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A a¨vq


_g Aa¨vq
8
kã ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
msw¶ß DËi cÖ‡kœvËi 2005)
cÖkœ : 1| kã Kx? cÖkœ : 12| ev`yo wKfv‡e c_ P‡j?
A_ev, k‡ãi msÁv `vI| (iv. †ev. Õ99) (iv.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev.
cÖkœ : 2| kã wKfv‡e Drcbœ nq? 2003)
(iv. †ev. Õ99) cÖkœ : 13| kã `チ lY wK?
A_ev, K¤•‡bi d‡jB kã DrcwË nq, e¨vL¨v (Xv.†ev. h.†ev. 2000 ; m.†ev.
Ki| Õ98; h.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006;
cÖkœ : 3| evZv‡m kã Zi½ wKfv‡e 2002; Kz.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev.
mÂvwiZ nq? 2003; P.†ev. 2003)
cÖkœ : 4| ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡j evZv‡m k‡ãi Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK
`ª“wZ wKiƒc cwieZ©b nq? cÖkœ : 1| GKwU cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ †`LvI †h,
(wm.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2000) K¤•bkxj e¯‘ †_‡K kã Drcbœ nq|
A_ev, k‡ãi `ª“wZi Dci ZvcgvÎvi cÖfve A_ev, kã Drcbœ nIqvi KviY wK? cix¶v
Av‡jvPbv Ki| Øviv cÖgvY Ki|
cÖkœ : 5| k‡ãi cÖwZdjb ej‡Z wK eyS? cÖkœ : 2| evqyi ga¨ w`‡q kã mÂvi‡Yi
(Xv.†ev. wm.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. †KŠkj Av‡jvPbv Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2004;
2000) wm.†ev. 2002; e.†ev. 2003; iv.†ev.
A_ev, wUKv †jL : k‡ãi cÖwZdjb| 2003)
cÖkœ : 6| cÖwZaŸwb Kv‡K e‡j? A_ev, evqyi ga¨ w`‡q wKfv‡e kã mÂvwjZ
(Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; P. †ev. Õ06; Õ99; nq e¨vL¨v Ki| (P.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev.
ewi.†ev. 2005; 2004; Õ99 ; 2001)
2002;wm.†ev. 2006; 2001; P.†ev. cÖkœ : 3| GKwU cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY
2003; h.†ev. 2006; 2003) Ki †h kã mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Ro gva¨‡gi
cÖkœ : 7| cÖwZaŸwb wKfv‡e m„wó nq? cÖ‡qvRb| (P.†ev.iv.†ev.Õ99)
(h. †ev. Õ99 ; m. †ev. Õ98) A_ev, gva¨g Qvov wK kã mÂvwjZ n‡Z
cÖkœ : 8| cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ Drm I cv‡i? KviY `k©vI|
cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg ` チ iZ¡ KZ cÖkœ : 4| 300C ZvcgvÎvq k‡ãi Drm I
nIqv cÖ‡qvRb? (Xv.†ev. Õ99) cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg ` チ iZ¡ KZ
cÖkœ : 9| kÖve¨Zvi cvjv ej‡Z wK †evS? n‡j k‡ãi cÖwZaŸwb †kvbv hvq
(h. †ev. Õ99 ; P. †ev. 2005; Õ99 ; wbY©q Ki| (wm.†ev. 2004;
iv. †ev. e. †ev. 2001; Kz.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2005; Xv. †ev. Õ99 ;
P.†ev. 2002; 2005) Kz. †ev. 2006; 2000; P.†ev.
cÖkœ : 10| k‡ãvËi I k‡ãZi Zi½ ej‡Z wK 2002; h.†ev. 2006; 2003)
eyS? cÖkœ : 5| cÖwZaŸwbi mvnv‡h¨ wKfv‡e
A_ev, wUKv †jL : k‡ãvËi Zi½, (h.†ev. K‚‡ci MfxiZv wbY©q Kiv hvq eY©bv
2004; wm.†ev. 2002; 2005; iv.†ev. Ki| (wm.†ev. h.†ev. 2006; h.†ev.
Õ99) 2000 ; e.†ev. 2001; Kz.†ev, h.†ev.
k‡ãZi Zi½ (P.†ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. Xv.†ev. 2005)
2002; h.†ev. Õ99) A_ev, †`LvI †h, MfxiZvi †¶‡Î h = vt hLb
cÖkœ : 11| k‡ãvËi Zi‡½i K‡qKwU e¨envi
ms‡KZ¸‡jv cÖPwjZ A_© enb K‡i|
D‡jL Ki| (P. †ev. 2000; wm.†ev.
184 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
cÖkœ : 6| kã `チ lY ej‡Z wK eyS Av‡jvPbv cv_i †Q‡o w`j Ges cv_iwU
Ki| (iv.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2000 ; cvwb‡Z cvZvq cvwb wQU‡K
h.†ev.2000 ; Kz.†ev. 2001) DV‡Z †`Lj| wKš‘ kã ïb‡Z †cj †m.
A_ev, kã ` チ l‡Yi cÖwZwµqv Ges `ylY †iv‡ai c‡i| k‡ãi `ª“wZ 330 m/s n‡j Kzqvi
Dcvq Av‡jvPbv Ki| KZ wb‡P cvwb Av‡Q?
A_ev, kã `チ l‡Yi ¶wZKi w`K¸‡jv wjL| (P.†ev. mgm¨v : 2| hw` Zzwg 27.5 wg. Mfxi †Kvb
iv.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2005) Kzqvi Kv‡Q `uvwo‡q nvZ Zvwj
A_ev, UxKv †jL : kã `ylY| `vI Zvnj KZ¶Y ci Zzwg †Zvgvi
AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi Zvwji aŸwb ïb‡Z cv‡e?
cÖkœ : 1| GKwU cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY Ki mgm¨v : 3| GK e¨w³ GKwU DPz †`qvj
†h, k‡ãi cÖwZdjb N‡U| †_‡K 550 wg. ` チ ‡ i `uvwo‡q wc¯マ j
cÖkœ : 2| kãvbyf‚wZi ¯’vwqZ¡Kvj wK? †_‡K ¸wj †Quv‡o| ¸wj †Quvovi 3
(ewi.†ev. 2003) †m. ci †m kã ïb‡Z †cj| k‡ãi †eM
cÖkœ : 3| cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ †kÖvZv I wbY©q Ki|
cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ¨bZg `チ iZ¡ 16.6m mgm¨v : 3| †Kvb GKwU myD”P cvjvb n‡Z
nIqv cÖ‡qvRb †Kb? 50 `チ‡i GKRb †jvK `uvwo‡q Av‡Q|
(ewi.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2004; †jvKwUi wbK‡U Aew¯’Z GKwU
Xv.†ev. 2003) KzKzi nVvr GKwU weKU kã K‡i
DVj| KZ †m. ci †m. cÖwZaŸwb
MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n ïb‡Z cv‡e? (k‡ãi `ª“wZ 350 m/s)
mgm¨v : 1| GK e¨w³ Mfxi Kzqvq GKLÛ

