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A a¨vq


_gAa¨vq
4
gnvKl ©
I Aw
fKl © ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
Abykxjbxi msw¶ßÑDËi cÖkœ ms−2 ej‡Z wK eyS? (Xv.†ev. 2006)
cÖkœ : 1| gnvKl© I AwfKl© ej‡Z wK A_ev, †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY g Gi gvb
9.8 ms−2 Gi A_© wK?
eyS?
(Kz.†ev. 2004)
(Kz. †ev. h. †ev. Õ99; Kz. †ev.
cÖkœ : 10| mij †`vjK Kv‡K e‡j? (h.†ev.
2001 Xv.†ev. 2000)
2000; Xv.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2003;
cÖkœ : 2| wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ ÎwU wee„Z
Kz.†ev. 2003)
Ki| (m. †ev. Õ98 ; iv. †ev. Xv. †ev.
cÖkœ : 11| mij‡`vj‡Ki †¶‡Î msÁv `vI :
2000; wm. †ev. 2001; 2005; h.†ev.
ee, Szjbwe›`y, Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨,
2005)
we¯マ vi, †`vjbKvj I K¤•vsK|
A_ev, wbDU‡bi gnvKl© myÎwU e¨vL¨v
cÖkœ : 12| mij †`vj‡Ki m チ θ‡jv wee„Z
Ki| (ewi †ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2004;
Ki|
Õ99; h.†ev. 2005; Õ99; P.†ev.
(P.†ev. iv.†ev. 2002; Kz.†ev. 2000;
2003
h.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2004; 2000)
cÖkœ : 3| gnvKl© aª“eK ej‡Z wK eyS? Gi
cÖkœ : 13| GKwU QK KvM‡Ri X A‡¶i
gvÎv I GKK D‡jL Ki| (h.†ev. 2003)
w`‡K mij‡`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ L
A_ev, gnvKl© aª“eK ej‡Z wK eyS?
Gi wewfbœ gvb Ges Y A‡¶i w`‡K
(iv.†ev. 2006; wm.†ev. Kz.†ev.
Avbylw½K †`vjbKv‡ji eM© T2 Gi
2002; Xv.†ev. 2001)
gvb ¯’vcb K‡i †jLwPÎ AsKb Ki‡j
A_ev, gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki gvÎv I GKK †jL?
†jLwPÎwU wK iƒc n‡e?
(Xv.†ev. 2001; P.†ev. 2000)
cÖkœ : 14| e¯‘i fi I IRb ej‡Z wK eyS?
cÖkœ : 4| gnvKl© aª“eK G Gi gvb 6.673 × 10
−11
Nm2 kg−2 Gi A_© wK? (h.†ev. (wm. †ev. 2005; 2001; iv.†ev.
2005; iv.†ev. 2004; wm.†ev. 2002; Xv. †ev. 2004)
2003; Kz.†ev. 2003; ewi.†ev. A_ev, e¯‘i fi ej‡Z wK eyS? (iv.†ev. 2001;
2002; Xv. †ev. Õ99) Xv.†ev. 2005)
cÖkœ : 5| AwfKl©R Z¡iY ej‡Z wK cÖkœ : 15| f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b †Kvb& e¯‘i
IRb me‡P‡q †ewk Ges †Kvb&
eyS? (ewi.†ev. 2006; wm.†ev. ¯’v‡b me‡P‡q Kg n‡e †Kb?
2005;Kz. †ev. iv. †ev. 2000; cÖkœ : 16| †Kvb e¯‘‡K cvnv‡oi P‚ovq
Xv.†ev. 2000; 2001; h.†ev. 2003; ev Lwbi †fZi wb‡q †M‡j Gi IR‡bi
P.†ev. 2005) wKiƒc ZviZg¨ n‡e?
cÖkœ : 6| AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb wK‡mi cÖkœ : 17| †Kvb e¯‘i fi I IR‡bi g‡a¨
Dci wbf©i K‡i? (Xv.†ev. 2000) cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki|
A_ev, †`LvI †h, AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘ wbi‡c¶ (wm.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev.
n‡jI ¯’vb wbi‡c¶ bq| (ewi.†ev. 2003)
2006; h.†ev. 2003; Xv.†ev. 2002; cÖkœ : 18| IRbnxbZv wK? e¯‘ †Kv_vq
Kz.†ev. 2005; 2000) IRbnxb nq?
cÖkœ : 7| †Kvb ¯’v‡bi gvb‡K g Gi Av`k© (h.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. P.†ev. 2005;
gvb wn‡m‡e aiv nq| GB gvb KZ? Xv. †ev. 2005;2002,2000, Kz.†ev.
†gi“, welyexq I µvwš マ A‡j Gi gvb 2003)
D‡jL Ki| cªkœ : 19| wjd‡Ui g‡a¨ †Kvb e¨w³ KLb
cÖkœ : 8| f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b g Gi gvb 9.8 IRbnxbZv Abyfe Ki‡eb?
cÖkœ : 20| g‡b Ki Zzwg DuPz `vjv‡bi
75 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

`kZjvq GKwU wjd‡U `uvwo‡q P.†ev. 2006; 2002; Kz.†ev. 2000)


AvQ| †Zvgvi nv‡Z aiv †Kvb w¯•ªs cÖkœ : 8| mij †`vj‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb ¯’v‡bi
wbw³ †_‡K GKwU e¯‘ Szjvb Av‡Q| AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb wbY©‡qi
wbw³i KvUv e¯‘wUi IRb 10 N cix¶v eY©bv Ki| (Xv.†ev. Õ99 ; P.
wb‡`©k Ki‡Q| GLb nVvr hw` †ev. 2001 ; Kz. †ev. 2001 ; h. †ev.
wjd‡Ui †Kej wQu‡o wjd&wU 2000)
gy³fv‡e wb‡P co‡Z _v‡K Zvn‡j cÖkœ : 9| e¯‘i IRb Kv‡K e‡j? wewfbœ
w¯•ªs wbw³ e¯‘i IRb KZ wb‡`©k ¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb wewfbœ nq †Kb
Ki‡e? e¨vL¨v Ki| (wm.†ev. 2005;
cÖkœ : 21| GKRb gnvk チ b¨Pvix wm.†ev. 2005; e.†ev. 2001;
gnvk チ ‡ b¨ KLb wb‡R‡K IRbnxb P.†ev.2000; m.†ev.Õ99)
Abyfe K‡ib? (P. †ev. Õ99Õ h.†ev. cÖkœ : 10| wjd&‡U Ges gnvk チ‡b¨ IR‡bi
2004; 2001) ZviZg¨ nq †Kb e¨vL¨v Ki| (iv.†ev.
A_ev, †Kvb Ae¯’vq gnvk チ b¨hvb †_‡K 2002)
†Kvb e¯‘‡K †Q‡o w`‡j c‡o bv| cÖkœ : 11| IRbnxbZv wK? gnvk チ b¨hv‡b
(Kz.†ev. 2006; 2001) K‡i e„ËvKvi c‡_ c„w_ex‡K
cÖkœ : 22| AwfKl© †K›`ª Kv‡K e‡j? cÖ`w¶Y Kv‡j gnvk チ b¨Pvix
(Xv.†ev. P.†ev. iv.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. wb‡R‡K IRbnxb g‡b K‡ib †Kb−
2004; Kz.†ev. 2006; 2004; 2001; e¨vL¨v Ki| (P.†ev. Õ99 ; h.†ev.
wm.†ev. 2002; e.†ev. 2003) 2001)
Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK A_ev, IRbnxbZv wK? e¯‘ KLb IRbnxb
cÖkœ : 1| wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ ÎwU nq?
eY©bv I e¨vL¨v Ki Ges G †_‡K (Xv.†ev. 2000;2002; Kz.†ev.
gnvKlx©q aª“eK G-Gi msÁv `vI| 2003)
(P.†ev. 2006; 2003; h.†ev. cÖkœ : 12| GKwU w¯•ªs wbw³i MVb I
2004; P. †ev. Õ99; Xv.†ev. Kvh©cÖYvwj Av‡jvPbv Ki|
2000) cÖkœ : 13| gvby‡li gnvk チ b¨ hvÎvi
cÖkœ : 2| AwfKl©R Z¡iY Kv‡K e‡j? msw¶ß BwZnvm eY©bv Ki|
AwfKl©R Z¡iY‡K wKfv‡e c„w_exi
fi, e¨vmva© Ges gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi
mvnv‡h¨ cÖKvk Kiv hvq †`LvI| cÖkœ : 1| T = 2π mgxKiYwU cÖwZcv`b
(wm.†ev. 2004; Xv. †ev. 2000)
cÖkœ : 3| †`LvI †h, AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘ Ki| †hLv‡b cÖZxK¸‡jv cÖPwjZ
wbi‡c¶ n‡jI ¯’vb wbi‡c¶ bq| A_© enb K‡i| (h.†ev. 2005)
(iv.†ev. ewi.†ev. P.†ev. 2006; cÖkœ : 2| AwfKl© †K›`ª Kv‡K e‡j?
P.†ev. 2004; Kz. †ev. 2000; K‡qKwU mylg R¨vwgwZK AvKvi
Xv.†ev. 2002; h.†ev. 2003; 2006) wewkó e¯‘i AwfKl© †K‡›`ªi Ae¯’vb
A_ev, †`LvI †h, †Kvb e¯‘i Dci wµqvkxj †`LvI|
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb e¯‘i f‡ii Dci A_ev, GKwU mylg wÎf チ RvK…wZ cv‡Zi
wbf©i K‡i bv| (wm.†ev. 2002) AwfKl© †K›`ª †Kv_vq Aew¯’Z|
cÖkœ : 4| f‚-c„‡ôi wewfbœ ¯’v‡b
AwfKl©R Z¡iY wewfbœ nIqvi wPÎmn wjL| (ewi.†ev. 2003)
KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| (wm. †ev. 2001) MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n
cÖkœ : 5| coš マ e¯‘i D`v : 1| 10 kg Ges 20 kg f‡ii `ywU e¯‘‡K 2
m チ θ‡jv eY©bv I e¨vL¨v Ki| m ` チ ‡ i ivLv nj| hw` gnvKlx©q
(Xv.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. 2003) aª“e‡Ki gvb 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2
cÖkœ : 6| †`LvI †h Dc‡ii w`‡K wbw¶ß nq, Z‡e e¯‘ `ywUi g‡a¨ e‡ji gvb
†Kvb e¯‘i f‚-c„ô †_‡K m‡e©v”P †ei Ki| (e.†ev. 2003)
D”PZvq DV‡Z †h mgq jv‡M, Abyiƒc cÖkœ : 20 kg Ges 30kg Gi `ywU
m‡e©v”P D”PZv †_‡K f‚-c„‡ô e¯‘‡K ` チ ‡ i ivLv nj| hw` gnvKl©xq
co‡Z †mB GKB mgq jv‡M| aª“e‡Ki gvb 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2
cÖkœ : 7| mij †`vj‡Ki m チ θ‡jv eY©bv I nq Z‡e e¯‘ `ywUi g‡a¨ e‡ji gvb
e¨vL¨v Ki| †ei Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2004)
(Xv.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev. 2000 ; 2002 D`v : 2| 39.2 kg Ges 15 kg f‡ii `ywU
e. †ev. 2001 ; h. †ev. 2001;2005; †Mvj‡Ki †K‡›`ªi ` チ iZ¡ hLb 20 cm
ZLb G¸‡jv ci¯•i‡K
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 76

9.81 × 10−7 N e‡j AvKl©Y K‡i| Ges GwU 8 s G f‚c„‡ô †cuŠQvj|


gnvKlx©q aª“e‡Ki gvb †ei Ki| cv_iwU Qvovi mgq †ejy‡bi †eM KZ
(iv.†ev. 2003) wQj? g = 9.8 ms−2. (Kz. †ev. 2001)
D`v : 3| c„w_exi fi 5.975 × 1024 kg Ges mgm¨v : 7| 5 kg f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K AwfK‡l©i
e¨vmva© 6371 km a‡i f‚-c„‡ô cÖfv‡e gy³fv‡e co‡Z †`qv nj| Gi
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb †ei Ki| G = Dci wµqvkxj e‡ji gvb KZ? 4 s c‡i
6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 | Gi †eM KZ n‡e? g = 9.8 ms−2.
D`v : 4| 60m DuPz `vjv‡bi Qv` †_‡K †Kvb (iv.†ev. 2006; Kz. †ev. 2000;
e¯‘‡K †Q‡o w`‡j GwU KZ †e‡M f‚- 2005; e. †ev. 2001)
c„ô‡K AvNvZ Ki‡e? g = 9.8ms−2. mgm¨v : 8| 2.44 m j¤^v GKwU myZvi
D`v : 5| 29.4ms−1 †e‡M Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K
wbw¶ß GKwU e¯‘ m‡e©v”P mvnv‡h¨ 2 cm e¨vm wewkó
D”PZvq †cuŠQv‡e? GB D”PZvq GKwU avZe †MvjK †eu‡a ˆZwi
DV‡Z e¯‘wUi KZ mgq jvM‡e? g = mij †`vjK‡K `yj‡Z w`‡j Gi
9.8 ms−2 | †`vjbKvj KZ n‡e? g = 9.8 ms−2.
D`v : 6| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ 2.45 m| mgm¨v : 9| GKwU mij †`vjK cÖwZ
†Kvb ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY 9.8ms−2 wgwb‡U 30 wU †`vjb †`q|
n‡j H ¯’v‡b †`vjKwUi †`vjbKvj †`vjKwUi Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
wbY©q Ki| (m. †ev. Õ98) wbY©q Ki|
D`v : 7| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki e‡ei e¨vm 0.58 g = 9.8 ms−2. (h.†ev. 2005; iv. †ev.
cm Ges myZvi ˆ`N©¨ 99 cm| †Kvb 2000)
¯’v‡b †`vjKwUi GKwU c チ Y© mgm¨v : 10| 1 wgUvi Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
†`vj‡bi Rb¨ 2 s mgq jv‡M| H ¯’v‡b wewkó GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki 50 wU
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb wbY©q Ki| †`vj‡bi Rb¨ 100. 3s mgq jv‡M|
(P.†ev.2004; Xv.†ev. 2006) cix¶vi ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb
Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨v wbY©q Ki|
mgm¨v : 1| 40 kg Ges 50 kg f‡ii `yRb QvÎ
5m ` チ ‡ i `uvwo‡q _vK‡j Zv‡`i (wm.†ev. 2006; P. †ev. 2006;
g‡a¨ KZ gnvKl© ej wµqv Ki‡e? 2000; Kz.†ev. 2003; iv.†ev. 2005)
G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 AwZwi³ MvwYwZK mgm¨v
. (h.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev. 2001) mgm¨v : 1| 30 ms−1 †e‡M Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K
mgm¨v : 2| 100g Ges 500g f‡ii `ywU wbw¶ß GKwU e¯‘ m‡e©v”P KZ
†MvjK‡K 10 cm ` チ‡ i ¯’vcb Ki‡j G‡`i D”PZvq †cŠuQv‡e? GLv‡b g =
g‡a¨ AvKl©Y ej nq 3.3365 × 10−10 N| 9.8ms−2| (iv. †ev. 2004)
gnvKlx©q aª“e‡Ki gvb †ei Ki| mgm¨v : 2| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨
mgm¨v : 3| c„w_exi e¨vmva© 6371 km Ges fi 2.45 m| †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwZKl©R
5.975 × 1024kg| c„w_exi m‡e©v”P Z¡iY 9.8ms−2 n‡j H ¯’v‡b †`vjKwUi
ceZ©k„½ Gfv‡i‡Öi D”PZv †`vjbKvj wbY©q Ki| (mKj
8.848 km n‡j Gfv‡i‡Öi P‚ovq †evW©- Õ98)
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb KZ? G = 6.673 × mgm¨v : 3| GKwU e¯‘‡K 98 ms−1 †e‡M
10−11 Nm2kg−2. (Xv.†ev. 2001) Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K wb‡¶c Kiv n‡jv|
KZ mgq c‡i Gi †eM 0 n‡e|
mgm¨v : 4| c„w_ex‡K 6.37 × 106m (Xv.†ev. 2003)
e¨vmv‡a©i mgmË¡ †MvjK g‡b
mgm¨v : 4| †Kvb ¯’v‡b cix¶v K‡i Gi gvb
K‡i Ges Gi DcwiZ‡j AwfKl©R
Z¡i‡Yi gvb 9.81 ms−2 a‡i c„w_exi fi 0.24ms−2 cvIqv †Mj| †mB ¯’v‡b g Gi
†ei Ki| G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2. gvb KZ? (h.†ev. 2003)
(wm.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. Õ99) mgm¨v : 5| c„w_exi fi 5.975 × 1024 kg Ges
mgm¨v : 5| †`LvI †h †Kvb ev¯‘‡K g Gi c„w_ex‡K 6.37 × 106 m
A‡a©‡Ki mgvb Avw`‡e‡M Lvov e¨vmv‡a©i mgmZ¡ †MvjK g‡b
Dc‡ii w`‡K Qy‡o w`‡j GwU 1s c‡i K‡i Gi DcwiZ‡j AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi
fzc„‡ô cwZZ n‡e| (wm.†ev. gvb 9.823 ms−2 a‡i G Gi gvb
2005) wbY©q Ki| [P.†ev. 2003]
mgm¨v : 6| DaŸ©Mvgx GKwU †ejyb †_‡K
GK UzKiv cv_i †Q‡o †`Iqv nj| cv_i
†djvi mgq †ejybwU 200m Dc‡i wQj
77 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgm¨v : 6| 20kg f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K Dci ˆ`N©¨ 99cm| †`vjKwU 21wU
n‡Z †Q‡o †`Iqv nj, 15 sec ci c チ Y© †`vj‡bi Rb¨ 42 †m‡KÊ
e¯‘wU KZ `チ iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡e? mgq e¨q K‡i| H ¯’v‡b g Gi gvb
(wm.†ev. 2003) 9.8ms−2 n‡j e‡ii e¨vm KZ?
mgm¨v : 7| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki m チ Zvi

