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A a¨vq


_gAa¨vq
2
cw
i gvc ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
Abykxjbxi msw¶ßÑDËi cÖkœ cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Gm. AvB GK‡Ki S.I. ej‡Z wK cÖkœ : 1| cwigv‡ci GK‡Ki cÖ‡qvRbxqZv
†evSvq? (iv. †ev. wK ? (Xvt †evt Õ99)
cÖkœ : 2| gvÎv mgxKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ v = u + at
mgxKiYwUi mwVKZv hvPvB Ki|
2000; 2005; ewi.†ev. 2005; P.
(Xvt †evt 2000; iv.†ev. 2003)
†ev. Õ99 ; Kz. †ev. 2001)
cÖkœ : 3| gvÎv mgxKi‡Yi mvn‡h¨ s = ut +
cÖkœ : 2| cwigvc ej‡Z wK †evS? mgxKiYwUi mZ¨Zv hvPvB Ki|
[ewi.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2000;
(Xvt †evt 2000; e.†ev. 2003)
Xv.†ev. Õ99]
cÖkœ : 4| jwMô MYb ej‡Z wK †evS ?
cÖkœ : 3| ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK wgUvi wK‡mi (Kz.†ev. 2004; ewi.†ev. 2003; Xv.
wfwˇZ mywbw`©ó Kiv n‡q‡Q? †ev. Õ99; )
cÖkœ : 4| úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i e¨envi cÖkœ : 5| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wKfv‡e
wjL| [ewi.†ev. 2004] wbY©q Kiv hvq? (wm.†ev. 2003)
cÖkœ : 5| Zzjv hš ミ wK Kv‡R e¨envi Kiv
nq?
cÖkœ : 6| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wK? Abykxjbxi
(ewi.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2005; Xv.
†ev. 2005; 2001; iv. †ev. 2001 ; P.
iPbvg チ jK
†ev. 2001; wm.†ev. 2006; 2003; cÖkœ : 1| cwigvc ej‡Z wK †evSvq?
h.†ev. 2004) cwigv‡ci GKK Kv‡K e‡j?
cÖkœ : 7| hvwš ミ K ΓwU ej‡Z wK †evS? (Xv. †ev. 2004; Õ99; P.†ev. 2004;
abvÍK I FYvÍK ΓwU ej‡Z wK †evS? Kz. †ev. 2006; 2000)
(iv.†ev. 2001; Kz.†ev. 2003) cÖkœ : 2| †gŠwjK GKK I jä GKK ej‡Z wK
cÖkœ : 8| †gŠwjK GKK wK? †evSvq? cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki `ywU K‡i D`vniY
(iv.†ev. h.†ev. 2004; ewi.†ev. `vI|
2002) (wm.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2005;
cÖkœ : 9| gvB‡µv, wgwj I P.†ev. 2002)
wK‡jvwgUvi ej‡Z wK eyS? cÖkœ : 3| ˆ`N©¨ I f‡ii Av`k© GKK
[ewi.†ev. 2002; wKfv‡e wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q
iv.†ev. 2004] eY©bv Ki|
cÖkœ : 10| †gMv, wMMv I b¨v‡bv ej‡Z 10 cÖkœ : 4| GK‡Ki Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ
Gi m チ PK KZ †evSvq? (Gm. AvB GKK) ej‡Z wK eyS? G
c×wZi †gŠwjK GKK¸‡jvi bvg wjL|
AwZwi³ G c×wZ †Kb myweavRbK?
14 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

(ewi.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. Õ99; iv. mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘i ˆ`N©¨ I AvqZb
†ev. 2005; 2000; Kz. †ev. 2001; wKfv‡e †ei Kiv hvq?
Xv.†ev. 2003; h.†ev. 2006; 2003) cÖkœ : 9| GKwU fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji eY©bv
cÖkœ : 5| Zzjvhš ミ wK? Gi eY©bv `vI| GB `vI| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wK, eywS‡q
h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ wKfv‡e e¯‘i fi †jL| (Xv.†ev. 2001; 2005; Kz.†ev.
wbY©q Kiv nq? 2003; wm.†ev. 2003)
cÖkœ : 6| gvÎv mgxKiY ej‡Z wK eyS? Gi cÖkœ : 10| jwNô MYb ej‡Z wK
cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wK? eyS? GKwU ¯Œz M‡Ri eY©bv `vI|
(P.†ev. 2003; Xv.†ev. 2006; Õ02; Gi mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘i e¨vm wK
2000 ; iv.†ev. Õ98 ; h.†ev. Õ02; K‡i wbY©q Kiv hvq eY©bv Ki|
2000 ; e.†ev 2006; Õ01 ; iv.†ev. (P.†ev. Õ99; ewi. †ev.
Õ01; Kz.†ev. Õ02; wm.†ev. 2002 ) 2003)
cÖkœ : 7| gvÎv mgxKiY Kv‡K e‡j? Gi A_ev, jwNô MYb ej‡Z wK eyS?
e¨envi wjL| †eM, Z¡iY I Nb‡Z¡i gvÎv (h.†ev. iv.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev.
mgxKiY `vI| 2002; Xv.†ev. 2006; 2001; Kz.†ev.
cÖkœ : 8| úvBW K¨vwjcvm© wK? Gi 2006; 2001)

Abykxjbxi
msw¶ßÑDËi
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Gm. AvB GK‡Ki S.I. ej‡Z wK †evSvq? (iv. †ev. 2000; 2005;
ewi.†ev. 2005; P. †ev. Õ99 ; Kz. †ev. 2001)
DËi : Gm. AvB GK‡Ki S.I. :
cwigv‡ci Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ‡K ejv nq− International System of Units. G‡KB
ms‡¶‡c S.I ejv nq|
ˆ`wbK KvRKg© I e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i Kvi‡Y cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB gvc‡Rv‡Li
cÖPjb wQj| GB gvc‡Rv‡Li Rb¨ wewfbœ ivwki ¯’vbxq ev GjvKvwfwËK eû
GKK cÖPwjZ wQj| ˆeÁvwbK Z‡_¨i Av`vb-cÖ`vb I e¨emv-evwYR¨ cÖmv‡ii
Rb¨ mviv we‡k¦ gvc‡Rv‡Li GKB iKg Av`‡k©i cÖ‡qvRb n‡q c‡o| GB
ZvwM‡`B 1960 mv‡j `ywbqv †Rvov wewfbœ ivwki GKB iKg GKK Pvjy Kivi
wm×vš マ nq| GK‡Ki GB c×wZ‡K ejv nq GK‡Ki Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ ev
ms‡¶‡c Gm. AvB (S.I) GKK|
cÖkœ : 2| cwigvc ej‡Z wK †evS? [ewi.†ev. 2004; Kz.†ev. 2000; Xv.†ev. Õ99]
DËi : cwigvc : †Kvb wKQyi cwigvY wbY©q Kiv‡K ejv nq cwigvc|
D`vniY : wgZvi K¬vk †_‡K ¯‹z‡ji Awd‡m †h‡Z 45 †m‡KÛ mgq jv‡M| GLv‡b
45 †m‡KÛ nj mg‡qi cwigvc|
cÖkœ : 3| ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK wgUvi wK‡mi wfwˇZ mywbw`©ó Kiv
n‡q‡Q?
DËi : ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK wgUvi wba©vi‡Yi wfwË :
cwigvc 15

