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A a¨vq


_gAa¨vq
1
†fŠ
ZweÁv‡bi w
eKvk ✍
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj
msw¶ßÑ DËi cÖkœ : 15| Av‡jvi Zi½ ZË¡ †K
cÖkœ Avwe®‹vi K‡ib?
cÖkœ : 1| weÁvb wK? cÖkœ : 16| K¨vjKzjvm bvgK MwYZ
cÖkœ : 2| †fŠZ weÁvb Kv‡K e‡j? e¨e¯’vi cÖeZ©b K‡ib †K?
cÖkœ : 3| m チ h©MÖnY cÖkœ : 17| ch©‡e¶Y I cix¶vi
m¤•wK©Z fwel¨revYxi Rb¨ †K gva¨‡g weÁv‡bi me mZ¨
weL¨vZ wQ‡jb? hvPvB Kiv DwPZ -·qv`k kZ‡Ki
†Kvb weÁvbx GgZ †cvlY
cÖkœ : 4| me©cÖ_g
Ki‡Zb?
m チ h©‡Kw›`ªK we‡k¦i aviYv
cÖkœ : 18| weÁvb hv †kv‡b Zv
cÖ`vb K‡ib †K?
wek¦vm Kiv bq, weÁvb nj
cÖkœ : 5| avZzi †fRvj wbY©‡qi cÖvK…wZK NUbvi h_v_©
†KŠkj Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K? Kvi‡Yi AbymÜvb ·qv`k kZ‡Ki
cÖkœ : 6| weÁv‡bi eܨvKvj ejv nq †Kvb weÁvbx GgZ †cvlY
†Kvb mgq‡K? †Kb? Ki‡Zb?
cÖkœ : 7| †Kvb kã †_‡K cÖkœ : 19| cigvYy †h wdkb‡hvM¨
Ô†Kwgw÷ªÕ bv‡gi D™¢e? GK_v cÖ_g Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K
cÖkœ : 9| exRMwYZ I ev Kviv?
w·KvYwgwZi wfZ cÖwZôv cÖkœ : 20| wkí wece wK?
K‡ib †K? cÖkœ : 21| Av‡jvi Zwor-Pz¤^Kxq
cÖkœ : 10| A¨v‡÷ªvjve bvgK hš Z‡Ë¡i weKvk NUvb †K?
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K? cÖkœ : 22| Av‡jvi †eM cÖ_g †K
cÖkœ : 11| †m·U¨v›U cÖ_g †K wbY©q K‡ib?
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib? cÖkœ : 23| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ
cÖkœ : 12| fviZxq †Kvb weÁvbx weKv‡k Kv‡`i Ae`vb A¯^xKvi
Kiv hvq bv?
c`v‡_©i ¶z`ªZg KYvi bvg †`b
cÖkœ : 24| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi
cigvYy?
avc¸‡jv wK wK?
cÖkœ : 13| π-Gi gvb‡K 22/7 e‡j
†g‡b †bb †Kvb fviZxq Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK cÖkœ
weÁvbx? cÖkœ : 1| cÖvPxbKv‡j †fŠZ
cÖkœ : 14| Av‡jvi cÖwZmi‡Yi m チ Î weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki msw¶ß
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K? weeiY `vI|
2 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

cÖkœ : 2| †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k cÖfve eY©bv Ki|


gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb cÖkœ : 6| AvaywbK †fŠZ weÁv‡bi
ms‡¶‡c eY©bv Ki| D™¢e m¤•‡K© ms‡¶‡c
cÖkœ : 3| †fŠZ weÁv‡bi cÖvPxb eY©bv Ki|
fvi‡Zi weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb D‡jL cÖkœ : 7| mf¨Zvi weeZ©‡b
Ki| c`v_© weÁv‡bi f‚wgKv
cÖkœ : 4| ga¨hy‡M †fŠZ weÁv‡bi m¤•‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki|
weKv‡ki msw¶ß eY©bv `vI| cÖkœ : 8| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ wK?
cÖkœ : 5| wkí wece wK? †fŠZ weÁvbx‡`i Kv‡Ri aviv ms‡¶‡c
weÁv‡bi weKv‡k wkí wec‡ei eY©bv Ki|
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 3

Abykxjbxi
msw¶ßÑDËi
cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| weÁvb wK?
DËi : weÁvb :
weÁvb k‡ãi kãMZ A_©, Ôwe‡kl ÁvbÕ| GB wek¦-eªþvÊ m¤^‡Ü Avgiv hv
wKQy Rvwb DnvB Ávb| ÔweÕ k‡ãi A_© Ôwe‡klfv‡eÕ Ges ÔÁvbÕ k‡ãi
A_© Ômg¨K aviYvÕ A_©vr †h kv¯ ミ cvV Ki‡j †Kvb welq m¤•‡K© mg¨K
aviYv jvf Kiv hvq DnvB weÁvb| weÁvb kãwU j¨vwUb kã 'SCIO' n‡Z M„nxZ
n‡q‡Q; hvi A_© ÔRvbv ev wk¶v KivÕ| wKš‘ mKj ÁvbB weÁvb bq|
wewfbœ weÁvbx weÁvb‡K wewfbœfv‡e msÁvwqZ K‡ib; †hgb− †Kv‡j
(Coley) Gi g‡Z, ÒAvwe®‹…Z Áv‡bi mgv‡ekB weÁvbÕ, ievU© mvÛ-Gi
g‡Z, ÒÁv‡bi mgv‡ek I c×wZB weÁvbÓ; Kzjmb, †¯•bmvi I †÷vb− Gi
g‡Z, ÒmymsNe× ÁvbB weÁvbÓ; DBjmb I †jvwgk−Gi g‡Z, ÒcÖhy³
mvaviY ÁvbB weÁvbÓ|
weÁv‡bi wb‡Êv³ msÁvwU AwaKZi MÖnY‡hvM¨|
msÁv : ÒweÁvb nj cix¶v−wbix¶v, ch©‡e¶Y I c×wZMZfv‡e jä myk„ヘ Lj I
mymse× Ávb Ges GB Ávb AR©‡bi cÖwµqv I c×wZ|Ó
cÖkœ : 2| †fŠZ weÁvb Kv‡K e‡j?
DËi : †fŠZ weÁvb :
cÖK…wZ‡Z `yB cÖKv‡ii wRwbm i‡q‡Q| cÖ_gwU e¯‘ (Matter) wØZxqwU nj
kw³ (Energy)| e¯‘ Avevi `yB cÖKvi : h_v−Rxe e¯‘ (Living matter) I ARxe e¯‘
(Non-Living matter)| Rxe e¯‘, ARxe e¯‘ I kw³ wb‡qB cÖK…wZ (Nature) Ges GB
cÖK…wZ‡K RvbvB nj weÁv‡bi cÖavb KvR| GB wZbwU wel‡qi Dci wfwË
K‡i weÁvb‡K `ywU fv‡M fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| h_v−
1. †fŠZ weÁvb I
2. Rxe weÁvb
†fŠZ weÁv‡bi Av‡jvP¨ welq nj ARxe e¯‘ I kw³|
†fŠZ weÁv‡bi msÁv :
hv‡`i Rxeb †bB, Zv‡`i m¤•wK©Z weÁvb nj ARxe ev Ro weÁvb ev †fŠZ
weÁvb|
†fŠZ weÁvb I RxeweÁv‡bi A‡bK kvLv Av‡Q| †fŠZ weÁv‡bi A‡bK kvLvi
g‡a¨ wb‡Êi cuvPwU kvLv cÖavb| h_v−
1. c`v_© weÁvb, 4. Avenwe`¨v I
2. imvqb weÁvb, 5. f‚-we`¨v|
3. †R¨vwZwe©`¨v,
cÖkœ : 3| m チ h©MÖnY m¤•wK©Z fwel¨revYxi Rb¨ †K weL¨vZ
wQ‡jb?
4 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