Abykxjbxi msw¶ß-
DËi cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| gnvKl© I AwfKl© ej‡Z wK eyS? (Kz. †ev. h. †ev. Õ99; Kz. †ev.
2001 Xv.†ev. 2000)
DËi : gnvKl© :
GB gnvwe‡k¦i †h †Kvb `ywU e¯‘KYv ci¯•i‡K AvKl©Y K‡i| GB AvKl©Y e‡ji
gvb ïay e¯‘؇qi fi Ges G‡`i ga¨Kvi `チ i‡Z¡i Dci wbf©i K‡i− G‡`i AvK…wZ,
cÖK…wZ wKsev ga¨eZx© gva¨‡gi cÖK…wZi Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| GB
gnvwe‡k¦i †h †Kvb `ywU e¯‘i ga¨Kvi GB AvKl©Y ej‡K gnvKl© e‡j|
D`vniY- m チ h© I P‡›`ªi g‡a¨ †h AvKl©Y Zv gnvKl©|
AwfKl© : GB we‡k¦i †h †Kvb `ywU e¯‘i g‡a¨ †h AvKl©Y Zv‡K gnvKl©
e‡j| `ywU e¯‘i GKwU hw` c„w_ex nq Z‡e †h AvKl©Y nq Zv‡K AwfKl© ev
gva¨vKl©Y ejv nq A_©vr †Kvb e¯‘i Dci c„w_exi AvKl©Y‡K AwfKl© e‡j|
D`vniY- c„w_ex I GKwU eB-Gi g‡a¨ cvi¯•wiK AvKl©Y ejB AwfKl©|
cÖkœ : 2| wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ ÎwU wee„Z Ki| (m. †ev. Õ98 ; iv. †ev.
Xv. †ev. 2000; wm. †ev. 2001; 2005; h.†ev. 2005)
A_ev, wbDU‡bi gnvKl© myÎwU e¨vL¨v Ki| (ewi †ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2004;
Õ99; h.†ev. 2005; Õ99; P.†ev. 2003)
DËi : wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î :
Avgiv Rvwb GB gnvwe‡k¦i mKj e¯‘ G‡K Aci‡K AvKl©Y K‡i, GB AvKl©Y‡K
gnvKl© e‡j| GB AvKl©Y m¤•‡K© wbDUb GKwU m チ Î †ei K‡ib| GB
m チ ÎwU‡K wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î e‡j| m チ ÎwU wbæiƒc :
Ògnvwe‡k¦i cÖwZwU e¯‘KYv G‡K Aci‡K wb‡Ri w`‡K AvKl©Y K‡i, GB
AvKl©Y e‡ji gvb e¯‘KYv؇qi f‡ii ¸Yd‡ji mgvbycvwZK Ges Dnv‡`i
ga¨eZx© `チ i‡Z¡i e‡M©i e¨¯マ vbycvwZK| GB ej e¯‘KYv؇qi ms‡hvRK †iLv
eivei KvR K‡i|Ó
e¨vL¨v : g‡b Kwi, m1 I m2 fi wewkó
`ywU e¯‘ ci¯•i n‡Z d `チ i‡Z¡ Aew¯’Z|
Dnv‡`i ga¨Kvi AvKl©Y ej F n‡j
m チ Îvbymv‡i,
F ∝ m1m2 Ges F ∝
GK‡Î F ∝ ev, F = G
GLv‡b G, GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| G‡K gnvKl© aª“eK e‡j|
cÖkœ : 3| gnvKl© aª“eK ej‡Z wK eyS? Gi gvÎv I GKK D‡jL Ki|
(h.†ev. 2003)
A_ev, gnvKl© aª“eK ej‡Z wK eyS? (iv.†ev. 2006; wm.†ev. Kz.†ev. 2002;
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 78

Xv.†ev. 2001)
A_ev, gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki gvÎv I GKK †jL? (Xv.†ev. 2001; P.†ev. 2000)
DËi : gnvKl© aª“eK :
ci¯•i n‡Z GKK fi wewkó `yBwU e¯‘KYvi g‡a¨ †h AvKl©Y ej wµqv K‡i
Dnv‡K gnvKlx©q aª“eK e‡j| G‡K 'G' Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
e¨vL¨v : g‡b Kwi m1 I m2 f‡ii `yBwU e¯‘ d ` チ i‡Z¡ Ae¯’vb Ki‡j Ges Dnv‡`i
g‡a¨ AKl©Y ej F n‡j wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Îvbymv‡i−
F ∝ m1m2
Ges F∝
GK‡Î F ∝
ev, F = G ..................................... (1)
GLv‡b G → gnvKlx©q aª“eK| GB mgxKi‡Y m1 = 1, m2 = 1 Ges d = 1 n‡j F = G n‡e|
gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki gvb C.G.S c×wZ‡Z 6.67 × 10−8
F. P. S c×wZ‡Z 10.7 × 10−9
Ges M. K. S c×wZ‡Z 6.67 × 10−11
gvÎv : mgxKiY (1) bs n‡Z
F = G
ev, G = ............................... (2)
=
= = M−1 L3 T−2
GKK : mgxKiY (2) bs n‡Z−
G =
c×wZ‡Z F Gi GKK dyne, d Gi
C. G. S GKK cm Ges f‡ii GKK gm.
myZivs C. G. S c×wZ‡Z G Gi GKK dyne − cm2/gm2
F. P. S c×wZ‡Z G Gi GKK Poundal − ft2 /1b2
Ges M. K. S c×wZ‡Z G Gi GKK Newtons − m2/kg2 |
cÖkœ : 4| gnvKl© aª“eK G Gi gvb 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 Gi A_© wK?
(h.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2004; wm.†ev. 2003; Kz.†ev. 2003; ewi.†ev. 2002; Xv. †ev. Õ99)
DËi : gnvKl© aªeK G Gi gvb 6.673 × 10−11Nm2kg−2 Gi A_© n‡”Q 1 kg f‡ii `ywU
e¯‘ 1m `チ‡i ¯’vcb Ki‡j Giv ci¯•i‡K 6.673 × 10−11 N e‡j AvKl©Y Ki‡e|
cÖkœ : 5| AwfKl©R Z¡iY ej‡Z wK eyS? (ewi.†ev. 2006; wm.†ev.
2005;Kz. †ev. iv. †ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. 2000; 2001; h.†ev. 2003; P.†ev. 2005)
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY :
msÁv : AwfKl© e‡ji wµqvi d‡j f‚-c„‡ô gy³fv‡e coš マ e¯‘i †e‡Mi cwieZ©‡bi
nvi‡KB AwfKl©R Z¡iY e‡j| G‡K 'g' Øviv m チ wPZ Kiv nq|
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv mgxKiY :
Avgiv Rvwb,
Z¡iY =
∴ AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv mgxKiY g = = LT−2
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi GKK :
†h‡nZz Z¡iY = , ZvB−
79 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

C. G. S c×wZ‡Z 'g' Gi GKK †m.wg / †m2


F. P. S c×wZ‡Z 'g' Gi GKK dzU / †m2
M. K. S c×wZ‡Z 'g' Gi GKK wgUvi / †m2 |
cÖkœ : 6| AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb wK‡mi Dci wbf©i K‡i?
(Xv.†ev. 2000)
A_ev, †`LvI †h, AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘ wbi‡c¶ n‡jI ¯’vb wbi‡c¶ bq|
(ewi.†ev. 2006; h.†ev. 2003; Xv.†ev. 2002; Kz.†ev. 2005; 2000)
DËi : wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î †_‡K Avgiv cvB,
F = G
ev, mg = G GLv‡b, G = gnvKl© aª“eK
∴ g = M = c„w_exi fi
d = e¯‘؇qi g‡a¨ `チ iZ¡
myZivs AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘i f‡ii Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| g Gi gvb wbf©i K‡i
c„w_exi †K›`ª †_‡K e¯‘i `チ iZ¡ d Gi Dci|
cÖkœ : 7| †Kvb ¯’v‡bi gvb‡K g Gi Av`k© gvb wn‡m‡e aiv nq| GB
gvb KZ? †gi“, welyexq I µvwš マ A‡j Gi gvb D‡jL Ki|
DËi : g Gi Av`k© gvb : f‚-c„‡ô wewfbœ ¯’v‡b g Gi gvb wewfbœ e‡j 450
A¶vs‡k mgy`ª mgZ‡j g Gi gvb‡K Av`k© gvb aiv nq| g Gi GB Av`k© gvb
n‡”Q− 9.80665 ms−2| wn‡m‡e myweavi Rb¨ Av`k©gvb aiv nq 9.8ms−2
ev 9.81 ms−2 |
g Gi gvb wewfbœ ¯’v‡b wewfbœ
†gi“ A‡j− 9.83217 ms−2 (9.83 ms−2)
welyexq A‡j− 9.78039 ms−2 (9.78 ms−2)
µvš マ xq A‡j− 9.78919 ms−2 (9.79 ms−2)
cÖkœ : 8| f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b g Gi gvb 9.8 ms−2 ej‡Z wK eyS? (Xv.†ev.
2006)
A_ev, †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY g Gi gvb 9.8 ms−2 Gi A_© wK? (Kz.†ev.
2004)
DËi : f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b g Gi gvb 9.8 ms−2 ej‡Z, f‚-c„‡ô gy³fv‡e coš マ † Kvb
e¯‘i †eM cÖwZ †m‡K‡Ê 9.8 ms−2 e…w× cvq|
cÖkœ : 9| coš マ e¯‘i m チ θ‡jv wee„Z Ki|
(ewi.†ev. 2001; m.†ev. Õ98; iv.†ev. 2003)
DËi : coš マ e¯‘i m チ Îvewj :
†Kvb e¯‘‡K AwfKl© e‡ji cÖfv‡e gy³fv‡e co‡Z w`‡j e¯‘i MwZ wZbwU m チ Î
†g‡b P‡j| 1589 Lªxóv‡ã weÁvbx M¨vwjwjI m チ Î wZbwU Avwe®‹vi K‡ib|
m チ Îvewj wb‡æ cÖ`Ë nj :
cÖ_g m チ Î : w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K Ges GKB D”PZv †_‡K webv evavq
coš マ mKj e¯‘ mgvb mg‡q mgvb c_ AwZµg K‡i|
wØZxq m チ Î : w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq coš マ e¯‘i wbw`©ó
mg‡q (t) cÖvß †eM (v) H mg‡qi mgvbycvwZK| A_©vr v ∝ t.
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 80

Z…Zxq m チ Î : w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq coš マ e¯‘ wbw`©ó


mg‡q †h W ` チ iZ¡ (h) AwZµg K‡i Zv H mg‡qi (t) e‡M©i
mgvbycvwZK| A_©vr h ∝ t2.
cÖkœ : 10| mij †`vjK Kv‡K e‡j? (h.†ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2003;
Kz.†ev. 2003)
DËi : mij †`vjK : †Kvb `„p Aej¤^b n‡Z GKwU ¶z`ª fvix e¯‘‡K GKwU
IRbnxb, AcÖmviYxq Ges bgbxq myZvi mvnv‡h¨ Szwj‡q w`‡j hw` e¯‘wU
Nl©Y Gwo‡q Gcvk Icvk `yj‡Z cv‡i Z‡e myZvmn H e¯‘wU‡K mij‡`vjK e‡j|
cÖkœ : 11| mij‡`vj‡Ki †¶‡Î msÁv `vI : ee, Szjbwe›`y, Kvh©Kix
ˆ`N©¨, we¯マ vi, †`vjbKvj I K¤•vsK|
DËi : ee : †h fvix e¯‘wU‡K myZvi mvnv‡h¨ Szwj‡q mij †`vjK ˆZwi Kiv
nq Zv‡K ee ev wcÊ e‡j|
Szjbwe›`y : †h we›`y †_‡K myZvi mvnv‡h¨ ee‡K Szjv‡bv nq Zv‡K
Szjbwe›`y e‡j|
Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ : Szjbwe›`y †_‡K e‡ei fvi‡K›`ª ch©š マ ` チ iZ¡‡K
mij‡`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ ev †`vjK ˆ`N©¨ e‡j|
we¯マ vi : GKwU mij‡`vj‡Ki e‡ei mvg¨ve¯’vb †_‡K †h †Kvb GKw`‡Ki
m‡e©v”P `チ iZ¡‡K we¯マ vi e‡j|
†`vjbKvj : GKwU c チ b©‡`vj‡bi Rb¨ mij‡`vj‡Ki †h mgq jv‡M Zv‡K †`vjbKvj
e‡j| G‡K T Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| †Kvb mij‡`vj‡Ki N wU
c チ Y©‡`vj‡bi Rb¨ t mgq jvM‡j Zvi †`vjbKvj T =
K¤•vsK : GK †m‡K‡Û GKwU mij‡`vjK hZ¸‡jv c チ Y©‡`vjb m¤•bœ K‡i
Zv‡K K¤•vsK e‡j| †Kvb mij‡`vjK t mg‡q N wU c チ Y©‡`vjb
w`‡j Zvi K¤•vsK f = =
cÖkœ : 12| mij †`vj‡Ki m チ θ‡jv wee„Z Ki| (P.†ev. iv.†ev. 2002; Kz.†ev.
2000; h.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2004; 2000)
DËi : mij‡`vj‡Ki m チ Îvewj : †Kvb GKwU mij‡`vjK `ywjevi mgq Gi
†`vjbKvj PviwU m チ Î †g‡b P‡j, G‡K mij †`vj‡Ki m チ Î e‡j| weL¨vZ weÁvbx
M¨vwjwjI GB m チ θ‡jv Avwe®‹vi K‡ib|
m チ θ‡jv wb‡æ cÖ`Ë nj :
1. mgKvj m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯マ vi Aí n‡j Ges †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b GKwU mij‡`vj‡Ki
cÖwZwU †`vj‡bi Rb¨ mgvb mgq jv‡M| †`vjbKvj †KŠwYK we¯ マ v‡ii
Dci wbf©i K‡i bv|
2. ˆ`‡N©¨i m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b
mij‡`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj (T) Gi Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ (L) Gi eM©g チ ‡ ji
mgvbycv‡Z cwiewZ©Z nq|
A_©vr, T ∝ hLb g aª“e|
3. Z¡i‡Yi m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j Ges mij‡`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix
ˆ`N©¨ (L) AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j Gi †`vjbKvj (T) AwfKl©R Z¡iY (g) Gi
eM©g チ‡ji e¨¯マ vbycv‡Z cwiewZ©Z nq|
81 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

A_©vr, T ∝
hLb, L aª“eK|
4. f‡ii m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j Ges Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b mij‡`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj e‡ei fi,
AvqZb, Dcv`vb BZ¨vw`i Dci wbf©i K‡i bv|
Y
cÖkœ : 13| GKwU QK KvM‡Ri X A‡¶i P
N
w`‡K mij‡`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ L Gi
wewfbœ gvb Ges Y A‡¶i w`‡K T2
Avbylw½K †`vjbKv‡ji eM© T Gi gvb
2

