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A a¨vq


_g Aa¨vq
10
K¨vj w
iw
gw
Z ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
msw¶ß DËi cÖ‡kœvËi A_ev, ZvcaviY ¶gZv = fi × Av‡cw¶K Zvc|
cÖkœ : 1| †Kvb e¯‘‡Z Aš マ wb©wnZ Zvckw³i (Xv.†ev. 2001; h.†ev. 2003; 2005)
cwigvY †Kvb& †Kvb& wel‡qi Dci cÖkœ : 9| ZvcaviY ¶gZv I Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci
wbf©i K‡i D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki| g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (Kz.
(Xv.†ev. 2000) †ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 2002)
cÖkœ : 2| Zvc aviY ¶gZv ej‡Z wK eyS? cÖkœ : 10| K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ e¨vL¨v
(Xv. †ev. 2000 ; m. †ev. Õ98 ; iv. Ki|
†ev. 2006; 2001; P.†ev. 2002) (h.†ev. Õ99; e.†ev. 2003)
A_ev, Zvc aviY ¶gZvi msÁvmn D`vniY cÖkœ : 11| K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ ÒMig
`vI| e¯‘ KZ…©K ewR©Z Zvc = VvÊv
cÖkœ : 3| †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv 18000Jk e¯‘ KZ©„K M„nxZ ZvcÓ− wK wb‡Pi
−1
Gi A_© wK? (Kz. †ev. 2001) †¶Î¸‡jv‡Z cÖ‡qvM Kiv hv‡e? KviY
cÖkœ : 4| Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci msÁv `vI| D‡jL Ki|
(h.†ev. 2006; P. †ev. 2000 ; m. K) K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Zij c`v_© nj
†ev. Õ98; P.†ev. 2002; Kz.†ev. cvwb Avi KwVb e¯‘ mvaviY jeY|
2001) L) K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Zi‡ji mv‡_ KwVb
cÖkœ : 5| Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400Jkg−1k−1 e¯‘i ivmvqwbK wewµqv nq|
ej‡Z wK eyS? (Kz. †ev. 2000; M) K¨vjwiwgUvi‡K †Uwe‡ji Dci
h.†ev. 2002) †Lvjv evZv‡m ivLv nj|
cÖkœ : 6| FZz cwieZ©‡b ¯’jfv‡Mi
we¯ マ xY© A‡ji ZvcgvÎvi
Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK
cwieZ©‡bi Zzjbvq Øxc A‡ji cÖkœ : 1|
ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b A‡bK Kg nq †Kb KwVb c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc
e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2004) wbY©‡qi GKwU c×wZ eY©bv Ki|
cÖkœ : 6| FZz cwieZ©‡b ¯’jfv‡Mi (wm.†ev. 2006; Kz. †ev.2004; ; P.
we¯ マ xY© A‡ji ZvcgvÎvi †ev. 2005; 2000 ; iv. †ev. Xv. †ev.
cwieZ©‡bi Zzjbvq Øxc A‡ji e. †ev. 2001; h.†ev. 2003;2005
ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b A‡bK Kg nq †Kb iv.†ev. 2003;2005; Xv.†ev. e.†ev.
e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2004) 2005)
cÖkœ : 7| `ywU GKB ai‡bi †KZjx‡Z mg- A_ev, KwVb c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc
cwigvY cvwb I `ya †i‡L Av¸‡bi Dci wbY©‡qi g チ jZË¡/wnmve †jL|
cvkvcvwk ivLv nj| cvwbi †P‡q cÖkœ : 2| eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc
`y‡ai ZvcgvÎv `ª“Z evo‡Z †`Lv wbY©‡qi GKwU cix¶v eY©bv Ki|
†Mj-Gi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2003; Kz.†ev. 2003;
cÖkœ : 8| ZvcaviY ¶gZv I Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci Xv.†ev. h.†ev. iv.†ev. 2000 ; m.†ev.
g‡a¨ m¤•K© ¯’vcb Ki| (P.†ev. 2006; Õ98 ; Kz.†ev. 2001 ; P.†ev. 2001)
h. †ev. wm.†ev, Õ2001; Xv.†ev. A_ev, eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc
2002) wbY©q c×wZi g チ jZË¡ I wnmve
228 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

†jL| (e.†ev. 2003) Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨v


mgm¨v : 1| 3kg mxmvi ZvcgvÎv 200C
AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi evov‡Z KZ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb n‡e?
cÖkœ : 1| †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv 5000 J k mxmvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 130Jkg−1k−1 |
−1
Gi A_© wK? (Xv.†ev. 2006) mgm¨v : 2| GK UzKiv iƒcvi ZvcgvÎv 280C
cÖkœ : 2| †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcaviY ¶gZv †Kvb †_‡K 780C-G DbœxZ Ki‡Z 8625J
†Kvb wel‡qi Dci wbf©i K‡i ? Zvckw³i cÖ‡qvRb nq| iƒcvi
(Xv.†ev. 2000) UzKivwUi fi wbY©q Ki| iƒcvi
cÖkœ : 3| ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc Gi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 230Jkg−1k−1 | (iv.†ev.
e¨vL¨v Ki| (h.†ev. 2000) 2006)
mgm¨v : 3| 50g `¯ マ vi ZvcgvÎv 200C †_‡K
MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n 1000C-G DbœxZ Ki‡Z 1520J Zvc
D`v : 1| GKwU Zvgvi K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z nq| `¯マ vi Av‡cw¶K
200g Ges Gi Dcv`v‡bi Avt Zvc Zvc wbY©q Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2005;
400Jkg−1k−1 | Gi ZvcgvÎv 200c †_‡K wm.†ev. 2005; P. †ev. 2000)
700c G DVv‡Z KZ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb mgm¨v : 4| 230C ZvcgvÎvi 300g †ebwRb‡K
n‡e? (wm.†ev. 2004) 8670J Zvckw³ cÖ`vb Ki‡j Gi
ZvcgvÎv KZ n‡e? †ebwR‡bi
D`v : 2| 100g f‡ii A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi cv‡Îi
Av‡cw¶K Zvc 1700Jkg−1k−1 |
ZvcgvÎv 200C evov‡Z 1800J Zvc
jv‡M| A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Av‡cw¶K (Kz.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2005)
Zvc †ei Ki| mgm¨v : 5| 1200C ZvcgvÎvi 100g f‡ii GKwU
e¯‘‡K 50g fi wewkó GKwU Zvgvi
D`v : 3| 1200C ZvcgvÎvi 50g f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K
cv‡Î 200C ZvcgvÎvi 300g cvwbi
50g f‡ii GKwU A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi
g‡a¨ Wzev‡j cvwbi P‚ovš マ
K¨vjwiwgUv‡i ivLv 200C ZvcgvÎvi
ZvcgvÎv 300c-G †c&ŠQvq| e¯‘wUi
150g cvwbi g‡a¨ wb‡¶c Kiv n‡j
Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©q
wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv 300C cvIqv †Mj|
Ki| Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400Jkg−1k−1
e¯‘wUi Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc
|
wbY©q Ki| A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Avt
Zvc 900Jkg−1k−1 |
D`v : 4| 700C ZvcgvÎvi 100g cvwb‡K 100C
ZvcgvÎvi 200g cvwbi mv‡_ fvjfv‡e
wgwkÖZ Ki‡j P‚ovš マ ZvcgvÎv KZ
n‡e? (Xv.†ev. 2004)
D`v : 5| 300C ZvcgvÎvi Ges 840Jkg−1k−1
Av‡cw¶K Zvc wewkó 1kg f‡ii GKwU
e¯‘‡K 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 2kg f‡ii cvwbi
g‡a¨ ivLv nj| wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv
wbY©q Ki|
D`v : 6| 200C ZvcgvÎvi 0.1kg wUb‡K Mjv‡Z
cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc wbY©q Ki| wU‡bi
Avt Zvc 210 Jkg−1k−1, wU‡bi Mj‡bi
Avt myßZvc 58800 Jkg−1 Ges MjbvsK
2320C.
D`v : 7| 5kg eid Mwj‡q 500C ZvcgvÎvi
cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zvc wbY©q Ki| eid Mj‡bi Avt
myßZvc 336000Jkg−1 | (h.†ev. 2005)
K¨vjwiwgwZ 229