Abykxjbxi
msw¶ßÑDËi
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| kã Kx?
A_ev, k‡ãi msÁv `vI| (iv. †ev. Õ99)
DËi : kã (Sound) :
msÁv : kã GK cÖKvi kw³ hv GKwU K¤•bkxj e¯‘ n‡Z Drcbœ n‡q Ro
gva¨‡gi mvnv‡h¨ Avgv‡`i Kv‡b †cuŠ‡Q Ges kÖe‡Yi Abyf‚wZ Rb¥vq ev
Rb¥v‡Z †Póv K‡i|
cÖkœ : 2| kã wKfv‡e Drcbœ nq? (iv. †ev. Õ99)
A_ev, K¤•‡bi d‡jB kã DrcwË nq, e¨vL¨v Ki|
DËi : k‡ãi DrcwË : e¯‘i K¤•bB k‡ãi DrcwËi g チ j KviY| e¯‘‡Z hZ¶Y K¤•b
_v‡K ZZ¶YB kã Drcbœ nq| GB kã wbiwew”Qbœ w¯’wZ¯’vcK gva¨‡gi ga¨
w`‡q mÂvwjZ nq Ges Avgv‡`i Kv‡b †cuŠ‡Q I kÖe‡Yi Abyf‚wZ m„wó K‡i|
wKš‘ e¯‘i K¤•b eÜ nevi ci †_‡K kãI eÜ nq| e¯‘i K¤•b msL¨v 20 †_‡K 20,000/
†m‡KÊ n‡j †mB kã Avgiv ïb‡Z cvB|
cÖkœ : 3| evZv‡m kã Zi½ wKfv‡e mÂvwiZ nq?
DËi : evZv‡m kã Zi½ mÂvi‡Yi †KŠkj :
e¯‘i K¤•bB k‡ãi DrcwËi g チ j KviY| K¤•‡bi d‡j w¯’wZ¯’vcK evqy¯マ i GKevi
msKzwPZ Ges Av‡iKevi cÖmvwiZ nq| ch©vqµ‡g GK ¯ マ i †_‡K Ab¨ ¯ マ ‡ i
kã 185

ms‡KvPb I cÖmvi‡Yi d‡j kãkw³ mÂvwiZ n‡Z _v‡K| cici `ywU ms‡KvwPZ
¯マ i ev cÖmvwiZ ¯マ‡ii ga¨eZx© `チ iZ¡‡K Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ e‡j| A_©vr Drm †_‡K
kã m„wó n‡j Zv AYy‰`N©¨ Zi‡½i AvKv‡i Pviw`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o| GB kã
evqyi ga¨ w`‡q Zi½vKv‡i mÂvwiZ n‡q Avgv‡`i Kv‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡jB Avgiv
Zv ïb‡Z cvB|
cÖkœ : 4| ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡j evZv‡m k‡ãi `ª“wZ wKiƒc cwieZ©b
nq? (wm.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2000)
A_ev, k‡ãi `ª“wZi Dci ZvcgvÎvi cÖfve Av‡jvPbv Ki|
DËi : k‡ãi `ª“wZi Dci AvcgvÎvi cÖfve evqy ev M¨vmxq gva¨‡g k‡ãi †eM
cig ZvcgvÎvi eM©g チ‡ji mgvbycvwZK A_©vr k‡ãi †eM,
V =
myZivs ZvcgvÎv e„w× †c‡j k‡ãi †eM e„w× cvq|
cÖwZ wWMÖx †mwȇMÖW ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Rb¨ evqy‡Z k‡ãi †eM cÖwZ
†m‡K‡Ê 61 cm ev 0.61 wgUvi e„w× cvq|
cÖkœ : 5| k‡ãi cÖwZdjb ej‡Z wK eyS? (Xv.†ev. wm.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev.
2000)
A_ev, wUKv †jL : k‡ãi cÖwZdjb|
DËi : k‡ãi cÖwZdjb :
†Kvb Zi½ GKwU mylg gva¨‡gi ga¨ w`‡q Pjvi mgq hw` wfbœ gva¨‡g
evav cvq Z‡e Zi½wU c チ ‡ e©i gva¨‡g wd‡i Av‡m| GB NUbv‡K cÖwZdjb
e‡j| kã GKwU AYy‰`N©¨ Zi½| myZivs kã Zi½ hw` Pjvi c‡_ evavcÖvß
nq, Zvn‡j Zv c チ‡e©i gva¨‡g wd‡i Av‡m| G‡K k‡ãi cÖwZdjb e‡j|
D`vniY : GKwU myikjvKv‡K kãvwqZ Ki‡j K¤•‡bi gva¨‡g H kã evZv‡mi ga¨
w`‡q mÂvwjZ nq| H kã †`qvj ev †Kvb gva¨‡g evav †c‡j Avevi H gva¨‡g
(G‡¶‡Î evqy) wd‡i Av‡m| A_©vr k‡ãi cÖwZdjb nq|
cÖkœ : 6| cÖwZaŸwb Kv‡K e‡j? (Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; P. †ev. Õ06; Õ99;
ewi.†ev. 2005; 2004; 2002;wm.†ev. 2006; 2001; P.†ev. 2003; h.†ev. 2006;
2003)
DËi : cÖwZaŸwb :
†Kvb Drm †_‡K m„ó kã Zi½gvjv hw` `チ ieZx© †Kvb cÖwZdj‡K cÖwZdwjZ
n‡q cybivq Dr‡mi Kv‡Q G‡m Dcw¯’Z nq, ZLb g チ j aŸwbi †h cybive„wË
N‡U Zv‡K k‡ãi cÖwZaŸwb e‡j|
cÖkœ : 7| cÖwZaŸwb wKfv‡e m„wó nq? (h. †ev. Õ99 ; m. †ev. Õ98)
DËi : cÖwZaŸwb m„wó :
kã Zi‡½i cÖwZdj‡bi Rb¨ cÖwZaŸwbi DrcwË N‡U| cÖwZaŸwb m„wó Kivi
R‡b¨ Mv‡Qi mvwi, evwoi †`qvj, cvnv‡oi Mv BZ¨vw` cÖwZdjK wn‡m‡e
KvR K‡i|
186 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

