vq mgvb `チ i‡Z¡i (d) Ges mgvb cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj (A) wewkó
wewfbœ avZe c`v‡_©i K‡qKwU `ʇK GKB mgq (t) a‡i Ggbfv‡e DËß Kiv
nq hv‡Z `‡Êi `yB cÖv‡š マ i ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ (∆θ) mgvb _v‡K| avZe `ʸ‡jvi
Mv‡q †gvg jvMv‡bv _v‡K| GB Ae¯’vq wewfbœ avZe `‡Êi Rb¨ cwievwnZ
Zv‡ci cwigvY (Q) wewfbœ n‡e| d‡j wewfbœ c`v‡_©i `‡Êi Mv‡q jvMv‡bv
†gvg mgfv‡e Mj‡e bv|
mgxKiY (2) bs †_‡K †`Lv hv‡”Q †h, Q-Gi gvb †ewk n‡j K-Gi gvb †ewk n‡e|
A_©vr †h `‡Êi †gvg †ewk Mj‡e Zvi cwievnKZ¡ †ewk|
cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY :
1. wewfbœ avZe `Ê 3. wkLv Ges
2. GKwU avZe cvÎ 4. †gvg I wKQy cvwb|
cix¶v c×wZ :
1. GKwU avZe cvÎ †bB|
2. mgvb ˆ`‡N©¨i Ges mgvb cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj wewkó wewfbœ avZe
c`v‡_©i K‡qKwU `Ê wb‡q cÖ‡Z¨KwU `‡Êi Mv‡q †gvg jvMvB|
3. `ʸ‡jvi GK cÖvš マ avZe cv‡Îi wfZi XzKv‡bv nq|
4. GLb cv‡Îi g‡a¨ cvwb †i‡L Zvc cÖ‡qvM Ki‡j 1000C ZvcgvÎvq cvwb
dzU‡Z _vK‡e Ges mKj `‡Êi wb‡Pi cÖv‡š マ i ZvcgvÎv GKB n‡e| wKš‘
Dc‡ii Ask kxZj _vKvq wewfbœ `‡Êi ga¨ w`‡q Zvc cwievwnZ n‡e Ges
`ʸ‡jvi †h ¯’v‡bi ZvcgvÎv †gv‡gi Mjbvs‡Ki †ewk n‡e †mB ¯’v‡bi †gvg
M‡j hv‡e|

wPÎ : avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ Zzjbv


ch©‡e¶Y : †`Lv hvq, wbw`©ó mg‡q wewfbœ ˆ`N©¨ ch©š マ † gvg M‡j
†M‡Q| †h `‡Êi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ †ewk †mB `‡Êi †ewk †gvg M‡j hvq|
wnmve : cÖK…Zc‡¶ †Kvb c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ †gvg †h `チ iZ¡ ch©š マ
M‡j‡Q †mB ` チ i‡Z¡i e‡M©i mgvbycvwZK| K‡qKwU wewfbœ avZe `‡Êi
Zvc cwievnKZ¡ K1, K2, K3 Ges †gvg †h ` チ iZ¡ ch©š マ M‡j‡Q Zvi ˆ`N©¨
h_vµ‡g l1, l2, l3 n‡j †`Lv hvq †h,
= =
260 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