DËi : cÖvPxb †ivg I MÖxK mvgªv‡R¨i weÁvbx †_wjm (Thales; wLªt c チ t


624 − 569) m チ h©MÖnY m¤•wK©Z fwel¨revYxi Rb¨ weL¨vZ wQ‡jb|
cÖkœ : 4| me©cÖ_g m チ h©‡Kw›`ªK we‡k¦i aviYv cÖ`vb K‡ib †K?
DËi : cÖvPxbKv‡ji c„w_exi me©‡kÖô †R¨vwZwe©` A¨vwi÷vK©vm
(Aristarchus, wLªt c チ t 310 − 230) me© cÖ_g m チ h©‡Kw›`ªK we‡k¦i aviYv
cÖ`vb K‡ib| m チ h©B †h †mŠiRM‡Zi †K›`ª Ges c„w_ex I Ab¨vb¨ MÖn¸‡jv
Zvi Pviw`‡K Ny‡i P‡j‡Q GK_v wZwbB cÖ_g e‡j‡Qb |
cÖkœ : 5| avZzi †fRvj wbY©‡qi †KŠkj Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K?
DËi : weL¨vZ MÖxK MwYZwe` AvwK©wgwWm (Archimedes; wLªt c チ t
287 − 212) wjfv‡ii bxwZ I Zi‡j wbgw¾Z e¯‘i Dci wµqvkxj DaŸ©gyLx e‡ji
m チ Î Avwe®‹vi K‡i avZzi †fRvj wbY©q Ki‡Z mg_© nb|
cÖkœ : 6| weÁv‡bi eܨvKvj ejv nq †Kvb mgq‡K? †Kb?
DËi : weÁv‡bi eܨvKvj :
cÖvPxbKv‡ji †k‡li w`‡Ki weÁvbx‡`i g‡a¨ AvwK©wgwWm wQ‡jb Ab¨Zg|
cÖvPxb MÖxK I †ivg mvgªv‡R¨i weÁvbx †_wjm †_‡K ïi“ K‡i
AvwK©wgwW‡mi mgqKvj ch©š マ weÁv‡bi A‡bK weKvk mvwaZ nq|
AvwK©wgwW‡mi RxeÏkv wQj wLªt c チ t 287 †_‡K 212 ch©š マ | Zuvi
g„Zz¨i ci K‡qK kZvãxKvj ˆeÁvwbK Avwe®‹vi gš’i MwZ‡Z P‡j| cÖK…Zc‡¶
·qv`k kZvãxi c‡e© BD‡iv‡c ˆeÁvwbK AbymwÜrmvi cY©Rxeb N‡U
wb| Kv‡RB AvwK©wgwW‡mi ci K‡qK kZvãxKvj ch©š mgq‡K weÁv‡bi
eܨvKvj ejv nq|
cÖkœ : 7| †Kvb kã †_‡K Ô†Kwgw÷ªÕ bv‡gi D™¢e?
DËi : ÔAvj‡KwgÕ †_‡K eZ©gvb †Kwgw÷ª ev imvqb bv‡gi D™¢e|
ÔAvj‡KwgÕ GKwU Aviwe kã| gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i g‡a¨ Rvwei Be‡b
nvBqvb I Be‡b wmbv ÔAvj‡KwgiÕ DbœwZ mvab K‡ib| ÔAvj‡KwgiÕ
ˆewkó¨ GB wQj †h Gi g‡a¨ GKw`‡K †hgb ag© I Ava¨vwÕKZvi †hvM wQj
†Zgwb Avevi ivmvqwbK wkí †KŠkj I KzkjZvi HwZ‡n¨i mv‡_I m¤•K©hy³
wQj|
cÖkœ : 8| Avie RM‡Z MÖxK Ávb-weÁvb cwiwPZ wQj wKfv‡e?
DËi : Avie RM‡Z MÖxK weÁvb Abyev‡`i gva¨‡g cwiwPZ wQj| ZrKvjxb
mg‡q MÖxK Ávb-weÁvb mviv we‡k¦B mgv`„Z wQj| we‡kl K‡i gymwjg
Aviexq weÁvbxiv MÖxK weÁv‡bi Zvrch© eyS‡Z †c‡iB MÖxK weÁvb‡K
Abyev‡`i gva¨‡g PP©v K‡i weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki aviv‡K mgybœZ ivL‡Z
mg_© n‡qwQj|
cÖkœ : 9| exRMwYZ I w·KvYwgwZi wfZ cÖwZôv K‡ib †K?
DËi : Avie weÁvbx Avey Ave`yjvn Be‡b gymv Avj-†LvqvwiRwg
exRMwYZ I w·KvYwgwZi wfZ cÖwZôv K‡ib| Zvi weL¨vZ MÖš’ ÒAvj wRei
Iqvj gyKvwejvÓ-Gi bvg †_‡K ÔA¨vj‡ReivÕ (Algebra) k‡ãi DrcwË| A¨vj‡Reiv
k‡ãi evsjv cÖwZkã n‡”Q exRMwYZ|
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 5

cÖkœ : 10| A¨v‡÷ªvjve bvgK hš ミ Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K?


DËi : MÖn-b¶‡Îi DbœwZ wbY©‡qi Rb¨ A¨v‡÷ªvjve (Astrolab) bvgK hš ミ
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib Avie gymwjg weÁvbx Avj dvRvix|
cÖkœ : 11| †m·U¨v›U cÖ_g †K Avwe®‹vi K‡ib?
DËi : Avj LyRv›`x bvgK GKRb gymwjg weÁvbx †m·U¨v›U (Sextant) bvgK
hš ミ wU Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| DbœwZ †KvY wbY©‡qi Rb¨ Ges †R¨vwZwe©`¨v
M‡elYvq GB hš ミ e¨eüZ nq|
cÖkœ : 12| fviZxq †Kvb weÁvbx c`v‡_©i ¶z`ªZg KYvi bvg †`b
cigvYy?
DËi : cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi weL¨vZ `vk©wbK Kbv` c`v‡_©i ¶y`ªZg AwefvR¨
KYvi bvg †`b ÔcigvYyÕ|
cÖkœ : 13| π-Gi gvb‡K 22/7 e‡j †g‡b †bb †Kvb fviZxq weÁvbx?
DËi : cÖvPxb fviZxq cwʇZiv π-Gi gvb 3.1623 wbY©q K‡ib| fv¯‹ivPvh©
cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi Ab¨Zg †kÖô †R¨vwZwe©` wQ‡jb| c„w_exi e¨vm wbY©‡qi
†¶‡Î wZwb π-Gi gvb‡K 22/7 wn‡m‡e a‡i †bb ev †g‡b †bb| eZ©gvb Kv‡ji
wn‡me †_‡K GB gvb cvIqv hvq 3.1416 ev cÖvq 22/7|
cÖkœ : 14| Av‡jvi cÖwZmi‡Yi m チ Î Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K?
DËi : Rvg©vwbi weÁvbx †¯j (Snell, 1591 − 1626) Av‡jvi cÖwZmi‡Yi m チ ÎwU
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib|
cÖkœ : 15| Av‡jvi Zi½ ZË¡ †K Avwe®‹vi K‡ib?
DËi : 1678 mv‡j nvB‡Mb (Huygen, 1626 − 1695) Av‡jvi Zi½ ZË¡ Avwe®‹vi
K‡ib| GB ZË¡ Abymv‡i Av‡jv B_vi bv‡g GK KvíwbK gva¨‡gi wfZi w`‡q Zi½
AvKv‡i 3 × 108 ms−1 †e‡M mÂvwjZ nq|
cÖkœ : 16| K¨vjKzjvm bvgK MwYZ e¨e¯’vi cÖeZ©b K‡ib †K?
DËi : weªwUk weÁvbx m¨vi AvBR¨vK wbDUb (1642−1727) K¨vjKzjvm bvgK
MwYZ e¨e¯’vi cÖeZ©b K‡ib|
cÖkœ : 17| ch©‡e¶Y I cix¶vi gva¨‡g weÁv‡bi me mZ¨ hvPvB Kiv
DwPZ -·qv`k kZ‡Ki †Kvb weÁvbx GgZ †cvlY Ki‡Zb?
DËi : ·qv`k kZ‡Ki weÁvbx iRvi †eKb (1214 − 1291) wQ‡jb cix¶vg チ jK
ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi cÖe³v| wZwb gZ †cvlY K‡ib †h, Òch©‡e¶Y I cix¶vi
gva¨‡gB weÁv‡bi me mZ¨ hvPvB Kiv DwPZ|Ó
cÖkœ : 18| weÁvb hv †kv‡b Zv wek¦vm Kiv bq, weÁvb nj cÖvK…
wZK NUbvi h_v_© Kvi‡Yi AbymÜvb ·qv`k kZ‡Ki †Kvb weÁvbx
GgZ †cvlY Ki‡Zb?
DËi : ·qv`k kZ‡Ki me‡P‡q cwÊZ gvbyl wQ‡jb AvjevU©vm g¨vMbvm
(Albertus Magnus, 1193 − 1280)| Zuvi g‡Z, ÒweÁvb hv †kv‡b Zv wek¦vm Kiv bq|
weÁvb nj cÖvK…wZK NUbvi h_v_© Kvi‡Yi AbymÜvb|
cÖkœ : 19| cigvYy †h wdkb‡hvM¨ GK_v cÖ_g Avwe®‹vi K‡ib †K
ev Kviv?
6 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