cÖkœ : 8| cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg


`チ iZ¡ KZ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb? (Xv.†ev. Õ99)
DËi : cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg `チ iZ¡
:
†Kvb kã †kvbvi ci cÖvq 0.1 †m‡KÛ
ch©š マ Gi †ik Avgv‡`i gw¯マ‡®‹ _v‡K| GB
mgq‡K kãvbyf‚wZi ¯’vwqZ¡Kvj e‡j| •
cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ g チ jaŸwb I
d
cÖwZaŸwbi g‡a¨ mg‡qi cv_©K¨ Aš マ Z
0.1 †m‡KÛ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| Drm I
cÖwZdjK Gi g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg ` チ iZ¡ d n‡j
cÖwZaŸwb m„wóKvix kã‡K 0.1 †m‡K‡Û
2d `チ iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡Z n‡e|
evqy‡Z k‡ãi `ª“wZ v n‡j,
=
v =
ev, 2d = v × 0.1
d = = m = 16.6 m (∴ evqy‡Z
k‡ãi †eM 332 ms−1)
∴ kã I cÖwZdj‡Ki b チ¨bZg `チ iZ¡ 16.6 m nIqv cÖ‡qvRb|

cÖkœ : 9| kÖve¨Zvi cvjv ej‡Z wK †evS? (h. †ev. Õ99 ; P. †ev. 2005; Õ99 ; iv.
†ev. e. †ev. 2001; Kz.†ev. P.†ev. 2002; 2005)
DËi : kÖve¨Zvi cvjv :
Avgiv Rvwb, k‡ãi DrcwËi Rb¨ gva¨‡g K¤•b m„wó Ki‡Z nq| wKš‘ K¤•b
n‡jB †h kã †kvbv hv‡e Ggb bq| Dr‡mi K¤•vsK hw` 20 Hz Gi †P‡q Kg ev
20,000 Hz Gi †ewk nq, Zvn‡j †h kã Drcbœ n‡e Zv Avgiv ïb‡Z cve bv| Dr‡mi
K¤•vsK 20 Hz †_‡K 20,000 Hz Gi g‡a¨ mxwgZ _vK‡jB †Kej Avgiv kã ïb‡Z cvB|
G‡K kÖve¨Zvi cvjv e‡j|
cÖkœ : 10| k‡ãvËi I k‡ãZi Zi½ ej‡Z wK eyS?
A_ev, wUKv †jL : k‡ãvËi Zi½, (h.†ev. 2004; wm.†ev. 2002; 2005; iv.†ev. Õ99)
k‡ãZi Zi½ (P.†ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 2002; h.†ev. Õ99)
DËi : k‡ãvËi Zi½ :
msÁv : †h mKj hvwš ミ K Zi‡½i K¤•b cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û 20,000 Gi †ewk
†mme Av‡›`vjb Avgv‡`i Kv‡b †Kvb Abyf‚wZi m„wó K‡i bv| G ai‡bi Zi½‡K
k‡ãvËi Zi½ e‡j|
k‡ãZi Zi½ :
msÁv : †h mKj Zi‡½i Av‡›`vjb cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û k‡ãi †e‡Mi PvB‡Z AwaK
†e‡M AMÖmi nq †m mKj Zi½‡K k‡ãZi Zi½ e‡j|
cÖkœ : 11| k‡ãvËi Zi‡½i K‡qKwU e¨envi D‡jL Ki| (P. †ev. 2000; wm.†ev.
2005)
DËi : k‡ãvËi Zi‡½i e¨envi :
kã 187

1. mgy‡`ªi MfxiZv, wng‰kj, Wz‡evRvnvR BZ¨vw` wbY©q|


2. †cvZvkÖ‡qi gyL †_‡K RvnvR‡K c_ †`Lv‡bv|
3. m‚¶¥ B‡jKUªwbK hš ミ cvwZ cwi¯‹vi Kiv|
4. avZe wcÊ I cv‡Z m チ¶¥Zg dvUj AbymÜvb|
5. ¶wZKviK e¨vK‡Uwiqv aŸsm|
6. †ivM wbY©q I wPwKrmv †¶‡Î|
cÖkœ : 12| ev`yo wKfv‡e c_ P‡j? (iv.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2003)
DËi : ev`y‡oi c_ Pjv :
ev`yo †Pv‡L †`L‡Z cv‡i bv| ev`yo Pjvi mgq µgvMZ wewfbœ K¤•v‡¼i
k‡ãvËi Zi½ m„wó K‡i| mvg‡b hw` †Kvb cÖwZeÜK _v‡K, Zvn‡j Zv‡Z evav
†c‡q GB Zi½ cÖwZdwjZ n‡q ev`y‡oi Kv‡b wd‡i Av‡m| ev`yo Zvi m„ó
k‡ãvËi Zi½ Ges cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi ga¨Kvi mg‡qi e¨eavb I cÖwZdwjZ
k‡ãi cÖK…wZ †_‡K cÖwZe܇Ki Ae¯’vb Ges AvK…wZ m¤•‡K© aviYv jvf
K‡i Ges c_ Pjvi mgq †mB cÖwZeÜK Gwo‡q P‡j|
cÖkœ : 13| kã `チ lY wK? (Xv.†ev. h.†ev. 2000 ; m.†ev. Õ98; h.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006;
2002; Kz.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2003; P.†ev. 2003)
DËi : kã `チ lY :
†Mvjgvj ev nUª‡Mvj wK¤^v kã ev k‡ãi AvwaK¨ Avgv‡`i †`ngb‡K kÖvš マ
K‡i Ges A‡bK mgq Avgv‡`i m‡n¨i mxgv Qvwo‡q hvq| k‡ãi AvwaK¨
Avgv‡`i †`n I g‡bi Dci †h weiƒc cÖwZwµqv m„wó K‡i Zv‡KB cwi‡e‡ki kã
`チ lY ejv nq|
Abykxjbxi
iPbvg チ jK
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| GKwU cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ †`LvI †h, K¤•bkxj e¯‘ †_‡K kã
Drcbœ nq|
A_ev, kã Drcbœ nIqvi KviY wK? cix¶v Øviv cÖgvY Ki|
DËi : kã :
kã GK cÖKvi kw³ hv GKwU K¤•bkxj e¯‘ n‡Z Drcbœ n‡q Ro gva¨‡gi
mvnv‡h¨ Avgv‡`i Kv‡b †cuŠQvq Ges kÖe‡Yi Abyf‚wZ Rb¥vq ev Rb¥v‡Z
†Póv K‡i|
K¤•bkxj e¯‘ †_‡K k‡ãi DrcwËi cix¶v :
k‡ãi Drm j¶¨ Ki‡j †`Lv hv‡e †h e¯‘i
K¤•‡bi d‡jB k‡ãi DrcwË nq| Avevi
K¤•b †_‡g †M‡j kãI †_‡g hvq|
K¤•bkxj e¯‘ †_‡K †h k‡ãi DrcwË nq
Zv wP‡Îi mnR cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨
†`Lv‡bv nj−
cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY :
188 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