ˆ`N©¨ GKwU †gŠwjK ivwk| †h †Kvb †gŠwjK ivwki GKK ev Av`‡k©i


wbæwjwLZ ˆewk󨸇jv _vK‡Z nq−
1. GwU n‡Z n‡e AcwieZ©bxq- ¯’vb, Kvj, cv·f‡` Gi †Kvb cwieZ©b
n‡e bv|
2. Kv‡ji weeZ©b ev Ab¨ †Kvb cÖvK…wZK cwieZ©‡bi d‡j Gi †Kvb
cwieZ©b n‡e bv|
3. GKKwU ev Av`k©wU cybi“rcv`b Kiv hv‡e|
GB me ˆewk‡ó¨i w`‡K j¶¨ †i‡L GLb `チ i‡Z¡i GKK wgUvi‡K Av‡jvi AwZµvš マ `チ
iZ¡ w`‡q msÁvwqZ Kiv nq|
Òevqy k チ b¨ ¯’v‡b Av‡jv †m‡K‡Û †h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K 1 wgUvi e‡j|
Ó
Zvi Av‡M GK cÖKvi Av‡jvi Zi½ ˆ`‡N©¨i mvnv‡h¨ wgUv‡ii msÁv †`Iqv nZ|
ZviI Av‡M c¨vwi‡mi wbK‡U m¨v‡å‡Z ivLv GKwU `‡Êi ˆ`N©¨‡K wgUv‡ii
Av`k© aiv nZ|
cÖkœ : 4| úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i e¨envi wjL| [ewi.†ev. 2004]
DËi : úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i e¨envi :
wbæwjwLZ †¶‡Î m チ¶¥ cwigv‡ci Rb¨ GB hš ミ e¨eüZ nq| h_v−
1. `‡Êi ˆ`N©¨ wbY©‡q 3. wmwjÛv‡ii ˆ`N©¨ I e¨vm wbY©‡q
2. †Mvj‡Ki e¨vm wbY©‡q 4. duvcv b‡ji Aš マ te¨vm I ewnte¨vm
wbY©‡q|
cÖkœ : 5| Zzjv hš ミ wK Kv‡R e¨envi Kiv nq?
DËi : Zzjv hš ミ :
†Kvb †Kvb mgq c`v_©we`¨v ev imvqbwe`¨vq Lye Aí cwigvY wRwb‡mi fi
m チ ¶¥fv‡e wbY©q Ki‡Z nq| hv mvaviY wbw³ w`‡q Kiv hvq bv| e¯‘ ev
c`v‡_©i cwigvY hZ Kg n‡e Zvi fi cwigv‡ci wbw³ n‡Z n‡e ZZ m チ¶¥| GiKg
GKwU m チ¶¥ wbw³ nj Zzjvhš ミ|
e¨envi :
1. c`v_©we`¨v I imvqbwe`¨vi j¨ve‡iUwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq|
2. ¯^‡Y©i †`vKv‡b ¯^‡Y©i fi wbY©q Ki‡Z e¨eüZ nq|
cÖkœ : 6| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wK? (ewi.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2005; Xv.
†ev. 2005; 2001; iv. †ev. 2001 ; P. †ev. 2001; wm.†ev. 2006; 2003; h.†ev.
2004)
DËi : fvwY©qvi aª“eK :
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg GK fv‡Mi †P‡q fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji GK fvM KZUzKz †QvU Zvi
cwigvY‡K ejv nq fvwY©qvi aª“eK|
MvwYwZKfv‡e,
fvwY©qvi aª“eK = cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg 1 fvM − fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji 1 fvM
16 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

GLb, fvwY©qv‡ii 10 fvM = cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg 9 fvM ev 9 wgwjwgUvi


∴ cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg 1 fvM n‡jv 1 wgwjwgUvi
∴ fvwY©qv‡ii 1 fvM = wg.wg.
∴ fvwY©qvi aª“eK = 1 wg.wg. − wg.wg
= (1 − ) wg.wg. = wg.wg.
= 0.1 wg.wg. = 0.01 †m.wg.|
†Kvb †Kvb mgq fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji 20 fvM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji 19 ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi
mgvb _v‡K Ges cÖavb †¯‹‡ji GK ¶z`ªZg fvM Imm Gi †P‡q Kg _v‡K| ZLb
fvwY©qvi aª“eK cwiewZ©Z n‡q hvq| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wbf©i K‡i cÖavb
†¯‹j I fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji `vM KvUvi ˆewk‡ó¨i Ici|
cÖkœ : 7| hvwš ミ K ΓwU ej‡Z wK †evS? abvÍK I FYvÍK ΓwU ej‡Z
wK †evS? (iv.†ev. 2001; Kz.†ev. 2003)
DËi : hvwš ミ K ΓwU :
g チ j †¯‹‡ji †Pvqvj Ges fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji †Pvqvj hLb †j‡M _v‡K ZLb mvaviYZ
fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `vM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi mv‡_ wg‡j hvq| A‡bK
h‡š ミ bvI wgj‡Z cv‡i| ZLb eyS‡Z n‡e hvwš ミ K ΓwU i‡q‡Q Ges Gi Rb¨ cvV
ms‡kvab K‡i wb‡Z nq|
hvwš ミ K ΓwU `yB cÖKvi| h_v−
1. abvÍK ΓwU; 2. FYvÍK ΓwU|
abvÍK ΓwU : fvwY©qv‡ii k チ b¨ `vM g チ j †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi Wvb cv‡k
_vK‡j ΓwU n‡e abvÍK|
FYvÍK ΓwU : fvwY©qv‡ii k チ b¨ `vM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi evg cv‡k
_vK‡j ΓwU n‡e FYvÍK|
cÖkœ : 8| †gŠwjK GKK wK?
(iv.†ev. h.†ev. 2004; ewi.†ev. 2002)
DËi : †gŠwjK GKK :
†gŠwjK ivwki GKK‡K †gŠwjK GKK ejv nq| A_ev, †h me †gŠwjK †fŠZ ivwki
GKK ci¯•i wbf©ikxj bq Zv‡`i ejv nq †gŠwjK GKK|
e¨vL¨v :
†gŠwjK GKK †evSvi Rb¨ †gŠwjK ivwki msÁv Rvbv cÖ‡qvRb| Ò†h mKj
ivwk ¯^vaxb ev wbi‡c¶, †h Ab¨ ivwki Dci wbf©i K‡i bv eis Ab¨vb¨ ivwk
G‡`i Dci wbf©i K‡i Zv‡`i‡K †gŠwjK ivwk e‡j|Ó
Ávb weÁv‡bi mKj kvLv cÖkvLvq gvc-†Rv‡Li †¶‡Î weÁvbxiv Giƒc mvZwU
ivwk‡K †gŠwjK ivwkiƒ‡c wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| G¸‡jv n‡jv−
1. ˆ`N©¨ 5. Zwor cÖevn
2. fi 6. `xcb ¶gZv
3. mgq 7. c`v‡_©i cwigvY|
4. ZvcgvÎv
DcwiD³ ivwki GKK¸‡jvK †gŠwjK GKK e‡j|
cwigvc 17

D`vniY : ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK  †mw›UwgUvi, wgUvi, dzU|


f‡ii GKK  MÖvg, wK‡jvMÖvg, cvDÛ|
mg‡qi GKK  †m‡KÛ|
cÖkœ : 9| gvB‡µv, wgwj I wK‡jvwgUvi ej‡Z wK eyS? [ewi.†ev. 2002;
iv.†ev. 2004]
DËi : gvB‡µv, wgwj I wK‡jvwgUvi :
gvB‡µv, wgwj I wK‡jvwgUvi me¸‡jvB †gŠwjK ivwki GKK| Avš マ R©vwZK
c×wZ‡Z `チ i‡Z¡i GKK nj wgUvi| wgUv‡ii mv‡_ gvB‡µv, wgwj I wK‡jv GB
wZbwU DcmM© †hvM K‡i g チ j GKK wgUvi‡K Zvi Dc¸wYZK ev ¸wYZ‡K
cÖKvk Kiv nq| h_v−
1 gvB‡µvwgUvi = 1× = 10− 6 wgUvi|
1 wgwjwgUvi = 1× = 10− 3 wgUvi|
1 wK‡jvwgUvi= 1 × 1000 wgUvi = 103 wgUvi|

cÖkœ : 10| †gMv, wMMv I b¨v‡bv ej‡Z 10 Gi m チ PK KZ †evSvq?


DËi : DcmM© Drcv`K ms‡KZ D`vniY
†gMv (mega) 106 M 1 †gMvIqvU = 106 W
wMMv (giga) 109 G 1 wMMv Ryj = 109 J
b¨v‡bv (nano) 10 − 9 n 1 b¨v‡bv †m‡KÛ
= 10 − 9S

Abykxjbxi
iPbvg チ jK
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| cwigvc ej‡Z wK †evSvq? cwigv‡ci GKK Kv‡K e‡j? (Xv. †ev.
2004; Õ99; P.†ev. 2004; Kz. †ev. 2006; 2000)
DËi : cwigvc :
†Kvb wKQyi cwigvY wbY©q Kiv‡K ejv nq cwigvc|
D`vniY : wgZvi K¬vk †_‡K ¯‹z‡ji Awd‡m †h‡Z 45 †m‡KÛ mgq jv‡M|
GLv‡b 45 †m‡KÛ mg‡qi cwigvY|
cwigv‡ci GKK :
†h Av`k© cwigv‡Yi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i †fŠZ ivwk‡K cwigvc Kiv nq Zv‡K ejv
nq cwigv‡ci GKK| A_ev †h-†Kvb cwigv‡ci Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb GKwU ÷¨vÊvW©
ev Av`‡k©i hvi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i cwigvc Kiv nq| GB wbw`©ó cwigv‡ci
mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i mgMÖ †fŠZ ivwk‡K cwigvc Kiv nq| cwigv‡ci GB Av`k©
cwigvY‡K ejv nq cwigv‡ci GKK|
18 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