DËi : ÔwdkbÕ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q wefvRb| †Kvb GKwU fvix cigvYy‡K
`ª“ZMwZ m¤•bœ wbDUªb Øviv AvNvZ Ki‡j cigvYywUi wbDwK¬qvm
wefvwRZ n‡q `ywU cigvYy‡Z iƒcvš マ wiZ nq Ges cigvYyi f‡ii GKwU Ask
kw³‡Z iƒcvš マ wiZ nq| 1939 mv‡j A‡Uv nvb (Otto Hann, 1879 − 1968) I
†÷ªmg¨vb (Strassmann, 1902) BD‡iwbqv‡gi cigvYy †f‡½ cÖ_g cÖgvY K‡ib
†h, cigvYy wdkb‡hvM¨ ev cigvYy‡K wefvwRZ Kiv m¤¢e|
cÖkœ : 20| wkí wece wK?
DËi : wkí wece :
Aóv`k kZvãxi ga¨fvM n‡Z Ebwesk kZvãxi ga¨fvM ch©š マ e„‡U‡bi wkí †¶‡Î
eû ¸i“Z¡c チ Y© cwieZ©b msNwUZ nq| GB Ac チ e© cwieZ©b‡K Bsj¨v‡Ûi wkí
wece bv‡g AwfwnZ Kiv nq| GB wec‡e wkí Drcv`‡bi KvVv‡gv, Kjv‡KŠkj I
Drcv`b c×wZi Avg チ j cwieZ©b mvwaZ nq| KvwiMwi †¶‡Î bvUKxq DbœwZ
wkí wec‡ei Ab¨Zg KviY|
cÖkœ : 21| Av‡jvi Zwor-Pz¤^Kxq Z‡Ë¡i weKvk NUvb †K?
DËi : 1864 mv‡ji gnvb ZvwË¡K c`v_© weÁvbx †Rgm K¬vK© g¨v·I‡qj
Av‡jvi Zwor Pz¤^Kxq Z‡Ë¡i AeZviYv K‡ib| GB ZË¡ Abymv‡i, hLb MwZkxj
†PŠ¤^K I Zwor †¶‡Îi `ª“Z ch©vqe„Ë cwieZ©b N‡U, ZLb `„k¨ I A`„k¨
wewKi‡Yi D™¢e nq|
cÖkœ : 22| Av‡jvi †eM cÖ_g †K wbY©q K‡ib?
DËi : 1675 mv‡j †Wbgv‡K©i weL¨vZ †R¨vwZwe©` †ivgvb (Romen, 1644
− 1710) e„n¯•wZi GKwU DcMÖ‡ni MÖnY ch©‡e¶Y K‡i Av‡jvi †eM (3 × 108
ms−1) cwigvc K‡ib|
cÖkœ : 23| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ weKv‡k Kv‡`i Ae`vb A¯^xKvi Kiv hvq
bv?
DËi : ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ weKv‡k PviRb weÁvbxi Ae`vb Ab¯^xKvh©| Giv
n‡jb−
1. MÖxK †`‡ki weÁvbx I `vk©wbK A¨vwi÷Uj (Aristotle, 384 − 322)
2. †lvok kZvãxi weL¨vZ †jLK d«vwÝm †eKb (F. Bacon, 1561 − 1616)
3. BZvjxi weÁvbx I †R¨vwZwe©` M¨vwjwjI (Galileo, 1564 − 1642)
4. e„wUk weÁvbx m¨vi AvBR¨vK wbDUb (Sir Isaac Newton, 1642 − 1727)|
cÖkœ : 24| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi avc¸‡jv wK wK?
DËi : ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi avc : ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi avc¸‡jv wbÊiƒc :
1. mgm¨v wbw`©óKiY|
2. mgm¨v m¤•‡K© Z_¨ msMÖn I we‡klY|
3. AbywgZ wm×vš マ MÖnY|
4. cix¶vi cwiKíbv, cix¶Y, ch©‡e¶Y I AbywgZ wm×vš マ hvPvB|
5. cix¶vjä Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ AbywgZ wm×vš マ MÖnY, eR©b I ms‡kvab|
6. dj cªKvk|
Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ
jK cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| cÖvPxbKv‡j †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki msw¶ß weeiY `vI|
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 7

DËi : cÖvPxbKv‡j †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKvk :


AvaywbK mf¨Zv weÁv‡bi dmj| weÁv‡bi GB mg„w×i wcQ‡b i‡q‡Q
weÁvbx‡`i AK¬vš マ cwikÖg, m„Rbkxj Ae`vb| weÁv‡bi BwZnvm
ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, cÖvPxbKv‡j MÖxK I †ivgvb mvgªvR¨ †_‡KB
†fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki m チ Pbv nq| cÖvPxbKv‡j †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki
avivq wbÊwjwLZ ˆeÁvwbK‡`i Ae`vb D‡jL‡hvM¨−
1. †_wjm (wLªt c チ t 624 − 569)
2. wc_v‡Mvivm (wLªt c チ t 527 − 497)
3. †W‡gvwµUvm (wLªt c チ t 460 − 370)
4. A¨vwi÷vK©vm (wLªt c チ t 310 − 230)
5. AvwK©wgwWm (wLªt c チ t 287 − 212)
wb‡Ê cÖvPxbKv‡j †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki avivi GKwU msw¶ß weeiY †`qv
nj−
weÁvbx †_wjm :
cÖvPxb MÖxK I †ivg mvgªv‡R¨ †_wj‡mi gZ weÁvbx wQ‡jb| wZwb
m チ h©MÖnY m¤•wK©Z fwel¨revYxi Rb¨ weL¨vZ| GQvov wZwb
e‡jwQ‡jb, e„‡Ëi e¨vm e„ˇK mgwØLwÊZ K‡i| wZwb †jvW‡óv‡bi
†PŠ¤^K ag© m¤•‡K©I Rvb‡Zb|
wc_v‡Mvivm :
weÁv‡bi BwZnv‡m wc_v‡Mvivm GKwU ¯§iYxq bvg| wZwb weÁvb,
ag©, MwYZ I msMxZ, †flR weÁvb I wek¦ZË¡, kixi, gb I AvÕv me
wKQy‡KB MvwYwZK m チ ‡ Îi mvnv‡h¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb
Av¸b, cvwb, gvwU I evqy GB PviwU †gŠ‡ji aviYv w`‡qwQ‡jb| K¤•gvb
Zv‡ii Dci Zuvi KvR AwaK ¯’vqx Ae`vb ivL‡Z m¶g n‡qwQj| eZ©gv‡b
ev`¨hš ミ I msMxZ welqK †h †¯‹j i‡q‡Q Zv Zv‡ii K¤•b welqK Zuvi
AbymÜv‡bi AvswkK Ae`vb|
†W‡gvwµUvm :
wLª‡ói R‡b¥i Pvik eQi Av‡M MÖxK `vk©wbK †W‡gvwµUvm aviYv †`b
†h c`v‡_©i AwefvR¨ GKK i‡q‡Q| wZwb Gi bvg †`b cigvYy| cigvYy
m¤•‡K© Zuvi G aviYv eZ©gvb aviYvi †P‡q m¤• チ Y© Avjv`v n‡jI †ek
Zvrch©c チ Y©|
A¨vwi÷vK©vm :
cÖvPxb c„w_exi me©‡kÖô †R¨vwZwe©` A¨vwi÷vK©vm| m チ h©B †h
†mŠi RM‡Zi †K›`ª Ges c„w_ex I Ab¨vb¨ MÖn¸‡jv Zvi Pvi w`‡K- Ny‡i P‡j‡Q
GK_v e‡j‡Qb wZwbB cÖ_g| A¨vwi÷vK©v‡mi GB †gŠwjK I ˆecweK gZvgZ
wKš‘ †gv‡UI †mKv‡ji gvby‡li cQ›` nq wb| KviY we‡k¦ ZLb †c‡Uv (Plato, wLªt
c チ t 428 − 348) I A¨vwi÷U‡ji (Aristotle, (wLªt c チ t 384 − 322) gZev‡`i cÖPÊ
cÖZvc| Zuv‡`i g‡Z m チ h©, MÖn I b¶Î¸‡jv wbðj c„w_ex‡K †K›`ª K‡i Nyi‡Q|
wewfbœ wel‡q A¨vwi÷U‡ji gZ AMva cvwÛZ¨ ZLbKvi w`‡b Avi Kv‡iv wQj
bv| d‡j Zuvi aviYvB µ‡g mevi g‡b ¯’vqx Avmb †M‡o e‡m †Mj| ZLbKvi w`‡bi
8 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

cwÛ‡Ziv ej‡Zb, A¨vwi÷Uj Ávb weÁv‡bi mKj welq wb‡qB wPš マ v K‡i‡Qb|
A¨vwi÷U‡jB me mgm¨vi mgvavb cvIqv hv‡e| A¨vwi÷U‡j hv †bB Zv wb‡q
gv_v Nvgv‡bvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB| A¨vwi÷U‡ji g„Zz¨i evi eQi c‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡iI
A¨vwi÷vK©vm RbMY‡K A¨vwi÷U‡ji aviYvi RM‡Zi evB‡i Avb‡Z cv‡ib wb|
AvwK©wgwWm :
weL¨vZ MÖxK MwYZwe` AvwK©wgwWm wjfv‡ii bxwZ I Zi‡j wbgw¾Z
e¯‘i Dci wµqvkxj DaŸ©gyLx e‡ji m チ Î Avwe®‹vi K‡i avZzi †fRvj wbY©q
Ki‡Z mg_© nb| wZwb †Mvjxq `c©‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ m チ ‡ h©i iwk¥ †K›`ªxf‚Z
K‡i Av¸b aiv‡bvi †KŠkjI Rvb‡Zb|
weÁv‡bi Dlvj‡Mœi G mKj Avwe®‹v‡ii Zvrch© Mfxi| †Kvb wel‡qi
AMÖMwZ wbf©i K‡i H wel‡q AweiZ bZzb aviYv I bZzb Avwe®‹vi ev
bZzb D™¢ve‡bi Dci|
cÖkœ : 2| †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb
ms‡¶‡c eY©bv Ki|
DËi : †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb :
AvwK©wgwW‡mi ci K‡qK kZvãxKvj ˆeÁvwbK Avwe®‹vi gš’i MwZ‡Z P‡j|
G‡K weÁv‡bi eܨvKvj ejv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖK…Zc‡¶ ·qv`k kZvãxi c チ ‡ e©
BD‡iv‡c ˆeÁvwbK AbymwÜrmvi cybRx©eb N‡Uwb| GB mg‡q cwðg
BD‡ivcxq mf¨Zv we‡klfv‡e MªnY K‡iwQj evBRvbUvBb I gymwjg mf¨Zvi
Áv‡bi aviv| Avie RM‡Z MÖxK Ávb-weÁvb Abyev‡`i gva¨‡g cwiwPZ wQj|
Avieiv weÁvb, MwYZ, †R¨vwZwe©`¨v, imvqb I wPwKrmv weÁv‡bI we‡kl
mg„× wQj|
†fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb Abx¯^Kvh©| †h mKj
gymwjg weÁvbx †fŠZ weÁv‡bi wewfbœ kvLvq KZ¸‡jv we‡kl Ae`vb iv‡Lb
Zv wb‡Ê ewY©Z nj−
imvqb I wPwKrmv weÁv‡b Ae`vb :
gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i g‡a¨ Rvwei Be‡b nvBqvb I Be‡b wmbv
ÔAvj‡KwgiÕ DbœwZ mvab K‡ib| ÔAvj‡KwgiÕ ˆewkó¨ GB wQj †h, Gi
g‡a¨ GKw`‡K †hgb ag© I Ava¨vwÕKZvi †hvM wQj, †Zgwb Avevi
ivmvqwbK wkí †KŠkj I KzkjZvi HwZ‡n¨i mv‡_I m¤•K©hy³ wQj|
ÔAvj‡KwgÕ †_‡K eZ©gvb imvqb bv‡gi D™¢e|
Be‡b wmbv GKvav‡i wQ‡jb imvqbwe`, wPwKrmK, `vk©wbK, MwYZÁ Ges
†R¨vwZwe©`| wZwb MÖxK (cÖK…Zc‡¶ Gwkqv gvBb‡ii Awaevmx|)
wPwKrmvwe` M¨v‡j‡bi (Golen, Rb¥ 129 wLªt) Z‡Ë¡i DbœwZ mvab K‡ib| Avie
imvqbwe`iv eû ivmvqwbK hšcvwZi D™¢e NUvb| cwikÖ“Zb (Filtration), cvZb
(Distillation), DaŸ©cvZb (Sublimation) cÖf…wZ cÖwµqvi ˆeÁvwbK iƒc `vb K‡ib
Avieiv Ges wPwKrmvq imvq‡bi cÖ‡qvM Zuv‡`i nv‡ZB cY©Zv cvq|
exRMwYZ I w·KvYwgwZ kv‡¯ Ae`vb :
Avey Avãyjvn Be‡b gymv Avj-†LvqvwiRwg exRMwYZ I w·KvYwgwZi wfZ
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 9

