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A a¨vq


_gAa¨vq
7
Zi½ ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
Abykxjbxi msw¶ß I iPbvg チ jK A_ev, †`LvI †h, f T = 1; hLb f = K¤•vsK, T =
†`vjbKvj|
DËi cÖ‡kœvËi
A_ev, kã Zi‡½i ch©vqKvj I K¤•v‡¼i g‡a¨
cÖkœ : 1| D`vniYmn ch©ve„Ë MwZ Ges GKwU MvwYwZK m¤•K© ¯’vcb Ki|
¯•›`b MwZ e¨vL¨v Ki| (P.†ev. 2006; (h.†ev. Õ99)
iv.†ev. Xv.†ev. h.†ev. 2000 ; m.†ev.
cÖkœ : 6| v = f λ m¤•K©wU cÖwZcv`b Ki|
Õ98)
(Xv.†ev. 2000;2005; iv.†ev. 2000 ;
A_ev, ch©ve„Ë MwZ I ¯•›`b MwZi msÁv wm.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2001;
`vI| e.†ev. 2001; 2003; P.†ev.
A_ev, wUKv †jL : ¯•›`bMwZ, ch©ve„Ë 2003;2005; h.†ev. 2005)
MwZ| A_ev, †eM, K¤•vsK Ges Zi½ ˆ`‡N©¨i
cÖkœ : 2| mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`b Kv‡K e‡j? Gi ga¨Kvi m¤•K©wU cÖwZôv Ki|
ˆewk󨸇jv wjL| (h.†ev.2006 2002; (Kz.†ev. 2006; 2003)
Xv.†ev. 2006; Õ04; 2000; wm.†ev. A_ev, †`LvI †h, k‡ãi †eM v = K¤•vsK ×
2003) Zi½ ˆ`N©¨|
A_ev, wUKv †jLt mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`b A_ev, cÖPwjZ wb‡`©k‡Ki Rb¨ v = fλ
(wm.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006; h.†ev. mgxKiY cÖwZcv`b Ki| (h.†ev.
2000; iv.†ev. 2000) 2005; 2002)
cÖkœ : 3| Zi½ ej‡Z wK eyS? Zi‡½i cÖkœ : 7| D`vniYmn AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ I
ˆewk󨸇jv eY©bv Ki| (Xv. †ev. Aby‰`N©¨ Zi½ e¨vL¨v Ki| G‡`i
Õ04; Õ99 ; wm. †ev. 2005; 2001; g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (Kz.†ev,
2003 Kz.†ev. 2005; 2003) P.†ev. Õ99; e.†ev. 2003)
A_ev, Zi‡½i msÁv `vI| Zi‡½i wK wK ˆewkó¨ A_ev, D`vniYmn AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ e¨vL¨v Ki|
cwijw¶Z nq? (P.†ev. 2006; 2005;
ewi.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. 2005; 2002; (Xv.†ev. P.†ev. 2004; h.†ev. 2002)
iv.†ev. wm.†ev. 2005) AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 4| Zi‡½i †¶‡Î msÁv `vI : cÖkœ : 1| mKj ¯•›`bB ch©vqe„Ë MwZ
wKš‘ mKj ch©vqe„Ë MwZ ¯•›`b
(i) ch©vqKvj, (iv.†ev. 2000; bq e¨vL¨v Ki| [iv.†ev. 2004;
Xv.†ev. Õ99) Kz.†ev. 2006]
(ii) K¤•vsK, (wm.†ev. 2003; cÖkœ : 2| Zi½ `ª“wZ Kv‡K e‡j ?
Kz.†ev. 2003) [iv.†ev. 2005]
(iii) we¯ マ vi, (Kz.†ev. 2001; cÖkœ : 3| hvwš ミ K Zi½ Kv‡K e‡j ?
Xv.†ev. 2002) hvwš ミ K Zi½ I Zwor †PŠ¤^K Zi‡½i
(iv) `kv, (Kz.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wK ? (Xv. †ev. 2000)
2002) cÖkœ : 4| msÁv `vI/ Kv‡K e‡j?
(v) Zi½ ˆ`N©¨| (P.†ev. 2003) (K) Zi½ †eM, (L) k‡ãi †eM (M)
cÖkœ : 5| K¤•vsK I ch©vqKv‡ji g‡a¨ c チ Y© K¤•b (N) Zi½ gyL
m¤•K© ¯’vcb Ki| cÖkœ : 5| `kv ej‡Z wK eyS?
(P.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2003)
(Xv.†ev. P.†ev. 2006; 2005; P.†ev.
2002)
MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n
171 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

D`v : 1| 300H2 K¤•vs‡K ¯•w›`Z †Kvb †iwWI P.†ev. 2002; wm.†ev. 2003;
w¯•Kvi †_‡K Drcbœ kãZi‡½i Zi½ ewi.†ev. iv.†ev. 2005)
ˆ`N©¨ evqy‡Z 1.15 m n‡j evqy‡Z kã
Zi‡½i `ª“wZ KZ? (Kz. †ev. 2000) AwZwi³ MvwYwZK mgm¨v
D`v : 2| cvwb‡Z m„ó GKwU k‡ãi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ mgm¨v : 1| 128 Hz K¤•v¼ wewkó GKwU
8.75 cm| hw` evqy I cvwb‡Z kãZi‡½i myikjvKv †_‡K wbtm„Z kã
`ª“wZ h_vµ‡g 332 ms−1 Ges 1452.5 ms− evZv‡m 6s G 1536m AwZµg K‡i|
1
nq, Z‡e evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ KZ?
Ges K¤•vsK wbY©q Ki| (Kz.†ev. [iv.†ev. 2005]
P.†ev. wm.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev, mgm¨v : 2| evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ 4cm|
h.†ev. 2002; h.†ev. 2000; Xv. †ev. hw` evqy I cvwb‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ
2005; Õ99; iv.†ev. 2003) h_vµ‡g 332ms−1 Ges 1452.5ms−1 nq,
Z‡e kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ KZ ? (ivt †evt
Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨v 2000)
mgm¨v : 1| 480 HZ K¤•vsKwewkó GKwU mgm¨v : 3| 340Hz K¤•v‡¼i GKwU myi
myikjvKv evZv‡m †Kvb GK mg‡q kjvKv †_‡K wbtm„Z kã evZv‡m 3
72.5 cm Zi½ ˆ`N©¨wewkó Zi½ †m‡K‡Û 2040m AwZµg K‡i|
m„wó K‡i| H mg‡q evZv‡m k‡ãi evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ KZ ? (Pt
†eM wbY©q Ki| (iv, †ev, Õ99; †evt 99)
Kz.†ev. 2003) mgm¨v : 4| cvwb‡Z m„wó GKwU k‡ãi
mgm¨v : 2| GKwU e¯‘ evZv‡m †h kã Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 8.75cm| hw` cvwb I
m„wó K‡i Zvi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 0.2 m | evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i †eM h_vµ‡g
evZv‡m k‡ãi †eM 340 ms−1 n‡j Gi 1450ms−1 Ges 330ms−1 nq, Z‡e
K¤•vsK †ei Ki| (Abyiƒc wm.†ev. evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q
2001) Ki| (ht †evt 2000)
mgm¨v : 3| XvKv †eZvi †K›`ª wgwWqvg mgm¨v : 5| 3OOHz K¤•v‡¼i ¯•w›`Z †Kvb
I‡q‡f 630 KHZ-G Abyôvb m¤•ªPvi †iwWI w¯•Kvi †_‡K Drcbœ kã
K‡i| †iwWI Zi‡½i †eM 3 × 108 ms−1 Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ evqy‡Z 1.15m
n‡j Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q Ki| n‡j evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ KZ ?
(Kz. †ev. 2006; 2000)
mgm¨v : 4| 250 Hz K¤•vsKwewkó GKwU mgm¨v : 6| evZv‡m k‡ãi †eM 332 ms−1 n‡j
myikjvKv †_‡K wbtm„Z kã gvby‡li kÖve¨Zvi EaŸ©mxgvi
evZv‡m 3 s-G 1020 m AwZµg K‡i, Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ KZ n‡e?
evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ †ei (iv.†ev. 2004; h.†ev. 2003)
Ki| (P, †ev, Õ99; Abyiƒc Kz.†ev.