wm×vš マ : D³ mgxKiY n‡Z wewfbœ avZe c`v‡_©i cwievnKZ¡ Zzjbv Kiv


m¤¢e Ges GKwUi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ Rvbv _vK‡j Ab¨vb¨ avZzi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ wbY©q Kiv hvq|
cÖkœ : 4| avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ wbY©‡qi mvwj©i
c×wZ eY©bv Ki|
(Xv.†ev. Kz.†ev. P.†ev. 2000 ; h.†ev.2000;Õ05; e.†ev. Õ06; Õ04; Õ02;
iv.†ev. Õ06; Õ02; wm.†ev. Õ04; Õ02; Kz.†ev. Õ04; Õ02; Xv.†ev. Õ04;
Õ02)
DËi : Zvc cwievnKZ¡ wbY©‡q mvwj©i c×wZ :
†Kvb mycwievnx c`v‡_©i A_©vr, avZe c`v‡_©i Zvc cwievnKZ¡ mvwj©i
c×wZ‡Z wbY©q Kiv hvq|
g チ jZË¡ : †Kvb cwievnK cv‡Zi wecixZ mgvš マ ivj c„‡ô ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
_vK‡j Gi Dò c„ô †_‡K kxZj c„‡ô j¤^fv‡e †h cwigvY Zvc cwienb c×wZ‡Z
mÂvwjZ nq Zvi gvb Q,A_©vr,
Q ∝ ∆θ hLb A, t, d w¯’i _v‡K
Q ∝ A hLb ∆θ, t, d Ó Ó
Q ∝ hLb
t ∆θ, A, d Ó Ó
Q ∝ hLb ∆θ, A, t Ó Ó
hLb cÖ‡Z¨KwU ivwk cwiewZ©Z nq ZLb
Q∝ =
ev, Q = K ... ... ...(1)
GLv‡b K GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| Gi gvb cwievn‡Ki Dcv`v‡bi Dci
wbf©i K‡i| G‡K cwievn‡Ki Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ e‡j|
mgxKiY (1) bs †_‡K
K = ... ... ... ... ... (2)
cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY :
1. cix¶vaxb avZe `Ê 5. cvi`
2. GKwU ev®• cÖ‡Kvó 6. PviwU my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUvi
3. GKwU Zvgvi bj 7. GKwU Kv‡Vi ev·
4. kxZj cvwb 8. GKwU úvBW K¨vwjcvm©|
h‡š ミ i MVb :
mvwj©i h‡š ミ cix¶vaxb avZe `‡Êi GK cÖv‡š マ GKwU ev®• cÖ‡Kvó _v‡K
Ges Aci cÖv‡š マ GKwU Zvgvi bj Rov‡bv _v‡K| GB b‡ji ga¨w`‡q kxZj cvwb
cwievwnZ nq| `‡Êi g‡a¨ GKwU wbw`©ó e¨eav‡b Aew¯’Z `ywU M‡Z© cvi`
†i‡L `ywU my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUvi T1 I T2 ¯’vcb Kiv nq| Zvgvi b‡ji ga¨ w`‡q
cÖevwnZ kxZj cvwbi cÖv_wgK I †kl ZvcgvÎv wbY©‡qi R‡b¨ Zvgvi b‡ji
cÖ‡ek I wbM©g c‡_ Av‡iv `y‡Uv _v‡g©vwgUvi h_vµ‡g T4 I T3 cÖ‡ek Kiv‡bv
_v‡K| Gevi Zv‡ci AcPq †iva Kivi R‡b¨ cix¶vaxb `ÊwU‡K Kzcwievnx c`v‡_©i
g‡a¨ †X‡K GKwU Kv‡Vi ev‡· ivLv nq|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 261

wPÎ : mvwj©i c×wZ‡Z Zvc cwienb ¸bvsK †ei KiY


Kvh© cÖYvwj :
1. cÖ_‡g T1 Ges T2 _v‡g©vwgUvi `y‡Uvi ga¨eZ©x `チ iZ¡ d wbY©q Kiv
nq|
2. Gici úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i mvnv‡h¨ Gi e¨vm †g‡c cÖ¯’‡”Q` A
cwigvc Kiv nq|
3. Gevi ev®• cÖ‡Kv‡ôi ga¨w`‡q ev®• Ges Zvgvi b‡ji ga¨w`‡q kxZj
cvwb cÖevwnZ Kiv nq|
4. Gi d‡j T1, T2, T3, T4 _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii cvVµg cwiewZ©Z n‡e|
5. wKQy¶Y ci Giv w¯’i ZvcgvÎv wb‡`©k Ki‡e| G Ae¯’vq †Kvb wbw`©ó
mg‡q `‡Êi ga¨ w`‡q cwievwnZ Zv‡ci cwigvY H mg‡q b‡ji ga¨w`‡q
cÖevwnZ cvwb KZ©„K †kvwlZ Zv‡ci mgvb n‡e|
6. GLb T1, T2, T3, T4 _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii ZvcgvÎv h_vµ‡g θ10C, θ20C, θ30C, θ40C,
wjwce× Kiv nj|
7. Gevi wbw`©ó t †m‡K‡Êi R‡b¨ Zvgvi b‡ji ga¨w`‡q cÖevwnZ cvwb
msMÖn Kiv nq Ges IRb K‡i msM„nxZ cvwbi IRb m wbY©q Kiv nq|
wnmve :
GLb t †m‡K‡Ê `‡Êi ga¨ w`‡q cwievwnZ Zvc
Q1 =
Avevi t †m‡K‡Û cvwb KZ…©K †kvwlZ Zvc
Q2 = m × 1 (θ3 − θ4)
w¯’Zve¯’vq, cwievwnZ Zvc = †kvwlZ Zvc
∴ = m (θ3 − θ4)
∴ K=
Wvbc‡¶i ivwk¸‡jvi gvb wbY©q K‡i `‡Êi Zvc cwievwnZv K wbY©q Kiv
hvq|
mZK©Zv :
1. mgMÖ hš ミ wU‡K Kzcwievnx c`v_© Øviv wN‡i ivLv nq|
2. my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUvi e¨envi Kiv nq|
3. b‡ji ga¨ w`‡q mgnv‡i cvwb cÖevwnZ Kiv nq|
4. cÖwZwU _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii ZvcgvÎv w¯’ive¯’vq Avmvi ci cvV †bqv
262 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