cÖwZôv K‡ib| Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš’ ÔAvj wRei Iqvj gyKvwejvÕ Gi bvg
†_‡K ÔA¨vj‡ReivÕ k‡ãi DrcwË| Zuvi DËim チ ix‡`i g‡a¨ D‡jL‡hvM¨ wQ‡jb
Avj-†ei“bx Ges weL¨vZ Kwe Igi ˆLqvg|
†R¨vwZwe©`¨vq Ae`vb :
gymwjg †R¨vwZwe©`‡`i g‡a¨ AMÖMY¨ wQ‡jb Avj evËvwb, Avj dvRvjx|
MÖn b¶‡Îi DbœwZ wbY©‡qi Rb¨ A¨v‡÷ªvjve (Astrolab) bvgK hš ミ
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib|
†R¨vwZwe©`¨v M‡elYvi Avi GKwU AZxe cÖ‡qvRbxq hš ミ †m·U¨vó (Sextant)
GKv`k kZ‡K cÖ_g Avwe®‹vi K‡ib Avj LyRv›`x bv‡g GKRb gymwjg
weÁvbx|
gymwjg weÁvbx‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡iKRb †R¨vwZwe©Ávbx n‡jb Be‡b BDbym|
wZwb Zuvi c チ e©eZx© 200 eQ‡ii †R¨vwZwe©Ávb welqK GKwU mviYx
ˆZwi K‡ib| GB mviYxi bvg wQj Ônv‡KgvBU A¨v‡÷ªvbwgK¨vj †UwejÕ|
Avj-nvwKg H mg‡q Kvq‡ivi Lwjdv wQ‡jb| wZwb 995 mv‡j House of Science ev
weÁvbvMvi wbg©vY K‡ib|
Av‡jvK we`¨vq Ae`vb :
Av‡jvK Z‡Ë¡i †¶‡Î Be‡b Avj nvB_vg I Avj& nv‡Rb Gi Ae`vb we‡kl D‡jL‡hvM¨|
U‡jgx (Ptolem 127−151 wLªt) I Ab¨vb¨ cÖvPxb weÁvbxiv wek¦vm Ki‡Zb †h,
†Kvb e¯‘ †`Lvi Rb¨ †PvL wb‡R Av‡jvK iwk¥ cvVvq| Avj-nv‡Rb GB g‡Zi
we‡ivwaZv K‡ib Ges e‡jb †h, e¯‘ †_‡K Av‡jv Avgv‡`i †Pv‡L Av‡m e‡jB Avgiv
†`L‡Z cvB| g¨vMwbdvBs Mvm ev AvZkx KvP wb‡q cix¶v Zuv‡K DËj †j‡Ýi
AvaywbK Z‡Ë¡i KvQvKvwQ wb‡q Av‡m| cÖwZmiY m¤•‡K© U‡jgxi ¯’‚j (Crude)
m チ Î m¤•‡K© wZwb e‡jb †h, AvcvZb †Kvb cÖwZmiY †Kv‡Yi mgvbycvwZK;
GwU ïay ¶z`ª †Kv‡Yi †ejvq mZ¨|
cÖK…wZ weÁv‡b Ae`vb :
Avj-gvmy`x cÖK…wZ-BwZnvm (History of Nature) wel‡q GKwU
GbmvB‡K¬vwcwWqv †j‡Lb| GB MÖ‡š’ DBÊwgj (Windmill) ev evqyK‡ji D‡jL
cvIqv hvq| eZ©gv‡b c„w_exi A‡bK †`‡k GB evqyK‡ji mvnv‡h¨ Zwor kw³
Drcv`b Kiv n‡”Q|
cÖkœ : 3| †fŠZ weÁv‡bi cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb D‡jL Ki|
DËi : †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb :
†fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k cÖvPxb fviZ Z_v fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡ki weÁvbx‡`i
Ae`vb D‡jL‡hvM¨| fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡ki weÁvbx‡`i g‡a¨ †h me weÁvbx‡`i
bvg we‡klfv‡e ¯§iY‡hvM¨ Zv‡`i Ae`vb wb‡Ê ewY©Z nj−
gnvex‡ii Ae`vb :
gnvexi Ôwm×vš マ Õ bvgK MÖ‡š’ fviZxq †R¨vwZwe©`¨v welqK KvR Zz‡j
a‡ib| wZwb †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fv‡Mi KvR I ï‡b¨i e¨envi Av‡jvPbv K‡ib|
Avh©f‡Æi Ae`vb :
10 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

Avh©fÆ MwY‡Z Ae`vb iv‡Lb, wZwb MvwYwZK cÖgv‡Yi †hvMdj


ch©v‡jvPbv K‡ib Ges wØNvZ mgxKiY mgvav‡bi cÖ‡Póv †bb|
Kbv`-Gi Ae`vb : Dcgnv‡`‡ki `vk©wbK Kbv` c`v‡_©i ¶z`ªZg KYvi bvg
†`b cigvYy|
fv¯‹ivPv‡h©i Ae`vb :
fv¯‹ivPvh© cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi Ab¨Zg †kÖô †R¨vwZwe©`| wZwb wbfz©jfv‡e
c„w_exi e¨vm wbY©q Ki‡Z mg_© nb| Zuvi MYbvq c„w_exi e¨vm cvIqv
wM‡qwQj 7182 gvBj| eZ©gvbKv‡ji MYbvq Gi gvb 7926 gvBj| c„w_exi
e¨vm †_‡K cwiwa wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡j π-Gi gvb Rvbvi cÖ‡qvRb| cÖvPxb fviZxq
cwʇZiv π-Gi gvb 3.1623 wbY©q K‡ib| fv¯‹ivPvh© 22/7 †K π-Gi gvb
wn‡m‡e †g‡b †bb| eZ©gvbKv‡ji wn‡me †_‡K GB gvb cvIqv hvq 3.1416 ev
cÖvq 22/7|
cÖkœ : 4| ga¨hy‡M †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡ki msw¶ß eY©bv `vI|
DËi : ga¨hy‡M †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKvk :
ga¨hy‡MB cix¶vg チ jK weÁv‡bi Rb¥ nq| Pvwiw`‡K bZzb bZzb cix¶v
m¤•vw`Z n‡Z _v‡K| Avi Gme cix¶vi e¨vL¨vi Rb¨ Rb¥ jvf Ki‡Z _v‡K bZzb
bZzb aviYvi|
wb‡Ê †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k ga¨hy‡Mi wewfbœ weÁvbx‡`i Ae`vb
msw¶ßvKv‡i ewY©Z nj−
·qv`k kZ‡Ki me‡P‡q cwÊZ gvbyl wQ‡jb AvjevU©vm g¨vMbvm (Albertus
Magnus, 1193 − 1280) Zuvi g‡Z− ÔweÁvb, hv †kvbv hvq Zv‡KB wek¦vm
Kiv bq| weÁvb nj cÖvK…wZK NUbvi h_v_© Kvi‡Yi AbymÜvb| ga¨hy‡M
hLb wbq‡gi cÖwZ AÜ AvbyMZ¨B wQj mvaviY wbqg, †m mg‡q Zuvi GB
ˆeÁvwbK gvbwmKZv j¶¨ Kivi gZ|
iRvi †eKb (Roger Bacon, 1214 − 1291) wQ‡jb cix¶vg チ jK ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi
cÖe³v| Zuvi g‡Z, ch©‡e¶Y I cix¶vi gva¨‡gB weÁv‡bi me mZ¨ hvPvB Kiv
DwPZ|
wjIbv‡`©v `v wfw (Leonardo da Vinci, 1452 − 1519) c‡bi kZ‡Ki †kl w`‡K
cvwLi Dov ch©‡e¶Y K‡i D‡ovRvnv‡Ri GKwU g‡Wj ˆZwi K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb
g チ jZ GKRb wPÎwkíx wQ‡jb, wKš‘ ejwe`¨v m¤•‡K© Zuvi D‡jL‡hvM¨ Ávb
wQj| d‡j wZwb wKQy mvaviY hš ミ `¶Zvi mv‡_ D™¢veb Ki‡Z m¶g nb|
†KvcviwbKvm (1473 − 1543) †mŠi‡Kw›`ªK Z‡Ë¡i aviYv Dcw¯’Z K‡ib|
†Kcjvi (1571 − 1630) †mB aviYvi mvaviY MvwYwZK eY©bv †`b wZbwU
m‡Îi mvnv‡h¨| †Kcjv‡ii mvd‡j¨i gj wfwË nj, wZwb cÖPwjZ e„ËvKvi
K¶c‡_i cwie‡Z© Dce„ËvKvi K¶c` Kíbv Ki‡jb|
AvaywbK ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi cÖ_g m チ Pbv N‡U BUvwji weL¨vZ weÁvbx−
M¨vwjwjI M¨vwjwjÕi (1564 − 1642) Ae`v‡bi wfZi w`‡q| wZwbB cÖ_g
†`Lvb †h ch©‡e¶Y, cix¶Y Ges myk„ヘ Ljfv‡e †fŠZ ivwki msÁv I G‡`i g‡a¨
m¤•K© wba©viY ˆeÁvwbK K‡g©i g チ j wfwË| M¨vwjwjI miY, MwZ, Z¡iY,
mgq BZ¨vw`i msÁv I G‡`i g‡a¨ m¤•K© wba©viY K‡ib| d‡j wZwb e¯‘i
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 11