Abykxjbxi msw¶ß I
iPbvg チ jK DËi cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| D`vniYmn ch©ve„Ë MwZ Ges ¯•›`b MwZ e¨vL¨v Ki|
(P.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. Xv.†ev. h.†ev. 2000 ; m.†ev. Õ98)
A_ev, ch©ve„Ë MwZ I ¯•›`b MwZi msÁv `vI|
A_ev, wUKv †jL : ¯•›`bMwZ, ch©ve„Ë MwZ|
DËi : ch©ve„ËMwZ : †Kvb MwZkxj
e¯‘KYvi MwZ hw` Ggb nq †h, GwU Gi
MwZc‡_i †Kvb wbw`©ó we›`y‡K wbw`©ó 
mgq ci ci GKB w`K †_‡K AwZµg K‡i, Z‡e
†m MwZ‡K ch©ve„Ë MwZ e‡j|
ch©ve„Ë MwZ e„ËvKvi, Dce„ËvKvi ev

171
Zi½ 172

mij‰iwLK n‡Z cv‡i|


D`vniY : Nwoi KvUvi MwZ, ˆe`y¨wZK
cvLvi MwZ, wmwjÊv‡ii
MwZ BZ¨vw`|
¯•›`bMwZ : wPÎ : ch©ve„Ë MwZ
†Kvb ch©ve„Ë MwZm¤•bœ e¯‘ ch©vqKv‡ji A‡a©K mgq †Kvb wbw`©ó
w`‡K Ges evwK A‡a©K mgq c チ e©MwZi wecixZ w`‡K P‡j Z‡e Gi MwZ‡K
¯•›`b MwZ e‡j|
D`vniY : mij †`vj‡Ki MwZ, myikjvKvi MwZ, Bwćbi wc÷‡bi MwZ
BZ¨vw`|
cÖkœ : 2| mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`b Kv‡K e‡j? Gi ˆewk󨸇jv wjL| (h.†ev.2006
2002; Xv.†ev. 2006; Õ04; 2000; wm.†ev. 2003)
A_ev, wUKv †jLt mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`b (wm.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006; h.†ev. 2000; iv.†ev.
2000)
DËi : mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`b :
hw` †Kvb ch©ve„Ë MwZm¤•bœ KYvi MwZc_ mij‰iwLK nq Ges Gi Z¡iY
mvg¨ve¯’vb †_‡K Gi mi‡Yi mgvbycvwZK nq Ges Gi w`K me mgq
mvg¨ve¯’vb AwfgyLx nq, Zvn‡j e¯‘KYvi GB MwZ‡K mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`b e‡j|
mij Qw›`Z ¯•›`‡bi ˆewkó¨ :
1. GwU GKwU ch©ve„Ë MwZ
2. GwU GKwU ¯•›`b MwZ
3. GwU mij‰iwLK MwZ
4. †h †Kvb mgq Z¡i‡Yi gvb mvg¨ve¯’vb †_‡K mi‡Yi gv‡bi
mgvbycvwZK|
5. Z¡iY me©`v GKwU wbw`©ó we›`y AwfgyLx|
cÖkœ : 3| Zi½ ej‡Z wK eyS? Zi‡½i ˆewk󨸇jv eY©bv Ki| (Xv. †ev.
Õ04; Õ99 ; wm. †ev. 2005; 2001; 2003 Kz.†ev. 2005; 2003)
A_ev, Zi‡½i msÁv `vI| Zi‡½i wK wK ˆewkó¨ cwijw¶Z nq?
(P.†ev. 2006; 2005; ewi.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. 2005; 2002; iv.†ev. wm.†ev. 2005)
DËi : Zi½ :
msÁv : †h ch©ve„Ë Av‡›`vjb †Kvb Ro gva¨‡gi GK¯’vb †_‡K Ab¨¯’v‡b kw³
mÂvwiZ K‡i wKš‘ gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jv‡K ¯’vbvš マ wiZ K‡i bv Zv‡K Zi½ e‡j|
D`vniY : †Kvb Rjvk‡q GKwU wXj Qyo‡j R‡j †XD D‡V| H †XD e„ËvKv‡i
Pviw`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o| R‡ji Dci fvmgvb †Kvb e¯‘‡K j¶¨ Ki‡j †`Lv hv‡e †h,
Dnv †XD-Gi m‡½ GwM‡q hv‡”Q bv| G‡Z eySv hvq †h wXjwU R‡j †h
Av‡›`vjb m„wó Kij Zv †XD-Gi AvKv‡i Pviw`‡K Qwo‡q co‡Q− wKš‘ R‡ji
KYv¸‡jv †XD-Gi m‡½ ¯’vbPz¨Z n‡”Q bv− GKB ¯’v‡b †_‡K Av‡›`vwjZ n‡”Q
gvÎ| Ro gva¨‡gi GK ¯’v‡bi Av‡jvob Dnvi KYv¸‡jvi ¯•›`‡bi mvnv‡h¨ Ab¨Î
mÂvwiZ nq| GwUB Zi½|
Zi‡½i ˆewkó¨ : Zi‡½i g‡a¨ wbæwjwLZ ˆewk󨸇jv cwijw¶Z nq :