1. GKwU myikjvKv
2. GKwU †kvjvi ej I wKQy myZv
3. GKwU ÷¨vÊ I
4. GKwU ievi c¨vW ev Kvco Rov‡bv nvZzwo|
wPÎ : K¤•bkxj e¯‘ †_‡K k‡ãi DrcwË
Kv‡Ri aviv :
1. GKwU myikjvKv‡K Lvovfv‡e ivLv nq Ges GKwU ÷¨vÊ †_‡K †QvU
†kvjvi ej‡K myZvi mvnv‡h¨ Ggbfv‡e Szwj‡q ivLv nq †hb ejwU
myikjvKvi GKwU evû ¯•k© K‡i _v‡K|
2. GLb GKwU ievi c¨vW ev Kvco Rov‡bv nvZzwo w`‡q myikjvKvwU‡K
AvNvZ Ki‡j kjvKv †_‡K kã wbM©Z n‡e Ges mv‡_ mv‡_ †kvjvi ejwUI
Gw`K Iw`K `yj‡Z _vK‡e| kjvKvi K¤•‡bi Rb¨B ejwU av°v †L‡q Gw`K
Iw`K `yj‡Z _v‡K|
3. GLb kjvKvwU‡K nvZ w`‡q ¯•k© Ki‡j kã †_‡g hv‡e Ges †kvjvi ejwUI
w¯’i n‡q hv‡e|
myZivs ejv hvq K¤•‡bi d‡jB k‡ãi DrcwË nq|
cÖkœ : 2| evqyi ga¨ w`‡q kã mÂvi‡Yi †KŠkj Av‡jvPbv Ki| (Xv.†ev.
2004; wm.†ev. 2002; e.†ev. 2003; iv.†ev. 2003)
A_ev, evqyi ga¨ w`‡q wKfv‡e kã mÂvwjZ nq e¨vL¨v Ki|
(P.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev. Õ99 ; 2001)
DËi : evqyi ga¨ w`‡q kã mÂvj‡bi †KŠkj :
evqyi ga¨ w`‡q kã mÂvj‡bi †KŠkj Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ myikjvKv m„ó kã wKfv‡e
mÂvwjZ nq Zv e¨vL¨v Kiv nj−
cÖ_‡g GKwU myikjvKv wb‡q GKwU ivev‡ii c¨vW Øviv AvNvZ Kiv nj; G‡Z
myikjvKvi evû¸‡jvi gv‡S K¤•‡bi d‡j k‡ãi DrcwË nq| e¯‘Z ivevi c¨v‡W
AvNv‡Zi d‡j myikjvKvi evû `ywU GKevi mvg‡bi w`‡K Ges GKevi wcQ‡bi
w`‡K ch©vqµ‡g AMÖmi n‡Z _v‡K|

wPÎ : evqy‡Z kã mÂvj‡bi †KŠkj


aiv hvK, myikjvKvi GKwU evû OB hLb mvg‡bi w`‡K AMÖmi nq A_©vr A
we›`y n‡Z C Gi w`‡K hvq ZLb GwU mvg‡bi evqy¯ マ i‡K av°v †`q| d‡j
kã 189

evqy¯マ i¸‡jv msKzwPZ nq Ges kw³ †kl bv nIqv ch©š マ GB ms‡KvPb GK¯マ i
n‡Z Ab¨¯マ‡i mÂvwjZ n‡Z _v‡K|
Avevi evûwU hLb wcQ‡bi w`‡K AMÖmi nq A_©vr C n‡Z A we›`yi w`‡K
Av‡m, ZLb av°v AcmvwiZ nq| d‡j evqy¯ マ i¸‡jv G‡`i w¯’wZ¯’vcK a‡g©i
Rb¨ cÖmvwiZ n‡q c チ ‡ e©i Ae¯’v‡b wd‡i Av‡m| myikjvKvi Ab¨evûi †¶‡ÎI
GKB e¨vcvi N‡U|
A_©vr eySv hv‡”Q evqy¯ マ ‡ ii ms‡KvPb I cÖmvi‡Yi Rb¨B kã mvg‡bi w`‡K
mÂvwjZ nq|
cÖkœ : 3| GKwU cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY Ki †h kã mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Ro
gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb| (P.†ev.iv.†ev.Õ99)
A_ev, gva¨g Qvov wK kã mÂvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i? KviY `k©vI|
DËi : kã mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Ro gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb :
kã mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Awew”Qbœ w¯’wZ¯’vcK gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb| A‡Uvfb
†MwiK me©cÖ_g cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY K‡ib †h, k‡ãi Drm Ges Avgv‡`i
Kv‡bi ga¨eZx© ¯’v‡b hw` †Kvb Ro gva¨g bv _v‡K Zvn‡j kã Avgv‡`i Kv‡b
†cuŠQ‡Z cv‡i bv| wb‡Pi mnR cix¶v Øviv kã mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Ro gva¨‡gi
cÖ‡qvRbxqZv eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q|
■ cix¶v :
cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY :
1. GKwU evqy wb®‹vkb hš ミ 3. evqy wb®‹vkb cv¤•
2. GKwU ˆe`y¨wZK NÈv 4. ˆe`y¨wZK eZ©bx|
Kv‡Ri aviv :
1. GKwU evqy wb®‹vkb h‡š ミ i
wiwmfv‡ii g‡a¨ GKwU
ˆe`y¨wZK NÈv‡K Szwj‡q ivLv
nq| evwn‡i †_‡K eZ©bx
m¤• チ Y© K‡i ˆe`y¨wZK
NÈvwU‡K evRv‡bv hvq|
2. GLb NÈvwU‡K evRv‡j evB‡i
†_‡K NÈvi kã †kvbv hv‡e|
3. Gevi cv‡¤•i mvnv‡h¨ hw`
wfZ‡ii evqy ax‡i
ax‡i †ei K‡i †bIqv nq Zvn‡j
NÈvi kã
µgk Kg‡Z _v‡K| †kl ch©š マ
wiwmfvi hLb cÖvq m¤• チ Y©
evqy k チ b¨ n‡q hvq ZLb Avi
NÈvi kã †kvbv hvq bv| wPÎ : kã
mÂvi‡Yi cix¶v
4. wiwmfv‡i Avevi evqy cÖ‡ek Kwi‡q w`‡j NÈvi kã µgk evo‡Z evo‡Z
Avevi Av‡Mi gZ n‡q hvq|
190 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