mgm¨v : 6| 200C ZvcgvÎvq 200g fi wewkó 230Jkg−1k−1, 105000Jkg−1k−1 Ges


GKwU KuvPcv‡Î 20g cvwb Av‡Q, 9600C|
1000C ZvcgvÎvi GK UzKiv †jvnv‡K mgm¨v : 10| −100C ZvcgvÎv wewkó 100g
GB cvwb‡Z wbgw¾Z K‡i fvjfv‡e eid‡K 1000C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z
bvov n‡j wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv nq cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc †ei Ki|
31.80C| †jvnvi UzKivi fi wbY©q Ki| ei‡di Av‡cw¶K Zvc I Mj‡bi
KvP I †jvnvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc Av‡cw¶K myßZvc h_vµ‡g 2100Jkg−
h_vµ‡g 670Jkg−1k−1 Ges 460Jkg−1k−1 1 −1
k Ges 336000Jkg−1 |
|
(Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; 2000 ; iv. †ev. 2000;
mgm¨v : 7| 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 700g Zvgv 2kg ewi.†ev. 2003)
fi wewkó Zvgvi cv‡Î 250C
ZvcgvÎvi 1kg cvwbi g‡a¨ ivLv nj| mgm¨v : 11| mgvb f‡ii eid Ges dzUš マ
Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400 Jkg−1k−1 cvwb GK‡Î wgwkÖZ Kiv n‡jv| G‡Z
n‡j wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv †ei Ki| m¤• チ Y© eid cvwb‡Z cwiYZ nj
(Kz. †ev. 2001; iv.†ev. 2002; Ges wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv 200C nj| eid
P.†ev. 2003) Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc †ei Ki|
(ewi.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. 2002)
mgm¨v : 8| 0.2kg f‡ii GKwU wcZ‡ji ej‡K
GKwU Pzjx †_‡K Zz‡j 250C
ZvcgvÎvi 150g cvwb‡Z Wzev‡bv AwZwi³ MvwYwZK mgm¨v
nj| wcZ‡ji e‡ji ewR©Z mg¯ マ Zvc mgm¨v : 1| O0C ZvcgvÎvi 3kg eid‡K
cvwb MÖnY K‡i‡Q g‡b Ki‡j Ges ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zv‡ci cwigvY wbY©q Ki|
Df‡qi ZvcgvÎv 670C-G G‡m
(Xv.†ev. 2003)
`uvov‡j Pzjxi ZvcgvÎv †ei Ki|
mgm¨v : 2| 200 gm fi wewkó
wcZ‡ji Av‡cw¶K Zvc 380Jkg−1k−1 |
A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi cv‡Zi ZvcgvÎv
mgm¨v : 9| 300C ZvcgvÎvi 200g iƒcv‡K 200C evov‡Z 1800 J Zvc jv‡M|
m¤• チ Y© Mjv‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Av‡cw¶K Zvc
Zv‡ci cwigvY wnmve Ki| iƒcvi †ei Ki|
Av‡cw¶K Zvc, Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K (h.†ev. 2003)
myßZvc Ges Mjbv¼ h_vµ‡g

Abykxjbxi
msw¶ßÑDËi
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| †Kvb e¯‘‡Z Aš マ wb©wnZ Zvckw³i cwigvY †Kvb& †Kvb&
wel‡qi Dci wbf©i K‡i D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2000)
DËi : †Kvb e¯‘i Aš マ wb©wnZ Zvckw³i cwigvY wb‡æv³ wZbwU wel‡qi
Dci wbf©i K‡i| h_v−
1. e¯‘i fi
2. e¯‘i Dcv`vb Ges
3. ZvcgvÎv e„w×|
e¨vL¨v :
230 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

1. e¯‘i fi : GKB c`v‡_©i wewfbœ f‡ii e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv mgcwigvY e„w×


Ki‡Z wewfbœ cwigvY Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq| †hgb− GK Kvc cvwb Mig
Ki‡Z †h Zvckw³i cÖ‡qvRb nq, Zvi †P‡q A‡bK †ewk Zvckw³i
cÖ‡qvRb nq GK †KZjx cvwb Mig Ki‡Z|
2. e¯‘i Dcv`vb : mgf‡ii wewfbœ Dcv`v‡bi e¯‘i mgcwigvY ZvcgvÎv
e„w×i Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Zv‡ci cwigvY wfbœ nq| †hgb− GK wK‡jvMÖvg
G¨vjywgwbqv‡gi ZvcgvÎv GKwU wbw`©ó cwigvY e„w× Ki‡Z †h
Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq GK wK‡jvMÖvg cvwbi ZvcgvÎv H GKB cwigvY
evov‡Z cÖvq cuvP¸Y †ewk Zv‡ci `iKvi nq|
3. ZvcgvÎv e„w× : GKB e¯‘i wewfbœ cwigvY ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Rb¨
wewfbœ cwigvY Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq| †hgb− †Kvb GKwU e¯‘i
ZvcgvÎv 1k (10C) evov‡Z †h Zvc jv‡M Zvi ZvcgvÎv 10k (100C) evov‡Z
`k¸Y †ewk Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq|
G †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h− †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY Kivi ¶gZv e¯‘i fi, Dcv`vb I
ZvcgvÎvi Dci wbf©i K‡i| wewfbœ e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv ZvB wewfbœ|
cÖkœ : 2| Zvc aviY ¶gZv ej‡Z wK eyS? (Xv. †ev. 2000 ; m. †ev. Õ98 ; iv.
†ev. 2006; 2001; P.†ev. 2002)
A_ev, Zvc aviY ¶gZvi msÁvmn D`vniY `vI|
DËi : Zvc aviY ¶gZv :
msÁv : †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z †h Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K H e¯‘i
Zvc aviY ¶gZv e‡j| G‡K C Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
e¨vL¨v : †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv ∆θk evov‡Z hw` Q cwigvY Zvc jv‡M, Z‡e
ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zvc = =
myZivs Zvc aviY ¶gZv, C =
GLb e¯‘i fi m Ges Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc s n‡j,
Avgiv Rvwb, Q = ms ∆θ
∴ C =
ev, C = ms
A_©vr, Zvc aviY ¶gZv = e¯‘i fi × Av‡cw¶K Zvc|
GKK : Zvc aviY ¶gZvi GKK Ryj/†Kjwfb (Jk−1)
cÖkœ : 3| †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv 18000Jk−1 Gi A_© wK? (Kz. †ev. 2001)
DËi : †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv 18000Jk−1 Gi A_© H e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z
18000 Ryj Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb|

cÖkœ : 4| Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci msÁv `vI| (h.†ev. 2006; P. †ev. 2000 ; m.


†ev. Õ98; P.†ev. 2002; Kz.†ev. 2001)
DËi : Av‡cw¶K Zvc :
†Kvb e¯‘i GKK f‡ii ZvcgvÎv 10 evov‡Z †h cwigvY Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb Zv‡K H e¯‘i
K¨vjwiwgwZ 231

Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc e‡j|


e¨vL¨v : m f‡ii †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv ∆θk evov‡Z hw` Q cwigvY Zv‡ci
cÖ‡qvRb nq, Zvn‡j H e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc−
S =
GKK : Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci GKK Ryj / wK‡jvMÖvg-†Kjwfb (J/kg − k) ev Jkg−1k−1.
cÖkœ : 5| Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400Jkg−1k−1 ej‡Z wK eyS? (Kz. †ev.
2000; h.†ev. 2002)

DËi : Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400Jkg−1k−1 ej‡Z eySvq1kg Zvgvi ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z
400 Ryj Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq|