172
173 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

1. gva¨‡gi KYvi ¯•›`b MwZi d‡j Zi½ m„wó nq, wKš‘ gva¨‡gi KYv
¯’vbvš マ wiZ nq bv| ïaygvÎ Av‡›`vjb gva¨‡gi wfZi w`‡q Zi½vKv‡i
mÂvwjZ nq|
2. Zi½‡eM gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi ¯•›`‡bi †e‡Mi †_‡K Avjv`v| gva¨‡gi me
RvqMvq Zi½‡eM GKB _v‡K wKš‘ gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jv wewfbœ †e‡M
¯•w›`Z nq|
3. mvg¨ve¯’v‡b KYv¸‡jvi †eM me‡P‡q †ewk|
4. me Zi½B kw³ I Z_¨ mÂviY K‡i|
cÖkœ : 4| Zi‡½i †¶‡Î msÁv `vI :
(i) ch©vqKvj, (iv.†ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. Õ99) (ii) K¤•vsK, (wm.†ev. 2003;
Kz.†ev. 2003)
(iii) we¯マ vi, (Kz.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2002) (iv) `kv, (Kz.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev.
2002)
(v) Zi½ ˆ`N©¨| (P.†ev. 2003)
DËi : ch©vqKvj : Zi½ mÂvjbKvix
†Kvb KYvi GKwU c チ Y©¯•›`b
m¤•bœ Ki‡Z †h mgq jv‡M Zv‡K H
Zi‡½i ch©vqKvj e‡j| G‡K T Øviv
cÖKvk Kiv nq| hw` †Kvb Zi½ Drm t
†m‡K‡Û N wU c チ Y© ¯•›`b m¤•bœ
K‡i Z‡e−
ch©vqKvj T =
GKK : ch©vqKv‡ji GKK †m‡KÊ|
K¤•vsK :
msÁv : Zi½ mÂvjbKvix †Kvb KYv
GK †m‡K‡Û hZ¸‡jv ¯•›`b m¤•bœ K‡i
Zv‡K K¤•vsK e‡j| G‡K 'f' Øviv cÖKvk
Kiv nq| hw` †Kvb Zi½ Drm t
†m‡K‡Û N wU c チ Y© ¯•›`b m¤•bœ
K‡i Z‡e−
K¤•vsK f =
GKK : K¤•vs‡Ki GKK Hz
we¯マ vi :
msÁv : Zi½ mÂvjbKvix †Kvb KYv
mvg¨ve¯’vb †_‡K †h †Kvb GKw`‡K
me©vwaK †h ` チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i,
Zv‡K Zi‡½i we¯ マ vi e‡j| G‡K
mvaviYZ 'a' Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| wP‡Î
OA n‡Z B ev C ch©š マ j¤^ ` チ iZ¡B
Zi½wUi we¯マ vi|
`kv : †Kvb K¤•bkxj e¯‘i `kv ej‡Z H e¯‘i †h †Kvb gyn チ ‡ Z©i MwZi mg¨K

173
Zi½ 174

Ae¯’v A_©vr, e¯‘KYvwUi Ae¯’vb, †eM, Z¡iY BZ¨vw` eySvq|


Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ :
msÁv : Zi½ mÂvibKvix †Kvb KYvi GKwU c チ Y© ¯•›`b m¤•bœ n‡Z †h
mgq jv‡M †mB mg‡q Zi½ †h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ e‡j|
ci ci `ywU Zi½ kxl© ev Zi½ cv‡`i ga¨eZx© `チ iZ¡ n‡”Q Zi½ ˆ`N©¨| G‡K
λ (j¨vgWv) Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| Zi½w¯’Z gva¨‡gi †Kvb KYv hw` N ¯•›`‡bi
mg‡q s `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Z‡e Zi½ ˆ`N©¨|
λ =
cwigv‡ci R‡b¨ ejv hvq, Zi‡½i Dci Aew¯’Z ci ci `ywU mg `kv m¤•bœ KYvi `チ
iZ¡B Zi½ ˆ`N©¨| A_©vr, Avo Zi‡½i †¶‡Î ci ci `ywU Zi½ kxl© ev ci ci `ywU
Zi½cv‡`i ga¨eZx© `チ iZ¡‡K Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ aiv nq|

Avevi jw¤^K Zi‡½i †¶‡Î ci ci `ywU ms‡KvPb ev ci ci `ywU cÖmvi‡Yi


ga¨eZx© `チ iZ¡‡K Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ e‡j|

wPÎ : Zi½ ˆ`N©¨


cÖkœ : 5| K¤•vsK I ch©vqKv‡ji g‡a¨ m¤•K© ¯’vcb Ki| (Xv.†ev.
P.†ev. 2006; 2005; P.†ev. 2002)
A_ev, †`LvI †h, f T = 1; hLb f = K¤•vsK, T = †`vjbKvj|
A_ev, kã Zi‡½i ch©vqKvj I K¤•v‡¼i g‡a¨ GKwU MvwYwZK
m¤•K© ¯’vcb Ki| (h.†ev. Õ99)
DËi : K¤•vsK : K¤•bkxj e¯‘ GKK mg‡q hZ¸‡jv c チ Y© K¤•b m¤•bœ K‡i
Zv‡K K¤•vsK e‡j|
ch©vqKvj : K¤•bkxj e¯‘i GKwU cY© K¤•b m¤•bœ Ki‡Z †h mgq jv‡M
Zv‡K †`vjbKvj ev ch©vqKvj e‡j|
K¤•vsK I ch©vqKvj h_vµ‡g f I T n‡j,
T †m‡K‡Û m¤•bœ nq 1 wU ¯•›`b
∴1 " " " "
∴ K¤•vs‡Ki msÁvbymv‡i,
f =
ev, fT = 1