¯’vcb K‡i †jLwPÎ AsKb Ki‡j †jLwPÎwU wK O M X


L
iƒc n‡e? wPÎ : L ebvg T Gi †jLwPÎ
2

DËi : †jLwPÎwU g チ jwe›`yMvgx GKwU


mij‡iLv n‡e|

cÖkœ : 14| e¯‘i fi I IRb ej‡Z wK eyS? (wm. †ev. 2005; 2001; iv.†ev. 2002;
Xv. †ev. 2004)
A_ev, e¯‘i fi ej‡Z wK eyS? (iv.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2005)
DËi : fi :
msÁv : †Kvb e¯‘i wfZi c`v‡_©i †gvU cwigvY‡K e¯‘i fi ejv nq| fi‡K
mvaviYZ m Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
ˆewkó¨ : fi n‡”Q GKwU †fŠZ ivwk hv f‚-c„‡ô ev f‚-c„‡ôi Dc‡i e¯‘i
Ae¯’v‡bi cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ cwiewZ©Z nq bv| fi me©Î AcwiewZ©Z _v‡K
A_©vr fi GKwU aª“e ivwk| mvaviY wbw³i mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘i fi cwigvc Kiv nq|
ivwk I gvÎv : fi GKwU †¯‹jvi ivwk Ges gvÎv [ M ]
GKK : f‡ii Avš マ R©vwZK GKK wK‡jvMÖvg (kg).
IRb :
msÁv : †Kvb e¯‘‡K c„w_ex †h ej Øviv Zvi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K AvKl©Y K‡i Zv‡K
e¯‘i IRb e‡j| G‡K w Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
e¨vL¨v : †Kvb e¯‘i fi m Ges c„w_exi †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY g n‡j H
¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb w n‡e|
w = mg
ivwk I gvÎv : †h‡nZz IRb GKwU ej, myZivs GwU GKwU †fKUi ivwk| Gi w`K
c„w_exi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K| Gi gvÎv [M LT−2 ]
GKK : IR‡bi GKK nj e‡ji GKK A_©vr, wbDUb (N)|
cÖkœ : 15| f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b †Kvb& e¯‘i IRb me‡P‡q †ewk Ges
†Kvb& ¯’v‡b me‡P‡q Kg n‡e †Kb?
DËi : f‚-c„‡ôi †gi“ A‡j e¯‘i IRb me‡P‡q †ewk nq Ges hZB welyexq A‡ji
w`‡K hvIqv hvq GKB e¯‘i IRb µgvMZ Kg‡Z _v‡K Ges welyexq A‡j Zv
me‡P‡q Kg nq| Gi KviY wb‡P e¨vL¨v Kiv nj|
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 82

1. c„w_exi AvK…wZi Rb¨ :


Avgiv Rvwb, e¯‘i IRb w = mg
ev, w = m GLv‡b, m =
(†h‡nZz c„w_ex c„‡ô g = ) e¯‘i fi
G = gnvKl© aª“eK
R = c„w_exi
e¨vmva©
A_©vr e¯‘i IRb c„w_exi e¨vmva© R Gi Dci wbf©ikxj| c„w_ex m¤• チ Y©
†Mvj bq, †gi“ A‡j GKUz P¨vÞv| ZvB †gi“ A‡j R Gi gvb me‡P‡q Kg nIqvq
e¯‘i IRb me‡P‡q †ewk| Avevi welyexq A‡j R Gi gvb m‡e©v”P nIqvq e¯‘i
IRb me‡P‡q Kg nq|
2. c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi Rb¨ :
MvwYwZK wnmve g‡Z, c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi Rb¨ g Gi gvb welyexq
AÂj †_‡K †gi“ A‡ji w`‡K µgk e„w× cvq| Gi d‡j e¯‘i IRbI e„w× cvq|
cÖkœ : 16| †Kvb e¯‘‡K cvnv‡oi P‚ovq ev Lwbi †fZi wb‡q †M‡j Gi
IR‡bi wKiƒc ZviZg¨ n‡e?
DËi : IR‡bi ZviZg¨ :
cvnv‡oi P‚ovq e¯‘i IRb : Avgiv Rvwb, f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb
W = mg = m. ............................ (1)
GLv‡b, R = c„w_exi e¨vmva©
Avevi, f‚-c„ô †_‡K h D”PZvq †Kvb cvnv‡o e¯‘i IRb
W = mg = m ...................... (2)
mgxKiY (1) bs I (2) bs n‡Z †`Lv hvq †h, f‚-c„‡ôi Zzjbvq cvnv‡oi P‚ovq e¯‘i
IRb Kg n‡e| cvnvo hZ DuPz n‡e h Gi gvb e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ e¯‘i IRbI Kg‡Z
_vK‡e|
Lwbi †fZ‡i e¯‘i IRb :
Avgiv Rvwb, c„w_exi Af¨š マ‡i f‚-c„ô †_‡K h MfxiZvq e¯‘i IRb|
W = mg GLv‡b, M= AvqZb × NbZ¡
= m = π (R − h)3 × ρ
ev, W =
ρ = NbZ¡ (c„w_exi)
ev, W = Gmπ (R − h) ρ
GB mgxKiY †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h, h MfxiZvq †Kvb Lwbi †fZi e¯‘i IRb f‚-c„‡ôi
Zzjbvq Kg n‡e Ges Lwbi MfxiZv (h) hZ †ewk n‡e IRb ZZ Kg n‡e|
cÖkœ : 17| †Kvb e¯‘i fi I IR‡bi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Ki| (wm.†ev.
2006; P.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2003)
DËi : fi I IR‡bi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ :
fi IRb
1. e¯‘i fi nj e¯‘‡Z c`v‡_©i †gvU 1. e¯‘i IRb nj e¯‘i Dci c„w_exi
cwigvY| AvKl©Y ej|
83 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

2. fi GwU †¯‹jvi ivwk Ges GwU 2. IRb GKwU †fKUi ivwk Ges GwU
GKwU †gŠwjK ivwk| GKwU jä ivwk|
3. f‡ii gvÎv [ M ] 3. IR‡bi gvÎv [ MLT−2 ]
4. f‡ii GKK kg 4. IR‡bi GKK N
5. e¯‘i f‡ii †Kvb cwieZ©b nq bv| 5. ¯’vb‡f‡` e¯‘i IRb cwiewZ©Z nq|
6. KZ¸‡jv wbw`©ó f‡ii mv‡_ Zzjbv 6. w¯•ªs wbw³i mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘i IRb
K‡i mvaviY wbw³i mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘i cwigvc
fi cwigvc Kiv nq| Kiv nq|
cÖkœ : 18| IRbnxbZv wK? e¯‘ †Kv_vq IRbnxb nq? (h.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev.
P.†ev. 2005; Xv. †ev. 2005;2002,2000, Kz.†ev. 2003)
DËi : IRbnxbZv :
†Kvb e¯‘i Dci cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ n‡j e¯‘wUi †Kvb IRb Abyf‚Z nq bv|
A_©vr cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ nIqvi Rb¨ e¯‘i IRb k チ b¨ Abyf‚Z nIqv‡K
IRbnxbZv e‡j|
e¨vL¨v : Avgiv hLb GKwU w¯’i cvUvZ‡bi Dci `uvovB ZLb Avgv‡`i IRb
wbævwfgyLx wµqv K‡i Ges Zv cvUvZ‡bi Dci cÖhy³ nq| wbDU‡bi Z…Zxq
m チ Î Abymv‡i cvUvZbI Avgv‡`i Dci mgvb I wecixZgyLx cÖwZwµqv ej
cÖ‡qvM K‡i| DaŸ©gyLx GB cÖwZwµqvi Rb¨ Avgiv Avgv‡`i IRb Dcjwä
Kwi| ZvB †Kvb Kvi‡Y GB cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ n‡j Avgiv IRbnxbZv Abyfe
Kwi|
e¯‘i IRb wbf©i K‡i g Gi Dci| myZivs †hLv‡b g = o †mLv‡bB e¯‘i IRb k チ b¨
n‡e−
1. Amxg `チ i‡Z¡
2. c„w_exi †K‡›`ª
3. c„w_ex, Puv` ev †Kvb MÖn-DcMÖ‡ni K¶c‡_| †hLv‡b G‡K A‡b¨i
AvKl©Y ej mgvb|
4. †Kvb e¯‘ g Z¡i‡Y bvg‡Z _vK‡j e¯‘wU wb‡R‡K IRbnxb g‡b Ki‡e|
†hgb− wjd‡Ui `wo
wQ‡o †M‡j|
cªkœ : 19| wjd‡Ui g‡a¨ †Kvb e¨w³ KLb IRbnxbZv Abyfe Ki‡eb?
DËi : a mgZ¡i‡Y hLb †Kvb wjdU wb‡Pi w`‡K bvg‡Z _v‡K ZLb wjd&‡Ui
g‡a¨ †Kvb e¨w³i Dci wb‡Pi w`‡K †gvU ej = mg − R
ev, ma = mg − R
ev, R = mg − ma ............................ (1)
GLv‡b, R = cÖwZwµqv ej|
†Kvb `チ N©UbvekZ wjd‡Ui †PBb wQ‡o †M‡j wjdUwU g Z¡i‡Y wb‡P bvg‡Z
_v‡K A_©vr, a = g nq|
myZivs mgxKiY (1) †_‡K cvB †jvKwUi Dci cÖwZwµqv ej
R = mg − mg = O
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 84

A_©vr †jvKwUi Dci cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ nIqvi Kvi‡Y H e¨w³ IRbnxbZv


Abyfe Ki‡eb| AZGe, wjd‡Ui †PBb wQ‡o gy³fv‡e co‡Z _vK‡j wjd‡Ui g‡a¨ H
e¨w³ IRbnxbZv Abyfe Ki‡eb|
cÖkœ : 20| g‡b Ki Zzwg DuPz `vjv‡bi `kZjvq GKwU wjd‡U
`uvwo‡q AvQ| †Zvgvi nv‡Z aiv †Kvb w¯•ªs wbw³ †_‡K GKwU e¯‘
Szjvb Av‡Q| wbw³i KvUv e¯‘wUi IRb 10 N wb‡`©k Ki‡Q| GLb nVvr
hw` wjd‡Ui †Kej wQu‡o wjd&wU gy³fv‡e wb‡P co‡Z _v‡K Zvn‡j
w¯•ªs wbw³ e¯‘i IRb KZ wb‡`©k Ki‡e?
DËi : w¯•ªs wbw³i KuvUv k チ b¨`v‡M Ae¯’vb Ki‡e A_©vr e¯‘wUi IRb
k チ b¨ wb‡`©k Ki‡e|
cÖkœ : 21| GKRb gnvk チ b¨Pvix gnvk チ ‡ b¨ KLb wb‡R‡K IRbnxb
Abyfe K‡ib? (P. †ev. Õ99Õ h.†ev. 2004; 2001)
A_ev, †Kvb Ae¯’vq gnvk チ b¨hvb †_‡K †Kvb e¯‘‡K †Q‡o w`‡j c‡o bv|
(Kz.†ev. 2006; 2001)
DËi : gnvk チ b¨Pvixi IRbnxbZvi KviY :
gnvk チ b¨Pvixiv gnvk チ b¨ hv‡b K‡i c„w_ex‡K GwU wbw`©ó D”PZvq
e„ËvKvi K¶ c‡_ cÖ`w¶Y K‡i _v‡Kb| GB e„ËvKvi MwZi Rb¨ gnvk チ b¨ hv‡bi
c„w_exi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K H D”PZvq g Gi gv‡bi mgvb gv‡bi GKwU Z¡iY nq| GB
Ae¯’vq gnvk チ b¨ hv‡bi †`qv‡ji mv‡c‡¶ gnvk チ b¨Pvixi Z¡iY (g − g) = O nq
Ges gnvk チ b¨Pvix gnvk チ b¨ hv‡bi †`qvj ev †g‡S‡Z †Kvb ej cÖ‡qvM K‡ib
bv| d‡j †m Zuvi IR‡bi wecixZ †Kvb cÖwZwµqv ejI Abyfe K‡i bv| ZvB
wZwb IRbnxbZv Abyfe K‡ib| G Ae¯’vq gnvk チ b¨hvb †_‡K †Kvb e¯‘‡K
†Q‡o w`‡j wb‡Pi w`‡K c‡o bv|
cÖkœ : 22| AwfKl© †K›`ª Kv‡K e‡j? (Xv.†ev. P.†ev. iv.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2004;
Kz.†ev. 2006; 2004; 2001; wm.†ev. 2002; e.†ev. 2003)
DËi : AwfKl© †K›`ª :
GKwU e¯‘‡K †hfv‡eB ivLv †nvK bv †Kb e¯‘i wfZ‡i Aew¯’Z †h we›`yi g‡a¨
†gvU IRb ev AwfKl© ej wµqv K‡i †mB we›`y‡K e¯‘i AwfKl© †K›`ª e‡j|
e¨vL¨v : †h †Kvb e¯‘‡K AmsL¨ ¶z`ª ¶z`ª KYvi mgwó wn‡m‡e wPš マ v Ki‡j
Ges e¯‘wUi cÖ‡Z¨KwU KYvi gva¨vKl©Y e‡ji jwã ej G we›`y‡Z wµqv Ki‡j
D³ e¯‘i AwfKl© †K›`ª n‡e G |

Abykxjbxi
iPbvg チ jK
85 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ ÎwU eY©bv I e¨vL¨v Ki Ges G †_‡K
gnvKlx©q aª“eK G-Gi msÁv `vI|
DËi : wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î : (P.†ev. 2006; 2003; h.†ev. 2004; P. †ev. Õ99;
Xv.†ev. 2000)
Avgiv Rvwb GB gnvwe‡k¦ mKj e¯‘ G‡K Aci‡K AvKl©Y K‡i| GB AvKl©Y‡K
gnvKl© e‡j| GB AvKl©Y m¤•‡K© wbDUb GKwU m チ Î †ei K‡ib| GB
m チ ÎwU‡K wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î e‡j|
m チ ÎwU wbæiƒc :
Ògnvwe‡k¦i cÖwZwU e¯‘KYv G‡K Aci‡K wb‡Ri w`‡K AvKl©Y K‡i Ges GB
AvKl©Y e‡ji gvb e¯‘KYv؇qi f‡ii ¸Yd‡ji mgvbycvwZK Ges Dnv‡`i
ga¨eZx© `チ i‡Z¡i e‡M©i e¨¯マ vbycvwZK Ges GB ej e¯‘KYv؇qi ms‡hvRK
†iLv eivei KvR K‡i|Ó
e¨vL¨v : g‡b Kwi m1 I m2 fi wewkó `yBwU e¯‘ ci¯•i n‡Z d `チ i‡Z¡ Aew¯’Z|
Dnv‡`i ga¨Kvi AvKl©Y ej F n‡j m チ Îvbymv‡i,
F ∝ m1m2
Ges F ∝
GK‡Î- F ∝
ev, F = G .............................. (1)
GLv‡b, G GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| GB aª“eK‡K gnvKl© aª“eK e‡j|
gnvKl©xq aª“eK G-Gi msÁv :
wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv Rvwb, m1 I m2 f‡ii `ywU e¯‘ d ` チ i‡Z¡
Ae¯’vb Ki‡j Ges Dnv‡`i g‡a¨ AvKl©Y ej F n‡j,
F ∝ m1m2
Ges F ∝
∴ F ∝
ev, F = G ............................. (2)
GLv‡b G → gnvKlx©q aª“eK| GB mgxKi‡Y m1 = 1, m2 = 1 Ges d = 1 n‡j F = G
n‡e|
A_©vr ci¯•i n‡Z GKB fi wewkó `yBwU e¯‘KYvi g‡a¨ †h AvKl©Y ej wµqv
K‡i DnvB gnvKlx©q aª“eK|
GB aª“e‡Ki gvb C. G. S c×wZ‡Z− 6.67 × 10−8
F. P. S c×wZ‡Z− 10.7 × 10 −9

Ges M. K. S c×wZ‡Z− 6.67 × 10−11


gnvKl©xq aª“e‡Ki GKK :
mgxKiY (2) bs n‡Z G =
C. G. S c×wZ‡Z F-Gi GKK dyne, d-Gi GKK cm Ges f‡ii GKK gm.
myZivs C. G. S c×wZ‡Z− G-Gi GKK dyne − cm2 /gm2
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 86

F. P. Sc×wZ‡Z− G-Gi GKK Poundal − ft2 / 1b2


Ges M. K. Sc×wZ‡Z− G-Gi GKK Newtons − m2 / kg2
gvÎv mgxKiY :
mgxKiY (2) bs n‡Z G =
=
=
= M−1 L3 T−2
cÖkœ : 2| AwfKl©R Z¡iY Kv‡K e‡j? AwfKl©R Z¡iY‡K wKfv‡e
c„w_exi fi, e¨vmva© Ges gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ cÖKvk Kiv
hvq †`LvI| (wm.†ev. 2004; Xv. †ev. 2000)
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY :
msÁv : AwfKl© e‡ji wµqvi d‡j f‚-c„‡ô gy³fv‡e coš マ e¯‘i †e‡Mi cwieZ©‡bi
nvi‡KB AwfKl©R Z¡iY e‡j| G‡K ÔgÕ Øviv m チ wPZ Kiv nq|
g‡b Kwi, m f‡ii GKwU e¯‘ c„w_exi c„ô n‡Z d `チ i‡Z¡ Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| c„w_exi fi
M n‡j wbDU‡bi AwfKl© m チ Î n‡Z,
F = G ........................... (1)
GLv‡b, G → ga¨vKl©YRwbZ wbZ¨ msL¨v|
wKš‘ wbDU‡bi wØZxq m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv Rvwb †h,
F = mg ................................... (2)
mgxKiY (1) bs I (2) bs n‡Z cvB,
mg = G
∴ g = ............................. (3)
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi GKK :
†h‡nZz, Z¡iY = ZvB−
C. G. S c×wZ‡Z− 'g' Gi GKK †m.wg / †m2
F. P. S c×wZ‡Z− 'g' Gi GKK dzU / †m2
M. K. S c×wZ‡Z− 'g' Gi GKK wgUvi / †m2|
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv mgxKiY :
Avgiv Rvwb, Z¡iY =
∴ AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv mgxKiY,
g = = L T−2
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, c„w_exi fi, e¨vmva© Ges gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki g‡a¨
m¤•K© :
g‡b Kwi, m f‡ii GKwU e¯‘ f‚-c„‡ôi DcwiZ‡j Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| hw` c„w_exi
e¨vmva© I fi h_vµ‡g R Ges M nq Z‡e c„w_ex I e¯‘wUi ga¨eZx© AvKl©Y ej,
F = G ............................. (4)
wbDU‡bi MwZi wØZxq m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv cvB,
ej = fi × Z¡iY
∴ AwfKlx©q ej = e¯‘i fi × AwfKlx©q
Z¡iY
∴ F = mg ....................................... (5)
87 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgxKiY (4) bs Ges (5) bs n‡Z Avgiv cvB, m


mg = G
R
M

O

ev, g = .................................... (6)