e¨vL¨v :
g‡b Kwi, †Kvb GKwU jvwVi ˆ`N©¨ 5 wgUvi| GLv‡b wgUvi n‡jv ˆ`‡N©¨i
GKK Ges 5 wgUvi ej‡Z eySvq cuvPwU GK wgUv‡ii cuvP ¸Y ˆ`N©¨|
D`vniY : wgUvi, wK‡jvwgUvi, wK‡jvMÖvg, †m‡KÛ, Ryj BZ¨vw` GK‡Ki
D`vniY| †hgb− Avgvi evwo †_‡K ¯‹z‡ji `チ iZ¡ 1 wK‡jvwgUvi|
cÖkœ : 2| †gŠwjK GKK I jä GKK ej‡Z wK †evSvq? cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki `ywU K‡i
D`vniY `vI|
(wm.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. 2002)
DËi : †gŠwjK GKK :
†gŠwjK ivwki GKK‡K †gŠwjK GKK ejv nq| A_ev, †h me †gŠwjK, †fŠZ ivwki
GKK ci¯•i wbf©ikxj bq Zv‡`i ejv nq †gŠwjK GKK|
e¨vL¨v :
†gŠwjK GKK †evSvi Rb¨ †gŠwjK ivwki msÁv Rvbv cÖ‡qvRb| Ò†h mKj
ivwk ¯^vaxb ev wbi‡c¶ †h Ab¨ ivwki Dci wbf©i K‡i bv eis Ab¨vb¨ ivwk
G‡`i Dci wbf©i K‡i Zv‡`i‡K †gŠwjK ivwk e‡j|Ó
Ávb weÁv‡bi mKj kvLv cÖkvLvq gvc-†Rv‡Li †¶‡Î weÁvbxiv Giƒc mvZwU
ivwk‡K †gŠwjK ivwk iƒ‡c wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| G¸‡jv nj−
1. ˆ`N©¨ 5. Zwor cÖevn
2. fi 6. `xcb ¶gZv I
3. mgq 7. c`v‡_©i cwigvY|
4. ZvcgvÎv
DcwiD³ ivwki GKK¸‡jv‡K †gŠwjK GKK e‡j|
D`vniY : †hgb− ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK  †mwÈwgUvi, wgUvi, dzU|
f‡ii GKK  MÖvg, wK‡jvMÖvg, cvDÛ|
mg‡qi GKK  †m‡KÛ|
jä GKK :
†h mg¯ マ GKK †gŠwjK GKK †_‡K cÖwZcv`b Kiv n‡q‡Q ev cvIqv †M‡Q
Zv‡`i ejv nq jä GKK|
e¨vL¨v :
†h mKj ivwk †gŠwjK ivwki Dci wbf©i K‡i ev †gŠwjK ivwk †_‡K jvf Kiv hvq
Zv‡`i‡K jä ivwk e‡j| Kv‡RB †h †Kvb jä ivwki GKKB jä GKK| †hgb−
Avgiv Rvwb,
ej = fi × Z¡iY = fi × = fi ×
myZivs ej GKwU jä ivwk hv wZbwU †gŠwjK ivwk fi, ` チ iZ¡ Ges mg‡qi
mv‡_ m¤•wK©Z| fi, `チ iZ¡ Ges mg‡qi GKK †_‡K e‡ji GKK wbY©q Kiv hvq|
ZvB e‡ji GKK GKwU jä GKK|
D`vniY : †¶Îd‡ji GKK eM©‡mwÈwgUvi, eM©wgUvi, eM©dzU
e‡ji GKK WvBb, wbDUb, cvDÊvj BZ¨vw`|
cÖkœ : 3| ˆ`N©¨ I f‡ii Av`k© GKK wKfv‡e wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q
cwigvc 19

eY©bv Ki|
DËi : ˆ`N©¨ I f‡ii Av`k© GKK wba©viY :
†gŠwjK ivwki GKKmg チ n †h‡nZz Ab¨ GKK¸‡jvi Dci wbf©i K‡i bv, ZvB
†gŠwjK GKK B‡”QgZ wbe©vPb Kiv hvq| wKš‘ †mB wbe©vP‡bi
Avš マ R©vwZK ¯^xK…wZ _vK‡Z n‡e| Gi K‡qKwU ˆewkó¨I _vK‡Z n‡e|
†hgb− GwU n‡Z n‡e AcwieZx©Z− ¯’vb, Kvj, cvÎ †Kvb wKQyi Dci wbf©i
Ki‡e bv| Kv‡ji weeZ©‡b mgq ev Ab¨ †Kvb cÖvK…wZK cwieZ©‡bi d‡j Gi
†Kvb cwieZ©b n‡e bv| mn‡R GKKwU cybi“rcv`b Kiv hv‡e|
1960 mv‡j GK‡Ki Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ Pvjyi mgq †gŠwjK GKK¸‡jvi †h
Av`k© ev ÷¨vÊvW© MÖnY Kiv n‡qwQj cieZx©Kv‡j Dchy³ ˆewk󨸇jv
AR©‡bi j‡¶¨ G‡`i A‡bK¸‡jvi Av`k© e`j Kiv n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ Zv‡Z GKK¸‡jvi
gv‡bi †Kvb cwieZ©b nq wb| †hgb− GLb Av‡jvi AwZµvš マ ` チ iZ¡ w`‡q
wgUvi‡K msÁvwqZ Kiv nq, Zvi Av‡M GK cÖKvi Av‡jvi Zi½ ˆ`‡N©¨i
mvnv‡h¨ wgUv‡ii msÁv †`Iqv nZ| ZviI Av‡M c¨vwi‡mi wbK‡U m¨v‡å‡Z
ivLv GKwU `‡Êi ˆ`N©¨‡K wgUv‡ii Av`k© aiv nZ| wb‡P Avš マ R©vwZK
c×wZ‡Z †gŠwjK GKK¸‡jvi Rb¨ me©‡kl M„nxZ Av`k© eY©bv Kiv nj−
ˆ`‡N©¨i GKK − wgUvi :
f¨vwKDqv‡g (evqyk チ b¨ ¯’v‡b) Av‡jv †m‡K‡Û †h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K
1 wgUvi e‡j|
f‡ii GKK − wK‡jvMÖvg :
d«v‡Ýi m¨v‡å‡Z B›Uvib¨vkbvj ey¨‡iv Ae I‡qUm& GÊ †gRim-G iw¶Z c-
vwUbvg-BwiwWqvg msKi avZzi ˆZwi GKwU wmwjÛv‡ii fi‡K 1 wK‡jvMÖvg
(kg) e‡j| GB wmwjÛviwUi e¨vm 3.9cm Ges D”PZvI 3.9 cm|

cÖkœ : 4| GK‡Ki Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ (Gm. AvB GKK) ej‡Z wK


eyS? G c×wZi †gŠwjK GKK¸‡jvi bvg wjL| G c×wZ †Kb
myweavRbK? (ewi.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. Õ99; iv. †ev. 2005; 2000; Kz. †ev. 2001;
Xv.†ev. 2003; h.†ev. 2006; 2003)
DËi : GK‡Ki Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ :
ˆ`bw›`b KvRKg© I e¨emv evwY‡R¨i Kvi‡Y cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB gvc-†Rv‡Li
cÖPjb wQj| GB gvc‡Rv‡Li Rb¨ wewfbœ ivwki ¯’vbxq ev GjvKv wfwËK eû
GKK cÖPwjZ wQj| ˆeÁvwbK Z‡_¨i Av`vb-cÖ`vb I e¨emv evwYR¨ cÖmv‡ii
Rb¨ mviv we‡k¦ gvc‡Rv‡Li GKB iKg Av`‡k©i cÖ‡qvRb n‡q c‡o| GB
ZvwM‡`B 1960 mv‡j `ywbqv †Rvov wewfbœ ivwki GKB iKg GKK Pvjy Kivi
wm×vš マ nq| GK‡Ki GB c×wZ‡K ejv nq GK‡Ki Avš マ R©vwZK c×wZ
(International System of units) ev ms‡¶‡c Gm. AvB (SI) GKK|
†gŠwjK GKK¸‡jvi bvg :
†gŠwjK ivwk Gm. AvB. GKK
1. ˆ`N©¨ → wgUvi (m)
2. fi → wK‡jvMÖvg (kg)
20 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

3. mgq → †m‡KÛ (s)