174
175 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

A_©vr, K¤•vsK × ch©vqKvj = 1


GwUB wb‡Y©q m¤•K©| wPÎ :
cÖkœ : 6| v = f λ m¤•K©wU cÖwZcv`b Ki|
(Xv.†ev. 2000;2005; iv.†ev. 2000 ; wm.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2001; e.†ev. 2001;
2003; P.†ev. 2003;2005; h.†ev. 2005)
A_ev, †eM, K¤•vsK Ges Zi½ ˆ`‡N©¨i ga¨Kvi m¤•K©wU cÖwZôv
Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2006; 2003)
A_ev, †`LvI †h, k‡ãi †eM v = K¤•vsK × Zi½ ˆ`N©¨|
A_ev, cÖPwjZ wb‡`©k‡Ki Rb¨ v = fλ mgxKiY cÖwZcv`b Ki| (h.†ev.
2005; 2002)
DËi : v = fλ m¤•K© cÖwZcv`b :
g‡b Kwi, †Kvb gva¨‡g kã Zi‡½i †eM = v
Zi½ Dr‡mi K¤•vsK = f
Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ =λ
∴ †e‡Mi msÁvbymv‡i,
v = kã KZ…©K 1 †m‡KÛ G AwZµvš `iZ¡ .........................(i)
Avevi, Zi½ ˆ`‡N©¨i msÁvbymv‡i,
1wU K¤•‡b kã KZ…©K AwZµvš `iZ¡ = λ
∴ f ” ” ” ” ” = fλ ...................(ii)
wKš‘ K¤•vs‡Ki msÁvbymv‡i,
f wU K¤•‡bi Rb¨ mgq jv‡M = 1 †m‡KÛ...................(iii)
∴ (ii) I (iii) n‡Z cvB,
fλ = kã KZ…©K 1 †m‡KÛ G AwZµvš `iZ¡ ...................(iv)
∴(i) I (iv) n‡Z cvB,
fλ = v
A_©vr, k‡ãi †eM = K¤•vsK × Zi½ ˆ`N©¨
cÖkœ : 7| D`vniYmn AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ I Aby‰`N©¨ Zi½ e¨vL¨v Ki| G‡`i
g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (Kz.†ev, P.†ev. Õ99; e.†ev. 2003)
A_ev, D`vniYmn AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. P.†ev. 2004; h.†ev. 2002)
DËi : AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ :
†h mg¯ マ Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Ro gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi K¤•‡bi w`K Zi½ cÖev‡ni w`‡Ki
mg‡KvYx nq Zv‡K AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ e‡j|

175
Zi½ 176

D`vniY : GKwU Zvi Uvb K‡i †eu‡a


Dnvi ˆ`‡N©¨i mg‡Kv‡Y †U‡b †Q‡o
w`‡j AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i m„wó nq| Zvi Gi
ˆ`‡N©¨i mv‡_ mg‡Kv‡Y Av‡›`vwjZ
nq Ges GB Av‡›`vjb Zv‡ii ˆ`N©¨
eivei cÖevwnZ nq| ZvB Uvbv Zv‡ii
Giƒc K¤•b n‡Z m„ó Zi½ AbycÖ¯’
Zi½| wPÎ : AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i cix¶v

Aby‰`N©¨ Zi½ :
†h mg¯ マ Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Ro gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi K¤•‡bi w`K Ges Zi½ cÖev‡ni
w`K GKB w`‡K _v‡K, Zv‡`i‡K Aby‰`N©¨ Zi½ e‡j| ms‡KvPb I cÖmvi‡Yi
ga¨w`‡q Aby‰`N©¨ Zi½ mvg‡b AMÖmi nq|
•••Zi ½cÖev‡ni ẁK
e¯‘KYvi K¤•‡bi ẁK
D`vniY : K_v ejvi mgq Avgiv
¯^ic`©v (Vocal cord) I wRnŸvi
mvnv‡h¨ gy‡Li ga¨Kvi evqy
KYv‡Z K¤•b m„wó Kwi|
evqyKYv¸‡jvi K¤•‡bi w`K I
kãZi‡½i w`K GKB| AZGe, kãZi½
Aby‰`N©¨ Zi½|
wPÎ : AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i
cix¶v

AbycÖ¯’ Avo I Aby‰`N©¨ jw¤^K Zi‡½i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ : (ewi.†ev.


2003)
ˆewkó¨ AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ Abyˆ`N©¨ Zi½
1. msÁv 1. †h mg¯ マ Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Ro 1. †h me Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Ro
gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi K¤•‡bi
K¤•‡bi w`K Zi½ w`K Ges Zi½ cÖev‡ni
cÖev‡ni w`‡Ki w`K GKB w`‡K nq
mg‡KvYx nq Zv‡`i‡K Zv‡`i‡K Aby‰`N©¨
AbycÖ¯’ Zi½ e‡j| Zi½ e‡j|
2. Zi½ 2. Zi½ cÖev‡ni gva¨‡g 2. Zi½ cÖev‡ni gva¨‡g
kxl© I Zi½ kxl© I Zi½ cv‡`i msKzwPZ I cÖmvwiZ
Zi½ D™¢e nq| ¯‡ii D™¢e nq|
cv`

176
177 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

3. Zi½ 3. GKwU Zi½ kxl© I 3. GKwU ms‡KvPb I


ˆ`N©¨ GKwU Zi½ cv` wb‡q GKwU cÖmviY wb‡q
Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ MwVZ| Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ MwVZ nq|
4. 4. gva¨‡g Gi mgveZ©b 4. gva¨‡g Gi mgveZ©b
mgveZ N‡U| N‡U bv|
©b
5. D`vniY 5. cvwbi Zi½ Abycª¯’ 5. kã Zi½ Aby‰`N©¨
Zi½| Zi½|

AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| mKj ¯•›`bB ch©vqe„Ë MwZ wKš‘ mKj ch©vqe„Ë MwZ
¯•›`b bq e¨vL¨v Ki| [iv.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2006]
DËi : ch©vqe„Ë MwZ : †Kvb MwZkxj e¯‘ KYvi MwZ hw` Ggb nq †h,
GwU Gi MwZc‡_i †Kvb wbw`©ó we›`y‡K wbw`©ó mgq ci ci GKB w`K
†_‡K AwZµg K‡i Z‡e †mB MwZ‡K ch©vqe„Ë MwZ e‡j|
¯•›`b MwZ : †Kvb ch©vqe„Ë MwZ m¤•bœ e¯‘ KYvi MwZ hw` Ggb nq †h
GwU Gi ch©vq Kv‡ji A‡a©K mgq †Kvb wbw`©ó w`‡K Ges evwK A‡a©K
mgq c チ e© MwZi wecixZ w`‡K P‡j Z‡e Gi MwZ‡K ¯•›`b MwZ e‡j|
ch©vq MwZ I ¯•›`b MwZi msÁv n‡Z †`Lv hvq †Kvb e¯‘ KYv hw` wbw`©ó
mgq ci ci GKB w`K n‡Z †Kvb wbw`©ó we›`y‡K AwZµg K‡i ZvB
ch©vqe„Ë MwZ, †hgb Nwoi KvUvi MwZ| Avevi e¯‘wU hw` ch©vq Kv‡ji
A‡a©K mgq wbw`©ó w`‡K Ges evwK A‡a©K mgq c チ e©MwZi wecixZ
w`‡K P‡j ZvI wKš‘ ch©vqe„Ë MwZ| †hgb, mij †`vj‡Ki e‡ei †`vjb MwZ|
GwU GKwU ¯•›`b MwZ| DcwiD³ `ywU D`vniY ch©vqe„Ë MwZi †¶‡Î
cÖ‡hvR¨| wKš‘ cÖ_gwU ¯•›`b MwZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| ïaygvÎ wØZxqwU ¯•›`b
MwZi Aš マ fy©³| G Kvi‡Y mKj ¯•›`b MwZ ch©vqe„Ë MwZi Aš マ f©y³ n‡j
mKj ch©vqe„Ë MwZ ¯•›`b MwZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| myZivs mKj ¯•›`b MwZ
ch©vqe„Ë MwZ n‡jI mKj ch©vqe„Ë MwZ ¯•›`b MwZ bq|
cÖkœ : 2| Zi½ `ª“wZ Kv‡K e‡j ? [iv.†ev. 2005]
DËi : †Kvb Zi½ GKK mg‡q †Kvb gva¨‡gi ga¨ w`‡q †h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i
Zv‡K H gva¨‡g Zi‡½i `ª“wZ e‡j|
MvwYwZK e¨vL¨v : g‡b Kwi, †Kvb gva¨‡g t mg‡q s `チ iZ¡ AwZµg Kij|
kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ V =
`ª“wZi GKK : ms−1
cÖkœ : 3| hvwš ミ K Zi½ Kv‡K e‡j ? hvwš ミ K Zi½ I Zwor †PŠ¤^K
Zi‡½i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wK ? (Xv. †ev. 2000)
DËi : hvwš ミ K Zi½ :
Ro gva¨‡gi KYvi Av‡›`vj‡bi d‡j †h Zi‡½i m„wó nq Zv‡K hvwš ミ K Zi½ e‡j|
†hgbÑ kã Zi½|

177
Zi½ 178

hvwš ミ K Zi½ I Zwor †PŠ¤^K Zi‡½i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ :


1. hvwš ミ K Zi½ m„wó Kivi Rb¨ gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb nq| wKš‘ Zwor
†PŠ¤^K Zi½ Drcbœ ev mÂvi‡Yi Rb¨ †Kvb gva¨‡gi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|
2. me Zwor †Kw›`ªK Zi‡½i †eM k チ b¨ gva¨‡g GKB wKš‘ hvwš ミ K
Zi‡½i †ejvq Zv wfbœ n‡Z cv‡i|
cÖkœ : 4| msÁv `vI/ Kv‡K e‡j?
(K) Zi½ †eM, (L) k‡ãi †eM (M) c チ Y© K¤•b (N) Zi½ gyL
DËi : Zi½ †eM :
msÁv : Zi½ wbw`©ó w`‡K GKK mg‡q †h ` チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K Zi½
†eM e‡j| G‡K v Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| †Kvb gva¨‡g GKwU Zi½ wbw`©ó
w`‡K t mg‡q s `チ iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡j,
H gva¨‡g Zi½ †eM, v =
k‡ãi †eM :
msÁv : kã Zi½ wbw`©ó w`‡K GKK mg‡q †h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K k‡ãi
†eM e‡j| G‡K v Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| †Kvb gva¨‡g kã wbw`©ó w`‡K t
mg‡q s `チ iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡j, H gva¨‡g Zi½ †eM, v =
c チ Y© K¤•b :
msÁv : K¤•bkxj e¯‘ GKwU we›`y n‡Z hvÎv ïi“ K‡i Avevi GKB w`‡K †mB
we›`y‡Z hw` wd‡i Av‡m Z‡e Zv‡K c チ Y© K¤•b e‡j|
Zi½ gyL :
msÁv : †Kvb Zi‡½i Dci Aew¯’Z mg`kvm¤•bœ KYvmg チ n †h Z‡j Ae¯’vb
K‡i Zv‡K Zi½ gyL e‡j|
cÖkœ : 5| `kv ej‡Z wK eyS? (P.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2003)
DËi : `kv (Phase) :
msÁv : Zi½ mÂviYKvix †Kvb KYvi †h †Kvb gyn チ ‡ Z©i MwZi mg¨K
Ae¯’vb‡K Zvi `kv e‡j| †Kvb GKwU gyn チ ‡ Z© MwZi Ae¯’v ej‡Z H we‡kl
gyn チ‡Z© KYvwUi miY, †eM, Z¡iY BZ¨vw` eySvq|
e¨vL¨v : `ywU KYvi miY
hw` GKB nq Ges Zviv
hw` GKBw`‡K GKB
†e‡M MwZkxj _v‡K
Zvn‡j Avgiv ewj KYv
GKB `kvq ¯•w›`Z n‡”Q|
wP‡Î P Ges P′ Ae¯’v‡b ev
P Ges P′′ Ae¯’v‡bi KYv
`ywU GKB `kvq ¯•w›`Z
n‡”Q| Avevi Q Ges Q′ ev

178
179 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Q Ges Q′′ GKB `kvq


Av‡Q| wVK †Zgwb R
Ges R′ ev R Ges R′′
KYv¸‡jvi GKB
`kvm¤•bœ| wPÎ : `kv
MvwYwZK
mgm¨vewj I
mgvavb
■ hv Rvbv `iKvi
v = fλ ; GLv‡b, v = k‡ãi GKK
f = K¤•vsK
λ = Zi½ ˆ`N©¨
fT = 1; GLv‡b, f = K¤•vsK
T = ch©vqKvj
n = ; GLv‡b, n = K¤•vsK
T = ch©vqKvj
T = ; GLv‡b, N = K¤•bmsL¨v