cÖkœ : 6| FZz cwieZ©‡b ¯’jfv‡Mi we¯ マ xY© A‡ji ZvcgvÎvi


cwieZ©‡bi Zzjbvq Øxc A‡ji ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b A‡bK Kg nq †Kb
e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2004)
DËi : e¨vL¨v : cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 4200Jkg−1k−1 Ges gvwUi Av‡cw¶K Zvc
cÖvq 800Jkg−1k−1 | ZvB wbw`©ó cwigvY gvwUi ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z †h Zv‡ci
cÖ‡qvRb nq, mg-cwigvY cvwbi ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z Zvi †P‡q cuvP¸Y-Gi
†P‡qI †ewk Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq| Avevi 1k ZvcgvÎv Kgv‡bvi Rb¨ gvwUi †P‡q
cvwb‡K A‡bK †ewk Zvc eR©b Ki‡Z nq| Gi d‡j ¯’jfv‡Mi †P‡q mvgyw`ªK
A‡ji ZvcgvÎv A‡bK ax‡i ax‡i e„w× ev n«vm cvq| †h‡nZz Øxc¸‡jv cvwb
Øviv †ewóZ _v‡K, ZvB FZz cwieZ©‡b ¯’jfv‡Mi we¯ マ xY© A‡ji ZvcgvÎvi
cwieZ©‡bi Zzjbvq Øxc A‡ji ZvcgvÎvi cwieZ©b A‡bK Kg nq|
cÖkœ : 7| `ywU GKB ai‡bi †KZjx‡Z mg-cwigvY cvwb I `ya †i‡L
Av¸‡bi Dci cvkvcvwk ivLv nj| cvwbi †P‡q `y‡ai ZvcgvÎv `ª“Z
evo‡Z †`Lv †Mj-Gi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki|
DËi : e¨vL¨v :
`ywU GKB ai‡Yi †KZjx‡Z mgcwigvY cvwb I `ya †i‡L Av¸‡bi Dci cvkvcvwk
ivLv n‡j cvwbi †P‡q `y‡ai ZvcgvÎv `ª“Z evo‡Z †`Lv hvq| KviY, `ywU
c`v‡_©i Avt Zvc wfbœ| †h c`v‡_©i Avt Zvc hZ †ewk †m c`v‡_©i ZvcgvÎv
evo‡Z ZZ †ewk Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb| G‡¶‡Î cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc (4200Jkg−1K−1)
`y‡ai Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci (3900Jkg−1K−1) †P‡q †ewk| ZvB mg cwigvY cvwb I `ya
GKB mv‡_ DËß Ki‡j cvwbi †P‡q `y‡ai ZvcgvÎv `ª“Z e„w× cvq|
cÖkœ : 8| ZvcaviY ¶gZv I Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci g‡a¨ m¤•K© ¯’vcb Ki|
(P.†ev. 2006; h. †ev. wm.†ev, Õ2001; Xv.†ev. 2002)
A_ev, ZvcaviY ¶gZv = fi × Av‡cw¶K Zvc| (Xv.†ev. 2001; h.†ev. 2003;
2005)
DËi : ZvcaviY ¶gZv :
†Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z †h Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K H e¯‘i ZvcaviY
¶gZv e‡j| G‡K C Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
232 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Av‡cw¶K Zvc :
†Kvb e¯‘i GKK f‡ii ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z †h Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K H e¯‘i
Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc e‡j| G‡K s Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
m¤•K© : †Kvb e¯‘i fi m kg Ges Zvi Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc S n‡j, Av‡cw¶K
Zv‡ci msÁvbymv‡i 1kg f‡ii e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z s Ryj Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb|
∴ m kg e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z ms Ryj Zvc cÖ‡qvRb|
wKš‘ msÁvbymv‡i GwUB Zvc aviY ¶gZv C.
∴ C = ms Ryj
ev,Zvc aviY ¶gZv= fi × Av‡cw¶K Zvc
ev, Av‡cw¶K Zvc =
GwUB wbY©q Av‡cw¶K Zvc|
cÖkœ : 9| ZvcaviY ¶gZv I Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki|
(Kz. †ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 2002)
DËi : ZvcaviY ¶gZv I Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ :
ZvcaviY ¶gZv Av‡cw¶K Zvc
1. †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z †h 1. †Kvb e¯‘i GKK f‡ii ZvcgvÎv 1k
Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K H e¯‘i evov‡Z †h Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq
Zvc aviY ¶gZv e‡j| Zv‡K H e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi Avt Zvc
e‡j|
2. G‡K C Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| 2. G‡K S Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
3. ZvcaviY ¶gZvi GKK Jk−1 3. Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci GKK Jkg−1k−1
4. Zvc aviY ¶gZv nj e¯‘i GKwU 4. Av‡cw¶K Zvc nj e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi
ˆewkó¨| ˆewkó¨|
5. GKB Dcv`v‡b ˆZwi wewfbœ 5. GKB Dcv`v‡bi mKj e¯‘i
f‡ii e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv Av‡cw¶K Zvc GKB|
wewfbœ|
cÖkœ : 10| K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ e¨vL¨v Ki| (h.†ev. Õ99; e.†ev. 2003)
DËi : K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ :
wewfbœ ZvcgvÎvi `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¯‘‡K ci¯•‡ii ms¯•‡k© Avb‡j G‡`i
g‡a¨ Zv‡ci Av`vb cÖ`vb N‡U hZ¶Y ch©š マ bv Zviv GKwU mvaviY
ZvcgvÎvq DcbxZ nq| Zvc AwaK ZvcgvÎv wewkó e¯‘ n‡Z Kg ZvcgvÎv
wewkó e¯‘‡Z cÖevwnZ nq| ci¯•‡ii ms¯•‡k© Avmvi ci hw` evwni n‡Z
†Kvb Zvc wfZ‡i bv Av‡m Ges G‡`i wfZi n‡Z †Kvb Zvc evwn‡i bv hvq
Ges G‡`i g‡a¨ †Kvb ivmvqwbK wewµqv bv N‡U, Z‡e kw³i wbZ¨Zv m チ Î
n‡Z Avgiv cvB−
K¨vjwiwgwZ 233

M„nxZ Zvc = ewR©Z Zvc


GwUB K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ Ges GB m チ ·K Zv‡ci msi¶Y m チ Î e‡j|
cÖkœ : 11| K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ ÒMig e¯‘ KZ…©K ewR©Z Zvc
= VvÊv e¯‘ KZ©„K M„nxZ ZvcÓ− wK wb‡Pi †¶Î¸‡jv‡Z cÖ‡qvM Kiv
hv‡e? KviY D‡jL Ki|
K) K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Zij c`v_© nj cvwb Avi KwVb e¯‘ mvaviY jeY|
L) K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Zi‡ji mv‡_ KwVb e¯‘i ivmvqwbK wewµqv nq|
M) K¨vjwiwgUvi‡K †Uwe‡ji Dci †Lvjv evZv‡m ivLv nj|
DËi : K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ ÒMig e¯‘ KZ…©K ewR©Z Zvc = VvÊv e¯‘
KZ©„K M„nxZ ZvcÓ| wb‡Pi †¶Î¸‡jv‡Z cÖ‡qvM Kiv hv‡e bv| KviY−
K) mvaviY jeY cvwb‡Z `ªeYxq| G‡¶‡Î KwVb e¯‘ Zvc MÖnY ev eR©b
Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| myZivs ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc G‡¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨
bq|
L) †h‡nZz K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Zi‡ji mv‡_ KwVb e¯‘i ivmvqwbK wewµqv nq
ZvB G‡¶‡Î ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc cÖ‡hvR¨ bq|
M) K¨vjwiwgUvi‡K †Uwe‡ji Dci †Lvjv evZv‡m ivL‡j wKQy Zvc
evqygʇj P‡j hv‡e| A_©vr, evqy MÖnY Ki‡e| G‡¶‡ÎI ewR©Z Zvc =
M„nxZ Zvc cÖ‡hvR¨ bq|

Abykxjbxi
iPbvg チ jK
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| KwVb c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©‡qi GKwU c×wZ
eY©bv Ki|
(wm.†ev. 2006; Kz. †ev.2004; ; P. †ev. 2005; 2000 ; iv. †ev. Xv. †ev. e. †ev.
2001; h.†ev. 2003;2005 iv.†ev. 2003;2005; Xv.†ev. e.†ev. 2005)
A_ev, KwVb c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©‡qi g チ jZË¡/wnmve †jL|
DËi : KwVb c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©q :
g チ jZË¡ : †Kvb e¯‘i GKK f‡ii ZvcgvÎv 10 evov‡Z †h cwigvY Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb
Zv‡K H e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc e‡j|
K¶ ZvcgvÎvq K¨vjwiwgUv‡i ivLv cvwb‡Z DËß KwVb e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j KwVb
e¯‘ Zvc nvivq Ges K¨vjwiwgUvi I cvwb Zvc MÖnY K‡i|
K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii g チ jbxwZ †_‡K Avgiv Rvwb,
ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc
Avevi, e¯‘ KZ©„K ewR©Z Zvc wKsev M„nxZ Zvc
234 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

= e¯‘i fi × Av‡cw¶K Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨|


cÖ‡qvRbxq hš ミ cvwZ :
1. K¨vjwiwgUvi 5. cix¶Yxq KwVb c`v_©
2. Zij c`v_© 6. ev®• DËvcK Ges
3. wbw³ I IRb ev· 7. wKQy myZv|
4. _v‡g©vwgUvi
Kvh© cÖYvwj :
1. cÖ_‡g †i‡bvi K¨vjwiwgUvi‡K cwi®‹vi I ﮋ K‡i IRb †bB|
2. Gici K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii g‡a¨ wKQy cwigvY Zij c`v_© †bB hvi Av‡cw¶K
Zvc Rvbv Ges hv‡Z KwVb c`v_©wU A`ªeYxq Ges †Kvb ivmvqwbK
wewµqv N‡U bv|
3. cybivq K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii IRb †bB Ges GB `yB IR‡bi cv_©K¨ †_‡K Zij
c`v‡_©i fi wbY©q Kwi|
4. GLb GKwU my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ Zij Z_v K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii
ZvcgvÎv wbY©q Kwi|
5. Gevi GKwU cix¶Yxq KwVb c`v_© †bB Ges Gi IRb wbY©q Kwi|
6. e¯‘wU‡K GKwU myZvi mvnv‡h¨ †e‡a ev®• DËvc‡Ki g‡a¨ Szwj‡q
ev‡®•i mvnv‡h¨ DËß Kwi|
7. ZvcgvÎv m‡e©v‡”P †cuŠQ‡j _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ Zv wbY©q
Kwi|
8. Gevi K¨vjwiwgUvi‡K ev®• DËvc‡Ki wb‡P G‡b myZv †K‡U e¯‘wU‡K
Zi‡ji g‡a¨ †dwj|
9. bvovwbi mvnv‡h¨ wgkÖYwU‡K bvwo Ges _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii
mvnv‡h¨ wgkÖ‡Yi m‡e©v”P ZvcgvÎv wbY©q Kwi|

wnmve : aiv hvK,


K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi = m1 kg
Zij c`v‡_©i fi = m2 kg
K¨vjwiwgwZ 235