4. ZvcgvÎv → †Kjwfb (k)
5. Zwor cÖevn → A¨vw¤•qvi (A)
6. `xcb ¶gZv → K¨v‡Ûjv (Cd)
7. c`v‡_©i cwigvY → †gvj (mol)|
Avš マ R©vwZK GK‡Ki myweav :
1. me©RbMÖvn¨ c×wZ|
2. c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡k wfbœ wfbœ GKK c×wZ cÖPwjZ nIqvq
cwigv‡ci †¶‡Î ˆel‡g¨i Rb¨ †h Amyweav nq Zv G c×wZ e¨env‡ii
gva¨‡g `チ i Kiv n‡q‡Q|
3. Gg. †K. Gm c×wZi mv‡_ AviI K‡qKwU cÖgvY ivwk Ges G‡`i GKK
†hvM Kivq mgMÖ c`v_© weÁvb‡K GKwUgvÎ GK‡Ki c×wZi AvIZvq
Avbv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q|
4. GB c×wZ‡Z ˆ`N©¨ ev f‡ii †h †Kvb GKK Zvi cieZx© ¶z`ªZi GK‡Ki
`k¸Y Ges Zvi c チ e©eZx© e„nËi GK‡Ki `k fv‡Mi GK fvM| myZivs GB
c×wZ‡Z GK GKK‡K Ab¨ GK‡K iƒcvš マ wiZ Ki‡Z †KejgvÎ `kwgK
we›`y‡K Wvb ev evgw`‡K GK ev GKvwaK Ni miv‡Z nq| †hgb−
1.255 wgUvi = 12.55 †WwmwgUvi = 125.5 †mw›UwgUvi = 1255
wgwjwgUvi|
5. Kv‡Ri myweavi Rb¨ GKK¸‡jvi ¸wYZK ev Dc¸wYZK e¨envi Kiv hvq
Ges GK‡Ki mv‡_ myweavRbK DcmM© †hvM K‡i Zv cvIqv hvq|
6. c×wZwU Avš マ R©vwZK nIqvq Z‡_¨i Av`vb-cÖ`vb I e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i
cÖmv‡i ¸i“Z¡c チ Y© f‚wgKv cvjb K‡i|
cÖkœ : 5| Zzjvhš ミ wK? Gi eY©bv `vI| GB h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ wKfv‡e
e¯‘i fi wbY©q Kiv nq?
DËi : Zzjvhš ミ :
†Kvb †Kvb mgq c`v_©we`¨v ev imvqbwe`¨vq Lye Aí cwigvY wRwb‡mi fi
m チ ¶¥fv‡e wbY©q Ki‡Z nq, hv mvaviY wbw³ w`‡q Kiv hvq bv| e¯‘ ev
c`v‡_©i cwigvY hZ Kg n‡e Zvi fi cwigv‡ci wbw³ n‡Z n‡e ZZ m チ¶¥| GiKg
GKwU m チ¶¥ wbw³ nj Zzjvhš ミ|
e¨envi : GUv mvaviYZ j¨ve‡iUwi‡Z Ges ¯^‡Y©i †`vKv‡b e¨eüZ nq|
MVb cÖYvwj :
1. Zzjv cvÎ : Zzjvh‡š ミ mvaviY wbw³i gZ `ywU mgvb IR‡bi cvjv ev
ZzjvcvÎ P1 I P2 wbw³i `yB cÖv‡š マ _v‡K|
2. avZe `Ê ev exg : GB cvjv `ywU GKwU avZe `Ê ev exg AB Gi `yB
cÖv‡š マ `ywU Luv‡Ri g‡a¨ Dëv‡bvi QywUi dv‡ji Dci `ywU mgvb
IR‡bi †d«‡gi mvnv‡h¨ Szjv‡bv _v‡K|
3. Qywi : AB ex‡gi †K‡›`ª GKwU Qywi AvU‡K †`qv nq| GwU wb‡Pi
w`‡K gyL K‡i _v‡K|
cwigvc 21

4. duvcv _vg : AB exgwU‡K GKwU Dj¤^ duvcv _vg P-Gi Dci ivLv nq|
5. cvUvZb : duvcv _vgwU Kv‡Vi wfZ ev cvUvZb (BB) Gi gvSLv‡b
`„pfv‡e AvUKv‡bv _v‡K|
6. †j‡fwjs ¯Œz : cvUvZ‡bi mv‡_ wZbwU †j‡fwjs ¯Œz _v‡K| Gme ¯Œzi
mvnv‡h¨ hš ミ wU‡K †j‡fwjs Kiv nq|
7. avZe `‡Êi nvZj : duvcv _vgwUi g‡a¨ GKwU wb‡iU avZe`Ê
cvUvZb msjMœ nvZj H Nywi‡q DVv‡bv bvgv‡bv hvq|

wPÎ : Zzjvhš ミ
8. A¨v‡MU cv_i : exg AB Gi wVK ga¨¯’‡j GKwU w·KvYvK…wZ
A¨v‡MU cv_‡ii †gvUv w`KUv AvU‡K mi“ aviUv LvgwUi wb‡iU `‡Êi
Dci Aew¯’Z GKwU A¨v‡MU †c‡Ui Dci emv‡bv _v‡K| wb‡iU `ʇK
Dc‡i Zzj‡j exg AB A¨v‡MU cv_‡ii mi“ w`KUv‡K dvjµvg K‡i `yj‡Z
cv‡i|
9. m チ PK I †¯‹j : Zzjv`‡Êi ga¨¯’‡j GKwU j¤^v m チ P‡Ki (PO) PIov w`KUv
AvU‡K Gi wb‡Pi mi“ cÖvš マ ‡ K GKwU †¯‹‡ji Dci gy³ ivLv nq| Zzjv`Ê
Abyf‚wgK _vK‡j m チ P‡Ki mi“ cÖvš マ †¯‹‡ji O `v‡Mi Dci _v‡K|
10. Ijb `wo : Ijb `wo (PL) I cvUvZ‡bi wb‡Pi ¯Œzi mvnv‡h¨
`ÊwU‡K Abyf‚wgK Kiv nq|
11. Kv‡Pi ev· : mg¯マ hš ミ wU‡K GKwU Kv‡Pi ev‡· ivLv nq|
Kvh©cÖYvwj :
1. nvZj H Nywi‡q _vgwU‡K Dc‡i IVv‡j AB exgwUI Ic‡i DV‡e Ges Qywii
wKbvivi Dci gy³fv‡e `yj‡Z _vK‡e| `‡Êi mv‡_ cvjv `ywUI Dc‡i wb‡P
`yj‡Z _vK‡e| nvZj H Dëv w`‡K Nyiv‡j _vg wb‡P †b‡g hv‡e| exg AB I
cvjvi †`vjb eÜ n‡q hv‡e|
2. AB exg `yj‡Z _vK‡j m チ PK KvUvwU wb‡Pi †¯‹‡ji Dci Wv‡b ev‡q `yj‡Z
_vK‡e| cvjvq †Kvb wRwbm bv _vK‡j m チ PKwUi †`vjb †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨
`v‡Mi `ycv‡k mgvb n‡e| GB †`vjb k チ b¨ `v‡Mi `ycv‡k mgvb bv n‡j
22 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

AB ex‡gi `yB cv‡ki mgš^q ¯Œz (BS) Øviv Ggbfv‡e mgš^q K‡i wb‡Z
n‡e hv‡Z m チ P‡Ki †`vjb †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi `ycv‡k mgvb nq| _vg P
Dj¤^ nj wKbv Zv Ijb †iLv PL Øviv †`‡L wb‡Z nq|
e¯‘i fi wbY©q :
†Kvb e¯‘ ev wRwb‡mi fi gvc‡Z n‡j e¯‘wU‡K evgw`‡Ki cvjvq ivL‡Z nq Ges
Wvbw`‡Ki cvjvq GKUv GKUv K‡i ÁvZ ev Rvbv evULvov ax‡i ax‡i ivL‡Z
nq hZ¶Y bv m チ PKwU †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi `yB cv‡k mgvbfv‡e `yj‡Z _v‡K|
Gfv‡e Rvbv evULvovi mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘i fi wbY©q Kiv hvq|
cÖkœ : 6| gvÎv mgxKiY ej‡Z wK eyS? Gi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wK? (P.†ev.
2003)
(Xv.†ev. 2006; Õ02; 2000 ; iv.†ev. Õ98 ; h.†ev. Õ02; 2000 ; e.†ev 2006; Õ01 ;
iv.†ev. Õ01; Kz.†ev. Õ02; wm.†ev. 2002 )
DËi : gvÎv mgxKiY :
†Kvb †fŠZ ivwk hw` GKvwaK ivwki Dci wbf©i K‡i, Z‡e H jä ev †hŠwMK
ivwk‡K †gŠwjK ivwki ms‡KZ ev gvÎv Øviv cÖKvk Ki‡j †h mgxKiY cvIqv hvq
Zv‡K H ivwki gvÎv mgxKiY e‡j|
e¨vL¨v :
ˆ`N©¨, fi I mgq wZbwU †gŠwjK ivwk| G‡`i‡K mvaviYZ L, M Ges T Øviv
cÖKvk Kiv nq| L, M Ges T †K h_vµ‡g ˆ`N©¨, fi I mg‡qi gvÎvI ejv nq| mKj jä
ivwkmg チ n‡K †gŠwjK ivwki gvÎvi gva¨‡g cÖKvk Kiv hvq| †h‡nZz †h †Kvb
†fŠZ ivwk GK ev GKvwaK †gŠwjK ivwki mgš^‡q MwVZ|
D`vniY :
ej = fi × Z¡iY
= fi ×
= fi × [ ∴ †eM = ]
= fi ×
∴ e‡ji gvÎv =
∴ [ F ] = = [ MLT −2 ]
gvÎv mgxKi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv :
1. †Kvb †fŠZivwki GKK wbY©q Kiv hvq|
2. mgxKi‡Yi wbfz©jZv hvPvB Kiv hvq|
3. wewfbœ ivwki mgxKiY MVb Kiv hvq|
4. GK c×wZi GKK‡K Ab¨ c×wZi GK‡K iƒcvš マ wiZ Kiv hvq|
cÖkœ : 7| gvÎv mgxKiY Kv‡K e‡j? Gi e¨envi wjL| †eM, Z¡iY I Nb‡Z¡i
gvÎv mgxKiY `vI|
(wm.†ev.2001; Xv.†ev. 2000; Kz.†ev. 2000; h.†ev. 2002)
DËi : gvÎv mgxKiY :
†Kvb †fŠZ ivwk hw` GKvwaK ivwki Dci wbf©i K‡i, Z‡e H jä ev †hŠwMK
ivwk‡K †gŠwjK ivwki ms‡KZ ev gvÎv Øviv cÖKvk Ki‡j †h mgxKiY cvIqv hvq
cwigvc 23