MvwYwZK
D`vniYmg チ n
D`v : 1| 300H2 K¤•vs‡K ¯•w›`Z †Kvb †iwWI w¯•Kvi †_‡K Drcbœ
kãZi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ evqy‡Z 1.15 m n‡j evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i
`ª“wZ KZ? (Kz. †ev. 2000)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
v = fλ K¤•vsK, f = 300 Hz = 300 s−1
= (300s−1) (1.15 m) Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λ = 1.15
= 345 ms−1 m
DËi : Zi½ `ª“wZ, 345 ms−1
Zi½ `ª“wZ, v = ?
D`v : 2| cvwb‡Z m„ó GKwU k‡ãi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 8.75 cm| hw` evqy I
cvwb‡Z kãZi‡½i `ª“wZ h_vµ‡g 332 ms−1 Ges 1452.5 ms−1 nq, Z‡e
evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ Ges K¤•vsK wbY©q Ki|
(Kz.†ev. P.†ev. wm.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev, h.†ev. 2002; h.†ev. 2000; Xv. †ev. 2005;
Õ99; iv.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
K¤•vsK f n‡j cvwb‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ, vw =
Va = fλa Ges Vw = fλw 1452.5 ms−1
evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ, va =

179
Zi½ 180

∴ = 332ms−1
∴ λa = × λw cvwb‡Z Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λw =
8.75 cm
= 0.0875 m
evZv‡m Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λa =
?
K¤•vsK, f = ?
= × 0.0875 m
= 0.02 m (DËi)
Avevi, Va = fλa
∴ f = =
= 16600s−1
= 16600 Hz (DËi)|
Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| 480 HZ K¤•vsKwewkó GKwU myikjvKv evZv‡m †Kvb
GK mg‡q 72.5 cm Zi½ ˆ`N©¨wewkó Zi½ m„wó K‡i| H mg‡q evZv‡m
k‡ãi †eM wbY©q Ki| (iv, †ev, Õ99; Kz.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
v = fλ K¤•vsK, f = 480 Hz = 480 s−1
= 480s−1 × 0.725m = 348 ms−1 Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λ = 72.5
DËi : 348 ms−1 cm = 0.725 m
k‡ãi †eM, v = ?
mgm¨v : 2| GKwU e¯‘ evZv‡m †h kã m„wó K‡i Zvi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 0.2
m | evZv‡m k‡ãi †eM 340 ms−1 n‡j Gi K¤•vsK †ei Ki|
(Abyiƒc wm.†ev. 2001)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
v = fλ Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λ = 0.2 m
ev, f = = k‡ãi †eM, v = 340 ms −1

K¤•vsK, f = ?
= 1700 s−1 = 1700 Hz
DËi : K¤•vsK = 1700 Hz.
mgm¨v : 3| XvKv †eZvi †K›`ª wgwWqvg I‡q‡f 630 KHZ-G Abyôvb
m¤•ªPvi K‡i| †iwWI Zi‡½i †eM 3 × 108 ms−1 n‡j Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q Ki|
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
v = fλ K¤•vsK, f = 630 KHz

180
181 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

ev, λ = = 63 × 104 Hz
= = 476.19 m = 63 × 104 s−1
DËi : Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ = 476.19 m Zi‡½i †eM, v = 3 × 108ms−1
Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ λ = ?
mgm¨v : 4| 250 Hz K¤•vsKwewkó GKwU myikjvKv †_‡K wbtm„Z kã
evZv‡m 3 s-G 1020 m AwZµg K‡i, evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ †ei Ki|
(P, †ev, Õ99; Abyiƒc Kz.†ev. P.†ev. 2002; wm.†ev. 2003; ewi.†ev. iv.†ev. 2005)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
v = K¤•vsK, f = 250 Hz
= = 250 s−1
= 340 ms−1 mgq, t = 3s
`チ iZ¡, s = 1020 m
Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λ = ?
Avevi, v = fλ
ev, λ = = = 1.36 m
DËi : Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ = 1.36 m.
AwZwi³ MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| 128 Hz K¤•v¼ wewkó GKwU myikjvKv †_‡K wbtm„Z kã
evZv‡m 6s G 1536m AwZµg K‡i| evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ KZ?
[iv.†ev. 2005]
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
k‡ãi `ª“wZ, V = myikjvKvi K¤•vsK, ƒ= 128Hz
= mgq, t = 6s
= 256ms−1 AwZµvš マ `チ iZ¡, s = 1536 m
Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λ = ?
Avevi,
V = ƒλ
=
λ
= = 2m
DËi : Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 2m
mgm¨v : 2| evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ 4cm| hw` evqy I cvwb‡Z kã
Zi‡½i `ª“wZ h_vµ‡g 332ms−1 Ges 1452.5ms−1 nq, Z‡e kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨
KZ ? (ivt †evt 2000)
mgvavb: awi, cvwb‡Z kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ λw
Ges k‡ãi K¤•v¼ f †`Iqv Av‡Q,
Avgiv Rvwb, K¤•v¼ f n‡j va = fλa evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨, λa
Ges vw = fλw. = 4cm = 0.04m

181
Zi½ 182

∴ = evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ, va


= 332ms−1
Ges cvwb‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ,
vw = 1452.5ms−1
λw = = = 0.15m Ans.
Avevi, va = fλa.
∴ f = = = 8300s−1 Ans.
mgm¨v : 3| 340Hz K¤•v‡¼i GKwU myi kjvKv †_‡K wbtm„Z kã
evZv‡m 3 †m‡K‡Û 2040m AwZµg K‡i| evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ KZ ?
(Pt †evt 99)
mgvavb: Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨v 4bs Gi Abyiƒc|
mgm¨v : 4| cvwb‡Z m„wó GKwU k‡ãi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 8.75cm| hw` cvwb
I evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i †eM h_vµ‡g 1450ms−1 Ges 330ms−1 nq, Z‡e evZv‡m
kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q Ki| (ht †evt 2000)
mgvavb: awi, evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ λa
Avgiv Rvwb, k‡ãi K¤•v¼ f n‡j †`Iqv Av‡Q,
va = fλa Ges vw = fλw cvwb‡Z kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨, λw =
∴ = 8.75cm = 0.0875m
cvwb‡Z kã Zi‡½i †eM, vw =
1450ms−1
evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i †eM, va = 330ms−
1

ev, λa = × λw = × 0.0875m = 0.02m


∴ evZv‡m kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨ 0.02m. Ans.
mgm¨v : 5| 3OOHz K¤•v‡¼i ¯•w›`Z †Kvb †iwWI w¯•Kvi †_‡K Drcbœ
kã Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ evqy‡Z 1.15m n‡j evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ KZ ?
(Kz. †ev. 2006; 2000)
mgvavb: †`Iqv Av‡Q,K¤•v¼, f = 300 Hz = 300s −1

Zi½ ˆ`N©¨, λ = 1.15m


awi, evqy‡Z Zi½ `ª“wZ = v
Avgiv Rvwb, v = fλ = (3oos−1) (1.15m) = 345ms−1 Ans.
mgm¨v : 6| evZv‡m k‡ãi †eM 332 ms−1 n‡j gvby‡li kÖve¨Zvi
EaŸ©mxgvi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ KZ n‡e?
(iv.†ev. 2004; h.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb: †`Iqv Av‡Q,
k‡ãi †eM v = 332 ms−1
K¤•v¼ f = 20,000 Hz [†h‡nZz kÖve¨Zvi EaŸ©mxgv]
Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ λ = ?
GLb, v = fλ
ev, λ = = m = 0.0166 m
DËi : Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ 0.0166m.