cZ‡bi wbqg Avwe®‹vi I ¯§„wZwe`¨vi wfwË ¯’vcb K‡ib|


M¨vwjwjIÕi D™¢vweZ ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ‡K cY©Zi iƒc cÖ`vb K‡ib wbDUb
(1642 − 1727)| MvwYwZK ZË¡ wbg©vY I cix¶vi gva¨‡g †m Z‡Ë¡i mZ¨Zv
hvPvB‡qi ˆeÁvwbK †h aviv, Zv cÖwZwôZ nq wbDU‡bi we¯§qKi cÖwZfvi
Øviv| wbDUb Avwe®‹vi K‡ib ejwe`¨v I ejwe`¨vi weL¨vZ wZbwU mÎ|
Av‡jvKwe`¨vqI Zuvi Ae`vb i‡q‡Q| MwY‡Zi bZzb kvLv K¨vjKzjvmI Zuvi
Avwe®‹vi|
M¨vwjwjI−wbDUbxq hy‡M msL¨vq Kg n‡jI †ek ¸i“Z¡c チ Y© K‡qKRb
weÁvbx Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Wvt wMjevU©
(Dr. Gilbert, 1540−1603) Pz¤^KZ¡ wb‡q we¯マ vwiZ M‡elYv I ZË¡ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨
wPi¯§iYxq|
Av‡jvi cÖwZmi‡Yi m チ Î Avwe®‹vi K‡ib Rvg©vwbi †¯j (Snell, 1591 − 1626)|
nvB‡Mb (Huygen, 1626 − 1695) †cÛzjvgxq MwZ ch©v‡jvPbv K‡ib, Nwoi
hvwš ミ K †KŠk‡ji weKvk NUvb Ges Av‡jvi Zi½ZË¡ D™¢veb K‡ib|
ievU© ûK (Robert Hooke, 1635 − 1703) weK…ZKiY ej (Distoring force)-Gi wµqvq
w¯’wZ¯’vcK e¯‘i ag© AbymÜvb K‡ib|
wewfbœ Pv‡c M¨v‡mi ag© †ei Kivi Rb¨ cix¶v-wbix¶v Pvjvb weÁvbx
ievU© e‡qj (Robert Boyle, 1627 − 1691)|
fb ¸‡qwiK (Von Guericke) evqy cv¤• Avwe®‹vi K‡ib|
weÁvbx †ivgvi (Romer, 1644 −1710) e„n¯•wZi GKwU DcMÖ‡ni MÖnY
ch©‡e¶Y K‡i Av‡jvi †eM cwigvc K‡ib|
cÖkœ : 5| wkí wece wK? †fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k wkí wec‡ei cÖfve
eY©bv Ki|
DËi : wkí wece :
Aóv`k kZvãxi ga¨fvM n‡Z Ebwesk kZvãxi ga¨fvM ch©š マ e„‡U‡bi wkí †¶‡Î
eû ¸i“Z¡c チ Y© cwieZ©b msNwUZ nq| GB Ac チ e© cwieZ©b‡K Bsj¨v‡Êi wkí
wece bv‡g AwfwnZ Kiv nq| GB wec‡e wkí Drcv`‡bi KvVv‡gv, Kjv‡KŠkj I
Drcv`b c×wZ‡Z Avg チ j cwieZ©b mvwaZ nq| KvwiMwi †¶‡Î bvUKxq
DbœwZ wkí wec‡ei Ab¨Zg KviY|
†fŠZ weÁv‡bi weKv‡k wkí wec‡ei cÖfve :
wkí wec‡ei Av‡M †_‡KB Bsj¨vÊ Ávb weÁv‡bi †¶‡Î BD‡iv‡c †bZ…‡Z¡i
Avm‡b Avmxb wQj| 1660 mv‡j i‡qj GKv‡Wgx cÖwZôvi d‡j †`‡ki †jv‡Ki
g‡a¨ weÁvb I ˆeÁvwbK gvbwmKZvi Rb¥ nq|
KvwiMwi Dbœqb I hš ミ cvwZi Avwe®‹vi :
wbDU‡bi gZ weÁvbx‡`i M‡elYvjä wel‡qi mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ KvwiMwi
Dbœqb I hš ミ cvwZi Avwe®‹vi N‡U| ˆeÁvwbK Avwe®‹vi Drcv`‡bi
Kjv‡KŠkj‡K DbœZ I KvwiMwi Ávb‡K weKwkZ K‡i|
ev®•xq BwÄb :
†Rgm& Iqv‡Ui ev®•xq BwÄb wkí wec‡ei †¶‡Î ¸i“Z¡c チ Y© f‚wgKv cvjb
K‡i| hvbevn‡b ev®•xq Bwćbi mshyw³ hvZvqvZ I PjvPj e¨e¯’vq AKíbxq
MwZ mÂvi K‡i| d‡j gvjvgvj me©Î `ª“Z eÈb m¤¢e nIqvq wRwbmc‡Îi
Pvwn`v I wewµ †e‡o hvq A‡bK ¸Y| Pvwn`vi mv‡_ Zvjwgwj‡q Pjvi R‡b¨
wkí‡`¨v³v‡`i c„ô‡cvlKZvq bZzb bZzb Avwe®‹viI Z¡ivwš^Z nq|
12 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

avZz Mjv‡bvi Pzwj Avwe®‹vi :