nq|
AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| MigKv‡j cyKz‡ii DciKvi cvwb Mig Ges wb‡Pi cvwb VvÊv
_v‡K Avevi Lye VvÊvi w`‡b Dc‡ii cvwb VvÊv Ges wb‡Pi cvwb Mig
_v‡K e¨vL¨v Ki|
DËi : MigKv‡j cyKz‡ii DciKvi cvwb Mig Ges wb‡Pi cvwb VvÊv _v‡K Avevi
Lye VvÊvi w`‡b Dc‡ii cvwb VvÊv Ges wb‡Pi cvwb Mig _v‡K|
e¨vL¨v : MigKv‡j cyKz‡ii DciKvi cvwb m チ ‡ h©i Zvc †kvlY K‡i Mig nq|
wKš‘ cvwbi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ Kg e‡j Dc‡ii Zvc wb‡P †h‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j wb‡Pi
cvwbi ZvcgvÎv ev‡o bv| ZvB Dc‡ii cvwb Mig n‡jI wb‡Pi cvwb VvÊv _v‡K|
Avevi Lye VvÊvi w`‡b f‚-c„‡ôi me wKQyi mv‡_ mv‡_ cyKz‡ii DciKvi cvwbI
Zvc wewKib K‡i| d‡j ZvcgvÎv K‡g hvq Ges VvÊv nq| wKš‘ cvwbi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ Kg e‡j wb‡Pi cvwbi ZvcgvÎv †ewk _vK‡jI wb‡Pi Zvc Dc‡i
Avm‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j wb‡Pi cvwbi ZvcgvÎv †ewkB _v‡K Ges wb‡Pi cvwb
Mig g‡b nq|

MvwYwZK
mgm¨vewj I
mgvavb
◆ hv Rvbv `iKvi :
K = GLv‡b,
k ZvccwienbvsK
=
A †¶Îdj
=
∆θ ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b
=
θ = cwievwnZ Zvc
∆ = ga¨eZ©x `iZ¡

MvwYwZK
D`vniYmg
n
D`v-1| GKRb †jvK Zvi kix‡i 6mm cyi“ d¬v‡b‡j Rwo‡q iv‡Lb| evqyi
ZvcgvÎv 270C n‡j Zvi kix‡ii cÖwZ eM© †m.wg. ¯’vb †_‡K cÖwZ
NÈvq wK cwigvY Zvc evqy‡Z cwievwnZ n‡e? d¬v‡b‡ji Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 0.05 Wm−1k−1 Ges H †jv‡Ki kix‡ii ZvcgvÎv 370C|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 263

mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,


Q = d¬v‡b‡ji cyi“Z¡, d = 6mm
= = 6 × 10−3m
= 30Wsec d¬v‡b‡ji †¶Îdj, A = 1cm2
= 30J = 10−4m2
ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = (37−
DËi : cwievwnZ Zvc, Q = 30J| 27)0 C
= 100C = 10k
Zvc cwien‡Yi mgq, t =
1h
= 3600 sec.
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 0.05
−1 −1
Wm k
cwievwnZ Zvc, Q = ?
D`v-2| †Kvb N‡ii evB‡ii ZvcgvÎv 300C| 1m2 †¶Îdj Ges 2mm cyi“
GKwU
Kv‡Pi Rvbvjvi ga¨ w`‡q 4000W nv‡i Zvc wfZ‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i| Kuv‡Pi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 0.8Wm−1k−1 n‡j N‡ii wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv wbY©q Ki|
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = Rvbvjvi †¶Îdj, A = 1m2
ev, ∆θ = Rvbvjvi cyi“Z¡, d = 2mm =
= 2 × 10−3m
= 10k = 100C
Zvc cwien‡bi nvi, =
GLb ∆θ = (θ2 − θ1) = 100C
4000W
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, K = 0.8
Wm−1k−1
evB‡ii c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎv, θ2
= 300C
wfZ‡ii c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎv, θ1
= ?
ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ =
(θ2 − θ1)
∴ θ1 = θ2 − 100C
= 300C − 100c = 200C
DËi : wfZ‡ii c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎv = 200C.
D`v : 3| GKwU N‡ii †Kvb †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj 30m2| †`IqvjwU B‡Ui ˆZwi
Ges Gi cyi“Z¡ 25 cm| N‡ii evB‡ii ZvcgvÎv 300C Ges wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 260C
n‡j †`qvj w`‡q wK nv‡i Zvc N‡ii g‡a¨ cÖ‡ek Ki‡Q wbY©q Ki| B‡Ui
Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 0.6 Wm−1k−1| (iv. †ev. Õ99)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = †`qv‡ji †¶Îdj, A = 30m2
ev, = †`qv‡ji cyi“Z¡, d = 25 cm = 25 ×
= 10−2 m
= 288W
264 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = (30 −