wiwmfv‡ii g‡a¨ hZ¶Y evqy _v‡K ZZ¶Y kã †kvbv hvq, wiwmfvi


evqynxb n‡j kã †kvbv hvq bv|
wm×vš マ : myZivs ej hvq kã mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Awew”Qbœ Ro gva¨‡gi
cÖ‡qvRb| f¨vwKDqv‡gi ga¨ w`‡q kã mÂvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i bv|
cÖkœ : 4| 300C ZvcgvÎvq k‡ãi Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg `チ iZ¡
KZ n‡j k‡ãi cÖwZaŸwb †kvbv hvq
wbY©q Ki| (wm.†ev. 2004; ewi.†ev. 2005; Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; Kz. †ev. 2006; 2000;
P.†ev. 2002; h.†ev. 2006; 2003)
DËi : k‡ãi cÖwZaŸwb :
†Kvb Drm †_‡K m„ó kã hw` `チ ieZx© †Kvb gva¨‡g evav †c‡q Dr‡mi Kv‡Q
wd‡i Av‡m ZLb g チ j aŸbxi †h cybive„wË nq Zv‡K k‡ãi cÖwZaŸwb e‡j|
k‡ãi Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ b¨Zg `チ iZ¡ wbY©q :
g チ jZË¡ : k‡ãi cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ KZ¸‡jv kZ© cvjb Ki‡Z nq| h_v−
1. cÖwZaŸwb ïb‡Z n‡j †kÖvZv Ges cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ GKUv b チ ¨bZg
`チ iZ¡ eRvq ivL‡Z n‡e|
2. cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ g チ jaŸwb I cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi ga¨eZx©
mg‡qi cv_©K¨ Aš マ Z 0.1 †m‡KÛ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| Gi Kg n‡j g チ jaŸwb
†_‡K cÖwZaŸwb‡K Avjv`v Kiv hv‡e bv|
†Kvb kã †kvbvi ci cÖvq 0.1
†m‡KÛ ch©š マ Gi †ik Avgv‡`i
S• > >
gw¯ マ ‡ ®‹ _v‡K| GB mgq‡K R
kãvbyf‚wZi ¯’vwqZ¡Kvj e‡j| d
myZivs cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨
Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki ga¨eZx©
` チ iZ¡ Ggb n‡Z n‡e †hb
cÖwZdwjZ kã 0.1 †m‡K‡Ûi Av‡M
wd‡i Avm‡Z bv cv‡i|
aiv hvK, S Ae¯’v‡b Drm Ges R Ae¯’v‡b cÖwZdjK ivLv Av‡Q| S I R Gi
ga¨eZx© `チ iZ¡ d| GLb S Ae¯’vb †_‡K kã Drcbœ Ki‡j †mB kã R cÖwZdj‡K
evav †c‡q Avevi S Ae¯’v‡b wd‡i Avm‡e|
A_©vr, kã‡K S †_‡K Drcbœ n‡q Avevi S Ae¯’v‡b wd‡i Avmvi Rb¨ 2d ` チ iZ¡
AwZµg Ki‡Z n‡e| GLb S Ae¯’v‡b hw` Avgiv cÖwZaŸwb ïb‡Z PvB Zvn‡j 2d
`チ iZ¡ AwZµg Kivi Rb¨ kã‡K Aš マ Z 0.1 †m‡KÛ mgq jvM‡Z n‡e|
Avgiv Rvwb, `ª“wZ =
GLb k‡ãi `ª“wZ V n‡j,
300C ZvcgvÎvq V = V0 + 0.6 × θ
= 332 + 0.6 × 30
= 332 + 18
kã 191

= 350
∴V =
d = = = 17.5
d = m = 16.6m
A_©vr, 300C ZvcgvÎvq cÖwZdwjZ kã ev cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ Drm I
cÖwZdj‡Ki ga¨eZx© b チ¨bZg `チ iZ¡ 17.5 wgUvi nIqv cÖ‡qvRb|
cÖkœ : 5| cÖwZaŸwbi mvnv‡h¨ wKfv‡e K‚‡ci MfxiZv wbY©q Kiv
hvq eY©bv Ki|
(wm.†ev. h.†ev. 2006; h.†ev. 2000 ; e.†ev. 2001; Kz.†ev, h.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. Xv.†ev.
2005)
A_ev, †`LvI †h, MfxiZvi †¶‡Î h = vt hLb ms‡KZ¸‡jv cÖPwjZ A_© enb
K‡i|
DËi : K‚‡ci MfxiZv wbY©q :
K‚‡ci Dc‡i †Kvb kã Drcbœ Ki‡j †mB kã cvwb c„ô †_‡K cÖwZdwjZ n‡q
wd‡i G‡j cÖwZaŸwb †kvbv hvq| GLb kã Drcbœ Kiv Ges †mB kã -Gi
cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi ga¨eZx© mgq _vgv Nwoi mvnv‡h¨ wbY©q Kiv nq|
wnmve :
aiv hvK, K‚‡ci MfxiZv = h
kã Drcbœ Kiv I cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi ga¨eZx© mgq = t
k‡ãi `ª“wZ = v
GLb kã Drcbœ nIqvi ci cvwb
c„‡ô cÖwZdwjZ n‡q †kÖvZvi
Kv‡Q wd‡i Avm‡Z †h‡nZz 2h h
`チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i|
AZGe,
2h = v×t
........................ (i)
ev, h =
mgxKiY Gi Wvbw`‡Ki ivwk¸‡jvi gvb †R‡b K‚‡ci MfxiZv h wbY©q Kiv hvq|
cÖkœ : 6| kã `チ lY ej‡Z wK eyS Av‡jvPbv Ki| (iv.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev.
2000 ; h.†ev.2000 ; Kz.†ev. 2001)
A_ev, kã `チ l‡Yi cÖwZwµqv Ges `ylY †iv‡ai Dcvq Av‡jvPbv Ki|
A_ev, kã `チ l‡Yi ¶wZKi w`K¸‡jv wjL| (P.†ev. iv.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2005)
A_ev, UxKv †jL : kã `ylY|
DËi : kã `チ lY :
†Mvjgvj ev nUª‡Mvj wKsev Zxeª kã ev k‡ãi AvwaK¨ Avgv‡`i †`n-gb‡K
kÖvš マ K‡i Ges A‡bK mgq Avgv‡`i m‡n¨i mxgv Qvwo‡q hvq| k‡ãi AvwaK¨
Avgv‡`i †`ng‡bi Dci †h wei“c cÖwZwµqv m„wó K‡i Zv‡KB cwi‡e‡ki kã
`チ lY ejv nq|
192 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