G mg‡q avZz Mjv‡bvi Pzwj Avwe®‹vi nIqvq †jvnv I B¯•vZ wk‡íi Afvebxq
AMÖMwZ mvwaZ nq| Z`ycwi, e¯ミ wk‡í bZzb bZzb hš ミ cvwZ Avwe®‹vi,
Kqjv wk‡íi cÖ‡mwms BZ¨vw` wkí wece‡K DrmvwnZ I AMÖMvgx K‡i
†Zv‡j| hš ミ cvwZ I †KŠkjMZ Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j Drcv`b e¨q n«vm cvIqvq jv‡fi
cwigvY e„w× cvq| GB jvf cybt wewb‡qvM K‡i Bsj¨v‡Êi c‡¶ `ª“Z wkívqb
Kiv m¤¢e nq| wk‡ívbœqb‡K Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi Rb¨ wkícwZiv weÁvb mvabvi
wcQ‡bI wewb‡qv‡M Drmvnx nb, d‡j weÁvb I cÖhyw³ `ª“Z weKvk I MwZ
jvf K‡i|
cÖkœ : 6| AvaywbK †fŠZ weÁv‡bi D™¢e m¤•‡K© ms‡¶‡c eY©bv
Ki|
DËi : AvaywbK †fŠZ weÁv‡bi D™¢e :
wkí weceB AvaywbK †fŠZ weÁv‡bi D™¢‡ei gj †cÖiYv| wk‡ívbœqb‡K
Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi Rb¨ wkícwZiv weÁvb I cÖhyw³ weKv‡k Drmvnx nq| d‡j †fŠZ
weÁv‡bi Af‚Zce© DbœwZ mvwaZ nq|
AvaywbK †fŠZ weÁv‡bi D™¢‡ei KZ¸‡jv avc wb‡Ê ewY©Z nj−
hvwšK kw³‡K Zwor kw³‡Z iƒcvš マ ‡ii cÖwµqv Avwe®‹vi :
n¨vÝ wµwðqvb I‡qi‡÷W (Hans Chiristian Oersted, 1777 − 1851) †`Lvb †h, Zwor
cÖev‡ni †PŠ¤^K wµqv Av‡Q| GB Avwe®‹vi gvB‡Kj d¨viv‡W (Michael Faraday,
1791 − 1867), †nbix (Henry, 1797 − 1879) I †jb&R (Lenz, 1804 − 1865) †K
cwiPvwjZ K‡i †PŠ¤^K wµqv Zwor cÖevn Drcv`b K‡i GB NUbv
Avwe®‹v‡ii w`‡K| Avm‡j GwU nj hvwš ミ K kw³‡K Zwor kw³‡Z iƒcvš マ ‡ ii
cÖwµqv Avwe®‹vi| Avgv‡`i AwaKvsk Zwor m¤^Üxq wk‡íi wfwË nj GB
Avwe®‹vi|
Av‡jvi Zwor Pz¤^Kxq ZË¡ :
1864 mv‡ji gnvb ZvwË¡K c`v_© weÁvbx †Rgm K¬vK© g¨v·I‡qj (James Clerk
Maxwell, 1831 − 1879) Av‡jvi Zwor Pz¤^Kxq Z‡Ë¡i weKvk NUvb| 1888
mv‡j †nbwiL nvR©I (Heinrich Hertz, 1857 − 1894) G iKg wewKiY Drcv`b I
D`NvUb K‡ib|
†eZvi Avwe®‹vi :
1896 mv‡j gvK©bx (Marconi) Av‡jvi Zwor Pz¤^Kxq Zi½ e¨envi K‡i AwaK
`i‡Z¡ †gvm©‡Kv‡W ms‡KZ cvVv‡bvi e¨e¯’v D™¢veb K‡ib| Gfv‡e †eZvi
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¥ nq|
†ZRw¯ŒqZv Avwe®‹vi :
Ewbk kZ‡Ki †k‡li w`‡K ib‡R&b (Roentgen, 1854 − 1923) G·‡i Ges †e‡K‡ij (H.
Becquerel, 1852 − 1908) BD‡iwbqv‡gi †ZRw¯‹qZv Avwe®‹vi K‡ib|
†Kvqv›Uvg ZË¡ I Av‡cw¶K ZË¡ Avwe®‹vi :
wewKiY welqK g¨v· cv‡¼i (Max Planck, 1858 − 1947) †Kvqv›Uvg ZË¡ I
A¨vjevU© AvBb÷vB‡bi (Albert Einstein, 1879 − 1955) Av‡cw¶K ZË¡ c チ ‡ e©i
cix¶vjä djvdj‡KB ïay e¨vL¨v K‡i wb, Ggb fwel¨revYxI m¤¢e n‡q‡Q hv Avi
cix¶v-wbix¶v Øviv hvPvB Ki‡Z n‡qwQj|
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 13

wbDwK¨q ZË¡ Avwe®‹vi :


Av‡b©ó iv`vi‡dv‡W©i (Ernest Rutherford, 1871 − 1937) cigvYy welqK
wbDwK¬q ZË¡ I bxjm& †ev‡ii nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cigvYyi B‡jKUªb ¯ マ ‡ ii aviYv
cvigvYweK c`v_© weÁv‡bi m¤¢eZ cÖ_g ¸i“Z¡c チ Y© avc wQj|
cigvYy wdkb :
A‡Uv nvb (Otto Hann, 1879 − 1968) I †÷ªmg¨vb (Strassmann, 1902) †ei K‡ib †h
cigvYy wdkb‡hvM¨| wdk‡bi d‡j GKwU eo AvKv‡ii cigvYy †f‡½ `ywU
gvSvwi AvKv‡ii cigvYy‡Z iƒcvš マ wiZ nq Ges cigvYyi f‡ii GKwU Ask kw³‡Z
iƒcvš マ wiZ nq− Rb¥ nq cvigvYweK †evgvi| eZ©gv‡b cigvYy †_‡K †h kw³
Avgiv cvw”Q Zv AZx‡Zi mg¯ マ Drm †_‡K cÖvß kw³i Zzjbvq wecyj| kw³i
GB wecyj Drm gvby‡li Kj¨vY bv aŸs‡m e¨eüZ n‡e Zv wbf©i K‡i we‡k¦i
wewfbœ miKv‡ii wbqš ミ‡Y huviv Av‡Qb Zuv‡`i Dci|
wPwKrmv weÁv‡b :
wPwKrmv weÁv‡b i‡q‡Q c`v_© weÁv‡bi Af‚Z©ce© Ae`vb| †ZRw¯Œq
AvB‡mv‡Uvc wewfbœ wPwKrmvq e¨eüZ n‡”Q| wPwKrmv weÁv‡bi
wewfbœ hšcvwZ Avwe®‹v‡iI c`v_© weÁvb AMÖYx f‚wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q|
Dcmsnvi : AvaywbK †fŠZ weÁv‡bi D™¢‡ei Kvi‡YB hvbevnb,
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g, wewfbœ †iv‡Mi Jla I cÖwZ‡laK, gnvk‡b¨ ågY,
gnvk チ ‡ b¨ K…wÎg DcMÖn ¯’vcb, Puv‡`i gvwU‡Z gvby‡li c`vc©b, g½j
MÖ‡n i‡KU hvÎv, K…wÎg DcMÖ‡ni gva¨‡g AvenvIqvi c チ e©vfvm,
cvigvYweK kw³‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q we`y¨rkw³ Drcv`b BZ¨vw` m¤¢e n‡q‡Q|
Kw¤•DUvi I B‡jKUªwbKm hš ミ cvwZ gvby‡li ¶gZv‡K A‡bK¸Y evwo‡q
w`‡q‡Q|
cÖkœ : 7| mf¨Zvi weeZ©‡b c`v_© weÁv‡bi f‚wgKv m¤•‡K©
Av‡jvPbv Ki|
DËi : mf¨Zvi weeZ©‡b c`v_© weÁv‡bi f‚wgKv :
c`v_© weÁvb n‡jv cÖvPxb MÖx‡mi gZ cyi‡bv Ges AvMvgx w`‡bi
msev`c‡Îi gZ bZzb| weÁv‡bi wewfbœ kvLvi g‡a¨ GwU me‡P‡q mg„×kvjx|
gvbe mf¨Zvi weeZ©‡b weÁv‡bi †h Ae`vb Zvi wecyj Ask G c`v_©
weÁv‡biB Ae`vb| Avgv‡`i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi wewfbœ Avivg-Av‡qm †_‡K ïi“
K‡i RvZxq Rxe‡bi wewfbœ DbœwZ‡Z c`v_© weÁv‡bi `vb Acwimxg|
c`v_© weÁvbmg チ ‡ ni Avwe®‹vi, m チ Î ev bxwZ AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB cÖvPxb
cwÊZ †hgb− AvwK©wgwWm, †W‡gvwµUvm, †_wj‡mi Ae`vb i‡q‡Q|
mß`k †_‡K wesk kZvãx‡K c`v_© weÁv‡bi DbœwZi ¯^Y© hyM ejv nq| G
mg‡q c`v_© weÁv‡bi Af‚Zc チ e© DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| Gme m¤¢e
n‡q‡Q M¨vwjwjIi coš マ e¯‘ wb‡q cix¶v wbix¶v, e‡q‡ji M¨vm wb‡q cix¶v
wbix¶v, wbDU‡bi gnvKl© I Av‡jvK wb‡q cix¶v wbix¶v Ges †fvÎvi Zwor
m¤•wK©Z cix¶v wbix¶vi d‡j| Gici AwZ `ª“Z Avwe®‹vi nq− G·‡i,
†ZRw¯ŒqZv, cigvYy MVb, †eZvi Zi½ Ges Av‡cw¶KZv ZË¡|
eZ©gv‡b Gme Avwe®‹v‡ii mydj Avgiv †fvM KiwQ| c チ ‡ e©i †P‡q A‡bK
†ewk `ª“Z MwZ‡Z I DuPz‡Z Avgiv ågY Ki‡Z cviwQ| iwOb †Uwjwfkb
Avgv‡`i Avb‡›`i Drm n‡q‡Q| wbDK¬xq wewµqv †_‡K cvw”Q cÖPzi Zwor
14 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