GwUB f‚-c„‡ô AwfKlx©q Z¡i‡Yi mgxKiY|
cÖkœ : 3| †`LvI †h, AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘ wbi‡c¶ n‡jI ¯’vb wbi‡c¶ bq|
(iv.†ev. ewi.†ev. P.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2004; Kz. †ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. 2002; h.†ev. 2003;
2006)
A_ev, †`LvI †h, †Kvb e¯‘i Dci wµqvkxj AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb e¯‘i f‡ii
Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| (wm.†ev. 2002)
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY :
msÁv : AwfKl© e‡ji wµqvi d‡j f‚-c„‡ô gy³fv‡e coš マ e¯‘i †e‡Mi cwieZ©‡bi
nvi‡KB AwfKl©R Z¡iY e‡j| G‡K 'g' Øviv m チ wPZ Kiv nq|
AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘ wbi‡c¶ n‡jI ¯’vb wbi‡c¶ bq :
g‡b Kwi, m f‡ii GKwU e¯‘ f‚-c„‡ôi DcwiZ‡j Aew¯’Z| hw` c„w_exi e¨vmva©
I fi h_vµ‡g R Ges M nq, Z‡e c„w_ex I e¯‘wUi ga¨eZx© AvKl©Y ej,
F = G .............................. (1)
m
wbDU‡bi MwZi wØZxq m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv
cvB,
ej = fi × Z¡iY R
M
AwfKlx©q ej = e¯‘i fi × •
AwfKlx©q Z¡iY O

∴F = mg ................................... (2)
mgxKiY (1) bs Ges (2) bs n‡Z Avgiv cvB,
mg = G
ev, g = ................................. (3)
(3) bs mgxKi‡Yi Wvbcv‡k e¯‘i fi m Abycw¯’Z; myZivs AwfKl©R Z¡iY e¯‘i
f‡ii Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| †h‡nZz G Ges c„w_exi fi M aª“eK, ZvB g-Gi gvb
c„w_exi †K›`ª †_‡K e¯‘i ` チ iZ¡ d Gi Dci wbf©i K‡i| myZivs g-Gi gvb e¯‘
wbi‡c¶ n‡jI ¯’vb wbi‡c¶ bq|
cÖkœ : 4| f‚-c„‡ôi wewfbœ ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY wewfbœ nIqvi
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 88

KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| (wm. †ev. 2001)


DËi : f‚-c„‡ôi wewfbœ ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY wewfbœ nIqvi KviY :
gva¨vKl©YRwbZ Z¡iY 'g' Gi gvb wewfbœ ¯’v‡b wewfbœ nq wbæwjwLZ
Kvi‡Y :
1. f‚-c„ô n‡Z ¯’vbwUi D”PZvi `i“b|
2. c„w_exi Amg AvK…wZi `i“b|
3. e¯‘ f‚-c„‡ôi Af¨š マ‡i hvevi `i“b|
4. c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi `i“b|
f‚-c„ô n‡Z ¯’vbwUi D”PZvi `i“b :
g‡b Kwi, m f‡ii GKwU e¯‘ f‚-c„ô n‡Z h D”PZvq Aew¯’Z| c„w_exi fi M n‡j
Ges Gi e¨vmva© d n‡j, wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î n‡Z,
F = G .................................. (1) • m
GLv‡b,
F = ej h
G = gnvKl© aª“eK
h+d = c„w_exi †K›`ª
n‡Z e¯‘i d M
†K‡›`ªi `チ iZ¡|

wKš‘ wbDU‡bi wØZxq m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv


Rvwb,
F = mg = G
∴ g = --------------------------------- (2)
GLv‡b, G, M Ges d cÖ‡Z¨‡KB aª“e|
∴ g-Gi gvb Kg n‡j h-Gi gvb †ewk n‡e Ges g-Gi gvb †ewk n‡j h-Gi gvb Kg
n‡e| A_©vr f‚-c„ô n‡Z e¯‘i Ae¯’v‡bi cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ g-Gi gvb Kg ev †ewk
nq|
c„w_exi Amg AvK…wZi `i“b :
g‡b Kwi, m f‡ii GKwU e¯‘ welye‡iLv A‡j Aew¯’Z| welye‡iLv A‡j c„w_exi
e¨vmva© R1 n‡j Ges c„w_exi fi M n‡j wbDU‡bi AwfKl© m チ Î n‡Z,
F = G ............................................. (1)
GLv‡b, F = ej
G gva¨vKl©Y RwbZ aª“eK|
=
Avevi g‡b Kwi, GKB f‡ii Avi GKwU e¯‘ †gi“ A‡j Aew¯’Z|
∴ wbDU‡bi AwfKl© m チ Î n‡Z−
F = G .............................. ...... (2)
GLv‡b, F = ej
G = ga¨vKl©Y RwbZ aª“eK
R2 = †gi“ A‡j c„w_exi e¨vmva©
R1 > R2
wKš‘ wbDU‡bi wØZxq m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv Rvwb,
89 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

F = mg
∴ mg1 = G .......................................... (3)
Ges mg2 = G .......................................... (4)
GLv‡b, g1 Ges g2 h_vµ‡g welye‡iLv I †gi“ A‡ji gva¨vKl©Y RwbZ Z¡iY|
mgxKiY (3) †K (4) Øviv fvM K‡i,
× ev, =
∴ R1 > R2
∴ g2 > g1
A_©vr †gi“ A‡j welye‡iLv AÂj A‡c¶v gva¨vKl©Y RwbZ Z¡i‡Yi gvb †ewk|
e¯‘ f‚-c„‡ôi Af¨š マ ‡i hvevi `i“b :
g‡b Kwi, m f‡ii GKwU e¯‘ h MfxiZvq c„w_exi Af¨š マ ‡ i cÖ‡ek Ki‡Q| c„w_exi
fi M n‡j Ges Zvi e¨vmva© d n‡j, wbDU‡bi gnvKl© m チ Î Abyhvqx,
F = G .......................... (1)
GLv‡b, F = ej d
G = gva¨vKl©Y RwbZ aªyeK
d − h = c„w_exi †K›`ª n‡Z e¯‘i d-h
†K‡›`ªi `チ iZ¡|
wKš‘ wbDU‡bi wØZxq m チ Î n‡Z Avgiv Rvwb,
F = mg
ev, mg= G
ev, g = .................................... (2)
wKš‘ Avgiv Rvwb, M = Vρ
GLv‡b, ρ = NbZ¡
V = AvqZb = π (d − h) 3

∴ M = π (d − h)3 ρ
mgxKi‡Y (2) bs -G M Gi gvb ewm‡q cvB−
g = G
= G π (d − h) ρ .................... (3)
GLv‡b, G, , ρ, d cÖ‡Z¨‡KB aª“e msL¨v|
∴ g ∝ (d − h)
A_©vr h Gi gvb hLbB Kg n‡e g Gi gvb ZLb evo‡e Ges h Gi gvb evo‡j g Gi
gvb Kg n‡e|
c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi `i“b :
Avgiv Rvwb, c„w_ex wbR A‡¶ cwðg n‡Z c チ e©w`‡K cÖ`w¶Y K‡i| c„w_ex
hw` w¯’i _vKZ Ges GKwU mylg †MvjK nZ Zv n‡j c„w_exi me©Î AwfKl©R
Z¡i‡Yi gvb mgvb nZ Ges H Z¡iY c„w_exi †K‡›`ªi w`K AwfgyLx nZ, wKš‘
c„w_exi ˆ`wbK N チ Y©bMwZi d‡j AwfKl© e‡ji wKQy Ask Ac‡K›`ª ej‡K
wbw¯Œq Ki‡Z e¨q nq| ZvB, AwfKl© Z¡iY cÖK…Z gvb A‡c¶v wKQy Kg
nq| c„w_exi e¨vmva© me RvqMvq mgvb n‡jI AvwýK MwZi Rb¨ f‚-c„‡ô g
Gi gvb mgvb nZ bv|
cÖkœ : 5| coš マ e¯‘i m チ θ‡jv eY©bv I e¨vL¨v Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev.
2003)
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 90

DËi : coš マ e¯‘i m チ Îvewj : †Kvb e¯‘‡K AwfKl© e‡ji cÖfv‡e gy³fv‡e
co‡Z w`‡j e¯‘i MwZ wZbwU m チ Î †g‡b P‡j| 1589 Lªxóv‡ã weÁvbx
M¨vwjwjI m チ Î wZbwU Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| m チ θ‡jv wb‡æ cÖ`Ë nj−
cÖ_g m チ Î : w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K Ges GKB D”PZv †_‡K webv evavq
coš マ mKj e¯‘ mgvb mg‡q mgvb c_ AwZµg K‡i|
wØZxq m チ Î : w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq coš マ e¯‘i wbw`©ó
mg‡q (t) cÖvß †eM (v) H mg‡qi mgvbycvwZK| A_©vr v ∝ t.
Z…Zxq m チ Î : w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq coš マ e¯‘ wbw`©ó
mg‡q †h ` チ iZ¡ (h) AwZµg K‡i Zv H mg‡qi (t) e‡M©i
mgvbycvwZK A_©vr h ∝ t2.
coš マ e¯‘i m チ Îvewji e¨vL¨v :
cÖ_g m チ ‡ Îi e¨vL¨v : †QvU, eo ev wewfbœ IR‡bi KZ¸‡jv e¯‘ GKB D”PZv
I w¯’ive¯’v n‡Z †Q‡o w`‡j evavnxb c‡_ Zviv mgvb ` チ i‡Z¡ A_©vr Z¡i‡Y
MwZkxj _vK‡e Ges GKB mg‡q gvwU‡Z co‡e|
wØZxq m チ ‡ Îi e¨vL¨v : wØZxq m チ Îvbymv‡i v ∝ t A_©vr †Kvb e¯‘‡K
hw` w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq co‡Z
†`Iqv nq Z‡e cÖ_g †m‡K‡Û hw` GwU v †eM AR©b K‡i Z‡e wØZxq †m‡KÛ
c‡i GwU 2v †eM AR©b Ki‡e|
myZivs t1, t2, t3............. †m‡KÊ c‡i hw` e¯‘i †eM h_vµ‡g v1, v2, v3 ........... BZ¨vw` nq
Z‡e GB m チ Îvbymv‡i,
................................. = aª“eK|
Z…Zxq m チ ‡Îi e¨vL¨v :
Z…Zxq m チ Îvbymv‡i h ∝ t2 A_©vr †Kvb e¯‘‡K hw` w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv
evavq co‡Z †`Iqv nq Z‡e GK †m‡K‡Ê hw` GwU h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Z‡e `yB
†m‡K‡Ê GwU h × 22 ev 4h `チ iZ¡, wZb †m‡K‡Û GwU h × 32 ev 9h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg
Ki‡e| myZivs t1, t2, t3-------- †m‡K‡Û hw` e¯‘i AwZµvš マ ` チ iZ¡ m_vµ‡g h1, h2, h3
.............. BZ¨vw` nq; Z‡e
.................................= aª“eK|

cÖkœ : 6| †`LvI †h Dc‡ii w`‡K wbw¶ß †Kvb e¯‘i f‚-c„ô †_‡K


m‡e©v”P D”PZvq DV‡Z †h mgq jv‡M, m‡e©v”P D”PZv †_‡K f‚-
c„‡ô co‡Z †mB GKB mgq jv‡M|
DËi : e¯‘i me©vwaK D”PZvq †cuŠQ‡Z AwZevwnZ mgq :
g‡b Kwi, me©vwaK D”PZvq †cuŠQ‡Z e¨wqZ mgq = t1
m‡e©v”P we›`y‡Z †kl †eM (v) k チ b¨
MwZi mgxKiY Abymv‡i,
v = u − gt1
ev, o = u − gt1
ev, t1 =
e¯‘i DÌvb-cZ‡b AwZevwnZ mgq :
g‡b Kwi, f‚-c„ô †_‡K Dc‡i D‡V Avevi f‚-c„‡ô wd‡i Avm‡Z mgq jv‡M T| Dc‡i
91 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

D‡V Avevi gvwU‡Z wd‡i Avm‡j AwZµvš マ `チ iZ¡ h = o


myZivs, h = ut − gt2 mgxKiY e¨envi K‡i
Avgiv cvB,
o = ut − gt2
Zvn‡j, T = o ev, T =
†h‡nZz T = o gvwU †_‡K †h gyû‡Z© e¯‘wU †Quvov n‡”Q Zv wb‡`©k K‡i
ZvB T = e¯‘wU f‚-c„ô †_‡K Dc‡i D‡V Avevi f‚-c„‡ô wd‡i Avmvi mgq
wb‡`©k K‡i|
m‡e©v”P D”PZv †_‡K gvwU‡Z †cuŠQ‡Z AwZevwnZ mgq :
m‡e©v”P D”PZvq DV‡Z e¯‘i mgq jv‡M t1, f‚-c„ô †_‡K Dc‡i D‡V Avevi f‚-c„‡ô
wd‡i Avm‡Z mgq jv‡M T.
myZivs, m‡e©v”P D”PZv †_‡K gvwU‡Z covi mgq,
t2 = T − t1
= −
∴ t2 =
A_©vr t2 = = t1
myZivs †`Lv hv‡”Q, f‚-c„ô †_‡K m‡e©v”P D”PZvq DV‡Z †h mgq jv‡M
m‡e©v”P D”PZv †_‡K f‚-c„‡ô co‡Z †mB GKB mgq jv‡M|
cÖkœ : 7| mij †`vj‡Ki m チ θ‡jv eY©bv I e¨vL¨v Ki|
(Xv.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev. 2000 ; 2002 e. †ev. 2001 ; h. †ev. 2001;2005; P.†ev. 2006; 2002;
Kz.†ev. 2000)
DËi : mij †`vjK :
†Kvb `„p Aej¤^b n‡Z GKwU ¶z`ª fvix e¯‘‡K GKwU IRbnxb, AcÖmviYxq
Ges bgbxq myZvi mvnv‡h¨ Szwj‡q w`‡j hw` e¯‘wU Nl©Y Gwo‡q Gcvk
Icvk `yj‡Z cv‡i Z‡e myZvmn H e¯‘wU‡K mij †`vjK e‡j|
mij †`vj‡Ki m チ Îvewj :
†Kvb GKwU mij †`vjK `ywjevi mgq Gi †`vjbKvj PviwU m チ Î †g‡b P‡j G‡K
mij †`vj‡Ki m チ Î e‡j| weL¨vZ weÁvbx M¨vwjwjI GB m チ θ‡jv Avwe®‹vi
K‡ib| m チ θ‡jv wb‡æ cÖ`Ë nj|
1. mgKvj m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j Ges †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki cÖwZwU
†`vj‡bi Rb¨ mgvb mgq jv‡M| †`vjbKvj †KŠwYK we¯マ v‡ii Dci wbf©i K‡i
bv|
e¨vL¨v : GB m チ Îvbymv‡i †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b (A_©vr g aª“e _vK‡j)
GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j Ges †KŠwYK
we¯マ vi Aí †i‡L GwU‡K `yj‡Z w`‡j Gi cÖ‡Z¨KwU †`vj‡bi Rb¨ mgvb mgq
jvM‡e| †KŠwYK we¯マ vi hvB †nvK bv †Kb Zvi Dci †`vjbKvj wbf©i Ki‡e
bv| A_©vr 10, 20, 30 ev 40 cÖf…wZ †h †Kvb we¯ マ v‡ii Rb¨ cÖ‡Z¨KwU
†`vj‡bi GKB mgq jvM‡e|
2. ˆ`‡N©¨i m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯マ vi Aí n‡j †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b mij †`vj‡Ki
†`vjb Kvj (T)-Gi Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ (L)-Gi eM©g チ ‡ ji mgvbycv‡Z
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 92