kã `チ l‡Yi KviY :
1. mf¨Zv weKv‡ki mv‡_ mv‡_ kni, e›`i, bMi, KjKviLvbv e„w×i mv‡_
mv‡_ Mvwo I Ab¨vb¨ h‡š ミ i e¨envi e„w× cvIqvq kã `チ lY n‡”Q|
2. wkíKviLvbvi D”P kã, kã `チ lY m„wó K‡i| D”P kã kÖwgK‡`i kÖeY kw³
`k eQ‡ii g‡a¨ cÖvq A‡a©K n«vm K‡i|
3. D”P fwjD‡g †iwWI ev jvDW¯•xKv‡i Mvb evRv‡j kã `チ lY nq|
4. Zvi¯^‡i gvB‡K wbe©vPbx cÖPvi, e³…Zv ev IqvR BZ¨vw`‡ZI kã
`チ lY nq|
kã `チ l‡Yi cÖwZwµqv :
1. gvby‡li ¯^vfvweK øvqy-ms‡hvM e¨vnZ nq|
2. Kv‡R g‡bv‡hvM Kg Av‡m|
3. †gRvR wLUwL‡U nq|
4. cwicvK h‡š ミ i Kv‡R wek„sLjv †`Lv †`q, d‡j Avjmvi I Ab¨vb¨
Avwš ミ K cxovq Avµvš マ nIqvi m¤¢vebv †e‡o hvq|
5. kÖ“wZ ¶wZMÖ¯’ nq Ges kÖeYkw³ ax‡i ax‡i n«vm cvq|
kã `チ lY †iv‡ai Dcvq :
1. kã `チ lY wbqš ミ ‡ Yi Rb¨ mKj †ckvq wbhy³ †jv‡Ki mgwš^Z D‡`¨v‡Mi
mv‡_ mv‡_ cÖ‡qvRb mviv †`‡ki gvby‡li g‡a¨ Gi wec` m¤•‡K©
m‡PZbZv m„wó Kiv|
2. D”P fwjD‡g †iwWI ev jvDW¯•xKv‡i Mvb bv evRv‡bv|
3. wbe©vPbx cÖPvi, e³…Zvq gvB‡Ki e¨envi bv Kiv|
4. KjKviLvbvi hš ミ cvwZ myô i¶Yv‡e¶Y K‡i hvwš ミ K kã Kgv‡bv|
5. KjKviLvbvi kã hv‡Z evwn‡i †h‡Z bv cv‡i Zvi e¨e¯’v Kiv|
6. iv¯マ vNv‡U D”P †fcyhy³ Mvwo PjvP‡j wewa wb‡la Av‡ivc Kiv|

AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| GKwU cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY Ki †h, k‡ãi cÖwZdjb N‡U|
DËi : k‡ãi cÖwZdjb :
†Kvb Zi½ GKwU mylg gva¨‡gi ga¨w`‡q Pjvi mgq hw` wfbœ gva¨‡g evav
cvq Ges wd‡i Av‡m Z‡e G NUbv‡K cÖwZdjb e‡j|
k× GKwU AYy‰`N©¨ Zi½, myZivs kã Zi½ hw` Pjvi c‡_ evav cÖvß nq
Zvn‡j ZvI c チ ‡ e©i gva¨‡g wd‡i Av‡m− G‡K k‡ãi cÖwZdjb e‡j| kã Zi‡½i
Zi½‰`N©¨ †ek eo e‡j kã Zi½ cÖwZdj‡bi Rb¨ cÖwZdjK ZjI †ek eo nIqv
cÖ‡qvRb| wb‡Pi mnR cix¶vi mvnv‡h¨ k‡ãi cÖwZdjb cÖ`k©b Kiv nj|
k‡ãi cÖwZdj‡bi cix¶v :
cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiY :
kã 193

1. GKwU †Uwej 4. GKwU Nwo Ges


2. `yBwU j¤^v avZe duvcv bj 5. GKwU kã wb‡ivaK c`©v|
3. GKwU mgZj Kv‡Vi †evW©
Kv‡Ri aviv :
1. GB cix¶vq GKwU mgZj Kv‡Vi
†evW© cÖwZdjK wn‡m‡e e¨envi
Kiv nq| cÖwZdjKwU GKwU eo
†Uwe‡ji Dci †i‡L Gi mvg‡b `ywU
j¤^v avZe duvcv bj Abyf‚wgK
Ae¯’vq Ggbfv‡e ivLv nq †hb G‡`i A¶
†ev‡W©i Dci¯’ GKwU we›`y‡Z
wgwjZ nq|
2. bj `ywUi gv‡S GKwU kã wb‡ivaK
c`©v Ggbfv‡e ivLv nq †hb Gi A¶
bj؇qi ga¨eZ©x †KvY‡K mgvb
`ywU As‡k wef³ K‡i| wPÎ : k‡ãi
cÖwZdj‡bi cix¶v
ch©‡e¶Y : GLb †Kvb GKwU b‡ji mvg‡b GKwU Nwo †i‡L Aci b‡ji gy‡L
Kvb cvZ‡j Nwoi wUK wUK kã †kvbv hvq| wØZxq bjwU‡K mvgvb¨ Wv‡b
ev ev‡g miv‡j †Kvb kã cÖvq †kvbv hv‡e bv|
wm×vš マ : cix¶vwU †_‡K cÖgvwYZ nq :
1. k‡ãi cÖwZdj‡bi †¶‡Î AvcZb †KvY Ges cÖwZdjb †KvY ci¯•i mgvb
n‡e|
2. AvcwZZ kã Zi½, cÖwZdwjZ kã Zi½ Ges AvcZb we›`y‡Z cÖwZdjK
Z‡ji Dci Aw¼Z Awfj¤^ GKB mgZ‡j _vK‡e|
cÖkœ : 2| kãvbyf‚wZi ¯’vwqZ¡Kvj wK? (ewi.†ev. 2003)
DËi : kãvbyf‚wZi ¯’vwqZ¡Kvj :
†Kvb kã †kvbvi ci cÖvq 0.1 †m‡KÛ ch©š マ Gi †ik Avgv‡`i gw¯ マ ‡ ¯‹ _v‡K| GB
mgq‡K kãbyf‚wZi ¯’vwqZ¡Kvj e‡j|
cÖkœ : 3| cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ †kÖvZv I cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨ b チ ¨bZg
`チ iZ¡ 16.6m nIqv cÖ‡qvRb †Kb?
(ewi.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2004; Xv.†ev. 2003)
DËi : b チ¨bZg `‚iZ¡ 16.6m nIqvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv :
aiv hvK, S Ae¯’v‡b Drm Ges R
Ae¯’v‡b cÖwZdjK ivLv Av‡Q| S
I R Gi ga¨eZx© `チ iZ¡ d. GLb S
Ae¯’vb †_‡K kã Drcbœ Ki‡j
†mB kã R cÖwZdj‡K evav †c‡q
Avevi S Ae¯’v‡b wd‡i Avm‡e|

A_©vr kã‡K S †_‡K Drcbœ n‡q Avevi S Ae¯’v‡b wd‡i Avmvi Rb¨ 2d `チ iZ¡
AwZµg Ki‡Z n‡e| GLb S Ae¯’v‡b hw` Avgiv cÖwZaŸwb ïb‡Z PvB Zvn‡j 2d
194 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