KwVb c`v‡_©i fi = M kg
K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = S1Jkg−1k−1
Zij c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc = S2Jkg−1k−1
KwVb c`v‡_©i Av‡cw¶K Zvc = s = ?
K¨vjwiwgUvi I Zij c`v‡_©i cÖv_wgK ZvcgvÎv = θC
Mig KwVb c`v‡_©i ZvcgvÎv = θC
o
wgkÖ‡Yi m‡e©v”P ZvcgvÎv = θ C
GB cix¶vq K¨vjwiwgUvi I Zij c`v_© θC †_‡K θoC G DV‡Z Zvc MÖnY K‡i|
AZGe, K¨vjwiwgUvi KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc Q1 = m1s1 (θ − θ1)J
Zij c`v_© KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc Q2 = m2s2 (θ − θ1)J
c¶vš マ ‡ i KwVb c`v‡_©i ZvcgvÎv θC †_‡K θoC G †b‡g Avm‡Z ZvcgvÎv
eR©b K‡i
ewR©Z Zvc Q3 = MS (θ2 − θ)J
GLb K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ †_‡K cvB,
ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc
ev, Q3 = Q1 + Q2
ev, MS (θ2 − θ) = m1s1 (θ − θ1) + m2s2 (θ − θ1)
ev, MS (θ2 − θ) = (m1s1 + m2s2) (θ − θ1)
∴ S = J kg−1k−1
mZK©Zv :
1. DËß KwVb c`v_©wU‡K hZ ZvovZvwo m¤¢e K¨vjwiwgUv‡i †dj‡Z
n‡e| Ab¨_vq cÖvß Av‡cw¶K Zvc cÖK…Z Av‡cw¶K Zvc A‡c¶v Kg
nIqvi m¤¢vebv _vK‡Z cv‡i|
2. wewfbœ ZvcgvÎv my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUv‡i wbfz©jfv‡e wbY©q Ki‡Z
n‡e|
3. KwVb c`v_© Zi‡j †djvi mgq Zij hv‡Z wQU‡K bv c‡o †mw`‡K j¶¨
ivL‡Z n‡e|
4. Zvc hv‡Z cwiPjb ev wewKiY c×wZ‡Z bó bv nq †mw`‡K j¶¨ ivL‡Z
n‡e|
5. Ggb KwVb c`v_© †bIqv DwPZ hv Zi‡ji mv‡_ wewµqv bv K‡i|
cÖkœ : 2| eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc wbY©‡qi GKwU cix¶v
eY©bv Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2003; Kz.†ev. 2003)
(Xv.†ev. h.†ev. iv.†ev. 2000 ; m.†ev. Õ98 ; Kz.†ev. 2001 ; P.†ev. 2001)
A_ev, eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc wbY©q c×wZi g チ jZË¡ I wnmve
†jL| (e.†ev. 2003)
DËi : eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc wbY©q :
g チ jZË¡ : O0C ZvcgvÎvi GKK fi‡K O0C ZvcgvÎvi GKK f‡ii cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z
†h Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq, Zv‡K eid Mj‡bi myßZvc e‡j|
K¨vjwiwgwZi ivLv K¶ ZvcgvÎvi †P‡q mvgvb¨ Mig cvwb‡Z ﮋ eid †dj‡j
cvwb I K¨vjwiwgUvi Zvc nviv‡e Ges eid Zvc MÖnY Ki‡e|
K¨vjwiwgwZi g チ jbxwZ †_‡K Avgiv Rvwb−
236 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc


Avevi, e¯‘ KZ…©K ewR©Z Zvc wKsev M„nxZ Zvc
= e¯‘i fi × Av‡cw¶K Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨|
c×wZ : wgkÖY c×wZ‡Z cix¶vwU m¤•bœ Kiv nq|
cÖ‡qvRbxq hš ミ cvwZ :
1. K¨vjwiwgUvi 4. wbw³ I IRb ev·
2. _v‡g©vwgUvi 5. exKvi I cvwb Ges
3. eid 6. †Pvl KvMR|
Kvh©cÖYvwj :
1. GKwU ﮋ I cwi®‹vi K¨vjwiwgUvi wb‡q bvovbxi mv‡_ mi“ Zv‡ii Rvj
mshy³ Kwi| Gici Gi IRb †bB|
2. K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii `yB−Z…Zxqvsk mvgvb¨ Mig cvwb w`‡q c チ Y© Kwi
Ges Gi IRb †bB|
3. GB `yB IR‡bi cv_©K¨ †_‡K Mig cvwbi fi wbY©q Kwi|
4. GKwU my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ Mig cvwbi ZvcgvÎv
wbY©q Kwi|
5. GLb K‡qK UzKiv eid‡K cwi®‹vi cvwb w`‡q ay‡q †Pvl KvMR w`‡q
ïwK‡q cvwb‡Z ZvovZvwo †Q‡o †`B|
6. Gevi bvovbx w`‡q eid UzKiv¸‡jv‡K Av‡¯ マ Av‡¯ マ bvovB| GB Ae¯’vq
eid Mj‡Z _v‡K Ges cvwbi ZvcgvÎv µgk Kg‡Z _v‡K|
7. m¤• チ Y© eid M‡j hvIqvi ci wgkÖ‡Yi me©wbæ ZvcgvÎv my‡e`x
_v‡g©vwgUvi-Gi mvnv‡h¨ wbY©q Kwi|
8. Gici cvwbi ZvcgvÎv K¶ ZvcgvÎvq †cuŠQ‡j cybivq K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii IRb
†bB|
9. Z…Zxq IRb †_‡K wØZxq IRb ev` w`‡q ei‡di fi wbY©q Kwi|

wPÎ eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myß wbY©q|


wnmve :
aiv hvK,
K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi = m1kg
Mig cvwbi fi = m2 kg
ei‡di fi = M kg
K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = S1Jkg−1k−1
K¨vjwiwgwZ 237

cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = S2Jkg−1k−1


K¨vjwiwgUvi I Mig cvwbi ZvcgvÎv = θ10C
wgkÖ‡Yi me©wbæ ZvcgvÎv = θ 0C
eid Mj‡bi myßZvc = lf
GLv‡b, K¨vjwiwgUvi KZ…©K ewR©Z Zvc, θ1 = m1s1 (θ1 − θ) j
Mig cvwb KZ…©K ewR©Z Zvc θ2 = m2s2 (θ1 − θ) j
c¶vš‡i Zvc MÖnY `yB ch©v‡q m¤•bœ nq−
1. 00C ZvcgvÎvi eid n‡Z 00C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ n‡Z eid KZ…K
M„nxZ Zvc,
θ3 = MLf j
2. eid Mjv cvwbi ZvcgvÎvi 00C n‡Z θ0C G †cuŠQ‡Z cvwb KZ…©K
M„nxZ Zvc
Q4 = MS2θ j
GLb K¨vjwiwgwZi gjbxwZ †_‡K Avgiv cvB−
M„nxZ Zvc = ewR©Z Zvc
A_©vr, Q3 + Q4 = Q1 + Q2
ev, Mlf + Ms2θ = m1s1 (θ1 − θ) + m2s2 (θ1 − θ)
ev, Mlf + Ms2θ = (θ1 − θ) (m1s1 + m2s2
ev, Mlf = (θ1 − θ) (m1s1 + m2s2) − MS2θ
lf =
∴ lf = Jkg−1
mZK©Zv :
1. eid¸‡jv‡K cvwb‡Z †Q‡o †`Iqvi mgq cvwb hv‡Z wQU‡K bv c‡o
†mw`‡K j¶¨ ivL‡Z n‡e|
2. Zvc hv‡Z cwiPjb ev wewKiY c×wZ‡Z bó bv nq †mw`‡K j¶¨ ivL‡Z
n‡e|
3. wewfbœ ZvcgvÎv my‡e`x _v‡g©vwgUv‡i wbfz©jfv‡e wbY©q Ki‡Z
n‡e|

AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv 5000 J k−1 Gi A_© wK? (Xv.†ev. 2006)

DËi : †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv 5000 J k−1 ej‡Z eySvq H e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k e„w×
Ki‡Z 5000J Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq|
cÖkœ : 2| †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcaviY ¶gZv †Kvb †Kvb wel‡qi Dci wbf©i
K‡i ? (Xv.†ev. 2000)
DËi : †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcaviY ¶gZv wbæwjwLZ wel‡qi Dci wbf©i K‡i|
238 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

1. e¯‘i fi,
2. e¯‘i Dcv`vb Ges
3. e¯‘i ZvcgvÎvq cv_©K¨|
cÖkœ : 3| ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc Gi e¨vL¨v Ki| (h.†ev. 2000)
DËi : msw¶ß cÖ‡kœvËi 10 bs †`L|

MvwYwZK
mgm¨vewj I
mgvavb
hv Rvbv `iKvi :
Q = m s ∆θ GLv‡b,
Q = †gvU Zvc
Q1 = Q2 Q1 = M„nxZ Zvc
Q2 = ewR©Z Zvc
m = fi
∆θ = ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
S = Av‡cw¶K Zvc