cwiewZ©Z nq|
A_©vr T ∝ hLb g aª“e|
e¨vL¨v : GB m チ Îvbymv‡i †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b (A_©vr g aª“e n‡j Avi mij
†`vj‡Ki †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j) †`vjbKvj †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`‡N©¨i
eM©g チ ‡ ji mgvbycvwZK n‡e| GKwU †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ 4 ¸Y Ki‡j
†`vjbKvj 2 ¸Y n‡e, Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ 9 ¸Y Ki‡j †`vjbKvj 3 ¸Y n‡e|
L1, L2, L3 .............. Kvh©Kix ˆ`‡N©¨i Rb¨ †`vjbKvj h_vµ‡g T1, T2, T3 n‡j GB
m チ Îvbymv‡i,
T ∝
A_©vr, = = ......................... = aª“e
ev, = = ............................ = aª“e|
3. Z¡i‡Yi m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯マ vi Aí n‡j Ges mij †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
(L) AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j Gi †`vjbKvj (T) AwfKl©R Z¡iY (g) -Gi eM©g チ ‡ ji
e¨¯マ vbycv‡Z cwiewZ©Z nq|
A_©vr, T ∝ hLb L aª“e|
e¨vL¨v : GB m チ Îvbymv‡i †Kvb mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ w¯’i †i‡L hw` c„w_exi
wewfbœ ¯’v‡b ev f‚-c„ô †_‡K wewfbœ D”PZvq wb‡q hvIqv hvq Ges Aí
†KŠwYK we¯マ v‡i †`vjK‡K `yj‡Z †`Iqv hvq Z‡e †`vjbKvjI wfbœ n‡e Ges Zv
AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi eM©g チ‡ji e¨¯マ vbycv‡Z cwiewZ©Z n‡e|
AwfKl©R Z¡iY fvM n‡j †`vjbKvj 2 ¸Y n‡e, AwfKl©R Z¡iY fvM n‡j †`vjbKvj
3 ¸Y n‡e|
g1, g2, g3 ...... BZ¨vw` AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi ¯’v‡b †`vjbKvj h_vµ‡g T1, T2 , T3 ......
BZ¨vw` n‡j GB m チ Îvbymv‡i,
T ∝
A_©vr, T1 = T2 = T3 = .......................... = aª“e
ev, g1 = g2 = g3 ................................. = aª“e|
4. f‡ii m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j Ges Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ AcwiewZ©Z
_vK‡j †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b mij †`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj e‡ei fi, AvqZb, Dcv`vb
BZ¨vw`i Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| wewfbœ fi, AvqZb ev Dcv`v‡bi e‡ei R‡b¨
†`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj GKB nq|
e¨vL¨v : GB m チ Îvbymv‡i mij †`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj e‡ei fi, AvqZb, NbZ¡
BZ¨vw`i Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ w¯’i †i‡L †Kvb wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b
†KŠwYK we¯ マ vi 40-Gi g‡a¨ `yj‡Z w`‡j Zv‡Z †QvU †nvK eo †nvK, nvjKv
†nvK Avi fvix †nvK, Zvgvi †nvK Avi †mvbvi †nvK †`vjb Kv‡ji †Kvb
cwieZ©b n‡e bv|
cÖkœ : 8| mij †`vj‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb ¯’v‡bi AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb
wbY©‡qi cix¶v eY©bv Ki|
DËi : mij †`vj‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ 'g' Gi gvb wbY©q : (Xv.†ev. Õ99 ; P. †ev. 2001 ;
Kz. †ev. 2001 ; h. †ev. 2000)
g チ jZË¡ : mij †`vj‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb wbY©‡qi Rb¨ e¨eüZ
93 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgxKiYwU nj−
T = 2π GLv‡b, T = †`vjbKvj
L = Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
g = AwfKl©R Z¡iY|
GB mgxKiY‡K eM© K‡i cvB−
T2 = 4π2
∴ g = 4π2 ................................ (1)
GLv‡b GKwU †`vj‡Ki L Ges T Gi gvb †R‡b g
†ei Ki‡Z n‡e|
Kvh© c×wZ : GKwU ûK n‡Z k³ myZv Szwj‡q Zv‡Z GKwU †MvjK Szwj‡q
mij †`vjK ˆZwi Kwi|
L wbY©q : cÖ_‡g wgUvi †¯‹‡ji mvnv‡h¨
mij †`vj‡Ki myZvi ˆ`N©¨ l †ei Kwi| Gici
GKwU úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i mvnv‡h¨
†`vj‡Ki e¨vm I Zv n‡Z e¨vmva© r
wbY©q Kwi| GLb †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix
ˆ`N©¨ L = l + r
T wbY©q : cix¶vMv‡i †`vj‡bi †KŠwYK
we¯ マ vi 40 Gi gv‡S mxgve× †i‡L Öc
Iqv‡Pi mvnv‡h¨ 20 ev 25 †`vj‡bi mgq
wbY©q Kwi| †gvU mgq‡K †`vjb msL¨v
Øviv fvM K‡i †`vjbKvj T †ei Kwi|

wPÎ : mij †`vjK


Mo wbY©q : myZvi ˆ`N©¨ cwieZ©b K‡i †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ L
cwieZ©b Kiv nq Ges wewfbœ Kvh©Kix ˆ`‡N©¨i Rb¨ †`vjbKvj T wbY©q
K‡i cÖwZ †¶‡Î †ei K‡i Mo wbY©q Kiv nq| GB Mo gvb (1) bs mgxKi‡Y
ewm‡q g Gi gvb †ei Kiv nq|
†jLwPÎ †_‡K wbY©q : GKwU QK KvM‡Ri X Y

A‡¶i w`‡K L Gi wewfbœ gvb Ges Y A‡¶i N


P

w`‡K Avbylw½K T Gi gvb ¯’vcb K‡i †jLwPÎ


2


AsKb Kiv nq| †jLwPÎwU g チ j we›`yMvgx T 2

GKwU mij‡iLv nq| GB mij‡iLvi Dci †h †Kvb


GKwU we›`y P wb‡q P n‡Z X A‡¶i Dci PM Ges
O L→ M X
Y A‡¶i Dci NP j¤^ Uvbv nq| Zvn‡j †h †Kvb
ˆ`N©¨ L = OM Gi Rb¨ †`vjbKv‡ji eM© T2 = ON
cvIqv hvq|
djvdj : †jLwPÎ n‡Z cÖvß GB L I T2 Gi gvb (1) bs mgxKi‡Y ewm‡q g Gi gvb
wnmve Kiv nq,
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 94

∴ g = 4π2 = 4π2
cÖkœ : 9| e¯‘i IRb Kv‡K e‡j? wewfbœ ¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb wewfbœ nq
†Kb e¨vL¨v Ki|
(wm.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev. 2005; e.†ev. 2001; P.†ev.2000; m.†ev.Õ99)
DËi : IRb : †Kvb e¯‘‡K c„w_ex †h ej Øviv Zvi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K AvKl©Y K‡i
Zv‡K e¯‘i IRb e‡j| G‡K w Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq|
†Kvb e¯‘i fi m Ges c„w_exi †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY g n‡j H ¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb
w n‡e|
w = mg
ivwk : †h‡nZz IRb GKwU ej, myZivs GwU GKwU †f±i ivwk| Gi w`K
c„w_exi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K|
GKK : IR‡bi GKK nj e‡ji GKK, A_©vr wbDUb (N)|
wewfbœ ¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb wewfbœ nIqvi KviY :
e¯‘i IRb AwfKl©R Z¡iY g Gi Dci wbf©ikxj| myZivs †h mKj Kvi‡Y AwfKl©R
Z¡i‡Yi cwieZ©b N‡U †m mKj Kvi‡Y e¯‘i IRbI cwiewZ©Z nq| ¯’vb‡f‡` e¯‘i
IR‡bi cwieZ©b nq| †h mKj Kvi‡Y IR‡bi cwieZ©b nq Zv wb‡P eY©bv Kiv
nj−
K. f‚-c„‡ôi wewfbœ ¯’v‡b : f‚-c„‡ôi wewfbœ ¯’v‡b `ywU Kvi‡Y e¯‘i IRb
cwiewZ©Z nq| h_v−
1. c„w_exi AvK…wZi Rb¨
2. c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi Rb¨
1. c„w_exi AvK…wZi Rb¨ : Avgiv Rvwb, f‚-c„‡ôi †Kvb ¯’v‡b
AwfKl©R Z¡iY,
g =
GLv‡b, G = gnvKlx©q aª“eK
M = c„w_exi fi
R = c„w_exi fi
c„w_ex mylg †MvjK bv nIqvq R Gi gvb wewfbœ ¯’v‡b wewfbœ nq|
†h‡nZz g Gi gvb c„w_exi †K›`ª †_‡K `チ i‡Z¡i Dci wbf©i K‡i| ZvB †gi“ A‡ji
†P‡q welyexq A‡j c„w_exi e¨vmva© me‡P‡q †ewk nIqvq g Gi gvb
me‡P‡q Kg, d‡j IRbI me‡P‡q Kg|
welyexq AÂj †_‡K †gi“ A‡ji w`‡K hZ †ewk hvIqv hvq R Gi gvb ZZ Kg‡Z
_v‡K Ges g-Gi gvb evo‡Z _v‡K| Gi d‡j e¯‘i IRbI evo‡Z _v‡K| †gi“ A‡j
e¨vmva© me‡P‡q Kg nIqvq g-Gi gvb me‡P‡q †ewk, d‡j IRbI me‡P‡q
†ewk|
2. c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi Rb¨ : c„w_ex hw` mylg †MvjKI nZ Z_vwc
c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi Rb¨ wewfbœ ¯’v‡b e¯‘i IRb wewfbœ nZ|
MvwYwZK wn‡me g‡Z, c„w_exi AvwýK MwZi Rb¨ g-Gi gvb welyexq
AÂj †_‡K †gi“ A‡ji w`‡K µgk e„w× cvq| Gi d‡j e¯‘i IRbI e„w× cvq|
L. f‚-c„ô †_‡K D”PZi †Kvb ¯’v‡b : Avgiv Rvwb, f‚-c„ô †_‡K D”PZi
†Kvb ¯’v‡b
95 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g =
Dc‡ii mgxKiY †_‡K †`Lv hvq, f‚-c„ô †_‡K hZ Dc‡i DVv hvq h Gi gvb e„w×i
mv‡_ mv‡_ g Gi gvb Kg‡Z _v‡K| d‡j e¯‘i IRbI Kg‡Z _vK‡e| G Kvi‡Y cvnvo
ev ce©Zkx‡l© e¯‘i IRb Kg nq|
M. c„w_exi Af¨š マ ‡ i †Kvb ¯’v‡b : c„w_exi Af¨š マ ‡ i f‚-c„ô †_‡K h
MfxiZvq AwfKl©R Z¡iY,
g = ev, g =
GLv‡b, M = AvqZb × NbZ¡
=
ρ =c„w_exi NbZ¡
∴g =
GB mgxKiY †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h, c„w_exi Af¨š マ ‡ i †K‡›`ªi hZ KvQvKvwQ
hvIqv hv‡e h Gi gvb e„w×i mv‡_ g Gi gvb Kg‡Z _vK‡e| d‡j e¯‘i IRbI
µgvMZ Kg‡Z _vK‡e| c„w_exi †K‡›`ª h = R n‡e d‡j g = o nIqvq e¯‘i IRbI k チ b¨
n‡e|
cÖkœ : 10| wjd&‡U Ges gnvk チ ‡b¨ IR‡bi ZviZg¨ nq †Kb e¨vL¨v Ki|
(iv.†ev. 2002)
DËi : wjd&‡U IR‡bi ZviZg¨ nIqvi KviY : †h‡nZz †Kvb e¯‘i Dci c„w_exi
AvKl©Y ejB e¯‘i IRb, ZvB c„w_exi GB AvKl©Y ej Z_v IRb wbf©i K‡i
AwfKl©R Z¡iY (g) Gi gv‡bi Dci| wjd&‡U P‡o DPz `vjv‡b DVvbvgv Kivi mgq
Avgiv IR‡bi ZviZg¨ Abyfe Kwi| Gi KviY wb‡P e¨vL¨v Kiv nj|
K) wjd&U hLb w¯’i _v‡K :
Avgiv hLb †Kvb w¯’i wjd&‡U `vovB ZLb Avgiv wjd&‡Ui †g‡Si Dci
Avgv‡`i IR‡bi mgvb ej (mg) cÖ‡qvM Kwi, wjd&UI Avgv‡`i Dci mgvb I
wecixZgyLx cÖwZwµqv ej ( − mg) cÖ‡qvM K‡i GRb¨ Avgiv Avgv‡`i
IR‡bi Aw¯マ Z¡ †Ui cvB|
L) hLb wjd&U Dc‡ii w`‡K hvÎv ïi“ K‡i :
w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K Dc‡ii w`‡K hvÎv Kivq wjd&‡Ui Dc‡ii w`‡K GKwU Z¡iY,
a m„wó nq| G‡¶‡Î Avgv‡`i Dci Dc‡ii w`‡K,
†gvU ej = R − mg
ev, ma = R − mg
ev, R = ma + mg
ev, R > mg..................................... (1)
AZGe, G mgq cÖwZwµqv ej R Avgv‡`i IRb mg Gi †P‡q †ewk nIqvq
wb‡R‡`i‡K fvix Abyfe Kwi|
M)hLb wjd&U mg‡e‡M Dc‡i DV‡Z _v‡K :
G mgq wjd&‡Ui Z¡iY a = o
∴ (1) bs mgxKiY †_‡K cvB R = mg
AZGe, Avgiv Avgv‡`i IR‡bi mgvb cÖwZwµqv ej Abyfe Kivq IRb
¯^vfvweK g‡b nq|
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 96

N) hLb wjd&U wb‡Pi w`‡K hvÎv ïi“ K‡i :


w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K wb‡Pi w`‡K hvÎv ïi“ Kivq wjd&‡Ui wb‡Pi w`‡K GKwU
Z¡iY, a m„wó nq| G‡¶‡Î, Avgv‡`i Dci wb‡Pi w`‡K,
†gvU ej = mg − R
ev, ma = mg − R
ev, R = mg − ma
ev, R < mg ..................................... (2)
AZGe, G mgq cÖwZwµqv ej R Avgv‡`i IRb mg Gi †P‡q Kg nIqvq
wb‡R‡`i‡K nvjKv Abyfe Kwi|
O) hLb wjd&U mg‡e‡M wb‡P bvg‡Z _v‡K :
G mgq wjd&‡Ui †Kvb Z¡iY _v‡K bv| A_©vr a = 0
(2) bs mgxKiY †_‡K cvB− R = mg
AZGe, Avgiv Avgv‡`i IR‡bi mgvb cÖwZwµqv ej Abyfe Kivq IRb
¯^vfvweK g‡b Kwi|
gnvk チ ‡b¨ IR‡bi ZviZg¨ nIqvi KviY :
1. e¯‘i IRb (w = mg) AwfKl©R Z¡iY g Gi Dci wbf©ikxj| Avevi g = ZvB f‚-
c„ô n‡Z gnvk チ ‡ b¨ hZ Dc‡i hvIqv hvq g Gi gvb ZZ Kg‡Z _vK‡e|
KvíwbKfv‡e gnvk チ‡ b¨i Amxg `チ i‡Z¡ g Gi gvb k チ b¨ n‡e A_©vr e¯‘i
†Kvb IRb _vK‡e bv|
2. gnvk チ b¨hv‡b ågYKvix gnvk チ b¨Pvixi †¶‡Î gva¨vKl©Y ej Ges
wbw`©ó K¶ c‡_ e„ËvKvi MwZi Rb¨ †K›`ªwegyLx ej mgvb nIqvq
gnvk チ b¨Pvix †Kvb IRb Abyfe K‡ib bv|
3. gnvk チ ‡ b¨ Ab¨ †Kvb MÖ‡ni wbKU e¯‘i Dci c„w_exi gva¨vKl©Y ej
Ges H MÖnwUi gnvKl© ej ci¯•i wecixZ w`‡K wµqviZ _v‡K e‡j
e¯‘wUi IR‡bi ZviZg¨ n‡Z cv‡i|
cÖkœ : 11| IRbnxbZv wK? gnvk チ b¨hv‡b K‡i e„ËvKvi c‡_
c„w_ex‡K cÖ`w¶Y Kv‡j gnvk チ b¨Pvix wb‡R‡K IRbnxb g‡b K‡ib
†Kb− e¨vL¨v Ki| (P.†ev. Õ99 ; h.†ev. 2001)
A_ev, IRbnxbZv wK? e¯‘ KLb IRbnxb nq? (Xv.†ev. 2000;2002; Kz.†ev.
2003)
DËi : IRbnxbZv : †Kvb e¯‘i Dci cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ n‡j e¯‘wUi †Kvb
IRb Abyf‚Z nq bv| A_©vr cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ nIqvi Rb¨ e¯‘i IRb k チ b¨
Abyf‚Z nIqv‡K IRbnxbZv e‡j|
e¨vL¨v : Avgiv hLb GKwU w¯’i cvUvZ‡bi Dci `vovB ZLb Avgv‡`i IRb
wbævwfgyLx wµqv K‡i Ges Zv cvUvZ‡bi Dci cÖhy³ nq| wbDU‡bi Z…Zxq
m チ Î Abymv‡i cvUvZbI Avgv‡`i Dci mgvb I wecixZgyLx cÖwZwµqv ej (R)
cÖ‡qvM K‡i| DaŸ©gyLx GB cÖwZwµqvi Rb¨ Avgiv Avgv‡`i IRb Dcjwä
Kwi| ZvB †Kvb Kvi‡Y GB cÖwZwµqv ej k チ b¨ n‡j Avgiv IRbnxbZv Abyfe
Kwi|
gnvk チ b¨Pvixi IRbnxbZvi KviY :
97 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