26)0c = 40c = 4k
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 0.6
Wm−1k−1
Zvc cwien‡bi nvi, = ?
DËi : Zvc cwien‡bi nvi = 288W.
D`v : 4| 1.2m `xN© Ges 3cm2 cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj wewkó GKwU Zvgvi
`‡Êi GK cÖvš マ 00C ZvcgvÎvi eid Ges Aci cÖvš マ 1000C ZvcgvÎvi dzUš マ
cvwbi ms¯•‡k© ivLv Av‡Q| 10g eid Mj‡Z KZ mgq jvM‡e? Zvgvi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 385Wm−1k−1 Ges eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc 336000Jkg−1|
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Zvgvi `‡Êi ga¨w`‡q cwievwnZ `‡Êi `yB Z‡ji `チ iZ¡, d =
Zvc 1.2m
Q1 = cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj, A = 3cm2 =
Avevi eid KZ©„K †kvwlZ 3 × 10 m2
−4

Zvc, ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = (100−


0 0
Q2 = m × If 0) c=100 c=100k
†h‡nZz cwievwnZ Zvc = Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 385
−1 −1
†kvwlZ Zvc Wm k
∴ Q1 = Q2 eid Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc, If =
336000 Jkg−1
ei‡di fi, m = 10g = 10 × 10−3kg
cwien‡bi mgq, t = ?
ev, = m × If
ev, t =
=
= 349
= 349
∴ t = 349 sec.
DËi : cwien‡bi mgq = 349 †m‡KÊ|

Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| GKwU N‡ii evB‡ii Ges wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv h_vµ‡g 350C Ges
250C| NiwU‡Z 4m `xN© 1m cÖ¯’ GKwU Kuv‡Pi Rvbvjv Av‡Q| Kuv‡Pi
Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 0.8Wm−1k−1 n‡j cÖwZ wgwb‡U cwievwnZ Zv‡ci
cwigvY wbY©q Ki| Rvbvjvi cyi“Z¡ O.5cm|
K¨vjwiwgwZ 265

mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨,∆θ = (35−
= 25)0c = 100 = 10k
= 384000J †¶Îdj, A = 4m × 1m = 4m2
= 3.84 × 105J
mgq, t = 1 wg. = 60 sec.
DËi : cwievwnZ Zvc, Q = 3.84 × cyi“Z¡, d = 0.5cm = 0.005m
105J|
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 0.8 Wm−1k−1
cwievwnZ Zvc, Q = ?

mgm¨v : 2| kxZcÖavb †`‡ki †Kvb evwoi †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj 30m2 Ges


cyi“Z¡ 50cm| †`Iqv‡ji Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 0.4Wm−1k−1 (K) hw`
evwoi wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 150C Ges evwn‡ii ZvcgvÎv − 50C nq Z‡e kw³
¶‡qi nvi KZ? (L) GKw`‡b KZ kw³ ¶q n‡e?
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = †¶Îdj, A = 30m2
= Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 0.4
= 41472000J Wm−1k−1
∴ Q = 4.15 × 107J cyi“Z¡, d = 50cm = 0.5m
kw³ ¶‡qi nvi = ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = 15−(−
= = 480 W 5) = 200c = 20k
mgq, t = 24 h = 24 × 3600 sec.
kw³ ¶q, Q = ?
kw³ ¶‡qi nvi, = ?
DËi : (K) kw³ ¶q = 4.15 × 10 J
7

(L) kw³ ¶‡qi nvi = 480W.