`チ iZ¡ AwZµg Kivi Rb¨ kã‡K Aš マ Z 0.1 †m‡KÛ mgq jvM‡Z n‡e|
Avgiv Rvwb, `ª“wZ =
GLb k‡ãi `ª“wZ v n‡j, v = ms−1 ev, d = m
evZv‡m k‡ãi `ª“wZ 00C ZvcgvÎvq 332ms−1 n‡j, d = m = 16.6m. A_©vr
cÖwZdwjZ kã ev cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki ga¨eZx©
b チ¨bZg `チ iZ¡ 16.6 wgUvi nIqv cÖ‡qvRb|
MvwYwZK
mgm¨vewj I
mgvavb
■ hv Rvbv `iKvi :
v = v = k‡ã `ª“wZ
d = MfxiZv
t = mgq
evZv‡m k‡ãi †eM v = 330 wgUvi/ †m.
Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| GK e¨w³ Mfxi Kzqvq GKLÛ cv_i †Q‡o w`j Ges cv_iwU
cvwb‡Z cvZvq cvwb wQU‡K DV‡Z †`Lj| wKš‘ kã ïb‡Z †cj †m. c‡i|
k‡ãi `ª“wZ 330 m/s n‡j Kzqvi KZ wb‡P cvwb Av‡Q?
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb,
v = GLv‡b,
ev, d = v × t k‡ãi †eM, v = 330 m/s
ev, d = v × t = = 66 wgUvi MfxiZv, d = ?
DËi : 66 wgUvi wb‡P cvwb Av‡Q| mgq, t = s
mgm¨v : 2| hw` Zzwg 27.5 wg. Mfxi †Kvb Kzqvi Kv‡Q `uvwo‡q nvZ
Zvwj `vI Zvnj KZ¶Y ci Zzwg †Zvgvi Zvwji aŸwb ïb‡Z cv‡e?
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb,
v = GLv‡b,
ev, t = k‡ãi †eM, v = 330 ms−1
= =s MfxiZv, d = 27.5 m
DËi : wb‡Y©q mgq †m. mgq, t = ?

mgm¨v : 3| GK e¨w³ GKwU DPz †`qvj †_‡K 550 wg. ` チ ‡ i `uvwo‡q


wc¯マ j †_‡K ¸wj †Quv‡o| ¸wj †Quvovi 3 †m. ci †m kã ïb‡Z †cj| k‡ãi
†eM wbY©q Ki|
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
v =
= = 330 wgUvi
=
`チ iZ¡, d = 550 m
DËi : wb‡Y©q †eM 330 wg.†m.| mgq, t = 3s = s
kã 195

k‡ãi †eM v = ?

mgm¨v : 3| †Kvb GKwU myD”P cvjvb n‡Z 50 ` チ ‡ i GKRb †jvK


`uvwo‡q Av‡Q| †jvKwUi wbK‡U Aew¯’Z GKwU KzKzi nVvr GKwU
weKU kã K‡i DVj| KZ †m. ci †m. cÖwZaŸwb ïb‡Z cv‡e? (k‡ãi
`ª“wZ 350 m/s)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, v = GLv‡b,
ev, 2d = v×t `チ iZ¡ , d = 50 m
ev, d = k‡ãi `ª“wZ, v = 350 m/s
ev, t = = = †m. mgq, t = ?
DËi : †m. c‡i ïb‡Z cv‡i|
ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. e¯‘i †Kvb NUbvi Rb¨ kã Drcbœ Kz.†ev.2000)
nq? (Xv.†ev. 2004) K. 232ms−1 ✓ L. 332ms−1
✓ K. K¤•b L. cÖmviY(m.†ev.
M. 432ms−1 N. 532ms−1
Õ98)
M. ms‡KvPb N. msevnb 2| cÖwZaŸwb †kvbvi Rb¨ Drm I
2. †KvbwUi ga¨w`‡q kã mÂvwjZ cÖwZdj‡Ki `iZ¡ KZUzKz n‡e?
nq bv? (iv.†ev. Õ99; Kz. Õ99; h.†ev. Õ99)
(wm.†ev. 2003) A_ev, k‡ãi Drm I cÖwZdj‡Ki g‡a¨
K. KwVb gva¨g L. Zij b¨bZg `iZ¡ KZ n‡j k‡ãi
gva¨g cÖwZaŸwb †kvbv hvq? (e.†ev.
M. evqexq gva¨g ✓ N. 2002; Kz.†ev.
f¨vKzqvg
3. k‡ãi cÖwZdj‡bi D`vniY 2006; 2001; P.†ev. 2003 iv. 2001; P.
†KvbwU? 2001)
(iv.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. Xv.†ev. 2004; 2002; K. 15.6m L. 14.6m
wm.†ev. 2003) ✓ M. 16.6m N. 13.6m
K. Abybv` L. exU 3| †jvnv‡Z k‡ãi `ª“wZ KZ?
M. e¨wZPvi ✓ N. cÖwZaŸwb| (wm.†ev. 2004; P.†ev. 2000)
AwZwi³ K. 5222 ms−1 L. 5220 ms−1
ˆbe©¨w³K ✓ M. 5221 ms−1 N. 5223ms−1
4| †Kvb&wU KzKz‡ii kÖve¨Zvi
cÖ‡kœvËi
EaŸ© mxgv? (Xv.†ev. 2006)
1| O0C ev 273K ZvcgvÎvq Ges (iv. †ev. 2000; P.†ev. 2005; 2003;
¯^vfvweK Pv‡c ﮋ evqy‡Z Xv.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2003)
k‡ãi `ª“wZ KZ? (iv.†ev. 2004; K. cÖvq 25000Hz L. cÖvq 15000Hz
196 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
✓ M. cÖvq 35000Hz N.cÖvq 45000Hz 13| wK Kvi‡Y k‡ã cÖwZaŸwbi
5| evqy A‡c¶v cvwb‡Z k‡ãi †eM m„wó nq?
KZ¸Y †ewk? K. cÖwZmiY L. ms‡KvPb
(iv.†ev. 2000) ✓ M. cÖwZdjb N. we”QyiY
K. 2 ¸Y cÖvq L. 3 ¸Y cÖvq 14| wb‡Pi †Kvb& gva¨‡g k‡ãi
✓ M. 4 ¸Y cÖvq N. 5 ¸Y cÖvq `ª“wZ †ewk? (e.†ev. 2002)
6| 1k ZvcgvÎv evov‡j k‡ãi †eM KZ K. cvwb‡Z L. evqy‡Z
e„w× cv‡e? M. A¨vjywgwbqv‡g ✓
[ewi.†ev. 2005] N. B¯•v‡Z
✓ K. 0.6 cms−1 L. 60 cms−1 15| kã cÖwZdj‡bi KwU mÎ †g‡b
M. ms−1 N. 6ms−1 P‡j?
7| kã †kvbvi ci Zvi †ik Avgv‡`i K. 1wU ✓ L. 2wU
gw¯‡®‹ KZ¶Y _v‡K? M. 3wU N. 4wU
(Kz.†ev. 2000) 16| †Kvb& cÖvYxi kÖve¨Zvi EaŸ©
✓ K. cÖvq 0.1Sec L. cÖvq 0.01 Sec mxgv 20,000 Hz?
M. cÖvq 0.2 Sec N. cÖvq 0.02 Sec ✓ K. gvby‡li L. ev`y‡oi
8| 10C ZvcgvÎv evo‡j evZv‡m k‡ãi M. weov‡ji N. gvKomvi
`ª“wZ KZ e„w× cvq? [wm.†ev. 17| †Kvb& cÖvYx 45,000 Hz K¤•v¼
2005; Xv.†ev. Õ02; P. †ev.Õ02; ch©š k‡ãvËi Zi½ Abyaveb
Ki‡Z cv‡i? (h.†ev. 2002)
h.†ev.Õ99; Kz.†ev. Õ03]
K. gvbyl L. KzKzi
✓ K. cÖvq 0.6 ms−1 L. cÖvq 0.52 ms−1
M. weovj ✓ N. gvKomv
M. 332 ms−1 N. 1450 ms−1 18| GKwU e¯‘ evZv‡m †h kã m„wó
9| f¨vwKDqv‡g k‡ãi `ª“wZ cÖwZ K‡i Zvi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 0.2m evZv‡m
†m‡K‡Û KZ wgUvi? k‡ãi †eM 340 ms−1 n‡j Gi K¤•vsK
K. 332 L. 330 (h.†ev. Õ99) KZ? (Xv.†ev. 2003)
M. 1450 ✓ N. 0 K. 1700 m ✓ L. 1700 Hz
M. 68 Hz N. 680
10| evqyi ga¨ w`‡q kã mÂvwjZ− 19| 00C ZvcgvÎvq Ges ¯^vfvweK
(Kz.†ev. 2002) Pv‡c ﮋ evqy‡Z k‡ãi †eM 332 ms
K. gva¨g msKzwPZ nq −1
n‡j 200C ZvcgvÎvq k‡ãi †eM
L. gva¨g cÖmvwiZ nq KZ n‡e? (h.†ev. 2003)
M. ms‡KvPb I cÖmviY DfqB nq K. 352 ms−2 L. 350 ms−1
✓ N. gva¨g Kuvc‡Z _v‡K ✓ L. 344 ms−1 N. 338 ms−1
20| †Kvb e¯‘i ga¨ w`‡q kã evqyi
11| cvwb‡Z k‡ãi `ª“wZ KZ? [iv.†ev. PvB‡Z 15 ¸Y `ª“Z P‡j?
2006; Õ01; Õ99; P.†ev. 2001; (iv.†ev. 2003)
h.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev. ✓ L †jvnv L. Kuvmv
2001; 2003] M. Zvgv N. †mvbv|
✓ K. 1450ms−1 L. 1350ms−1 21| †Kvb cÖvYxi kÖve¨Zvi
M. 1550ms−1 N. 1150ms−1 EaŸ©mxgv cÖvq 35000 Hz ?
12| k‡ãi cÖwZdj‡bi Rb¨ [iv.†ev. 2006]
cÖwZdjKwU wKiƒc n‡Z n‡e? K. ev`yi ✓ L. KzKzi
(Kz.†ev. 2002) M. gvbyl N. gvKomv
K. gm„Y K. Agm„Y 22| 300C ZvcgvÎvq evqy‡Z k‡ãi
M. AvKv‡i †QvU ✓ N. †eM KZ? [Kz.†ev. 2005]
AvKv‡i eo K. 332 ms−1 L. 330 ms−1
kã 197