gnvk チ b¨Pvixiv gnvk チ b¨hv‡b K‡i c„w_ex‡K GKwU wbw`©ó D”PZvq


e„ËvKvi K¶ c‡_ cÖ`w¶Y K‡i _v‡Kb| GB e„ËvKvi MwZi Rb¨ gnvk チ b¨hv‡bi
c„w_exi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K H D”PZvq g Gi gv‡bi mgvb gv‡bi GKwU Z¡iY nq| GB
Ae¯’vq gnvk チ b¨hv‡bi †`qv‡ji mv‡c‡¶ gnvk チ b¨Pvixi Z¡iY (g − g) = o nq
Ges gnvk チ b¨Pvix gnvk チ b¨hv‡bi †`qvj ev †g‡S‡Z †Kvb ej cÖ‡qvM K‡ib
bv| d‡j wZwb Zuvi IR‡bi wecixZ †Kvb cÖwZwµqv ejI Abyfe K‡ib bv| ZvB
wZwb IRbnxbZv Abyfe K‡ib|
cÖkœ : 12| GKwU w¯•ªs wbw³i MVb I Kvh©cÖYvwj Av‡jvPbv Ki|
DËi : w¯•ªs wbw³ :
GwU GK we‡kl ai‡bi wbw³| GB wbw³i mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘i IRb mivmwi gvcv
hvq| w¯•ªs wbw³‡Z IRb †ewk Szjv‡j w¯•ªs Gi ˆ`N©¨ †ewk e„w× cv‡e|
myZivs w¯•ªs Gi e„w×i cwimi †R‡b e¯‘i IR‡bi cwigvY wbY©q Kiv hvq|
MVb cÖYvwj : GB h‡š ミ GKwU B¯•v‡Zi w¯•ªs‡K GKwU avZe Avei‡Yi
wfZi Ggbfv‡e ivLv nq hv‡Z w¯•ªswUi GKcÖvš マ Avei‡Yi Dci cÖv‡š マ
GKwU AvswUi mv‡_ AvUKv‡bv _v‡K| wb‡æ cÖv‡š マ GKwU ûK jvMv‡bv
_v‡K| AvswUi mvnv‡h¨ w¯•ªswU Szjv‡bv nq| †h e¯‘i IRb wbY©q Ki‡Z nq
Zv‡K H û‡K Szjv‡bv nq|
avZe Avei‡Yi Mv‡q cvDÛ ev MÖv‡g `vM KvUv GKwU †¯‹j Aw¼Z _v‡K|
w¯•ªswUi mv‡_ GKwU m チ PK jvMv‡bv _v‡K| w¯•ªs-Gi n«vm-e„w×i d‡j
m チ PKwU DVv-bvgv Ki‡e| g チ jZ K‡qKwU Rvbv IRbm¤•bœ e¯‘ û‡K Szwj‡q
w¯•ªs KZUv ev‡o I Zvi d‡j m チ PKwU †Kv_vq `uvovq Zv wVK K‡i †mB gZ
†¯‹‡j `vM KvUv nq|
Kvh©cÖYvwj : cÖ_‡g †h e¯‘wUi IRb
wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡e Zv‡K û‡K Szjv‡bv
nq| d‡j w¯•ªs Gi ˆ`N©¨ e„w× cv‡e|
mv‡_ mv‡_ m チ PKwUI †¯‹‡ji †Kvb
GKwU wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b wM‡q †_‡g
hv‡e| w¯•ªs Gi ˆ`N©¨ e„w× NU‡e
cÖhy³ e‡ji mgvbycvwZK| A_©vr
†ewk IRb Szjv‡bv n‡j w¯•ªs Gi ˆ`N©¨
†ewk e„w× cv‡e Avevi Kg IRb
Szjv‡bv n‡j w¯•ªs-Gi ˆ`N©¨ Kg e„w×
cv‡e| AZGe û‡Ki g‡a¨ e¯‘ Szjv‡bvi ci
m チ P‡Ki Ae¯’vb †`‡L e¯‘i IRb wbY©q
Kiv hvq|
e¨envi : w¯•ªs wbw³i mvnv‡h¨
mn‡R †h †Kvb ¯’v‡b †Kvb e¯‘i IRb
wbY©q Kiv nq| w¯•ªs wbw³i
mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb ej cwigvc Kiv hvq|
wPÎ : w¯•ªs wbw³
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 98

cÖkœ : 13| gvby‡li gnvk チ b¨ hvÎvi msw¶ß BwZnvm eY©bv Ki|


DËi : gvby‡li gnvk チ b¨ hvÎvi msw¶ß BwZnvm :
gvby‡li gnvk チ b¨ hvÎvi BwZnvm Lye cy‡ivbv bq, G‡Kev‡iB bZzb|
gnvk チ b¨hvÎvi cÖ_g c`‡¶cwUi m チ Pbv nq 1957 mv‡ji 4Vv A‡±vei| wb‡Pi
mviYx‡Z gnvk チ b¨hvÎvi BwZnvm Zz‡j aiv nj :
bs Dr‡¶cb gnvk チ b¨h mvd‡j¨i cÖK…wZ
ZvwiL v‡bi bvg
1 4.10.1957 ¯•yUwbK − I gnvk チ‡b¨ cvVv‡bv cÖ_g K…wÎg DcMÖn|
2 3.11.1957 ¯•yUwbK − II Rxeš マ KzKzi enYKvix cÖ_g gnvk チ b¨ hvb|
3 18.12.1958 †¯‹vi gnvk チ ‡ b¨ cvVv‡bv cÖ_g †hvMv‡hvM
DcMÖn|
4 4.10.1959 jybv − 3 Puv‡`i A`„k¨gv‡bi Qwe †cÖiY|
5 12.4.1961 fÖK − 1 gvbyl wb‡q hvIqv cÖ_g gnvk チ b¨ hvb|
6 4.12.1963 ÖK − 6 cÖ_g gwnjv gnvk チ b¨Pvixevnx gnvk チ b¨
hvb|
7 6.4.1965 Bb‡Uj‡mU − 1 evwYwR¨K Kv‡R e¨env‡ii Rb¨ cvVv‡bv
cÖ_g †hvMv‡hvM DcMÖn hvb|
8 16.11.1965 †f‡biv − 3 †fbvm MÖ‡n cÖ_g AeZiYKvix DcMÖn hvb|
9 11.11.1968 jybv − 9 Puv‡`i c„‡ô cÖ_g AeZiYKvix hvb|
10 14.1.1969 m‡qvR − 4 cÖ_g cix¶vg チ jK †¯•m †Ökb|
11 16.7.1969 A¨v‡cv‡jv− 11 P›`ªc„‡ô cÖ_g c`PviY|
12 19.5.1971 gvim − 2 g½jMÖ‡n cÖ_g AeZibKvix hvb|
13 2.3.1972 cv‡qvwbqvi e„n¯•wZ MÖ‡ni Qwe †Zvjv nq|
14 7.1972 j¨vÛ‡mU − 1 wi‡gvU †mbwms Gi Rb¨ cvVv‡bv DcMÖn|
15 15.7.1975 A¨v‡cv‡jv Avš マ R©vwZK †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨
m‡qvR‡UÖ cvVv‡bv cÖ_g gnvk チ b¨hvb|
†cÖv‡R±
16 20.8.1977 f‡qRvi e„n¯•wZ, kwb, BD‡ibvm, †bcPzb I cy‡Uvi
K‡¶ †cÖwiZ gnvk チ b¨ hvb|
AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| T = 2π mgxKiYwU cÖwZcv`b Ki| †hLv‡b cÖZxK¸‡jv
cÖPwjZ A_© enb K‡i| (h.†ev. 2005)
DËi : GLv‡b,
99 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mij †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix


ˆ`N©¨ = L
†`vjKwUi †`vjb Kvj = T
Ges AwfKl©R Z¡iY = g
mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`‡N©¨i m チ Î :
†KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j †Kvb
wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b mij †`vj‡Ki †`vjb Kvj
Gi Kvh©Kix ‰`‡N©¨i eM©g チ ‡ ji
mgvbycv‡Z cwieZx©Z nq|
∴T∝ [hLb g aª“eK]
Z¡i‡Yi m チ Î : †KŠwYK we¯ マ vi Aí n‡j Ges mij †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨
AcwieZx©Z _vK‡j Gi †`vjb Kvj AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi eM©g チ ‡ ji e¨¯ マ vbycv‡Z
cwieZx©Z nq
T=∝ [hLb T aª“eK]
Abycv‡Zi wbqgvbymv‡i m チ Î `ywU‡K GKÎ K‡i cvB−
T=∝
ev, T = k ........................... (i)
GLv‡b k GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| weÁvbxMY Gi gvb wnmve K‡i
†c‡q‡Qb 2π
(i) bs mgxKi‡Y k = 2π ewm‡q cvB−
T = 2π
cÖkœ : 2| AwfKl© †K›`ª Kv‡K e‡j? K‡qKwU mylg R¨vwgwZK
AvKvi wewkó e¯‘i AwfKl© †K‡›`ªi Ae¯’vb †`LvI|
A_ev, GKwU mylg wÎf チ RvK…wZ cv‡Zi AwfKl© †K›`ª †Kv_vq
Aew¯’Z| wPÎmn wjL| (ewi.†ev. 2003)
DËi : AwfKl© †K›`ª : msÁv : †hfv‡eB ivLv nDK bv †Kb e¯‘i MVb I
AvK…wZi cwieZ©b bv n‡j, mKj Ae¯’v‡bB †h wbw`©ó we›`y w`‡q e¯‘wUi
IRb ev c„w_exi †gvU gva¨vKl©YRwbZ ej wµqv K‡i †mB we›`y‡K e¯‘i
fvi‡K›`ª ev AwfKl© †K›`ª e‡j|
AwfKl© †K‡›`ªi Ae¯’vb : K‡qKwU mylg R¨vwgwZK AvKvi wewkó e¯‘i
AwfKl© †K›`ª G †`Lv‡bv nj :

wPÎ : AwfKl© †K‡›`ªi Ae¯’vb


gnvKl© I AwfKl© 100

(i) mylg e„‡Ëi, AvswUi ev †Mvj‡Ki AwfKl© †K›`ª G‡`i R¨vwgwZK


†K‡›`ª Aew¯’Z [wPÎ (K)]|
(ii) mylg mvgvš マ wiK †¶‡Îi AwfKl© †K›`ª Gi KY©Ø‡qi †Q`we›`y‡Z
Aew¯’Z [wPÎ (L)]|
(iii) mylg wÎfzRvK…wZ cv‡Zi AwfKl© †K›`ª Gi ga¨gv¸‡jvi †Q`we›`y‡Z
Aew¯’Z [wPÎ (M)]|
(vi) mylg `‡Ûi ga¨we›`yB GB AwfKl© †K›`ª [wPÎ (N)]|
(v) mylg †ejbvK…wZ e¯‘i AwfKl© †K›`ª Gi A‡¶i ga¨ we›`y‡Z Aew¯’Z
[wPÎ (O)]

MvwYwZK
mgm¨vewj I
mgvavb

MvwYwZK
D`vniYmg チ n
D`v : 1| 10 kg Ges 20 kg f‡ii `ywU e¯‘‡K 2 m ` チ ‡ i ivLv nj| hw`
gnvKlx©q aª“e‡Ki gvb 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 nq, Z‡e e¯‘ `ywUi g‡a¨ e‡ji
gvb †ei Ki| (e.†ev. 2003)
Abyiƒc cÖkœ : 20 kg Ges 30kg Gi `ywU e¯‘‡K ` チ ‡ i ivLv nj| hw`
gnvKl©xq aª“e‡Ki gvb 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 nq Z‡e e¯‘ `ywUi g‡a¨ e‡ji
gvb †ei Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2004)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
F = G 1g e¯‘i fi, m1 = 10 kg
F = 2q e¯‘i fi, m2 = 20 kg
= 3.34 × 10−9 N
`チ iZ¡, d = 2m
gnvKlx©q aª“eK, G =
6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2
ej, F = ?
DËi : ej, F = 3.34 × 10 N.
−9

D`v : 2| 39.2 kg Ges 15 kg f‡ii `ywU †Mvj‡Ki †K‡›`ªi ` チ iZ¡ hLb 20 cm


ZLb G¸‡jv ci¯•i‡K
9.81 × 10−7 N e‡j AvKl©Y K‡i| gnvKlx©q aª“e‡Ki gvb †ei Ki| (iv.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
101 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

F = G 1g †Mvj‡Ki fi, m1 = 39.2 kg


ev, G = 2q †Mvj‡Ki fi, m2 = 15 kg
ev, G = `チ iZ¡, d = 20 cm
= 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 = 20 × 10−2 m
AvKl©Y ej, F = 9.81 × 10−7N

gnvKlx©q aªzeK, G =
?
DËi : gnvKlx©q aª“eK, G = 6.673 × 10 Nm kg −11 2 −2

D`v : 3| c„w_exi fi 5.975 × 1024 kg Ges e¨vmva© 6371 km a‡i f‚-c„‡ô


AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb †ei Ki| G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 |
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
g = c„w_exi fi, M = 5.975 × 1024 kg
ev, g = c„w_exi e¨vmva© R =
= 9.823 N kg−1 6371 km
= 9.823 kg ms−2 kg−1 = 6371 ×103 m
= 9.823 ms−2
G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2
AwfKl©R Z¡iY g = ?
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY = 9.823 ms−2.
D`v : 4| 60m DuPz `vjv‡bi Qv` †_‡K †Kvb e¯‘‡K †Q‡o w`‡j GwU KZ
†e‡M f‚-c„ô‡K AvNvZ Ki‡e? g = 9.8ms−2.
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, coš マ e¯‘i †¶‡Î GLv‡b,
v2
= 2
u + 2gh Avw`‡eM, u = oms−1
ev, v2 = o + 2 × 9.8 ms−2 × 60 m AwZµvš マ `チ iZ¡, h =
= 1176 m2s−2 60m
∴v = 34.29 ms−1 †kl †eM, v = ?
g = 9.8 ms−2
DËi : †kl †eM = 34.29 ms−1.
D`v : 5| 29.4ms−1 †e‡M Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K wbw¶ß GKwU e¯‘ m‡e©v”P
D”PZvq †cuŠQv‡e? GB D”PZvq DV‡Z e¯‘wUi KZ mgq jvM‡e? g = 9.8
ms−2 |
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, DaŸ©gyLx †e‡Mi GLv‡b,
Rb¨ Avw`‡eM, u = 29.4ms−1
v2 = u2 − 2gH †kl †eM, v = o ms−1
m‡e©v”P D”PZv, H =
ev, o = (29.4ms−1)2 − 2 × 9.8 ms−2 × H ?
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 102

ev, H = 44.1 m mgq, t = ?


Avevi, g = 9.8 ms−2
v = u − gt
ev, o = 29.4ms−1 − 9.8 ms−2 × t
∴ t = 3s
DËi : m‡e©v”P D”PZv = 44.1 m Ges mgq = 3 s.
D`v : 6| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ 2.45 m| †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡iY
9.8ms−2 n‡j H ¯’v‡b †`vjKwUi †`vjbKvj wbY©q Ki|
(m. †ev. Õ98)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
T = 2π Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨, L =
= 2 × 3.14 × = 3.14 s 2.45 m
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g =
9.8 ms−2
†`vjbKvj, T = ?
DËi : †`vjbKvj = 3.14 s.
D`v : 7| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki e‡ei e¨vm 0.58 cm Ges myZvi ˆ`N©¨ 99 cm|
†Kvb ¯’v‡b †`vjKwUi GKwU c チ Y© †`vj‡bi Rb¨ 2 s mgq jv‡M| H
¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb wbY©q Ki| (P.†ev.2004; Xv.†ev. 2006)
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb,
T = 2π GLv‡b,
ev, T2 = 4π2 e‡ei e¨vm, d = 0.58 cm
ev, g = 4π 2
e‡ei e¨vmva©, r = = 0.29 cm
= 4 × 9.87 × = 9.8 ms−2 myZvi ˆ`N©¨, l = 99 cm
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY = 9.8 ms−2. ∴ Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨, L = l+r
= 99cm + 0.29 cm
= 99.29 cm = 99.29 × 10−2 m
†`vjbKvj, T = 2s
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = ?

Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| 40 kg Ges 50 kg f‡ii `yRb QvÎ 5m ` チ ‡ i `uvwo‡q _vK‡j Zv‡`i
g‡a¨ KZ gnvKl© ej wµqv Ki‡e? G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2.
(h.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev. 2001)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
F = G 1g Qv‡Îi fi, m1 = 40 kg
ev, F = 6.673×10−11Nm2kg−2× 2q Qv‡Îi fi, m2 = 50 kg
103 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

∴ F = 5.34 × 10−9 N `チ iZ¡, d = 5m


DËi : ej, F = 5.34 × 10 N. −9
gnvKlx©q aª“eK, G =
6.673 × 10−11Nm2 kg−2
ej, F = ?

mgm¨v : 2| 100g Ges 500g f‡ii `ywU †MvjK‡K 10 cm ` チ ‡ i ¯’vcb Ki‡j G‡`i
g‡a¨ AvKl©Y ej nq 3.3365 × 10−10 N| gnvKlx©q aª“e‡Ki gvb †ei Ki|
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
F = G 1g †Mvj‡Ki fi, m1 = 100 g =
0.1 kg
ev, G =
2q †Mvj‡Ki fi, m2 = 500 g =
=
0.5 kg
`チ iZ¡, d = 10 cm = 10 × 10−2 m

ej, F = 3.3365 × 10−10 N


gnvKlx©q aª“eK, G = ?
= 6.673 × 10−11 2
Nm kg −2

DËi : gnvKlx©q aª“eK = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2.


mgm¨v : 3| c„w_exi e¨vmva© 6371 km Ges fi 5.975 × 1024kg| c„w_exi
m‡e©v”P ceZ©k„½ Gfv‡i‡÷i D”PZv
8.848 km n‡j Gfv‡i‡÷i P‚ovq AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb KZ? G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−
2
. (Xv.†ev. 2001)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
g = c„w_exi e¨vmva©, R =
= ∴ g = 6371 km
= 6371 × 103 m
9.796 ms−2
c„w_exi fi, M = 5.975 × 1024 kg
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY = 9.796 ms−2. G = 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2
Gfv‡i‡Öi D”PZv, h = 8.848 km
= 8.848 × 10 3 m
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = ?

mgm¨v : 4| c„w_ex‡K 6.37 × 106m e¨vmv‡a©i mgmË¡ †MvjK g‡b K‡i


Ges Gi DcwiZ‡j AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb 9.81 ms−2 a‡i c„w_exi fi †ei Ki| G
= 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2. (wm.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. Õ99)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 104

g = c„w_exi e¨vmva©, R =
ev, M = 6.37 × 106 m
=
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.81 ms−2
gnvKl©xq aª“eK, G =
6.673 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2
c„w_exi fi, M = ?
= 5.965 × 10 kg
24

DËi : c„w_exi fi, = 5.965 × 1024 kg.


mgm¨v : 5| †`LvI †h †Kvb ev¯‘‡K g Gi A‡a©‡Ki mgvb Avw`‡e‡M
Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K Qy‡o w`‡j GwU 1s c‡i fzc„‡ô cwZZ n‡e| (wm.†ev.
2005)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
V = u − gt1 e¯‘wUi Avw`‡eM u = ms−1
ev, O = u − gt1 m‡e©v”P DPZvq †kl‡eM v
ev, gt1 = u =O
gt1 = t1 = s.
Avgiv Rvwb, DÌvb Kvj = cZb Kvj,
∴ cZb Kvj t2 = t1 = S.
∴ †gvU mgq t = t1 + t2
= + = 1S.
∴ AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi A‡a©K Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K Qy‡o w`‡j GwU 1s ci f‚c„‡ô
cwZZ nq|
mgm¨v : 6| DaŸ©Mvgx GKwU †ejyb †_‡K GK UzKiv cv_i †Q‡o †`Iqv
nj| cv_i †djvi mgq †ejybwU 200m Dc‡i wQj Ges GwU 8 s G f‚c„‡ô
†cuŠQvj| cv_iwU Qvovi mgq †ejy‡bi †eM KZ wQj? g = 9.8 ms−2. (Kz. †ev.
2001)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
h = ut + gt2 AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.8 ms−2
ev, 200 m = u × 8 s + × 9.8 ms−2 × †ejy‡bi D”PZv, h = 200 m
(8 s)2
†ejy‡bi †eM, − u = ? (cv_‡ii
ev, − 8 us = (313.6 − 200) m
mv‡c‡¶ †ejy‡bi †eM −v)
mgq, t = 8 s.
ev, − 8 us = 113.6 m
ev, − u =
∴ − u = 14.2 ms−1
DËi : †ejy‡bi †eM = 14.2 ms−1.
105 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgm¨v : 7| 5 kg f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K AwfK‡l©i cÖfv‡e gy³fv‡e co‡Z


†`qv nj| Gi Dci wµqvkxj e‡ji gvb KZ? 4 s c‡i Gi †eM KZ n‡e? g = 9.8 ms−
2
. (iv.†ev. 2006; Kz. †ev. 2000; 2005; e. †ev. 2001)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
f = mg fi, m = 5 kg
= 5 kg × 9.8 ms−2 mgq, t = 4s
−2
= 49 N AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.8 ms
Avevi, V = u + gt Avw`‡eM, u = 0 ms−1
= 0 + 9.8 × 4 ej, F = ?
= 39. 2 ms−1 †eM, V = ?
DËi : ej, F = 49 N Ges †eM, v = 39.2 ms−1.
mgm¨v : 8| 2.44 m j¤^v GKwU myZvi mvnv‡h¨ 2 cm e¨vm wewkó
GKwU avZe †MvjK †eu‡a ˆZwi mij †`vjK‡K `yj‡Z w`‡j Gi †`vjbKvj
KZ n‡e? g = 9.8 ms−2.
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
T = 2π myZvi ˆ`N©¨, l = 2.44 m
e¨vm, d = 2 cm
= 2 × 3.14 d
= 3.14 s
e¨vmva©, r = /2
= 1 cm
DËi : †`vjbKvj, T = 3.14 s. = 0.01 m
Kvh©Ki ˆ`N©¨, L = l+r
= 2.44 + 0.01
= 2.45 m
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.8 ms−2
†`vjbKvj, T = ?
mgm¨v : 9| GKwU mij †`vjK cÖwZ wgwb‡U 30 wU †`vjb †`q|
†`vjKwUi Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q Ki|
−2
g = 9.8 ms . (h.†ev. 2005; iv. †ev. 2000)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, T = 2π GLv‡b,
ev, T 2
= 4π ×2 mgq, t = 1 wgwbU = 60
ev, L = †m‡KÛ
†`vjbKvj, T = = = 2 †m‡KÛ
†`vjb msL¨v, N = 30
Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨, L =
?
= = .09929m
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 106

DËi : Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨, L = .09929m

mgm¨v : 10| 1 wgUvi Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ wewkó GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki 50


wU †`vj‡bi Rb¨ 100. 3s mgq jv‡M| cix¶vi ¯’v‡b AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb
wbY©q Ki| (wm.†ev. 2006; P. †ev. 2006; 2000; Kz.†ev. 2003; iv.†ev. 2005)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, T = GLv‡b,
2π Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨, L =
ev, T2 = 4π2 × 1m
ev, g = †`vjb msL¨v, N = 50
= mgq, t = 100.3 s
†`vjbKvj, T = t/N = 100.3/50 = 2.006 s.
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = ?
= 9.81 ms−2
DËi : AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.81 ms−2.

AwZwi³ MvwYwZK
mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| 30 ms−1 †e‡M Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K wbw¶ß GKwU e¯‘
m‡e©v”P KZ D”PZvq †cŠuQv‡e? GLv‡b g = 9.8ms−2| (iv. †ev. 2004)
mgvavb:
wbw¶ß e¯‘i mgxKiY n‡Z cvB,− GLv‡b,
v2
= u − 2gH
2
Avw`‡eM, u = 30 ms−1
0 = (30)2 − 2 × 9.8 × H †kl‡eM, v = 0 ms−1
19.6H = 900 AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.8ms−2
H =
m‡e©v”P D”PZv, H =?
= 45.91836
= 45.92m.
DËi : e¯‘wU m‡e©v”P 45.92m D”PZvq DV‡e|
mgm¨v : 2| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ 2.45 m| †Kvb ¯’v‡b AwZKl©R
Z¡iY 9.8ms−2 n‡j H ¯’v‡b †`vjKwUi †`vjbKvj wbY©q Ki| (mKj †evW©-
Õ98)
mgvavb:
†`vjbKvj, (T) wbY©q : †`Iqv Av‡Q,
GLb, T = 2π Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨, L =
= 2 × 3.14 2.45m
= 3.14s. AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.8ms−2

∴ wb‡Y©q †`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj


= 3.14s Ans.
107 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgm¨v : 3| GKwU e¯‘‡K 98 ms−1 †e‡M Lvov Dc‡ii w`‡K wb‡¶c Kiv
n‡jv| KZ mgq c‡i Gi †eM 0 n‡e|
mgvavb: (Xv.†ev. 2003)
Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
EaŸ©Mvgx †e‡Mi Rb¨, Avw` †eM, u = 98 ms−1
v = u − gt †kl †eM, v = 0ms−1
ev, t = = = 10 sec mgq, t = ?
AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.8 ms−2
DËi : 10 sec ci Gi †eM 0 n‡e|
mgm¨v : 4| †Kvb ¯’v‡b cix¶v K‡i Gi gvb 0.24ms−2 cvIqv †Mj| †mB
¯’v‡b g Gi gvb KZ? (h.†ev. 2003)
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, †`Iqv Av‡Q,
g = 4π 2
= 0.24ms−2
= 4 × (3.14)2 × 0.24 ms−2
= 4 × 9.86 × 0.24
= 9.46 ms−2
Ans. 9.46 ms−2.

mgm¨v : 5| c„w_exi fi 5.975 × 1024 kg Ges c„w_ex‡K 6.37 × 106 m


e¨vmv‡a©i mgmZ¡ †MvjK g‡b K‡i Gi DcwiZ‡j AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb
9.823 ms−2 a‡i G Gi gvb wbY©q Ki| [P.†ev. 2003]
mgvavb:
Avgiv Rvwb, †`Iqv Av‡Q,
g = c„w_exi e¨vmva©, R
ev, G = = 6.37 × 106m
= c„w_exi fi, M = 5.975 × 1024kg
= 6.671 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 (Ans.) AwfKl©R Z¡iY, g = 9.823
ms−2
gnvKl©xq aª“eK, G = ?
mgm¨v : 6| 20kg f‡ii GKwU e¯‘‡K Dci n‡Z †Q‡o †`Iqv nj, 15 sec ci
e¯‘wU KZ `チ iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡e?
mgvavb: (wm.†ev. 2003)
GLv‡b e¯‘i fi AwZµvš マ `チ i‡Z¡i Dci †Kvb †`Iqv Av‡Q,
cÖfve †dj‡e bv| e¯‘wUi fi, m = 20 kg
Avgiv Rvwb, h = ut + gt2 mgq, t = 15 sec
= 0 + × 9.8 × (15) [∴ g = 9.8 m/sec ]
2 2
Avw` †eM, u = 0 ms−1
= 4.9 × 225 m = 1102.5 m AwZµvš マ `チ iZ¡, h =
?
e¯‘wU Øviv AwZµvš `iZ¡ 1102.5m (Ans.)
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 108

mgm¨v : 7| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki mZvi ˆ`N©¨ 99cm| †`vjKwU 21wU


cY© †`vj‡bi Rb¨ 42 †m‡KÊ mgq e¨q K‡i| H ¯’v‡b g Gi gvb 9.8ms−2 n‡j
e‡ii e¨vm KZ?
mgvavb: Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b,
T = 2π †`vj‡Ki mZvi ˆ`N©¨  = 0.99 cm.
T 2
= 4π 2 †`vjb Kvj T = s.
L = = 2s.
+r = AwfKl©R Z¡iY g = 9.8 ms−2
0.99 + r = π2 = 9.87
Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ L = ( + r)
m
e‡ei e¨vm d = ?

ev, r = − 0.99
ev, r = 0.9929 − 0.99
r = 0.0029
∴ = 0.0029
∴ d = 0.0058 m.
= 0.58 cm.
DËi : e‡ei e¨vm 0.58 cm.

ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. GB gnvwe‡k¦i †h †Kvb `yBwU ✓ M. T ∝ K. T ∝ L2
e¯‘i g‡a¨ †h AvKl©Y Zv‡K wK 4. †Kvb e¯‘i IRb †Kv_vq me‡P‡q
e‡j? (wm.†ev. 2003) †ewk nq?
(wm.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2001; Kz.†ev.
✓ K. gnvKl© L. AwfKl© Õ99; 2000; P.†ev. Õ99)
M. gva¨vKl©Y N. w¯’wZ¯’vcKZv K. welye A‡j ✓L. †gi“ A‡ji
2. gnvKl© aª“eK G Gi GKK M. cvnv‡oi Dc‡i N.
†KvbwU? Lwbi wfZ‡i
(Xv.†ev. P.†ev. 2000; 2002; m.†ev. Õ98) 5. wjd&‡Ui †Kvb Ae¯’vi Rb¨ †Kvb
✓ K. Nm2 kg−2 L. Kg ms−2 e¨w³ IRbnxbZv Abyfe Ki‡Z
M. Nm kg−1 N. N kg m−2 cv‡ib? (iv.†ev. 2005; Kz.†ev. 2000)
3. †KŠwYK we¯vi Aí n‡j †Kvb K. wjd&UwU hLb mg‡e‡M Dc‡ii
wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b mij †`vj‡Ki w`‡K I‡V
†`vjbKvj T Ges Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ L. wjd&UwU hLb mg‡e‡M wb‡P
L Gi m¤•K© †KvbwU? (Xv.†ev. bv‡g
2006; 2004; 2001; Kz.†ev. 2003) M. wjd&UwU hLb g Z¡i‡Y Dc‡i
K. T ∝ L L. T ∝ I‡V
109 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

✓ N. wjd&UwU hLb g Z¡i‡Y wb‡P 2004]


bv‡g| ✓ K. 9.80665 ms−2 L. 9.80ms−2
M. 32ms−2 N. 8.9ms−2
AwZwi³ 8| coš e¯‘i mÎ †K cÖ`vb K‡ib?
[wm.†ev. 2001; P.†ev. Õ99]
ˆbe©¨w³K ✓ K. M¨vwjwjI L.
cÖ‡kœvËi AvwK©wgwWm
M. wbDUb N. †gixKzix
1| cÖ_g cix¶v gjK †¯•m †÷kb 9| gnvk‡b¨ cvVv‡bv cÖ_g K…
†KvbwU? [P.†ev. 2000] wÎg DcMÖ‡ni bvg wK?
K. m‡qvRÑ3 ✓ L. m‡qvRÑ4 [Kz.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. Õ99]
M. m‡qvRÑ2 N. mv‡qvRÑ1 ✓ K. ¯•yUwbK−1 L. †f‡biv
2| G− Gi ev gnvKl©xq aª“e‡Ki M. A¨v‡cv‡jv N. j¨vÛ‡mU
gvb †KvbwU? 10| gnvK‡l©i mÎwU †K cÖ`vb
[wm.†ev. 2004; Kz. †ev. 2000; Õ99; K‡ib?
Xv.†ev. 2004; Õ99; Kz.†ev. Õ99]
K. 6.673 Nm2kg−2 ✓ K. wbDUb L. M¨vwjwjI
✓ L. 6.673 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 M. AvwK©wgwWm N.
M. 7.14 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 Be‡b wmbv
N. 5.732 × 10−11 Nm2kg−2 11| †Kvb e¯‘i IRb †Kvb wel‡qi Ici
3| †Kvb& Ae¯’vq wjd‡U `uvov‡bv wbf©i K‡i?
†Kvb e¨w³i gv_v wjd‡Ui Qv‡` A_ev, wbw`©ó †Kvb e¯‘i IR‡bi gvb
†V‡K hv‡e? [h.†ev. 2000; wbf©i K‡i †KvbwUi Ici?
Xv. Õ99] [h.†ev. 2001]
✓ K. wjdwU hLb g−Gi †P‡q †ewk ✓ K. AwfKl©xq Z¡i‡Yi Ici
Z¡i‡Y wb‡P bvg‡e L. gnvKl© e‡ji Ici
L. wjdwU hLb g− Gi mgvb Z¡i‡Y M. gnvKl© aª“e‡Ki Ici
wb‡P bvg‡e N. mg‡qi Ici
M. wjdwU hLb g− Gi †P‡q †ewk 12| mh© I P‡›`ªi g‡a¨ †h AvKl©Y
Z¡i‡Y Dc‡i DV‡e †m AvKl©Y‡K wK e‡j?
N. wjdwU hLb g− Gi mgvb Z¡i‡Y K. gnvKl© L. AwfKl©
Dc‡i DV‡e M. gva¨vKl©Y N. Nl©Y
4| 1kg f‡ii `ywU e¯‘ 1m `i‡Z¡ †_‡K 13| c„w_ex I GKwU eB Gi g‡a¨ †m
†h e‡ji gva¨‡g ci¯•i‡K AvKl©Y AvKl©Y‡K wK e‡j?
K‡i Zv‡K wK e‡j? ✓ K. AwfKl© L. gnvKl©
K. gnvKl© L. AwfKl© M. Nl©Y N. w¯’wZ¯’vcKZv
[Kz.†ev. 2002] 14| G Gi ev gnvKl©xq aª“e‡Ki
M. AwfKl©R Z¡iY ✓ N. gvÎv mgxKiY †KvbwU?
gnvKl©xq aª“eK [wm.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2004; h.†ev. 2002]
5| †Kvb&wU e¯‘i †gŠwjK ag©? ✓ K. L3M−1T−2 L. L2m+2
[wm.†ev. 2002; h.†ev.Õ99] M. L3m−1T−1 N. Lm−1T−2
K. IRb L. AvqZb 15| AwfKl© e‡ji cÖfv‡e f‚c„‡ô
✓ M. fi N. me¸‡jv gy³fv‡e coš †Kvb e¯‘i †eM
6| KZ A¶vs‡k mgy`ªZ‡j g- Gi e„w×i nvi‡K wK e‡j?
gvb‡K Av`k© gvb aiv nq? ✓ K. AwfKl©R Z¡iY L. IRb
[wm.†ev. 2005; e.†ev. 2002;
M. fi gnvKl©
iv.†ev. Õ99]
16| AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv mgxKiY
†KvbwU?
K. 22.50 L. 350 ✓ K. LT−2 L. LT−3
0
✓ M. 45 N. 400 M. LT −1
N. MLT−4
7| 'g' Gi Av`k© gvb KZ? 17| †h fvix e¯‘wU‡K myZvi
[h.†ev. Õ99; Xv.†ev. 2003; Kz.†ev. mvnv‡h¨ Szwj‡q mij †`vjK ˆZwi
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 110