Zv‡K H ivwki gvÎv mgxKiY e‡j|


e¨vL¨v : ˆ`N©¨, fi I mgq wZbwU †gŠwjK ivwk| G‡`i‡K mvaviYZ L, M Ges
T Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| L, M Ges T †K h_vµ‡g ˆ`N©¨, fi I mg‡qi gvÎvI ejv nq|
mKj jä ivwkmg チ n‡K †gŠwjK ivwki gvÎvi gva¨‡g cÖKvk Kiv hvq| †h‡nZz
†h †Kvb †fŠZ ivwk GK ev GKvwaK †gŠwjK ivwki mgš^‡q MwVZ|
D`vniY : ej = fi × Z¡iY
= fi × = fi × [ ∴ †eM = ]
= fi ×
∴ e‡ji gvÎv = ∴ [ F] = = [ MLT −2 ]
†e‡Mi gvÎv mgxKiY :
Avgiv Rvwb, †eM = GLv‡b,
= `チ i‡Z¡i gvÎv =
∴ [V] = = L
[ LT−1] mg‡qi gvÎv = T
Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv mgxKiY :
Avgiv Rvwb, Z¡iY = GLv‡b,
= = `チ i‡Z¡i gvÎv =
∴ [a] = [ LT−2] L
mg‡qi gvÎv = T
Nb‡Z¡i gvÎv mgxKiY :
Avgiv Rvwb, NbZ¡ = = GLv‡b,
∴ [d] = [ ML3] f‡ii gvÎv = M
AvqZ‡bi gvÎv =
L3
cÖkœ : 8| úvBW K¨vwjcvm© wK? Gi mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘i ˆ`N©¨ I
AvqZb wKfv‡e †ei Kiv hvq?
DËi : úvBW K¨vwjcvm© :
úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i Aci bvg fvwb©qvi K¨vwjcvm©| KviY, G hš ミ Øviv
gvc‡Rv‡Li †ejvq fvwY©qvi c×wZ e¨envi Kiv nq|
e¨envi : wbæwjwLZ †¶‡Î GB hš ミ e¨envi Kiv nq−
1. `‡Êi ˆ`N©¨ wbY©‡q
2. †Mvj‡Ki e¨vm wbY©‡q
3. wmwjÊv‡ii ˆ`N©¨ I e¨vm wbY©‡q
4. duvcv b‡ji Aš マ te¨vm I ewnte¨vm wbY©‡q|
MVb cÖYvwj :
GKwU AvqZvKvi B¯•vZ `‡Êi Mv‡q `vM †K‡U úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i g チ j ev
cÖavb †¯‹j ˆZwi Kiv nq| cÖavb †¯‹‡ji †h cÖv‡š マ k チ b¨ `vM KvUv _v‡K
A_©vr, †h cÖvš マ † _‡K †¯‹‡ji m チ Pbv nq †m cÖv‡š マ GKwU avZe †Pvqvj
AvUKv‡bv _v‡K| cÖavb †¯‹‡ji Mv‡q †Pvqvj hy³ GKwU fvwY©qvi †¯‹j
civ‡bv _v‡K| G †Pvqvjhy³ fvwY©qvi cÖavb †¯‹‡ji Dci mvg‡b ev †cQ‡b
24 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

miv‡bv hvq| G †¯‹‡ji mv‡_ GKwU ¯Œz _v‡K| G ¯Œzi mvnv‡h¨ fvwY©qvi
†¯‹j‡K cÖavb †¯‹‡ji Mv‡q †h †Kvb RvqMvq AvU‡K ivLv hvq|

wPÎ : úvBW K¨vwjcvm©


hvwš ミ K ΓwU :
g チ j †¯‹‡ji †Pvqvj Ges fvwb©qvi †¯‹‡ji †Pvqvj hLb †j‡M _v‡K ZLb mvaviYZ
fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `vM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi mv‡_ wg‡j hvq| A‡bK
h‡š ミ bvI wgj‡Z cv‡i| ZLb eyS‡Z n‡e hvwš ミ K ΓwU i‡q‡Q Ges Gi Rb¨ cvV
ms‡kvab K‡i wb‡Z nq|
hvwš ミ K ΓwU `yB cÖKvi| h_v−
1. abvÍK ΓwU
2. FYvÍK ΓwU|
1. abvÍK ΓwU : fvwY©qv‡ii k チ b¨ `vM g チ j †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi Wvb
cv‡k _vK‡j ΓwU n‡e abvÍK|
2. FYvÍK ΓwU : hw` fvwY©qv‡ii k チ b¨ `vM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi
evg cv‡k _vK‡j ΓwU n‡e FYvÍK|
ΓwU ms‡kvab :
hvwš ミ K ΓwU me mgqB AvcvZ cvV †_‡K we‡qvM Ki‡Z nq| †Kvb `‡Êi
AvcvZ cvV hw` L′ Ges hvwš ミ K ΓwU
hw` e nq Zvn‡j cÖK…Z cvV A_©vr, ˆ`N©¨ n‡e−
L = L′ − ( ± e)
e¯‘i ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q :
†h e¯‘ ev `‡Êi ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡e Zv úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i †Pvqvj
`ywUi gv‡S ¯’vcb Ki‡Z nq| fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji mv‡_ jvMv‡bv †Pvqvj †V‡j
mvg‡b Avb‡Z nq hv‡Z cÖavb †¯‹‡ji †Pvqvj I fvwY©qv‡ii †Pvqvj e¯‘wU‡K
wecixZ w`K †_‡K ¯•k© K‡i| GLb ¯Œzi mvnv‡h¨ fvwY©qviwU `„pfv‡e
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji mv‡_ AvU‡K †`Iqv nq| Gevi cÖavb †¯‹j I fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji cvV
†bIqv nq|
e¯‘wUi ˆ`N©¨ (M) = cÖavb †¯‹j cvV (V) + fvwY©qvi mgcvZb (Ve) × fvwY©qvi
aª“eK − hvwš ミ K ΓwU (± e)|
◆ úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i mvnv‡h¨ AvqZb wbY©q :
AvqZvKvi e¯‘i AvqZb wbY©q : †Kvb AvqZvKvi e¯‘i AvqZb V n‡j,
V = L×B×H
GLv‡b, L = e¯‘i ˆ`N©¨
B = e¯‘i cÖ¯’
cwigvc 25

e¯‘i D”PZv
H =
úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i mvnv‡h¨ L, B I H wbY©q K‡i DcwiD³ m チ ‡ Îi
mvnv‡h¨ AvqZb wbY©q Kiv nq|
†Mvj‡Ki AvqZb wbY©q : †Kvb †Mvj‡Ki AvqZb V n‡j,
3
V = πr3 = π
= πd3
†hLv‡b, r = †Mvj‡Ki e¨vmva©
d = †Mvj‡Ki e¨vm
úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i mvnv‡h¨ †Mvj‡Ki e¨vm wbY©q K‡i DcwiD³ m チ‡Îi
mvnv‡h¨ AvqZb wbY©q Kiv hvq|
wmwjÛvi ev †ej‡bi AvqZb wbY©q : †Kvb †ej‡bi AvqZb V n‡j,
2
V = πr2h = π h = πd2h
†hLv‡b, r = †ej‡bi e¨vmva©
d = †ej‡bi e¨vm
h = †ej‡bi D”PZv|
úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i mvnv‡h¨ †ej‡bi e¨vm I D”PZv wbY©q K‡i DcwiD³
m チ‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ AvqZb wbY©q Kiv nq|
cÖkœ : 9| GKwU fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji eY©bv `vI| fvwY©qvi aª“eK
wK, eywS‡q †jL| (Xv.†ev. 2001; 2005; Kz.†ev. 2003; wm.†ev. 2003)
DËi : fvwY©qvi †¯‹j :
g チ j †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi fMœvs‡ki wbf©yj cwigv‡ci Rb¨ g チ j †¯‹‡ji cv‡k †h
†QvU Avi GKwU †¯‹j e¨envi Kiv nq Zvi bvg fvwY©qvi †¯‹j|
MwYZkv¯ ミ we` wc‡q‡i fvwY©qvi G †¯‹j Avwe®‹vi K‡ib e‡j Zuvi
bvgvbymv‡i G †¯‹‡ji bvg fvwY©qvi †¯‹j|
fvwY©qvi †¯‹j e¨env‡ii myweav :
mvaviY wgUvi †¯‹‡j †Kvb wRwb‡mi ˆ`N©¨ wgwjwgUvi ch©š マ gvcv hvq|
fvwY©qvi †¯‹j‡K wgUvi †¯‹‡ji mv‡_ e¨envi K‡i wgwjwgUv‡ii fMœvsk †hgb−
0.2 wgwjwgUvi, 0.6 wgwjwgUvi ev 0.8 wgwjwgUvi BZ¨vw` mwVKfv‡e wbY©q
Kiv hvq|
h‡š ミ i eY©bv :
fvwY©qvi †¯‹j g チ j ev cÖavb †¯‹‡ji cv‡k mshy³ _v‡K Ges cÖavb †¯‹‡ji cvk
w`‡q mvg‡b ev †cQ‡b miv‡bv hvq| fvwY©qvi †¯‹j `kwU fv‡M (`kwU `vM
KvUv) fvM Kiv _v‡K| G `k fvM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji bqwU ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi mgvb|
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji bqwU ¶z`ªZg fvM n‡jv 9 wgwjwgUvi ev 0.9 †mw›UwgUvi|