mgm¨v : 3| GKwU †fovi Mv‡q 2cm cyi“ ck‡gi ¯マ i Av‡Q| ck‡gi Zvc
cwievnKZ¡ 0.05 Wm−1k−1| hw` †fovi wfZ‡ii ZvcgvÎv 370C nq Ges †fovwU
hw` 00C ZvcgvÎvi ei‡d ï‡q _v‡K Z‡e †fovwUi Zvc nviv‡bvi nvi †ei Ki|
ei‡di ms¯•‡k© _vKv Mv‡qi †¶Îdj 0.15m2| (h.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = †¶Îdj, A = 0.15m2
ev, = cyi“Z¡, d = 2cm = 0.02m
= Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k =
0.05 Wm−1k−1
ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = (37
−0)0c = 370c = 37k
Zvc nviv‡bvi nvi, = ?
= 13.875W
DËi : Zvc nviv‡bvi nvi = 13.875W.
266 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgm¨v : 4| †Kvb N‡ii †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj 100m2 Ges cyi“Z¡ 25cm| †`Iqv‡ji
`yB cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ 100C n‡j Gi ga¨ w`‡q cÖwZ wgwb‡U 3 ×
105J k Zvc cwievwnZ nq| †`Iqv‡ji Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ wbY©q
Ki| (ewi.†ev. 2004; m.†ev. Õ98)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = †¶Îdj, A = 100m2
ev, K = cyi“Z¡, d = 25cm = 0.25m
= ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = 100c
−1 −1
= 1.25 Wm k = 10k
mgq, t = 1 wgt = 60
sec.
Zvc, Q = 3 × 105J
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, K= ?
DËi : Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 1.25 Wm−1k−1.
mgm¨v : 5| †jvnvi GKwU eqjv‡ii cvZ 2cm cyi“| †jvnvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡
80Wm−1k−1| cvZwUi cÖwZ 1cm2 †¶Îd‡ji ga¨w`‡q cÖwZ wgwb‡U 240J Zvc
cwievwnZ n‡j Gi `yB cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ wbY©q Ki|
(Kz.†ev. 2004; 2002; e.†ev. 2006; 2002; Xv.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = cyi“Z¡, d = 2cm = 0.02m = 2 × 10−2m
ev, ∆θ = Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 80Wm−
1 −1
= k
= 10k †¶Îdj, A = 1cm2 = 1 × 10−4m2
= 100C
mgq, t = 1 min = 60 sec.
Zvc, Q = 240J
ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = ?
DËi : ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ = 10 C. 0

mgm¨v : 6| 4mm cyi“ wcZ‡ji cv‡Zi `yB c„‡ôi ZvcgvÎv h_vµ‡g 100C
Ges 300C| Gi †fZi w`‡q cÖwZ †m‡K‡Ê 33KJ Zvc cwievwnZ nq| wcZ‡ji
Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 110Wm−1k−1 n‡j cv‡Zi †¶Îdj wbY©q Ki|
(iv.†ev. 2005; 2001; P.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q= cyi“Z¡, d = 4mm = 4 × 10−3m
ev, A = ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = (30−
= = 0.06m2 10)0C = 200C = 20k
mgq, t = 1 sec.
Zvc, Q = 33KJ = 33 × 103J
K¨vjwiwgwZ 267

Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 110 Wm−1k−1


†¶Îdj, A = ?
DËi : †¶Îdj, A = 0.06m2.
mgm¨v : 7| 50cm2 †¶Îdj Ges 2mm cyi“ GKwU iƒcvi cv‡Zi ga¨ w`‡q 2.03MJ
Zvc cwievwnZ n‡Z KZ mgq jvM‡e? iƒcvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 406Wm−1K−1
Ges cv‡Zi `yB cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ 400C| (h.†ev. 2005; 2002; wm.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = †¶Îdj, A = 50cm2 = 50 × 10−4m2
ev, t = cyi“Z¡, d = 2mm = 2 × 10−3m
= Zvc, Q = 2.03MJ = 2.03 × 106J
= 50sec
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k =
406Wm−1k−1
ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = 400C =
40k
mgq, t = ?
DËi : mgq, t = 50 sec.
mgm¨v : 8| 0.5m `xN© Ges 0.06m2 cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj wewkó GKwU
mxmvi `‡Êi GK cÖvš マ GKwU eyb‡mb evb©v‡ii wkLvq Ges Aci
cÖvš マ ei‡d Av‡Q| DËß cÖv‡š マ i ZvcgvÎv 2000C| (K) DËß cÖvš マ † _‡K
kxZj cÖv‡š マ 30 wgwb‡U KZ Zvc mÂvwjZ n‡e wnmve Ki| (L) KZ
wK‡jvMÖvg eid Mj‡e †ei Ki| mxmvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ 35Wm−1k−1| eid
Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc 3.36 × 105J kg−1|
mgvavb:
(K) Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = `チ iZ¡, d = 0.5m
= †¶Îdj, A = 0.06m2
= 1.512 × 106J ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨, ∆θ = 2000C
(K) Avgiv Rvwb, = 200k
Q = mgq, t = 30 wgt = 1800 sec.
Zvc cwievnKZ¡, k = 35Wm−1k−1
eid Mj‡bi Avt myßcvZ, =
lf = 3.36 × 105Jkg−1
Zvc, Q = ?
eid Mj‡e, m = ?
=
= 1.512 × 106J
(L) Avevi Avgiv Rvwb,
Q = m × lf
ev, m =
= = 4.5 kg
268 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