182
183 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. wb‡Pi †KvbwU mij Qw›`Z 3| †KvbwU AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i D`vniY
¯•›`‡bi ˆewkó¨ bq? bq?
(h.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev. 2001; Kz.†ev, P.†ev. (Xv.†ev. P.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. 2002)
Õ99; P.†ev. 2003) K. Zvc Zi½ ✓ L. kã Zi½
K. ch©ve„Ë MwZ ✓ L. M. Av‡jvK Zi½ N. cvwbi Zi½
NY©b MwZ 4| wb‡Pi †KvbwU ch©ve„Ë MwZ
M. ¯•›`‡bi MwZ N. mij bq?
ˆiwLK MwZ K. Nwoi KvUvi MwZ
2. AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Zi½ L. ˆe`y¨wZK cvLvi MwZ
gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi ¯•›`‡bi w`‡Ki M. wmwjÛv‡ii g‡a¨ wc÷‡bi MwZ
mv‡_ wKfv‡e _v‡K? ✓ N. Av‡jvi MwZ
(iv.†ev. Õ02; Xv.†ev. 2000; iv.†ev.
5| Zi½ mÂvjbKvix †Kvb KYvi
Õ99; Xv.†ev. 2006; Õ03)
GKwU cY© ¯•›`b m¤•bœ
K. mgvšiv‡j L. 450 †Kv‡Y K‡Z †h mgq jv‡M Zv‡K H Zi‡½i
✓ M. mg‡KvY N. †h †Kvb †Kv‡Y wK ejv nq?
3. Zi½ `ª“wZ, K¤•vsK I Zi½ (h.†ev. 2002)
ˆ`‡N©¨i m¤•K© †KvbwU? (ewi. K. `ª“wZ L. K¤•vsK
†ev. 2002; P.†ev. Õ99; m.†ev. Õ98) ✓ M. ch©vq Kvj N. Zi½ ˆ`N©¨
A_ev, †eM V, K¤•v¼ F I Zi½ 6| Zi½ ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK wK?
ˆ`‡N©¨i m¤•K© wK? K. ms−1 L. Hz
(Xv.†ev. 2004) ✓ M. m N. mvB‡Kj/†m.
✓ K. v = fλ L. v = 7| K¤•vs‡Ki GKK wK?
M. v = N. vfλ = 1 ✓ K. nvR© L. wbDUb
AwZwi³ M. Ryj N. IqvU
ˆbe©¨w³K 8| †h MwZ‡Z e¯‘ MwZc‡_i †Kvb
wbw`©ó we›`y‡K wbw`©ó
cÖ‡kœvËi mgq cici GKB w`K †_‡K AwZµg
1| Ro gva¨‡gi KYvi Av‡›`vj‡bi d‡j K‡i, Z‡e Zv‡K wK MwZ e‡j?
†Kvb Zi‡½i m„wó nq? (Kz.†ev. K. ˆiwLK MwZ L. e„ËvKvi MwZ
2005; iv.†ev. Õ99)
M. ch©ve„Ë MwZ ✓ N.
K. Zvc Zi½ ✓ L. hvwšK Zi½ NY©b MwZ
M. kã Zi½ N. Av‡jvK Zi½ 9| †h ch©ve„Ë Av‡›`vjb †Kvb Ro
2| Zi½ `ª“wZ v, Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ λ Ges gva¨‡gi GK¯’vb †_‡K Ab¨ ¯’v‡b
ch©vq Kv‡ji g‡a¨ †Kvb&wU kw³ mÂvwiZ K‡i wKš‘ gva¨‡gi
mwVK m¤•K©? KYv¸‡jv‡K ¯’vbvšwiZ K‡i bv,
(P.†ev. Õ99) Zv‡K wK ejv nq?
K. λ = L. V = λT ✓ K. Zi½ L. ch©vq MwZ
✓ M. λ = VT N. T = Vλ M. e„ËvKvi MwZ N. ceZv