✓ M. 350 ms−1 N. 362 ms−1 gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb?


23| ev`y‡oi kÖve¨Zvi [h.†ev. 2004; P.†ev. 2006]
EaŸ©mxgv KZ? [wm.†ev. 2005; A_ev, kã mÂvi‡Y Ro gva¨‡gi
ewi.†ev. 2004] cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi cÖgvY K‡ib †K?
K. cÖvq 3.500Hz L. cÖvq 45,000Hz [P.†ev. 2004]
✓ M. cÖvq 1,00,000Hz N. K. A¨vwi÷Uj ✓ L. A‡Uvfb †MwiK
cÖvq 10,000Hz M. †KvcviwbKvm N.
24| k‡ãvËi Zi‡½i e¨envi bq M¨vwjwjI
†KvbwU? [ewi.†ev. 2005] 28| †jvnv‡Z k‡ãi †eM evZv‡mi
K. B‡jKUªwbK hšcvwZ cwi®‹vi †P‡q cÖvq KZ ¸Y `ª“Z P‡j?
Kiv [Kz.†ev. 2004]
L. e¨vK‡Uwiqv aŸsm Kiv K. 14 L. 13
M. †ivM wbY©q Kiv ✓ M. 15 N. 12
✓ N. kã `lY n«vm Kiv 29| †Kvb kã †kvbvi ci KZ †m‡KÊ
25| 274K ZvcgvÎvq Ges ch©š Gi †ik Avgv‡`i gw¯‡®‹
¯^vfvweK Pv‡c ﮋ evqy‡Z _v‡K? [wm.†ev. 2004;
k‡ãi `ª“wZ KZ? ewi.†ev. 2006]
[h.†ev. 2005]
✓ K. L.
A_ev, ¯^vfvweK Pv‡c ﮋ evqy‡Z
M. N.
1° †mjwmqvm ZvcgvÎvq k‡ãi
`ª“wZ KZ n‡e? 30| †jvnv‡Z k‡ãi `ª“wZ KZ?
[Kz.†ev. 2000] [P.†ev. 2000Õ wm.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev.
K. 332ms−1 ✓ L. 332.6ms−1 2005]
M. 330.6ms −1
N. 333.6ms−1 K. 5121ms−1 L. 1440ms−1
26| 273 K ZvcgvÎvq evqy‡Z k‡ãi M. 1430ms−1 ✓ N. 5221ms−1
`ª“wZ KZ? 31| m¶¥ B‡jKUªwbK hšcvwZ
[iv.†ev. 2004] cwi®‹vi Ki‡Z †Kvb&wU e¨eüZ
K. 330 wgUvi L. 340 wgUvi nq? [iv.†ev. 2002; P.†ev.
2006]
M. 344 wgUvi ✓ N. 332 wgUvi
K. ˆZj I MÖxR L. mvevb I eªvk
27| †K me©cÖ_g cix¶vi
M. kã Zi½ ✓ N. k‡ãvËi Zi½
mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY K‡ib †h, kã
mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ Awew”Qbœ Ro