MvwYwZK
D`vniYmgn
D`v : 1| GKwU Zvgvi K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi 200g Ges Gi Dcv`v‡bi Avt
Zvc 400Jkg−1k−1 | Gi ZvcgvÎv 200c †_‡K 700c G DVv‡Z KZ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb
n‡e? (wm.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ms∆θ K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi, m = 200g
= 0.2kg × 400J kg−1 k−1 × 50k = 0.2kg
= 4000J Av‡cw¶K Zvc,s = 400J kg−1 k−1
0
ZvcgvÎv e„w×, ∆θ = (70−20) c =
0
50 c = 50k
cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc, Q = ?
DËi : cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc, Q = 4000J.
D`v : 2| 100g f‡ii A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi cv‡Îi ZvcgvÎv 200C evov‡Z 1800J
Zvc jv‡M| A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Av‡cw¶K Zvc †ei Ki|
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ms∆θ fi, m = 100g = 0.1kg
ev, S = ZvcgvÎv e„w×, ∆θ = 0
20 c
= = 20k
K¨vjwiwgwZ 239

M„nxZ Zvc, Q = 1800J


A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Avt Zvc, S = ?
= 900Jkg−1k−1
DËi : A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Av‡cw¶K Zvc, S = 900Jkg−1k−1.
D`v : 3| 1200C ZvcgvÎvi 50g f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K 50g f‡ii GKwU
A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi K¨vjwiwgUv‡i ivLv 200C ZvcgvÎvi 150g cvwbi g‡a¨
wb‡¶c Kiv n‡j wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv 300C cvIqv †Mj| e¯‘wUi Dcv`v‡bi
Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©q Ki| A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Avt Zvc 900Jkg−1k−1 |
mgvavb: aiv hvK, GLv‡b,
e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K e¯‘i fi = 50g = 0.05kg
Zvc, S e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv n«vm = (120 −
GLv‡b, e¯‘ Zvc eR©b K‡i 30)0C = 900C = 90k
Avi K¨vjwiwgUvi I Gi K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi = 50g = 0.05kg
ga¨w¯’Z cvwb Zvc MÖnY K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (30
K‡i| − 20)0C = 100C = 10k
†h‡nZz M„nxZ ev ewR©Z Zvc cvwbi fi = 150g = 0.15kg
= fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (30 − 20)0C
cv_©K¨ 0
= 10 C = 10k
∴ e¯‘i ewR©Z Zvc K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii Avt Zvc = 900J kg−1 k−1
Q1 = 0.05 × S × 90J cvwbi Avt Zvc = 4200J kg−1 k−1
= 4.5 SJ
K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii M„nxZ Zvc,
Q2 = 0.05 × 900 × 10J
= 45J
cvwbi M„nxZ Zvc,
Q3 = 0.15 × 4200 × 10J
= 6300J
Avgiv Rvwb, ewR©Z Zvc = M„nxZ Zvc
ev, Q1 = Q2 + Q3
ev, 4.5 S = 45 + 6300 = 6345
ev, S = 1410Jkg−1k−1
∴ e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc,
S = 1410Jkg−1k−1
DËi : S = 1410Jkg−1k−1.

D`v : 4| 700C ZvcgvÎvi 100g cvwb‡K 100C ZvcgvÎvi 200g cvwbi mv‡_
fvjfv‡e wgwkÖZ Ki‡j P‚ovš マ ZvcgvÎv KZ n‡e? (Xv.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb: aiv hvK, P‚ovš マ ZvcgvÎv = θ0C
GLv‡b, Mig cvwb Zvc eR©b K‡i GLv‡b,
Avi VvÊv cvwb Zvc MÖnY K‡i| Mig cvwbi fi = 100g = 0.1kg
†h‡nZz M„nxZ ev ewR©Z Zvc, VvÊv cvwbi fi = 200g = 0.2kg
Q1 = 0.1 × 4200 × (70 − θ)J Mig cvwbi ZvcgvÎv n«vm = (70
240 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

VvÊv cvwbi M„nxZ Zvc, −θ)0C = (70−θ)k


Q2 = 0.2 × 4200 × (θ − 10)J VvÊv cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (θ−
Avgiv Rvwb, ewR©Z Zvc = 0
10) C = (θ−10)k
M„nxZ Zvc cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 4200Jkg−1k−1
ev, Q1 = Q2
ev, 0.1 × 4200 × (70 − θ) = 0.2 × 4200 × (θ − 10)
ev, 7 − 0.1 θ = 0.2 θ − 2
ev, 0.3θ = 9
∴ θ = 300C
∴ P‚ovš マ ZvcgvÎv, θ = 300C. (DËi)|
D`v : 5| 300C ZvcgvÎvi Ges 840Jkg−1k−1 Av‡cw¶K Zvc wewkó 1kg f‡ii
GKwU e¯‘‡K 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 2kg f‡ii cvwbi g‡a¨ ivLv nj| wgkÖ‡Yi
ZvcgvÎv wbY©q Ki|
mgvavb: aiv hvK, wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv = θ0C
GLv‡b, e¯‘ Zvc MÖnY K‡i Avi cvwb GLv‡b,
Zvc eR©b K‡i| e¯‘i fi = 1kg
†h‡nZz M„nxZ ev ewR©Z Zvc = fi × e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (θ − 30)0C =
(θ − 30)k
Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨ e¯‘i Avt Zvc = 840Jkg−1k−1
∴ e¯‘i M„nxZ Zvc, Q1 = 1 × 840 × (θ − cvwbi fi = 2kg
30)J cvwbi ZvcgvÎv n«vm = (100 −
cvwbi ewR©Z Zvc, Q2 = 2 × 4200 × θ)0C = (100 − θ)k
(100 − θ)J cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc =
Avgiv Rvwb, M„nxZ Zvc = 4200Jkg −1k−1

ewR©Z Zvc
ev, 1 × 840 × (θ − 30) = 2 × 4200 × (100 − θ)
ev, 840 θ − 25200 = 840000 − 8400 θ
ev, 9240 θ = 865200
∴ θ = 93.640C ∴ wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv θ = 93.640C. (DËi)|
D`v : 6| 200C ZvcgvÎvi 0.1kg wUb‡K Mjv‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc wbY©q
Ki| wU‡bi Avt Zvc 210 Jkg−1k−1, wU‡bi Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc 58800 Jkg−1 Ges
MjbvsK 2320C.
mgvavb: GLv‡b,
wUb‡K Mjv‡Z `yB ch©v‡q Zvc cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z n‡e|
(i) wUb‡K MjbvsK ch©š マ DËß Ki‡Z,
(ii) Mjbvs‡K wUb‡K Mjv‡Z|
(i) 200c ZvcgvÎvi 0.1kg wUb‡K 2320C ZvcgvÎvq DbœxZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zvc,
Q1 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
= 0.1kg × 210Jkg−1k−1 × (232 − 20)k
= 4452J
K¨vjwiwgwZ 241

(ii) 2320C ZvcgvÎvq 0.1kg wUb‡K Mjv‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc


Q2 = fi × Avt myßZvc
= 0.1kg × 58800Jkg−1
= 5880J
∴ †gvU Zvc,
Q
= Q1 + Q2
= 4452J + 5880J
= 10332J
∴ cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc, Q = 10332J (DËi) |
D`v : 7| 5kg eid Mwj‡q 500C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z
cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc wbY©q Ki| eid Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc 336000Jkg−1 | (h.†ev.
2005)
mgvavb: GLv‡b,
`yB ch©v‡q Zvc cÖhy³ nq|
(i) Mjbvs‡K eid‡K Mjv‡Z,
(ii) eidMjv cvwbi ZvcgvÎv 500c G DbœxZ Ki‡Z|
(i) O C ZvcgvÎvi 5kg eid‡K O0C cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc,
0

Q1 = fi × Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc


= 5kg × 336000Jkg−1
= 1680000J
(ii) O0C ZvcgvÎvi 5kg cvwb‡K 500C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z
cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc,
Q2 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
= 5kg × 4200 Jkg−1k−1 × (50 − 0)k
= 1050000J.
∴ †gvU Zvc,
Q
= Q1 + Q2
= 1680000J + 1050000J
= 2730000J
∴ cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc = 2730000J. (DËi)

Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| 3kg mxmvi ZvcgvÎv 200C evov‡Z KZ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb
n‡e? mxmvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 130Jkg−1k−1 |
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ms∆θ fi, m = 3kg
= 3kg × 130Jkg−1k−1 × 20k Av‡cw¶K Zvc, s = 130J
= 7800J kg−1 k−1
∴ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb = 7800J. (DËi)| ZvcgvÎv e„w×, ∆θ = 200C =
20k
242 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Zvc kw³, Q = ?
mgm¨v : 2| GK UzKiv iƒcvi ZvcgvÎv 280C †_‡K 780C-G DbœxZ Ki‡Z
8625J Zvckw³i cÖ‡qvRb nq| iƒcvi UzKivwUi fi wbY©q Ki| iƒcvi
Av‡cw¶K Zvc 230Jkg−1k−1 | (iv.†ev. 2006)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ms∆θ ZvcgvÎv e„w× ∆θ = (78 − 28)0C =
ev, m = 50oC = 50k
= Av‡cw¶K Zvc, S = 230Jkg−1k−1
= 0.75kg
Zvckw³, Q = 8625J
fi, m = ?
∴ iƒcvi fi m = 0.75kg. (DËi) |
mgm¨v : 3| 50g `¯ マ vi ZvcgvÎv 200C †_‡K 1000C-G DbœxZ Ki‡Z 1520J
Zvc cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z nq| `¯マ vi Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©q Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2005;
wm.†ev. 2005; P. †ev. 2000)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ms∆θ fi, m = 50g = 0.50kg
ev, S = ZvcgvÎv e„w×, ∆θ = (1000C −
= = 380Jkg−1k−1 0
20) = 80 C = 80k
Zvckw³, Q = 1520J
Av‡cw¶K Zvc, S = ?
∴ Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 380Jkg k . (DËi)| −1 −1

mgm¨v : 4| 230C ZvcgvÎvi 300g †ebwRb‡K 8670J Zvckw³ cÖ`vb Ki‡j Gi


ZvcgvÎv KZ n‡e? †ebwR‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 1700Jkg−1k−1 | (Kz.†ev. 2006;
Xv.†ev. 2005)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
Q = ms∆θ fi, m = 300g = 0.3kg
ev, ∆θ = = Avw` ZvcgvÎv,θ1 = 230C = 23k
= 17k Zvckw³, Q = 8670J
Av‡cw¶K Zvc, S =
1700Jkg−1k−1
†kl ZvcgvÎv, Q2 = ?
ev, θ2 − θ1 = 17k
∴ θ2 = 17k + 23k = 40k
∴ †kl ZvcgvÎv = 40k. (DËi)|
mgm¨v : 5| 1200C ZvcgvÎvi 100g f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K 50g fi wewkó GKwU
Zvgvi cv‡Î 200C ZvcgvÎvi 300g cvwbi g‡a¨ Wzev‡j cvwbi P‚ovš マ
ZvcgvÎv 300c-G †c&ŠQvq| e¯‘wUi Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbY©q Ki|
Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400Jkg−1k−1 |
K¨vjwiwgwZ 243

mgvavb:
GLb Zvgvi cvÎ KZ©„K M„nxZ GLv‡b,
Zvc, Zvgvi cv‡Îi fi, = 50g = 0.05kg
Q1 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi Zvgvi ZvcgvÎv e„w×, = (30− 20)0C =
cv_©K¨ 100C = 10k
= 0.05kg × 400Jkg−1k−1 × 10k Zvgvi Avt Zvc, = 400Jkg−1k−1
= 200J cvwbi fi, = 300g = 0.3kg
cvwb KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc, cvwbi Avt Zvc = 4200Jkg−1k−1
Q2 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = 300C−
0 0
20 C = 10 C = 10k
cv_©K¨
e¯‘i fi = 100g = 0.1kg
= 0.3kg × 4200Jkg−1k−1 × 10k
= 12600J
e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv n«vm = 1200C −
300C = 900C = 90k
e¯‘i Avt Zvc = ?
e¯‘ KZ…©K nviv‡bv Zvc,
Q3 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
= 0.1kg × S × 90k
= 9SJ
Avgiv Rvwb,
M„nxZ Zvc = nviv‡bv Zvc
∴ 200J + 12600J = 9SJ
∴ S = 1422Jkg−1k−1
∴ e¯‘i Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 1422Jkg−1k−1 (DËi)|
mgm¨v : 6| 200C ZvcgvÎvq 200g fi wewkó GKwU KuvPcv‡Î 20g cvwb
Av‡Q, 1000C ZvcgvÎvi GK UzKiv †jvnv‡K GB cvwb‡Z wbgw¾Z K‡i
fvjfv‡e bvov n‡j wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv nq 31.80C| †jvnvi UzKivi fi
wbY©q Ki| KvP I †jvnvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc h_vµ‡g 670Jkg−1k−1 Ges 460Jkg−1k−
1
|
mgvavb: GLv‡b,
†jvnv KZ…©K nviv‡bv Zvc, †jvnvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 460Jkg
−1 −1
Q1 = m × 460Jkg k × 68.2k
−1 −1 k
= 31372MJ †jvnvi ZvcgvÎv n«vm = 100 −
31.8 = 68.20C = 68.2k
KvPcvÎ KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc
Kv‡Pi fi = 200g = 0.2kg
Q2 = 0.2kg×670Jkg−1k−1×11.8k =1581.2J
Kv‡Pi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 670Jkg
cvwb KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc −1 −1
k
Q3 = 0.02kg × 4200Jkg−1k−1 × 11.8k Kv‡Pi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = 31.8 −
= 991.2J 0
20 = 11.8 C = 11.8k
cvwbi fi = 20g = 0.02kg
244 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc =


−1 −1
4200Jkg k
cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = 31.8 −
0
20 = 11.8 C = 11.8k
†jvnvi UzKivi fi = m= ?
Avgiv Rvwb,
M„nxZ Zvc = nviv‡bv Zvc
ev, 1581.2 + 991.2 = 31372m
∴ m = 0.082kg = 82g
∴ †jvnvi fi, m = 82g. (DËi)|
mgm¨v : 7| 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 700g Zvgv 2kg fi wewkó Zvgvi cv‡Î 250C
ZvcgvÎvi 1kg cvwbi g‡a¨ ivLv nj| Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc 400 Jkg−1k−1 n‡j
wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv †ei Ki| (Kz. †ev. 2001; iv.†ev. 2002; P.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb: awi, wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv = θ C 0

Zvgv KZ…©K nviv‡bv Zvc, GLv‡b,


Q1 = 0.7kg × 400Jkg k × (100 − θ)k
−1 −1 Zvgvi fi = 700g = 0.7kg
= 280 (100 − θ)J Zvgvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 400Jkg
−1 −1
cvÎ KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc, k
Zvgvi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (100 −
Q2 = 2kg × 400Jkg−1k−1 × (θ − 25)k
θ)0C = (100 − θ)k
= 800 (θ − 25)J
cv‡Îi fi = 2kg
cvwb KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc cv‡Îi Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc =
Q3 = 1kg × 4200Jkg−1k−1 × (θ − 25)k 400Jkg−1k−1
= 4200 (θ − 25)J cv‡Îi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (θ − 25)k
cvwbi fi = 1kg
cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc =
4200Jkg−1k−1
cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (θ −
25)k
Avgiv Rvwb,
M„nxZ Zvc = nviv‡bv Zvc
ev, 800 (θ − 25) + 4200 (θ − 25) = 280 (100 − θ)
ev, 5000 (θ − 25) = 280 (100 − θ)
ev, 5000 θ − 125000 = 28000 − 280 θ
ev, 5280 θ = 153000
∴ θ = 28.980C
wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv = 28.980C. (DËi)|
mgm¨v : 8| 0.2kg f‡ii GKwU wcZ‡ji ej‡K GKwU Pzjx †_‡K Zz‡j 250C
ZvcgvÎvi 150g cvwb‡Z Wzev‡bv nj| wcZ‡ji e‡ji ewR©Z mg¯ マ Zvc
cvwb MÖnY K‡i‡Q g‡b Ki‡j Ges Df‡qi ZvcgvÎv 670C-G G‡m `uvov‡j
Pzjxi ZvcgvÎv †ei Ki| wcZ‡ji Av‡cw¶K Zvc 380Jkg−1k−1 |
K¨vjwiwgwZ 245

mgvavb: awi, Pzjxi ZvcgvÎv = θC = ?


wcZ‡ji ej KZ©„K nviv‡bv Zvc, GLv‡b,
Q1 = 0.2kg × 380 Jkg k × (θ2 − 67)k
−1 −1
wcZ‡ji e‡ji fi = 0.2kg
= 76 (θ2 − 67)J wcZ‡ji Avt Zvc = 380Jkg−1k−1
cvwb KZ…©K M„nxZ Zvc, wcZ‡ji e‡ji ZvcgvÎv e„w× =
Q2 = 0.15kg×4200Jkg k × (67−25) k
−1 −1
(θ2 − 67) C = (θ2 − 67)k
0