183
Zi½ 184

10| cici `ywU Zi½ kxl© ev Zi½ 18| 300HZ K¤•vs‡K ¯•w›`Z †Kvb
cv‡`i ga¨eZ©x `iZ¡‡K wK ejv †iwWI w¯•Kvi †_‡K Drcbœ
nq? (h.†ev. 2002) kãZi‡½i Zi½‰`N©¨ evqy‡Z
✓ K. Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ L. Zi½ †eM 1.15m n‡j evqy‡Z kãZi‡½i `ª“wZ
M. K¤•vsK N. `kv KZ? (Xv.†ev.Kz.†ev.
11| Zi½ KYv GK †m‡K‡Û hZ¸‡jv 2002;
¯•›`b K‡i Zv‡K wK e‡j? (wm.†ev. P.†ev. 2006; 2004)
2005) K. 300ms−1 L. 45ms−1
K. cY© ¯•›`b L. †`vjbKvj M. 34.5ms−1 ✓ N. 345ms−1
✓ M. K¤•v¼ N. we¯vi 19| 400Hz K¤•v‡¼ ¯•w›`Z †Kvb
12| T−1 †Kvb ivwki gvÎv? (iv.†ev. kãZi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ evqy‡Z
2006; Xv.†ev. 2002) 1.25m n‡j evqy‡Z kãZi‡½i `ª“wZ
✓ K. K¤•v¼ L. †`vjbKvj KZ?
M. ZvcgvÎv N. †eM (Kz.†ev. 2002)
13| wbw`©ó w`‡K Zi½ GK †m‡K‡Û K. 300ms−1 ✓ L. 500ms−1
†h `iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K wK M. 401.25ms −1
N. 398.75 ms−1
e‡j? 20| wb‡æi †KvbwU Aby‰`N©¨
K. Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ ✓ L. Zi½ †eM Zi‡½i D`vniY?
M. K¤•v¼ N. `kv (h.†ev. 2003)
14| †Kvb& Zi‡½ Zi½ P‚ov I Zi½ ✓ K. kã Zi½ L. cvwbi Zi½
cv‡`i m„wó nq? M. Av‡jvi Zi½ N. †eZvi Zi½
K. kã Zi‡½ L. w¯•ªsÑGi 21| me Zi½B wK mÂviY K‡i?
Zi‡½ (Kz.†ev. 2003)
M. AYy ˆ`N©¨ Zi‡½ ✓ ✓ K. kw³ I Z_¨ L. ïay kw³
N.Av‡jvK Zi‡½ N. ïay Z_¨ N. ïay kã
15| †Kvb e¯‘ t †m‡K‡Û N msL¨K 22| †KvbwU AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i
¯•›`b m¤•bœ Ki‡j K¤•v¼ f = D`vniY?
KZ? (Kz.†ev. 2001) (wm.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. 2003)
K. f = L. f = N × t ✓ K. cvwbi Zi½ L. Av‡jvK I Zvc
✓ M. f = N. f = N + t Zi½
16| †Kvb& Zi‡½ ms‡KvPb I M. †eZvi Zi½ N. meMy‡jvB
cÖmviY m„wó nq? 23| AbycÖ¯’ Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Zi½
✓ K. kã Zi‡½ L. Zvc Zi‡½ gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi w`‡Ki mv‡_
M. Av‡jvK Zi‡½ M. AYycÖ¯’ wKfv‡e _v‡K? (Xv.†ev. ewi.†ev.
Zi‡½ 2003)
17| Zi½ m„wóKvix †Kvb KYvi †h K. 00 †Kv‡Y L. 450 †Kv‡Y
†Kvb gyn‡Z©i MwZi mg¨K ✓ N. 900 †Kv‡Y N. †h †Kvb †Kv‡Y|
Ae¯’vb‡K wK ejv nq? 24| Aby‡`N©¨ Zi‡½i †¶‡Î Zi½
K. we¯vi ✓ L. `kv gva¨‡gi KYv¸‡jvi ¯•›`‡bi w`‡Ki
M. K¤•v¼ N. Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ mv‡_ Kxfv‡e _v‡K? [Xv.†ev. 2004]
K. 450 †Kv‡Y L. mg‡Kv‡Y
✓ M. mgvšiv‡j N. †h‡Kvb †Kv‡Y
25| K¤•v¼ I ch©vqKv‡ji g‡a¨
m¤•K© †KvbwU?
[Xv.†ev. 2006]

184
185 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

✓ K. L. 33| Aby‰`N©¨ Zi‡½i ˆewkó¨


M. N. †Kvb&wU?[ewi.†ev. 2005]
26| ch©vqe„Ë MwZ †Kgb? K. ¯•›`‡bi w`‡Ki mv‡_ mg‡Kv‡Y
[h.†ev. 2006] AMÖmi nIqv
K. e„ËvKvi L. Dce„ËvKvi L. Zi½kxl© I Zi½cv` Drcbœ K‡i
M. mij ˆiwLK ✓ N. Dc‡ii me¸‡jv M. GKwU Zi½kxl© I GKwU
27| K¤•v¼ ƒ Ges ch©vqKvj T = Zi½cv` wb‡q Gi Zi½ ˆ`N©¨
5 †m‡KÛ n‡j ƒ= KZ? MwVZ
[Kz.†ev. 2006] ✓ N. ms‡KvPb I cÖmvi‡Yi gva¨‡g
K. 0.02Hz L. 2Hz mÂvwiZ nq|
✓ M. 0.2Hz N. 10Hz 34| †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, †dvb,
28| †KvbwU hvwšK Zi½? d¨v·-G †Kvb Zi½ e¨e¸Z nq?
[P.†ev. 2006] [iv.†ev. 2006; h.†ev.
K. Av‡jvK Zi½ L. Zvc Zi½ Õ99]
M. †PŠ¤^K Zi½✓ N. kã Zi½
K. kã Zi½
29| wb‡Pi †KvbwU AbycÖ¯’
Zi‡½i D`vniY bq? L. ZvcZi½
[wm.†ev. 2006] ✓ M. ZvwoZ †PŠ¤^K Zi½
✓ K. w¯•Ös Gi Zi½ L. N. f‚ Zi½
Zvc Zi½ 35| ¯•›`b MwZi w`K KqgyLx?
M. cvwbi Zi½ N. †eZvi Zi½ [P.†ev. 2000]
30| 300Hz K¤•v¼-G ¯•w›`Z †Kvb ✓ K. 1 L. 2
†iwWI w¯•Kvi †_‡K Drcbœ kã
M. 3 N. 4
Zi‡½i Zi½ ˆ`N©¨ evqy‡Z 1.13m
n‡j evqy‡Z kã Zi‡½i `ª“wZ 36| †Kvb&wUi Avo-Zi‡½i
KZ?[iv.†ev. 2005] D`vniY bq?
K. 345ms−1 L. 349ms−1 [Kz.†ev. 2000; P.†ev. 2005,2002]
✓ M. 339ms−1 N. 336ms−1 K. †eZvi Zi½✓ L. kã Zi½
31| †KvbwU Aby‰`N©¨ Zi‡½i M. Zvc Zi½ N. Av‡jvK Zi½
D`vniY?[iv.†ev. 2005] 37| GKwU e¯‘ evZv‡m 1700Hz G
K. †eZvi Zi½ L. cvwbi Zi½ kã m„wó K‡i| evZv‡m k‡ãi
✓ M. w¯•Ös G m„ó Zi½ N. †eM 340 ms−1 n‡j kã Zi‡½i ˆ`N©¨
Av‡jvi Zi½
KZ? [h.†ev. 2004]
32| †KvbwU mwVK?
[wm.†ev. 2005] K. 0.2 ms−1 L. 5.0 ms−1
K. M. 5.0 m ✓ N. 0.2 m
L. 38| †Kvb&wU mwVK bq?
✓ M. Zi½ †eM = K¤•v¼ × [ewi.†ev. 2004]
Zi½‰`N©¨ K. 1 Hz = L. 1 Hz =
N. Zi½‰`N© = Zi½‡eM × ✓ M. 1 Hz = 1 s−2 N. 1 Hz = 1 s−1
K¤•v¼

185