Kiv nq Zv‡K wK e‡j? M. 1957 mv‡j N. 1747 mv‡j


✓ K. ee ev wcÊ L. myZvi ˆ`N©¨ 26| gnvkb¨ hvÎvi cÖ_g mPbv
M. Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ N. †Kvb †`k K‡i?
K¤•v¼ ✓ K. †mvwf‡qZ BDwbqb L.
18| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki e‡ei d«vÝ
mvg¨ve¯’vb †_‡K †h †Kvb M. Pxb N. Av‡gwiKv
GKw`‡Ki m‡e©v”P `iZ¡‡K 27| A¨v‡c‡jv− 11 P›`ªhv‡b
wK e‡j? gnvkb¨Pvix KZRb wQj?
✓ K. we¯vi L. Kvh©Kix ✓ K. wZb Rb L. Pvi Rb
ˆ`N©¨ M. cuvP Rb N. Qq Rb
M. myZivi ˆ`N©¨ N. K¤•v¼ 28| f‚-c„ô †_‡K hZ Dc‡i DVv hvq
19| GK †m‡K‡Û GKwU mij †`vjK AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb ZZÑ
hZ¸‡jv cY© †`vjb m¤•bœ K‡i [Kz.†ev. 2002]
Zv‡K wK e‡j? K. evo‡Z _v‡K L. AcwiewZ©Z
✓ K. K¤•v¼ L. †`vjbKvj ✓ M. Kg‡Z _v‡K N. aª“e nq
M. we¯vi N. cY© †`vjb 29| P›`ªc„‡ô †K cÖ_g cv iv‡Lb?
20| †gi“ A‡j 'g' Gi gvb KZ? ✓ K. bxj Avg©Öªs L. A¨vjwWªb
[h.†ev. 2005; ewi.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev. 2002] M. M¨vMvwib N. A¨v‡jb
K. 9.80665 ms−2 ✓ L. 9.83217ms−2 30| KZ mv‡j A¨v‡cv‡jvÑ11 P›`ªc„‡ô
M. 9.78039ms−2 N. 9.789ms−2 Mgb K‡i?
21| †Kvb e¯‘‡K c„w_ex †h ej Øviv ✓ K. 1969 mv‡j L. 1869 mv‡j
Zvi †K‡›`ªi w`‡K AvKl©Y K‡i M. 1769 mv‡j N. 1669 mv‡j
Zv‡K e¯‘i wK e‡j? 31| mij †`vj‡Ki †`vjbKv‡ji mwVK
✓ K. IRb L. fi mgxKiY †Kvb&wU?
M. Z¡iY N. fi‡eM [P.†ev. 2005]
22| c„w_exi †K‡›`ª AwfKl©R Z¡iY ✓ K. T = 2 π L. T = 2 π
Ges e¯‘i IRb KZ?
[Xv.†ev. 2002] M. T = π N. T = 2π
✓ K. kb¨ L. me©vwaK 32| ¯•yUwbK Dr‡¶c‡bi KZ eQi ci
M. me©wbæ N. 9.8ms−2 M¨vMvwib‡K gnvk‡b¨
cvVv‡bv nq? [h.†ev. 2002]
23| †KŠwYK we¯vi Aí n‡j Ges K. cÖvq wZb eQi L. cÖvq cuvP
mij‡`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ (L) eQi
AcwiewZ©Z _vK‡j Gi †`vjbKvj ✓ M. cÖvq Pvi eQi N. cÖvq mvZ
(T) Ges AwfKl©R Z¡iY (g) Gi eQi
m¤•K© †KvbwU? [Kz.†ev. 2001] 33| gnvKl© ej †KvbwUi Ici wbf©i
A_ev, †KvbwU mij †`vj‡Ki †¶‡Î K‡i?
cÖ‡hvR¨? ✓ K. e¯‘؇qi f‡ii Ici
[iv.†ev. 2002; wm.†ev. 2002] L. e¯‘؇qi cÖK…wZi Ici
A_ev, †KvbwU mij †`vj‡Ki Z¡i‡Yi M. c„w_exi f‡ii Ici
mÎ? [Kz.†ev. 2005] N. e¯‘؇qi AvK…wZi Ici
34| w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq
K. T ∝ ✓ L. T ∝ coš e¯‘ wbw`©ó mg‡q †h
M. T ∝ g N. T ∝ `iZ¡ (h) AwZµg K‡i Zv H
24| evwYwR¨K Kv‡R e¨env‡ii Rb¨ mg‡qi (t) †¶‡Î †KvbwU mZ¨?
cÖ_g cvVv‡bv DcMÖnÑ [P.†ev. 2002]
[h.†ev. 2001] K. h ∝ t ✓ L. h ∝ t2
K. ¯•yUwbK−1 L. fÖK−1 M. h ∝ N. h = t2
✓ M. Bb‡Uj‡mU−1 N. j¨vÛ‡Ö−1 35| w¯’i Ae¯’vb †_‡K webv evavq
25| gnvkb¨ hvÎvi cÖ_g c`‡¶c KZ coš e¯‘ wbw`©ó mg‡q (t)
mv‡j mPbv nq? cÖvß †eM (v)ÑGi †¶‡Î †KvbwU
✓ K. 1957 mv‡j L. 1857 mv‡j mZ¨?
111 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

K. v = t ✓ L. v ∝ t ✓ M. 6 ¸Y Kg N. mgvb
M. v ∝ t2 N. v ∝ 45| 5 kg f‡ii e¯‘i †eM kb¨ n‡j Gi
36| IR‡bi gvÎv †KvbwU? [Xv.†ev. fi‡eM KZ n‡e?
2005; P.†ev. 2002] K. 5 GKK L. 1 GKK
K. [MLT1] ✓ L. [MLT−2] M. 0.5 GKK ✓ N. 0 GKK
M. [ML−2T−1] N. [ML2T−2] 46| wbw¶ß e¯‘i m‡e©v”P
37| GKwU mij †`vj‡Ki ˆ`N©¨ L D”PZvq †kl †eM KZ?
myZvi ˆ`N©¨  Ges e‡ei (Kz.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2003)
e¨vmva© r n‡j †m †¶‡Î †KvbwU K. 9.8 ms−1 L. −9.8 ms−1
mwVK mgxKiY?
[h.†ev. 2006] ✓ M. 6.673 × 10−11N N. 6.673 × 1011N
K. 1 = L + r L. 1 = L × r 47| BDwi M¨vMvwib †Kvb&
✓ M. L = 1 + r N. L = 1 − r †`‡ki Awaevmx? (iv.†ev. 2003)
38| Szjb we›`y †_‡K e‡ei fvi †K›`ª K. Av‡gwiKvi L. Rvcv‡bi
ch©š `iZ¡‡K wK ejv nq? ✓ M. †mvwf‡qU BDwbq‡bi N.
K. myZvi ˆ`N©¨ ✓ L. Avie †`‡ki
Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ 48| AwfKl©R Z¡i‡Yi gvb
M. we¯vi N. K¤•v¼ me‡P‡q †ewk †Kv_vq?
39| †Kvb e¯‘i AwfKl© †K›`ª KqwU? [ewi.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2000]
[iv.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2001]
✓ K. †gi“ A‡j L. welye A‡j
✓ K. 1wU L. 2wU M. µvšxq A‡j N.mgy`ª M‡f©
M. A‡bK¸‡jv N. 3wU 49| c„w_ex‡Z †Kvb e¯‘i fi 60 kg
40| KZ mv‡j me©cÖ_g gvbyl n‡j Puv‡` H e¯‘i fi KZ? (Kz.†ev.
c„w_ex‡K cwiågY Ki‡Z 2004; Xv.†ev. 2003)
m¶g nq? K. 10 Kg ✓ L. 60 Kg
K. 1661 mv‡j L. 1761 mv‡j M. 15 Kg N. 0 Kg
M. 1861 mv‡j ✓ N. 1961 mv‡j 50| 450 A¶vs‡k mgy`ª mgZ‡j gÑGi
41| m f‡ii †Kvb e¨w³ GKwU wjd‡U gvb KZ?(P.†ev. 2003)
g-Gi mgvb Z¡i‡Y Dc‡i DV‡Z
A_ev, AwfKl©R Z¡iY 'g' Gi
_vK‡j Zvi IRb KZ n‡e? Av`k©gvb KZ? [Kz.†ev. 2006;
K. mg ✓ L. 2mg Õ04]
M. O N. mg2 K. 9.78918 ms−2 L. 9.8 3217 ms−2
42| cÖ_g gwnjv gnvkb¨Pvixi bvg ✓ M. 9.8066 5ms−2 N. 9.72851 ms−2
wK? 51| 1 kg f‡ii `yBwU e¯‘ 1 wgUvi
✓ K. †f‡jbwUbv †U‡im‡Kvfv `‡i Ae¯’vb Ki‡j Giv ci¯•i‡K †K
L. †f‡jbv wWbv KZ e‡j AvKl©Y K‡i?
M. DB‡jv n¨v‡jbfv (wm.†ev. 2006; h.†ev; Kz.†ev. 2003)
N. M¨v‡jbv·‡Kv K. 6.673 × 1010 N L. 6.673 × 1010N
43| gnvkb¨Pvix gnvkb¨hv‡b M. 98 ms−1 ✓ N. 6.673 × 10−11N
c„w_ex cÖ`w¶YiZ _vKvi mgq 52| gnvk‡b¨ Awfhv‡bi eo evav
wb‡R‡K IRbnxb g‡b K‡ib †Kb? †KvbwU?
K. H `i‡Z¡ c„w_exi †Kvb K. Aw·‡R‡bi Afve L. Lv`¨en‡bi
gnvKl©xq ej bvB Amyweav
✓ L. gnvkb¨Pvix g- Gi gv‡bi mgvb ✓ M. c„w_exi AwfKl© ej N. Av‡jvi
gv‡b Z¡wiZ nq Afve
M. gnvkb¨hv‡bi †eM 53| mij †`vj‡Ki †`vjbKvj T Ges
AcwiewZ©Z _v‡K Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ L Gi g‡a¨ †Kvb
N. gnvkb¨hvb gnvkb¨Pvixi †P‡q m¤•K©wU mwVK? (wm.†ev. 06;
axi MwZ‡Z P‡j e.†ev. 2003)
44| Puv‡` †Kvb e¯‘i IRb c„w_ex
n‡ZÑ K. T ∝ L L. T ∝
K. 7 ¸Y Kg L. 3 ¸Y Kg ✓ M. T2 ∝ L N. T ∝ L2
gnvKl© I AwfKl© 112

54| gy³fv‡e GKwU coš e¯‘ 1g [Xv.†ev. 2004; P.†ev. 2005]


†m‡K‡Û 3m `iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡j 5 ✓ K. AwfKl© L. gnvKl©
†m‡K‡Û KZ `iZ¡ AwZµg Ki‡e? M. AwfKl©R Z¡iY N.
K. 15m L. 5 m (e.†ev. gnvKl©xq aª“eK
2003) 64| c„w_ex c„‡ô †Kvb e¯‘i fi
M. 25 m ✓ N. 75 m. 50kg n‡j f‚-†K‡›`ª H e¯‘i fi KZ
55| GKwU †`vj‡Ki Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ n‡e? [h.†ev. 2004]
9 ¸Y Ki‡j †`vjbKvj KZ n‡e?
K. 0 kg L. 12.5 kg
[Xv.†ev. 2004]
K. 1 ¸Y L. 2 ¸Y M. 5 kg ✓ N. 50 kg
✓ M. 3 ¸Y N. 4 ¸Y 65| GB gnvwe‡k¦ †h-†Kvb
56| wi‡gvU †mbwms ev `i `yBwU e¯‘KYvi ga¨eZx©i
Abyave‡bi Rb¨ cvVv‡bv cÖ_g AvKl©Y e‡ji gvb †Kvb&wUi Dci
DcMÖn †Kvb&wU? wbf©i K‡i?[h.†ev. 2004]
[P.†ev. 2006] K. gva¨‡gi cÖK…wZ
K. cv‡qwbqvi L. gvim−2 L.e¯‘؇qi AvK…wZ
M. A¨v‡cv‡jv−11 ✓ N. ✓ M. `iZ¡ N. e¯‘؇qi cÖK…
j¨vʇmU−1 wZ
57| welye A‡j g-Gi gvb KZ? 66| ÔjvBKvÕ bv‡gi KzKziwU
[P.†ev. 2006] †Kvb& DcMÖ‡ni hvÎx wQj?
✓ K. 9.78039ms−1 L. 9.78918ms−2 [Kz.†ev. 2004]
M. 9.83217ms−2 N. 9.80665ms−2 K. ¯•yUwbK−I✓ L. ¯•yUwbK− II
58| AwfKl©R Z¡iY fvM n‡j M. †¯‹vi N. jybv−3
†`vjbKvj KZ¸Y n‡e? [w¯’i 67| †KvbwU mwVK bq?
ˆ`N©¨] [P. †ev. 2004]
K. 4 ¸Y L. ¸Y [Xv.†ev. K. g-Gi gvb e¯‘i f‡ii Dci wbf©i K‡i
2005] bv|
✓ M. 2 ¸Y N. ¸Y ✓ L. g-Gi gvb ¯’vb wbi‡c¶
59| †¯•m kvU‡ji cÖavb myweav M. g-Gi gvb e¯‘ wbi‡c¶
†KvbwU? [h.†ev. 2005] N. e¯‘i IRb g-Gi gv‡bi Dci
K. R¡vjvwb Kg jv‡M wbf©ikxj
L. `yN©Ubv NUvi m¤¢vebv Kg 68| mij †`vj‡Ki †¶‡Î †KvbwU
✓ M. evievi e¨envi Kiv hvq mwVK? [P. †ev. 2004]
N. `ª“Z MwZm¤•bœ K. Kvh©Kix ˆ`N©¨ †ewk n‡j
60| †KvbwU mij †`vj‡Ki Z¡i‡Yi †`vjbKvj †ewk nq
mÎ? [Kz.†ev. 2005] ✓ L. †`vjbKvj †KŠwYK we¯v‡ii Dci
K. T ∝ L. T ∝ L wbf©i K‡i
✓ M. T ∝ N. T ∝ M. †`vjbKvj e‡ei f‡ii Dci wbf©i K‡i
61| †Kvb mgxKiYwU mwVK? N. e‡ei Dcv`v‡bi cwieZ©b †`vjbKvj
[ewi.†ev. 2005] cwiewZ©Z nq
K. 4gT2 = π2L L. g = 69| †fbvm MÖ‡n AeZiYKvix
cÖ_g gnvkb¨hv‡bi bvg wK?
M. L = ✓ N. L =
[wm. †ev. 2004]
62| †Kvb e¯‘i IRb 9.81N n‡j Zvi fi K. gvim−2 ✓ L. †f‡biv−3
KZ? M. jybv−9 N. m‡qvR−4
[wm.†ev. 2001; ewi. †ev. 2006]
70| ¯•yUwbK-II Gi hvÎx wQj †K?
K. 9.80 kg L. 9.81 kg ✓ K. jvBKv bvgK KzKzi L.
M. 981 kg ✓ N. 1 kg b‡fvPvix
63| c„w_ex I GKwU e¯‘i g‡a¨ †h M. evbvi N. weovj
AvKl©Y Zv‡K wK e‡j?