wPÎ : fvwY©qvi †¯‹j


26 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji 10 fvM †h‡nZz cÖavb †¯‹‡ji 9 ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi mgvb myZivs
fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji fvM¸‡jv cÖavb †¯‹‡ji fv‡Mi †P‡q mvgvb¨ †QvU|
fvwY©qvi aª“eK : (Kz.†ev. wm.†ev. 2003)
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg GK fv‡Mi †P‡q fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji GK fvM KZUzKz †QvU
Zvi cwigvY‡K ejv nq fvwY©qvi aª“eK|
MvwYwZK e¨vL¨v :
g‡b Kwi, cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg GK fv‡Mi ˆ`N©¨ x GKK Ges fvwb©qvi †¯‹‡ji
¶z`ªZg GK fv‡Mi ˆ`N©¨ P GKK| fvwb©qvi aª“eK‡K Ve Øviv cÖKvk Kiv
n‡jÑ
Ve = (x − y) GKK|
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg GK fv‡Mi ˆ`N©¨‡K fvwb©qvi †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi
msL¨v Øviv fvM K‡iI fvwb©qvi aª“e‡Ki gvb cvIqv hvq| G‡¶‡Î Ve = GKK
[GLv‡b n = fvwb©qvi †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg Ni msL¨v] †Kvb †Kvb mgq fvwY©qvi
†¯‹‡ji 20 fvM cÖavb †¯‹‡ji 19 ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi mgvb _v‡K Ges cÖavb †¯‹‡ji GK
¶z`ªZg fvM 1mm Gi †P‡q Kg _v‡K| ZLb fvwY©qvi aª~eK cwiewZ©Z n‡q
hvq| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wbf©i K‡i cÖavb †¯‹j I fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji `vM KvUvi
ˆewk‡ó¨i Ici|
cÖkœ : 10| jwNô MYb ej‡Z wK eyS? GKwU ¯Œz M‡Ri eY©bv `vI|
Gi mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘i e¨vm wK K‡i wbY©q Kiv hvq eY©bv Ki|
(P.†ev. Õ99; ewi. †ev. 2003)
A_ev, jwNô MYb ej‡Z wK eyS? (h.†ev. iv.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev.
2006; 2001; Kz.†ev. 2006; 2001)
DËi : jwNô MYb :
¯Œz M‡Ri e„ËvKvi †¯‹j gvÎ GKfvM Nyiv‡j ¯ŒzwU hZUzKz m‡i Av‡m Zv‡K
h‡š ミ i jwNô MYb e‡j|
e¨vL¨v :
¯Œz MR Øviv cvV †bqvi c チ‡e© jwNô gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z nq| e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji
k チ b¨ `v‡Mi mv‡_ ˆiwLK †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `vM wgwj‡q wb‡Z nq| e„ËvKvi
†¯‹jwU GKevi Nyiv‡j ¯ŒzwU ˆiwLK †¯‹j eivei †h `チ iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K H
h‡š ミ i wcP e‡j| e„ËvKvi †¯‹j GKevi Nyiv‡bvi A_© G‡Z hZ¸‡jv fvM _v‡K
ZZ¸‡jv fvM Nyiv‡bv| h‡š ミ i wcP‡K e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji msL¨v Øviv fvM Ki‡j
jwNô MYb cvIqv hvq|
jwNô MYb =
D`vniY : e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡j mvaviYZ 100 fvM _v‡K Ges GB h‡š ミ wcP 1mm nq|
∴ jwNô MYb =
= 0.01mm.
¯ŒzM‡Ri eY©bv :
¯Œz MR : GB hš ミ wUi Aci bvg gvB‡µvwgUvi ¯ŒzMR| G h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨
Zv‡ii mi“ †Pv‡Oi e¨vmva© I †QvU ˆ`N©¨ cwigvc Kiv hvq|
MVb cÖYvwj :
cwigvc 27

G h‡š ミ i‡q‡Q `yB cÖv‡š マ `ywU mgvš マ ivj evû wewkó U AvK…wZi †d«g
ev KvVv‡gv F| Gi GKevûi mgZj wcV A Gi mv‡_ GKwU mgZj cÖvš マ
wewkô `Ê ev KxjK ¯’vqxfv‡e AvUKv‡bv i‡q‡Q Ges Aci evû‡Z i‡q‡Q
GKwU duvcv bj C|

wPÎ : ¯ŒzMR
G b‡j i‡q‡Q wgwjwgUv‡i `vMvw¼Z GKwU mij †¯‹j| GKwU †ejbvK…wZ
Uzwc T cwiwnZ GKwU ¯Œz| ¯ŒzwU duvcv bj C Gi wfZi Pjv‡div Ki‡Z cv‡i|
†ejvbvK…wZ Uzwc T Gi wKbviv‡K mvaviYZ 50 ev 100 fv‡M fvM Kiv nq|
¯Œzi gv_v B hLb ¯’vqx KxjK ev mgZj cÖvš マ wewkó `Ê (A) ¯•k© K‡i ZLb
e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `vM ˆiwLK †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `v‡Mi mv‡_ wg‡j hvq| GiKg
Ae¯’vq `ywU †¯‹‡ji k チ b¨ `vM hw` bv wg‡j Zvn‡j eyS‡Z n‡e hvwš ミ K
ΓwU i‡q‡Q|
¯ŒzM‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ e¯‘i e¨vm wbY©q :
Kv‡Ri aviv :
1. †h Zv‡ii e¨vm gvc‡Z n‡e ev †h cv‡Zi cyi“Z¡ †ei Ki‡Z n‡e Zv‡K A I B Gi
gv‡S ¯’vcb Kiv nq|
2. Zvi ev cvZwU Ggbfv‡e ¯’vcb Ki‡Z nq hv‡Z Gi GK cvk A †K Ges Aci
cvk B †K ¯•k© K‡i|
3. Gevi e„ËvKvi I ˆiwLK †¯‹‡ji cvV wb‡Z nq|
wnmve :
g‡b Kwi,
ˆiwLK †¯‹‡ji cvV = x wg.wg.
e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji fvM msL¨v = y
∴ Zv‡ii e¨vm = ˆiwLK †¯‹j cvV + e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji fvM msL¨v × jwNó
gvb
= x wg.wg. + y × jwNó gvb
= x wg.wg. + y × 0.01 wg.wg.
= (x + 0.01y) wg.wg.|
D`vniY :
g‡b Kwi,
ˆiwLK †¯‹‡ji cvV ev x = 2 wg.wg.
e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji fvM msL¨v y = 30
28 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

∴ Zv‡ii e¨vm = 2 wg.wg. + 30 × 0.01 wg.wg.


= 2 wg.wg. + 0.3 wg.wg.
= 2.3 wg.wg.|

AwZwi³
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| cwigv‡ci GK‡Ki cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wK ? (Xvt †evt Õ99)
DËi : cwigv‡ci GK‡Ki cÖ‡qvRbxqZv :
†h †Kvb cwigv‡ci Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb GKwU ÷¨vÛvW© ev Av`‡k©i hvi mv‡_
Zzjbv K‡i cwigvc Kiv nq| GB wbw`©ó cwigv‡ci mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i mgMÖ
†fŠZ ivwk‡K cwigvc Kiv nq| cwigv‡ci GB Av`k© cwigvY‡KB Avgiv
cwigv‡ci GKK e‡j _vwK| Kv‡RB †Kvb cwigvc‡K cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ cwigv‡ci
GK‡Ki cÖ‡qvRb| D`vniY¯^iƒc- hw` ejv nq GKwU jvwVi ˆ`N©¨ 5 Z‡e G
Øviv jvwVi ˆ`N©¨ m¤•‡K© cÖK…Z aviYv cvIqv hvq bv| ˆ`‡N©¨i cÖK…Z
aviYv cvIqvi Rb¨ msL¨vMZ gv‡bi cv‡k GKwU GKK e¨envi Ki‡Z nq|
cÖkœ : 2| gvÎv mgxKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ v = u + at mgxKiYwUi mwVKZv
hvPvB Ki| (Xvt †evt 2000; iv.†ev. 2003)
DËi : cÖ`Ë mgxKi‡Y wZbwU c` Av‡Q, evgw`‡K GKwU Ges Wvbw`‡K
`ywU| GB mgxKi‡Y-
v nj †kl †eM, Gi gvÎv
u nj Avw` †eM, Gi gvÎv
a nj Z¡iY, Gi gvÎv
t nj mgq, Gi gvÎv T
∴ at Gi gvÎv nj, LT−2 × T = LT −1
†`Lv hv‡”Q DcwiD³ mgxKi‡Yi evg w`‡Ki c`wUi gvÎv L Ges Wvb w`‡Ki `ywU
c‡`i gvÎvI L. myZivs mgxKiYwU wm×|
cÖkœ : 3| gvÎv mgxKi‡Yi mvn‡h¨ s = ut + mgxKiYwUi mZ¨Zv hvPvB
Ki| (Xvt †evt 2000; e.†ev. 2003)
DËi : cÖ`Ë mgxKi‡Y wZbwU c` Av‡Q, evgw`‡K GKwU Ges Wvbw`‡K
`ywU| GB mgxKi‡Y-
s nj miY, Gi gvÎv L
u nj Avw` †eM, Gi gvÎv
a nj Z¡iY, Gi gvÎv
t nj mgq, Gi gvÎv T
∴ ut Gi gvÎv = LT−1 × T = L
at2 Gi gvÎv nj, LT−2 × T2 = L
†`Lv hv‡”Q DcwiD³ mgxKi‡Yi evgw`‡Ki c`wUi gvÎv L Ges Wvbw`‡Ki `ywU
c‡`i gvÎvI L, myZivs mgxKiYwU wm×|
cwigvc 29