DËi : Zvc, Q = 1.512 × 106J


eid Mj‡e, m = 4.5kg.

AwZwi³ MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| GKwU N‡ii †`Iqv‡ji †¶Îdj 50m2 Ges cyi“Z¡ 25cm †`Iqv‡ji
`yB cv‡ki ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ 200C n‡j Gi ga¨ w`‡q 30 †m‡K‡Û 1.5 × 105 J
Zvc cwievwnZ nq| †`Iqv‡ji Dcv`v‡bi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ wbY©q Ki|
(iv.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb: g‡b Kwi, †`Iqv Av‡Q,
†`Iqv‡ji Dcv`v‡bi Zvc ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ ∆θ = 200C = 20 K
cwievnKZ¡ K †¶Îdj, A = 50 m2
GLb, Q = mgq, t = 30 S
∴K = cyiZ¡, d = 25 cm = 25 × 10−2m
= Zvc, Q = 1.5 × 105J
= 1.875 Wm−1 k−1
∴ wb‡Y©q †`Iqv‡ji Zvc cwievnKZ¡| 1.875 Wm−1k (Ans.)

ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. cwienY c×wZ‡Z Zvc mÂvj‡bi
mgq †Kvb&wU N‡U?
K. gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jv ¯’vb
cwieZ©b K‡i
✓ L. gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jv ¯’vb
cwieZ©b K‡i bv
M. gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv
N. gva¨‡gi cvkvcvwk AYy¸‡jv wg‡j
wg‡k GK n‡q hvq
2. wewKiY c×wZ‡Z Zvc wKfv‡e
mÂvwjZ nq?
K. gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jvi PjvPj Øviv
L. hvwšK Zi‡½i AvKv‡i
✓ M. ZvwoZ †PŠ¤^K Zi‡½i AvKv‡i
N. gva¨‡gi AYy¸‡jvi ¯•›`b Øviv
K¨vjwiwgwZ 269

3. cwienb c×wZ‡Z mÂvwjZ Zvc 4| wb‡Pi †KvbwUi ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci


cwievn‡Ki `yB c„‡ôi cyiZ¡ d Gi wewKiY n‡Z cv‡i bv?
Dci wKfv‡e wbf©i K‡i? (P.†ev. 2002)
(wm.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2003) K. KvP ✓ L. †jvnv
K. mgvbycvwZK ✓ L. M. †KvqvU©R N. f¨vKzqvg
e¨v¯vbycvwZK 5| Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i mwVK
M. e‡M©i e¨v¯vbycvwZK mgxKiY †KvbwU?
N.e‡M©i mgvbycvwZK (h.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2002;
4. Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb wbf©i Xv.†ev. 2000)
K‡i? K. k = ✓ L. k =
(Xv.†ev. Kz.†ev. 2006; h.†ev. 2003; M. k = N. k =
ewi.†ev. 2001) 6| †Kvb&wUi Zvc cwievnKZ¡
K. cwievn‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ †ewk? (P.†ev. 2002, Õ99)
L. cwievn‡Ki cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj K. A¨vjywgwbqvg L. †jvnv
M. cwievn‡Ki AvqZb M. Zvgv ✓ N. iƒcv
✓ N. cwievn‡Ki Dcv`vb 7| †KvbwUi ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci
5. Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i GKK cwienb me‡P‡q †ewk nq?
†Kvb&wU?(Xv.†ev. 2003; (h.†ev. 2004)
h.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev. P.†ev. Kz.†ev. 2001; K. f¨vKzqv‡gi ga¨ w`‡q
ewi.†ev. wm.†ev. 2002; L. evqexq c`v‡_©i ga¨ w`‡q
✓ K. Wm−1k−1 L. Wm−1k M. Zij c`v‡_©i ga¨ w`‡q
M. W m k
−1 −1 −1
N. Jm−1k−1. ✓ N. KwVb c`v‡_©i ga¨ w`‡q
8| Zvgvi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ KZ?
AwZwi³ (wm.†ev. Õ04;P.†ev. 2003)
✓ K. 385 Wm−1k−1 L. 386 Wm−1k−1
ˆbe©¨w³K M. 387 Wm−1k−1 N. 380 Wm−1k−1
cÖ‡kœvËi 9| Zij I evqexq c`v‡_© Zvc
1| †Kvb c×wZ‡Z Zvc ZvwoZ mÂvwjZ nqÑ
K. cwienb c×wZ‡Z
†PŠ¤^K AvKv‡i mÂvwjZ nq?
✓ L. cwiPjb c×wZ‡Z
(Kz.†ev. 2000) M. wewKiY c×wZ‡Z
K. cwienb L. cwiPjb N. cwienb I cwiPjb c×wZ‡Z
✓ M. wewKiY N. mvwj©i c×wZ 10| wb‡æi †Kvb e¯‘wUi ga¨ w`‡q
2| Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb wewKiY m¤¢e?
†Kvb&wUi Dci wbf©i K‡i bv? ✓ K. KuvP L. KvV
(iv.†ev. 2004; e.†ev. 2001; †ev. 2000) M. †jvnv N. cv_i
K. ZvcgvÎv L. cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i 11| A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Zvc
†¶Îdj cwievnKZ¡ KZ? (Kz.†ev. 2006)
M. mgq ✓ N. cwievn‡Ki fi ✓ K. 205 Wm−1k−1 L. 385 Wm−1k−1
3| wb‡Pi †Kvb Zi‡ji ga¨ w`‡q M. 406 Wm−1k−1 N. 0.024 Wm−1k−1
Zv‡ci wewKiY m¤¢e? 12| iwOb e¯‘ †ewk ZvcÑ
(wm.†ev. 2006; 2002; Xv.†ev.2005; ✓ K. †kvlY K‡i L. †kvlY Ki‡Z cv‡i
2000; 2003 h.†ev. 2005; ewi.†ev. bv
2005; 2003; Kz.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. M. wewKiY K‡i N. wewKiY Kivi
2005) ¶gZv †bB
13| kx‡Zi w`‡b †Kvb ai‡bi Kvco
K. wMmvwib ✓L. Kve©b-WvB-
e¨envi Kiv AvivgcÖ`?
mvjdvBW K. mv`v Kvco L. Kv‡jv Kvco
M. Zvwc©b N. †K‡ivwmb
270 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
✓ M. iwOb Kvco ✓ K. 0.024 L. 0.04
N. †Kvb Kvc‡oB Avivg cvIqv hvq M. 0.6 N. 0.8
bv 24| iƒcvi Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb KZ?
14| Av¸‡bi cv‡ki †Kvb ¯’vb †_‡K GKB K. 110 L. 205
`i‡Z¡ wVK Dc‡i †Kvb ¯’v‡b M. 385 ✓ N. 406
25| †jvnvi Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb KZ?
†ewk DËß nIqvi KviY− (h.†ev. (ewi.†ev. Õ06; P.†ev. Õ05)
2000) K. 1.6 L. 35
K. Zv‡ci cwienb L.Zv‡ci cwiPjb M. 63 ✓ N. 80
M. Zv‡ci wewKiY ✓ N. 26| mxmvi Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb
Zv‡ci cwiPjb I wewKiY KZ?
15| Mi‡gi w`‡b †Kvb ai‡bi Kvco K. 0.6 ✓ L. 35
e¨envi Kiv AvivgcÖ`? M. 63 N. 80
✓ K. mv`v Kvco L. Kv‡jv Kvco 27| †h mKj c`v‡_©i ga¨ w`‡q Zvc
M. iwOb Kvco mn‡RB cwievwnZ nq Zv‡K wK
N. †Kvb Kvc‡oB Avivg cvIqv hvq ejv nq?
bv K. KzcwievnK ✓ L. mycwievnK
16| †Kvb cÖwµqvq DËß AYy M. Aa©cwievnK N. AcwievnK
cvk¦©eZ©x kxZj AYy‡Z Zvc 28| †h mKj c`v‡_©i ga¨ w`‡q Zvc
cÖ`vb K‡i? mn‡R cwievwnZ nq bv Zv‡K
K. cwiPjb ✓ L. cwienb wK ejv nq?
M. wewKiY N. cwiågY ✓ K. KzcwievnK L. cwievnK
17| †Kvb cÖwµqvq mh© †_‡K
Zvc c„w_ex‡Z Av‡m? M. mycwievnK N. AcwievnK
K. cwienb L. cwiPjb 29| wb‡Pi †Kvb c×wZ‡Z Zvc
✓ M. wewKiY N. cwiågY cwievnKZ¡ wbY©q Kiv hvq?
18| cwievn‡Ki Zvc cwievnKZ¡ K. fvwb©qvi c×wZ ✓
wb‡Pi †KvbwU Øviv cÖKvk L.mvwj©i c×wZ
nq? M. NY©b c×wZ N.
K. g ✓ L. K Ry‡ji c×wZ
M. C N. A 30| †Kvb cwievn‡Ki Zvc
19| †jvnv, wcZj, mxmv I wUb Gi cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb †KvbwUi Ici
g‡a¨ †KvbwU me‡P‡q Kg wbf©i K‡i? (h.†ev. 2003)
cwievnx c`v_©? ✓ K. Dcv`vb L. AvqZb
K. †jvnv L. wcZj M. ˆ`N©¨ N. AvKvi
✓ M. mxmv N. wUb 31| Kv‡Vi Zvc cwievnKZ¡ KZ?
20| wb‡æi †KvbwU me‡P‡q Kg (iv.†ev. 2003)
cwievnx c`v_©? K. 0.01 wm−1k−1 ✓ L. 0.04 wm−1K−1
K. BU L. KvP M. 0.06 wm−1k−1 N. 0.09 wm−1K−1
✓ M. KvV N. KsµxU 32| GKwU cwievnxi `yB
21| Kuv‡Pi Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb mgvšivj Z‡ji ga¨eZx© `iZ¡ d
KZ? n‡j Dnvi GK cÖvš n‡Z Aci
K. 0.024 L. 0.04 cÖv‡š mÂvwjZ Zv‡ci cwigvY
M. 0.6 ✓ N. 0.8 †KvbwUi mgvbycvwZK? [h.†ev.
22| cvwbi Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb 2006]
KZ? K. d L.
K. 0.024 L. 0.04 M. d2 ✓ N.
✓ M. 0.6 N. 0.8
23| evZv‡mi Zvc cwievnK‡Z¡i gvb
KZ?
K¨vjwiwgwZ 271