= 26460J cvwbi fi = 150g = 0.15kg


cvwbi Avt Zvc = 4200Jkg−1k−1
cvwbi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = (67 −
25)k
Avgiv Rvwb,
M„nxZ Zvc = nviv‡bv Zvc
ev, 26460 = 76 (θ2 − 67)
ev, 76 θ2 = 26460 + 5092
ev, 76 θ2 = 31552
∴ θ2 = 415.16k
= 415.160c
DËi : Pzjxi ZvcgvÎv = 415.160C.
mgm¨v : 9| 300C ZvcgvÎvi 200g iƒcv‡K m¤• チ Y© Mjv‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zv‡ci cwigvY wnmve Ki| iƒcvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc, Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K
myßZvc Ges Mjbv¼ h_vµ‡g 230Jkg−1k−1, 105000Jkg−1k−1 Ges 9600C|
mgvavb:
ZvcgvÎvi 0.2kg iƒcvi ZvcgvÎv GLv‡b,
300C
9600C-G DbœxZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq iƒcvi fi = 200g = 0.2kg
Zvc, iƒcvi Av‡cw¶K Zvc = 230Jkg
Q1 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎv
−1 −1
k
e„w× iƒcvi ZvcgvÎv e„w× = 9600C−
0 0
= 0.2kg × 230Jkg−1k−1 × 930k 30 C = 930 C = 930k
= 42780J iƒcvi Mj‡bi myßZvc =
−1
105000Jkg
9600C ZvcgvÎvq 0.2kg iƒcv‡K Mjv‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc,
Q2 = fi × Av‡cw¶K myßZvc
= 0.2kg × 105000Jkg−1
= 21000J
∴ †gvU cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc = Q1 + Q2
= (42780 + 21000)J
= 63780J (DËi)|
mgm¨v : 10| −100C ZvcgvÎv wewkó 100g eid‡K 1000C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z
cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc †ei Ki| ei‡di Av‡cw¶K Zvc I Mj‡bi
246 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Av‡cw¶K myßZvc h_vµ‡g 2100Jkg−1k−1 Ges 336000Jkg−1 |


mgvavb: (Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; 2000 ; iv. †ev. 2000; ewi.†ev. 2003)
− 100CZvcgvÎvi 0.1kg ei‡di 0oC-Gi ei‡d GLv‡b,
cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc, ei‡di fi = 100g = 0.1kg
Q1 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi
ei‡di Avt Zvc = 2100Jkg−1k−1
cv_©K¨
= 0.1kg × 2100Jkg−1k−1 × {0 − (− 10)} eid Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc =
= 2100J 336000Jkg−1
00C Gi 0.1kg eid‡K 00C-Gi 0.1kg cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc,
Q2 = fi × eid Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc
= 0.1kg × 336000Jkg−1
= 33600J
00C Gi 0.1kg cvwb‡K 1000C-Gi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc,
Q3 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi cv_©K¨
= 0.1kg × 4200Jkg−1k−1 × (100 − 0)k
= 42000J
∴ †gvU Zvc = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= 2100J + 33600J + 42000J
= 77700J (DËi)
mgm¨v : 11| mgvb f‡ii eid Ges dzUš マ cvwb GK‡Î wgwkÖZ Kiv
n‡jv| G‡Z m¤•チ Y© eid cvwb‡Z cwiYZ nj Ges wgkÖ‡Yi ZvcgvÎv 200C
nj| eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc †ei Ki| (ewi.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. 2002)
mgvavb: awi, eid Mj‡bi Av‡cw¶K myßZvc = lf Jkg−1
GLb,
00C-Gi eid †_‡K 00C Gi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z M„nxZ Zvc,
Q1 = fi × Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc
= m × lf J
00C Gi cvwb †_‡K 100C-Gi cvwb n‡Z M„nxZ Zvc
Q2 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎv e„w×
= m × 4200Jkg−1k−1 × (10 − 0)k
= 42000mJ
1000C-Gi cvwb †_‡K 100C Gi cvwb n‡Z nviv‡bv Zvc,
Q3 = fi × Avt Zvc × ZvcgvÎvi n«vm
= m × 4200Jkg−1k−1 × (100 − 10)k
= 378000mJ
Avgiv Rvwb,
M„nxZ Zvc = nviv‡bv Zvc
ev, m × lfJ + 42000mJ = 378000mJ
ev, m × lfJ + 336000mJ
∴ lf = 336000Jkg−1
∴ eid Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc = 336000Jkg−1
DËi : eid Mj‡bi Avt myßZvc = 336000Jkg−1.
K¨vjwiwgwZ 247

AwZwi³ MvwYwZK
mgm¨vewj
mgm¨v : 1| O0C ZvcgvÎvi 3kg eid‡K ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zv‡ci cwigvY wbY©q Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb,
eid Mj‡bi myß Zvc Lf = 336000 Jkg−1
cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc, S = 4200 Jkg−1K−1
ev‡®• myß Zvc, Lv = 2260000 JKg−1
†`Iqv Av‡Q,
ei‡di fi, m = 3 kg
(i) O0C ZvcgvÎvi 3kg eid‡K O0 ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ n‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc
Q1 = mLf
= (3 × 336000) J
= 1008000 J
(ii) O0C ZvcgvÎvi 3kg cvwb‡K 1000C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ n‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zvc
Q2 = msQ
= 3 × 4200 × (100 − 0)
= 1260000
(iii) 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 3kg cvwb‡K 100C0 ZvcgvÎvi ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
Zvc|
Q3 = mLv
= 3 × 2260000
= 6780000
∴ O0C ZvcgvÎvi 3kg eid‡K ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc
= Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= (1008000 + 1260000 + 6780000)J
= 9048 000 J
= 9048 kJ (Ans.)
mgm¨v : 2| 200 gm fi wewkó A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi cv‡Zi ZvcgvÎv 200C
evov‡Z 1800 J Zvc jv‡M| A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Av‡cw¶K Zvc †ei Ki|
(h.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb: Avvgiv Rvwb, †`Iqv Av‡Q,
Q = ms∆θ A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi fi, m = 200 gm
ev, S = = 0.2 kg
= ZvcgvÎvi e„w×, ∆θ = 200C
= 450 J kg−1k−1 = 20K
DËi : A¨vjywgwbqv‡gi Av‡cw¶K cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvc, Q = 1800 J
Zvc 450 J kg−1k−1 Av‡cw¶K Zvc, S = ?
mgm¨v : 3| 100 gm eid (0°C ZvcgvÎvq) m¤•yY© Mjv‡q ev‡®• cwiYZ
248 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Ki‡Z KZUzKz Zvc jvM‡e? (Kz.†ev. 2004)


mgvavb : AwZwi³ cÖkœ 1 Gi Abyiƒc|
ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. e¯‘i Aš マ wb©wnZ Zvc kw³i cÖ‡kœvËi
cwigvY †KvbwUi Dci wbf©i 1| wb‡Pi †KvbwUi Av‡cw¶K Zvc
K‡i bv? (wm.†ev. Õ05; h.†ev. Õ01; †ewk?
P.†ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. Õ03) (Xv.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev. 2002; P.†ev.
A_ev, e¯‘i ZvcaviY ¶gZv †KvbwUi 2001; ’99; h.†ev. ’99; Xv.†ev. ’99)
Ici wbf©i K‡i bv? K. †jvnv L. mxmv
✓ M. cvwb N. Zvgv
(h.ev. 2004)
2| e¯‘i cÖwZ GKK f‡ii Zvc aviY
K. e¯‘i fi ✓ L. e¯‘i ¶gZv‡K ejv nqÑ
AvqZb (P.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2000)
M. e¯‘i Dcv`vb N. K. Av‡cw¶K myß Zvc L. K¨vjwi
ZvcgvÎv e„w× ✓ M. Av‡cw¶K Zvc N. Av‡cw¶K
¸i“Z¡
2. †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z
3| GK MÖvg weï× cvwbi
†h Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv‡K wK
ZvcgvÎv 1k evov‡Z KZ Zv‡ci
e‡j?
cÖ‡qvRb? (P.†ev. 2000)
K. Av‡cw¶K Zvc L. K. 1. 8J L. 2.4J
myß Zvc M. 3.4J ✓ N. 4.2J
✓ M. Zvc aviY ¶gZv N. 4| e¯‘i Av‡cw¶K Zvc wbf©i K‡i?
K¨vjwi (h.†ev. 2000)
3. Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci GKK †KvbwU? K. e¯‘i f‡ii Dci
(P.†ev. 2005; ewi.†ev. 2001; 2002; Xv.†ev. L. e¯‘i Nb‡Z¡i Dci
2000) ✓ M. e¯‘i ZvcgvÎvi Dci
✓ K. J kg−1k−1 L. J kgk−1 N. e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi Dci
M. J kg−1k N. N kg−1k−1 5| cvwbi Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ?
4. †h h‡ši mvnv‡h¨ Zvc cwigvc (Kz.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2001; iv.†ev.
Kiv nq Zv‡K wK e‡j? (h.†ev. 2001)
2005; 2004; Xv.†ev. 2004; 2001; K. 800 Jkg−1k−1 L. 4300 Jkg−1k−1
Kz.†ev. 2000; wm.†ev. 2003) M. 4000 Jkg−1k−1 ✓ N. 4200 Jkg−1k−1
K. GwgUvi L. 6| ÒM„nxZ Zvc = ewR©Z ZvcÓ
†fvëwgUvi GUv wK‡mi gjbxwZ?
M. _v‡g©vwgUvi ✓ N. (iv. †ev. 2002; m. †ev. Õ98)
K¨vjwiwgUvi| K. fi †e‡Mi wbZ¨Zvi ✓ L.
K¨vjwiwgwZi
AwZwi³ M. e¯‘i Dcv`vb N. ZvcgvÎv e„w×
ˆbe©¨w³K 7| DbœZ ai‡bi K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii
D™¢veK †K?
K¨vjwiwgwZ 249