cÖkœ : 4| jwMô MYb ej‡Z wK †evS ? (Kz.†ev. 2004; ewi.†ev. 2003; Xv. †ev.
Õ99; )
DËi : wek` DËi cÖ‡kœvËi 10bs Gi cÖ_g Ask `ªóe¨|
cÖkœ : 5| fvwY©qvi aª“eK wKfv‡e wbY©q Kiv hvq? (wm.†ev. 2003)
DËi : fvwY©qvi aª“eK wbY©‡qi c×wZ : GKwU m チ Î Øviv fvwY©qvi
aª“eK wbY©q Kiv hvq Zv n‡jv,
fvwY©qvi aª~eK =
†hLv‡b s cÖavb †¯‹‡ji 1 ¶z`ªZg fv‡Mi ˆ`N©¨ Ges n fvwY©qv‡ii fv‡Mi
msL¨v|
Dchy³ †¶‡Î s = 1 wg.wg. Ges n = 10 fvM
∴ fvwY©qvi aª“eK = = = 0.1 wg.wg.
= 0.01 †m.wg.

ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. wb‡æi †Kvb ivwki GKK jä 2000; wm. †ev. 2003 iv.†ev.
GKK? 2003)
K. ˆ`N©¨ ✓ L. AvqZb K. wgUvi †¯‹j L. fvwY©qvi †¯‹j
✓ M. úvBW K¨vwjcvm©
M. fi N. mgq
N.MR jvwV|
2. AvšR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z f‡ii GKK
†KvbwU? (wm.†ev. 2003)
AwZwi³
K. MÖvg L. cvDÛ
N. †mi ✓ N. wK‡jvMÖvg|
ˆbe©¨w³K
3. †h GKK †gŠwjK GK‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖwZcvw`Z n‡q‡Q Zvi bvg 1| úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i Aci bvg
wK? (iv.†ev. 2002; wm.†ev. wK? [iv. †ev. 2000]
2001; Xv.†ev. 2000) K. úvBW fvwb©qvi
✓ K. jä GKK L. †gŠwjK GKK L.K¨vwjcvm©
M. wm. wR. Gm GKK ✓ M. fvwb©qvi K¨vwjcvm© N.
N.†`kxq GKK wc‡q‡i K¨vwjcvm©
4. AvšR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z 2| gvB‡µv ej‡Z 10 Gi mPK KZ
AvqZ‡bi GKK nj †evSvq?
(iv.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2004) [ewi.†ev. 2004; iv. †ev. 2000]
K. eM© †mw›UwgUvi K. − 3 ✓ L. − 6
L.eM© dzU M. − 9 N. − 11
✓ M. NbwgUvi N. eM© MR 3| †Kvb& ivwkwU †gŠwjK bq?
5. wmwjÛv‡ii e¨vm gvcv †h‡Z [h. †ev. 2004; 2001; 2000]
cv‡i †Kvb h‡ši mvnv‡h¨? K. c`v‡_©i cwigvY L.
(Xv.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2001; P.†ev. Zwor cÖevn
30 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

M. ZvcgvÎv ✓ N. Zvc A_ev, wm, AvB Gi †gŠwjK GKK


4| †Mvj‡Ki AvqZb wbY©‡qi mÎ KqwU [e.†ev. 2005]
†KvbwU? K. 5wU L. 2wU
[wm.†ev. Õ06; Kz.†ev. 2001; iv.†ev. 2000; M. 8wU ✓ N. 7wU
2003; P.†ev. 2001] 12| †Kvb mvj †_‡K `ywbqv †Rvov
✓ K. πd3 L. πd3 wewfbœ ivwki GKB iKg GKK
M. πd3 N. πd4 Pvjy Kivi wm×vš nq?
[Xv.†ev. h.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. 2004; iv.†ev.
5| wb‡Pi †KvbwU AvqZvKvi e¯‘i
Õ99]
AvqZ‡bi dg©jv?
[e. †ev. 2001; iv.†ev. 2000]
K. 1965 L. 1906
✓ M. 1960 N. 1990
K. πr2 L. πr3
13| wmwjÛvi ev †ej‡bi AvqZb
M. πr h
2
✓ M. L × B × H
wbY©q Kivi mÎ †KvbwU?
6| GKwU úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i [Xv.†ev. Õ99]
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji 19 fvM fvwb©qvi
✓ K. πd2h L. πd2h
†¯‹‡ji 20 fv‡Mi mgvb| cÖavb
†¯‹‡ji 1 fv‡Mi ˆ`N©¨ 1 M. πd4h N. Lπ2h
wgwjwgUvi n‡j fvwb©qvi 14| `xcb ¶gZvi GKK †KvbwU?
aª“eK KZ? [h.†ev. 2006; wm. †ev. 2001]
[Kz.†ev. 99] K. †÷‡iwWqvb ✓ L. K¨v‡Ûjv
K. 0.5 wg. wg. ✓ L. 0.05 wg. wg. M. jv· N. jy‡gb
M. 0.005 wg. wg. N. 0.05 †m. wg. 15| †fŠZ RM‡Z hv wKQy cwigvc Kiv
7| GKwU úvBW K¨vwjcv‡m©i hvq Zv‡K wK ejv nq?
cÖavb †¯‹‡ji GK N‡ii gvb 1 m.m. ✓ K. ivwk L. jä ivwk
fvwY©qvi N‡ii msL¨v 20 n‡j M. †gŠwjK ivwk N. GKK ivwk
fvwY©qvi aª“eK KZ? 16| ¯Œy M‡Ri e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji
[P.†ev. Õ99] kb¨ `vM ˆiwLK †¯‹‡ji kb¨
K. 0.01 m.m. ✓ L. 0.05 m.m. `v‡Mi wb‡P _vK‡j Zvn‡j
M. 0.1 m.m. N. 0.5 m.m. hvwšK ΓwU n‡eÑ
8| AvšR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z KZwU [Kz.†ev. 2001]
†gŠwjK GKK aiv n‡q‡Q? ✓ K. abvÍK L. FYvÍK
[ewi.†ev. 2005; mKj †ev. Õ98] M. wbi‡c¶ N. †KvbwUB wVK
K. 3wU L. 5wU bq
✓ M. 7wU N. 9wU 17| †eM †Kvb ai‡bi ivwk?
9| AvšR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z c`v‡_©i ✓ K. †f±i ivwk L. GKK ivwk
cwigv‡Yi GKK †KvbwU? [h.†ev M. †hvMdj ivwk N. ¸Ydj ivwk
Õ06; Õ01; Kz.†ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 18| †KvbwU jä ivwk?
Õ04; P.†ev. 2002] [Xv.†ev. 2001]
✓ K. †gvj L. cvDÛ K. fi L. `xcb ¶gZv
M. †Kjwfb N. wK‡jvMÖvg M. Zwor cÖevn ✓ N.
10| wbDUb †Kvb ai‡bi GKK? [P.†ev. NbZ¡
2002, 99; wm. 2002] 19| e¯‘i AvqZb wKiƒc ivwk
K. cwigv‡ci GKK ✓ L. [Kz.†ev. h.†ev. 2002]
jä GKK ✓ K. j× ivwk L. †hŠwMK ivwk
M. †`kxq GKK N. †gŠwjK GKK M. †gŠwjK ivwk N. K I L DfqB
11| weÁv‡bi mKj kvLvq gvcÑ 20| wm. wR. Gm c×wZ‡Z ˆ`‡N©¨i
†Rv‡Li †¶‡Î †gŠwjK ivwk GKK †KvbwU?
KqwU? [h.†ev. Õ99] ✓ K. †mw›UwgUvi L. dzU
cwigvc 31