33| †Kvb Zi‡ji ga¨ w`‡q Zv‡ci w`‡q Zv‡ci cwienY me‡P‡q
AvswkK wewKiY N‡U? †ewk nq? [h. †ev. 2004]
[P.†ev. 2006] K. Zvj L. evqexq
✓ K. cvwb L. Kve©b ✓ M. KwVb N. f¨vKzqvg
WvBA·vBW 39| wb‡Pi †Kvb&wU mwVK?
M. †Zj N. `ya [P.†ev. 2004]
34| wb‡Pi †Kvb c`v‡_©i Zvc K. kx‡Zi w`‡b mv`v Kvco e¨envi
cwievnKZ¡ me‡P‡q †ewk? Avivg`vqK
[ewi.†ev. 2006] L. Mi‡gi w`‡b iwOb Kvco e¨envi
K. A¨vjywgwbqvg L. Avivg`vqK
†jvnv ✓ M. kxZcÖavb †`‡k meyR evwoi
✓ M. Zvgv N. wUb eûj e¨envi nq
35| ei‡di Zvc cwievnKZ¡ KZ? N. L‡oi Qv`hy³ Ni kxZKv‡j VvÊv
[iv.†ev. 2006] _v‡K
K. 0.84Wm−1K−1 L. 0.024Wm−1K−1 40| wb‡Pi †Kvb&wUi ga¨ w`‡q
M. 1.46Wm−1K−1 ✓ N. 1.6Wm−1K−1 Zv‡ci wewKiY nq bv? [wm.†ev.
36| mvwj©i c×wZ‡Z †Kvb&wU 2004]
wbY©q Kiv hvq? [Xv.†ev. 2004] ✓ K. cv_i L. KvP
✓ K. Zvc cwievnKZ¡ L. M. †KvqvU©R N. f¨vKzqvg
G-Gi gvb 41| ZvcgvÎv evov‡j cwievwnZv
M. g-Gi gvb N. Av‡cw¶K Zvc e„w× cvq †KvbwUi? [ewi.†ev.
37| wb‡Pi †Kvb&wU Zv‡ci 2005]
AcwievnK? [iv.†ev. 2004] K. wmwjKb L. †jvnv
✓ K. †dÎ L. cvi` ✓ M. Zvgv N. †evib
M. ckg N. KvV
38| †Kvb& ai‡bi gva¨‡gi ga¨