K. gv`vg Kzix L. gvK©bx K. S = Cm L. m = CS


M. wjD‡qb ûK ✓ N. †i‡bv ✓ M. C = mS N. M = CS
8| GKwU Zvgvi K¨vjwiwgUv‡ii fi 17| `ywU e¯‘ ci¯•i ms¯•‡k© ¯’vcb
0.5kg Ges Gi Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Ki‡j G‡`i g‡a¨ Zv‡ci †jb‡`b
Zvc 400 jkg−1k−1| Gi ZvcgvÎv 200C wb‡Pi †KvbwUi Ici wbf©i K‡i?
†_‡K 300C G DVv‡Z KZ Zv‡ci K. e¯‘ `ywUi Zv‡ci cwigv‡Yi Ici
cÖ‡qvRb n‡e? (Kz. 2001; P.†ev. ✓ L. e¯‘ `ywUi ZvcgvÎvi cv_©‡K¨i
2003) Ici
K. 1000 J ✓ L. 2000J M. e¯‘ `ywUi f‡ii Ici
M. 3000J N. 4000J N. e¯‘ `ywUi Ae¯’vi Ici
9| 50gm `¯vi ZvcgvÎv 200C †_‡K 18| 00C ZvcgvÎvi 1kg eid‡K 00C
1000C G DbœxZ Ki‡Z 1520J Zvc ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z
cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z nq| `¯vi †h Zvc jv‡M Zv‡K wK ejv nq?
Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ n‡e? (Kz.†ev. 2001)
K. 370 Jkg−1k−1 L. 360 Jkg−1k−1 ✓ K. Mj‡bi myßZvc L. ev®•xfe‡bi
✓ M. 380 Jkg k−1 −1
N. 390 Jkg−1k−1 myßZvc
10| 1700 Jkg k Av‡cw¶K Zvcwewkó
−1 −1
M. wngv¼ Zvc N. kxZj KiY Zvc
230C ZvcgvÎvq 300gm †ebwRb‡K 19| 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 1kg cvwb‡K 1000C
8670J Zvc kw³ cÖ`vb Ki‡j Gi ZvcgvÎvi ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z †h
ZvcgvÎv KZ n‡e? Zvc jv‡M Zv‡K wK ejv nq?
K. 200C L. 300C K. Mj‡bi myßvZvc ✓
0
✓ M. 40 C N. 500C L.ev®•xfe‡bi myßvZvc
11| gvwUi Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ? M. wngv¼K Zvc N. kxZj KiY Zvc
K. 400 Jkg−1k−1 L. 2200 Jkg−1k−1 20| K¨vjwiwgUvi Øviv wK cwigvc
M. 700 Jkg k ✓ N. 800 Jkg−1k−1
−1 −1
Kiv nq?
12| ei‡di Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ? ✓ K. Zvc L. ZvcgvÎv
✓ K. 2100 Jkg−1k−1 L. 2200 Jkg−1k−1 M. Pvc N. NbZ¡
M. 2300 Jkg−1k−1 N. 2400 Jkg−1k−1 21| †Kvb c`v‡_©i Avšt AvYweK
13| Zvc aviY ¶gZvi GKK wK? kw³ †ewk?
(Kz.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2001)
✓ K. KwVb L. Zij
K. Jkg−1k−1 ✓ L. Jk−1
M. Cal/gm N. Joule /sec M. evqexq N. ey`ey`
14| − 100C ZvcgvÎv wewkó 100 gm 22| 00C ZvcgvÎvi 1kg weï× eid‡K
eid‡K 1000C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z ïay Mjv‡Z KZ Ryj Zvc
cwiYZ Ki‡Z KZ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb cÖ‡qvRb? (Kz.†ev. 2001)
n‡e? K. 3600 Ryj L. 36000 Ryj
✓ K. 77700J L. 77000J ✓ M. 4200 Ryj N. 336000 Ryj
M. 70000J N. 67370J 23| 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 1kg cvwb‡K
15| 1gm weï× cvwbi ZvcgvÎv 10C ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z KZ Ryj Zvc
e„w× Ki‡Z †h Zvc jv‡M Zv‡K cÖ‡qvRb? (ewi.†ev. 2004)
wK ejv nq? K. 2268 Ryj ✓ L. 2268000 Ryj
K. Zvc aviY ¶gZv ✓ L. M. 4360000 Ryj N. 5360 Ryj
K¨vjwi 24| m fi I s Av‡cw¶K Zv‡ci †Kvb
M. myß Zvc N. Av‡cw¶K Zvc e¯‘‡Z θ Zvc cÖ‡qvM Ki‡j hw`
16| †Kvb e¯‘i Zvc aviY ¶gZv C, e¯‘wUi ZvcgvÎvi e„w× ∆θ nq
Av‡cw¶K Zvc S Ges fi m n‡j Z‡e †m‡¶‡Î wb‡Êi †KvbwU
†m‡¶‡Î wb‡Pi †Kvb&wU mwVK mwVK mgxKiY?
mgxKiY? ✓ K. Q = mS∆θ L. Q
250 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

M. Q = N. mS = ∆θ = Q M. 4.2 × 103J N. 4.2 × 102J


25| 1000C ZvcgvÎvi 2kg cvwb‡K ïay 34| f‡ii cvwbi ZvcgvÎv 1 K
ev‡®• cwiYZ Ki‡Z KZ Zvc evov‡Z KZ Zvc jvM‡e?
jvM‡e? (P.†ev. 2003) [Xv.†ev. 2005]
K. 762000 Ryj L. 762000 Ryj K. 4.2J ✓ L. 42J
M. 276000 Ryj ✓ N. 4536000 Ryj M. 420J N. 4200J
26| 00C ZvcgvÎvi 2kg eid‡K ïay Mjv‡Z
KZ Zvc jvM‡e? 35| 1kg †jvnvi ZvcgvÎv 1 K
K. 276000 Ryj L. 762000 Ryj evov‡Z KZ Zv‡ci cÖ‡qvRb?
✓ M. 672000 Ryj N. 4536000 Ryj [iv.†ev. 2005]
27| wb‡Pi †KvbwU eid Mj‡bi K. 4.60J L. 46J
Av‡cw¶K myß Zvc? ✓ M. 460J N. 046J
(iv.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2004; 2003) 36| Av‡cw¶K Zvc wK?
✓ K. 3.36 × 105Jkg−1 L. 33.6 × 105Jkg−1 [Xv.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2005]
M. 0.306 × 104 Jkg−1 N. 3.36 × 106 Jkg−1 K. e¯‘i ˆewkó¨
28| †KvbwU mwVK m¤•K©? ✓ L. e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi ˆewkó¨
(P.†ev. 2003) M. ZvcgvÎvi ˆewkó¨
K. ∝ = 2β = γ ✓ L. 6∝ = 3β = 2γ N. AvqZ‡bi ˆewkó¨
M. 2∝ = β = γ N. 2∝ = 3γ = 2β
29| 00C ZvcgvÎvi 1 kg eid‡K 00C 37| gvbe‡`‡ni Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ?
ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z [h.†ev. 2004; wm.†ev. 2005;
KZ Zvckw³i cÖ‡qvRb? (Kz.†ev. iv.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2006]
2003) K. 1050Jkg−1K−1
K 33600J ✓ L. 336000 J L. 2100Jkg−1K−1
M. 336000 J N. 33600000 J ✓ M. 3470Jkg−1K−1
30| mkg Gi wewkó †Kvb e¯‘i N. 4200Jkg−1K−1
Dcv`v‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc SJKg−1K−1 38| evZv‡m Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ?
n‡j ∆θK cwigvY ZvcgvÎv e„w× [wm.†ev. 2004]
Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq Zv‡ci cwigvY Q ✓ K. 1050Jkg−1K−1 L. 1040Jkg−1K−1
KZ n‡e? (Kz.†ev. 2003)
K. Q = ms∆θ K¨vjwi L. Q = ms K¨vjwi M. 1000Jkg−1K−1 N. 950Jkg−1K−1
✓ M. Q = ms ∆θ Ryj N. θ = ms Ryj| 39| †Kvb&wU Av‡cw¶K Zvc
31| mkg f‡ii †Kvb e¯‘i ZvcgvÎv ∆θ wbY©‡qi mgxKiY? [wm.†ev. 2004]
K evov‡Z hw` Q cwigvY Zv‡ci K. L.
cÖ‡qvRb nq, Z‡e e¯‘i Dcv`v‡bi M. ✓ N.
Av‡cw¶K Zvc mgvb KZ n‡e?
[h.†ev. 2006] 40| 20 C ZvcgvÎvi 1 kg cvwb‡K
0

K. ✓ L. 210C ZvcgvÎvi cvwb‡Z cwiYZ


M. N. S = mQ ∆θ Ki‡Z wK cwigvY Zv‡ci
32| Aw·‡R‡bi Av‡cw¶K Zvc KZ? cÖ‡qvRb?
[P.†ev. 2006] [ewi.†ev. 2004]
K. 670Jkg−1K−1 ✓ L. 910Jkg−1K−1 K. 1.26 × 10 J
5
L. 1.228 × 105J
M. 1050Jkg−1K−1 N. 2000Jkg−1K−1 ✓ M. 4.2 × 103J N. 3.9 × 103J
33| 10kg f‡ii cvwbi ZvcgvÎv 1 K 41| †KvbwUi Av‡cw¶K Zvc
evov‡Z KZ Zvc jvM‡e? †ewk?
[wm.†ev. 2006]
✓ K. 42 × 103J L. 42 × 102J K. mxmv L. †jvnv
M. Zvgv ✓ N. eid