M. wgUvi N. wgwjwgUvi K. ZvcgvÎv ✓ L. `xcb ZxeªZv


21| Gg. †K. Gm c×wZ‡Z ZvcgvÎvi M. `xcY ¶gZv N. Zwor cÖevn
GKK †KvbwU? 31| Gm. AvB. c×wZ‡Z wb‡Pi
✓ K. †Kjwfb L. dv‡ibnvBU †KvbwU †gŠwjK GKK bq?
M. †mw›U‡MÖW N. †ivgvi K. wK‡jvMÖvg L. †m‡KÛ
22| NbZ¡ †Kvb ai‡bi ivwk? M. A¨vw¤•qvi ✓ N. dv‡ibnvBU
[h.†ev. 2002] 32| Gm. AvB. GK‡K wb‡Pi †KvbwU
✓ K. †¯‹jvi ivwk L. †f±i ivwk ZvcgvÎvi GKK?
M. †gŠwjK ivwk N. gvÎvwenxb K. †mw›U‡MÖW L. dv‡ibnvBU
ivwk M. †ivgvi ✓ N. †Kjwfb
23| ˆ`‡N©¨i gvÎv †KvbwU? 33| wb‡æi †KvbwU †gŠwjK ivwk?
✓ K. L L. LT−2 (P.†ev. 2005; h.†ev. Õ02)
M. LT −1
N. ML−3 K. `xcb ZxeªZv L. NbZ¡
24| AvšR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z †gŠwjK M. AvqZb ✓ N. `xcb ¶gZv
GKK †Kvb&wU? 34| wm. wR. Gm. c×wZ‡Z
[Kz.†ev. 2000] ZvcgvÎvi GKK wK?
✓ K. A¨vw¤•qvi L. Ryj K. †Kjwfb L. wWwMÖ
M. IqvU N. †fvë dv‡ibnvBU
25| Z¡i‡Yi gvÎv †KvbwU? [P.†ev. ✓ M. wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm N.
2004] †ivgvi
✓ K. LT−2 L. LT−1 35| wm. wR. Gm. c×wZ‡Z mg‡qi
M. MLT−2 N. ML−3 GKK wK?
26| wb‡æi †Kvb ivwk hyM‡ji gvÎv I ✓ K. †m‡KÛ L. wgwbU
GKK Awfbœ? M. NÈv N. gvB‡µv‡m‡KÛ
[wm.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. 2004; h.†ev. 2002] 36| Gm. AvB. GK‡K †¶Îd‡ji GKK
K. Zvc I ZvcgvÎv L. †eM I miY wK?
✓ M. KvR I kw³ N. we`y¨r wefe I K. eM© †mw›UwgUvi ✓
cÖvej¨ L.eM© wgUvi
27| fvwb©qvi †¯‹j †K Avwe®‹vi M. eM©dzU N. eM© MR
K‡ib? 37| Gm. AvB. GK‡K †e‡Mi GKK
✓ K. wc‡q‡i fvwb©qvi L. wK?
j¨vf‡qwm‡q
K. dzU/ †m. L. BwÂ/ †m.
M. †WvwbKvm N. †Kvcvi wbKvm
28| cÖavb †¯‹‡ji ¶z`ªZg GK fv‡Mi M. †m. wg./ †m. ✓ N.
†P‡q fvwY©qvi †¯‹‡ji GK fvM wgUvi/ †m.
hZUzKz †QvU Zvi cwigvY‡K wK 38| Gm. AvB. GK‡K KvR ev kw³i
ejv nq? GKK wK?
✓ K. fvwb©qvi aª“eK L. K. AvM© ✓ L. Ryj
fvwb©qvi GKK M. dzU-cvDÛvj N. IqvU
M. fvwb©qvi †¯‹j N. fvwb©qvi 39| Gm. AvB. GK‡K e‡ji GKK wK?
gj K. cvDÛvj ✓ L. wbDUb
29| †h ivwk Ab¨ †Kvb ivwki Ici M. WvBb N. AvM©
wbf©i K‡i bv Zv‡K wK ivwk 40| wm. wR. Gm. c×wZ‡Z †¶Îd‡ji
ejv nq? GKK wK?
K. †f±i ivwk ✓ L. †gŠwjK ivwk K. eM© wgUvi ✓ L.
M. †¯‹jvi ivwk N. jä ivwk eM© †mw›UwgUvi
30| wb‡æi †KvbwU †gŠwjK ivwk M. eM©dzU N. eM© BwÂ
bq? [h.†ev. 2001] 41| ¯ŒzÑM‡Ri e„ËvKvi †¯‹‡ji cY©
32 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

GK NY©‡bi Rb¨ e„ËvKvi †¯‹j mgvb?


†h ˆiwLK `iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i Zv‡K (e.†ev. 2006; 2003; Kz.†ev. P.†ev. 2006)
wK e‡j? ✓ K. 109 Ryj L. 1012wU
✓ K. wcP L. jwNô MYb N. 10 wU
6
N. 10−9 Ryj
M. ˆiwLK †¯‹j cvV N. e„ËvKvi †¯‹j 52| †KvbwU †gŠwjK ivwk bq?
cvV (e.†ev. 2003)
42| †iva cwigv‡ci GKK †KvbwU? K. ZvcgvÎv L. ZworcÖevn
K. †fvë L. A¨vw¤•qvi ✓ M. Zwor wefe N. c`v‡_©i
✓ M. Ing N. Kzj¤^ cwigvY
43| †KvY cwigv‡ci GKK †KvbwU?
✓ K. †iwWqvb L. jv· 53| wgUvi ˆ`N©¨wewkó GKwU
M. WvB AÞvi N. IqvU wmwjÛv‡ii e¨vm KZ n‡j Gi
44| Nb †Kv‡Yi GKK †KvbwU? AvqZb 4 Nb wgUvi n‡e? (e.†ev.
(wm.†ev. 2002) 2003)
✓ K. †÷‡iwWqvb L. c¨vm‡Kj K. Im L. 40
M. jy‡gb N. K¨v‡Ûjv M. ✓ N. 4m.
45| †KvbwU `xcb ZxeªZv 54| †Kvb&wU jä GKK?
cwigv‡ci GKK? [Xv.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. 2006; P.†ev.
K. †iwWqvb ✓ L. jv· Õ99; wm.†ev. 2002]
M. WvBÑAÞvi N. IqvU
K. K¨v‡Êj ✓ L. wbDUb
46| AwaKZi m¶¥ cwigv‡Yi Rb¨
†Kvb gvchš cÖ‡qvRb? M. †Kjwfb N. A¨vw¤•qvi
(Kz.†ev. 2003) 55| †KvbwU e‡ji gvÎv mgxKiY?
K. wgUvi †¯‹j ✓ L. fvwb©qvi †¯‹j [ ewi.†ev. 2006; wm.†ev. 2003; ewi.†ev.
M. úvBW K¨vjcvm© N. 2004]
¯ŒzÑMR K. [ML T ]
2 −2
L. [ML T ]
2 −3

47| e„ËvKvi cÖ¯’‡Q‡`i d


M. [MLT−1] ✓ N. [MLT−2]
e¨vmwewkó †Kvb Zv‡ii
cÖ¯’‡”Q‡`i †¶Îdj wbY©‡qi mÎ
†KvbwU? (h.†ev. 2003)
K. πd2 L. 4πd2
M. πd2 ✓ N. πd2
48| wefe †Kvb& ivwk?
(iv.†ev. 2003)
K. †f±i ivwk ✓ L. jã ivwk
M. †¯‹jvi ivwk N. Dc‡ii
†KvbwUBbq|
49| Zvckw³i gvÎv n‡jvÑ
(h.†ev. 2003)
K. ML2T−1 L. MLT2
✓ M. ML T
2 −2
N. ML2T2
50| Zwo”PvjK kw³i GKK
†KvbwU?
(h.†ev. 2003)
K. VA−1 L. CS−1
✓ M. JC −1
N. n. m2. c−2
51| GK MvBMv Ryj KZ Ry‡ji
cwigvc 33

56| †KvbwU mwVK? K. [MLT−2] L. [ML−2T−2]


[wm.†ev. 2006] ✓ M. [ML T ]
2 −2
N. gvÎv mgxKiY
✓ K. L. †bB
M. N. 59| 1 gvB‡µv A¨vw¤¥qvi (µ A) =
57| wcQU ΓwU mvaviYZ KZ?
†Kvb& h‡š nq? [Kz.†ev. 2004] [ewi.†ev. 2004, 2006]
K. fvwb©qvi †¯‹j L. K. 10 A¨vw¤•qvi
6
L.
úvBW K¨vwjcvm© 103 A¨vw¤•qvi
M. fvwb©qvi K¨vwjcvm© ✓ ✓ M. 10−6 A¨vw¤•qvi N.
N. ¯Œz MR 10−3 A¨vw¤•qvi
58| AwfKl©R wefe kw³i gvÎv
mgxKiY †Kvb&wU?
[Kz.†ev. 2004]