kw³| B‡jKUªwbK Kw¤•DUv‡i RwUj me mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cviwQ


m‡›`‡n| gnvk チ ‡ b¨ cvVvb n‡”Q bZzb bZzb DcMÖn Ges DcMÖn gnvk チ b¨
m¤•‡K© mieivn Ki‡Q bZzb bZzb Z_¨|
c`v_© weÁv‡bi cÖf‚Z AMÖMwZ gvbe Rxeb‡K K‡i‡Q A‡bK my›`i I
mg„×kvjx| Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b Pz¤^K, Zwor, Av‡jvK, kã I wbDK¬xq c`v_©
weÁv‡bi i‡q‡Q Acwimxg Ae`vb| Pz¤^K I Zwor weÁv‡bi Kj¨v‡Y Avgiv
†c‡qwQ Avivg Av‡qm I wPËwe‡bv`‡bi wewfbœ gva¨g| ˆe`y¨wZK evwZ
Avgv‡`i Ni Av‡jvwKZ Ki‡Q, ˆe`y¨wZK cvLv kxZj evZvm Qwo‡q w`‡”Q,
†UwjMÖvd I wUwj‡dv‡bi mvnv‡h¨ Avgiv ` チ i` チ iv‡š マ Lei cvVv‡Z cviwQ|
†iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, wm‡bgv Avgv‡`i wPËwe‡bv`‡b mnvqZv Ki‡Q| `ª“ZMvgx
D‡ovRvnvR Avgv‡`i wb‡q hv‡”Q ` チ i` チ iv‡š マ | GQvov ˆe`y¨wZK Bw¯ ミ ,
†iwd«Rv‡iUi, †gvUiMvwo, †Uªb, evm, ˆe`y¨wZK Pzwj Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b A‡bK
myL I ¯^v”Q›`¨ evwo‡q w`‡q‡Q|
c`v_© weÁv‡bi gj Ae`vb Aek¨ cÖK…wZi †gŠwjK wbqg¸‡jvi Avwe®‹vi|
¶z`ªZg †hme KwYKv w`‡q e¯‘ RMr ˆZwi Ges †gŠwjK †h ej¸‡jv cÖK…
wZ‡Z KvR Ki‡Q Zv Avwe®‹vi Kiv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q c`v_© weÁv‡bi D™¢vweZ
ZË¡ I cix¶Y Øviv c`v_© weÁv‡bi Kj¨v‡Y cigvYyi Af¨š マ i †_‡K gnvwe‡k¦i
`チ iZg M¨vjvw· m¤•‡K© µgvMZ ï×Zi Dcjwä Avgiv AR©b KiwQ|
cÖkœ : 8| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ wK? weÁvbx‡`i Kv‡Ri aviv ms‡¶‡c
eY©bv Ki|
DËi : ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ :
weÁv‡bi mv‡_ RwoZ Av‡Q cix¶v, wbix¶v I ch©‡e¶Y| Gme KvR Ki‡Z n‡e
c×wZMZfv‡e, myk„ ヘ Lj Dcv‡q, weÁvbm¤§Z `„wófw½ wb‡q| wewfbœ
weÁvbx wewfbœ cix¶v wbix¶v, wewfbœ ch©‡e¶Y I wewfbœ M‡elYv K‡ib|
Zuv‡`i Kv‡Ri cÖKvi wewfbœ n‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ mevB avivevwnKfv‡e,
c×wZMZfv‡e I myk„ ヘ Lj Dcv‡q KvR m¤•bœ K‡ib| Zuv‡`i Kv‡Ri avivi g‡a¨
GKwU c×wZMZ wgj Av‡Q| weÁvbx‡`i e¨eüZ GB †h mvaviY c×wZ Zv‡KB ejv
nq ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ|
msÁv : weÁvbxiv †h we‡kl `„wófw½, wPš マ v-fvebv I myk„ ヘ Lj c×wZ
AbymiY K‡ib Ges cix¶v−wbix¶v I ch©‡e¶‡Yi gva¨‡g M‡elYv, Avwe®‹vi I
ÁvbPP©vq av‡c av‡c GwM‡q hvb Zv‡K ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ e‡j|
weÁvbx‡`i Kv‡Ri aviv : ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi weKv‡k PviRb weÁvbxi Ae`vb
Ab¯^xKvh©| Zuv‡`i Kv‡Ri aviv †_‡K ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi weKvk mn‡R †evSv
hvq| weÁvbxiv wKfv‡e KvR K‡ib Zv ms‡¶‡c wb‡P ejv nj−
1. weÁvbx ch©‡e¶Y K‡ib (†eKb) : d«vwÝm †eKb †Kvb NUbv ev
m‡Z¨i ch©‡e¶‡Yi Dci †ewk ¸i“Z¡ Av‡ivc Ki‡Zb| wZwb †Kvb NUbv
ch©‡e¶Y K‡i msM„nxZ Z‡_¨i Dci †ewk †Rvi w`‡Zb| wZwb g‡b
Ki‡Zb wePvi eyw×i mvnv‡h¨ Z‡Ë¡ †cuŠQvb hvq|
2. †Kvb wKQy †Kb N‡U? wK fv‡e N‡U? weÁvbx †m cÖkœ
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 15

wR‡Ám K‡ib (M¨vwjwjI) : M¨vwjwjI †eK‡bi gZ ïay ch©‡e¶‡YB


†Rvi w`‡Zb bv| Zuvi cÖkœ wQj †Kvb wKQy †Kb N‡U? wKfv‡e N‡U?
wZwb †Kvb wKQy †Kb Ges wKfv‡e N‡U Zvi ch©‡e¶Y I cix¶v K‡i
hvPvB Ki‡Zb|
3. weÁvbx Zuvi ch©‡e¶Y‡K hvPvB K‡ib, cix¶‡Yi Rb¨ wPš マ v K‡ib
Ges ZË¡ cÖ`vb K‡ib (A¨vwi÷Uj) : A¨vwi÷Uj-Gi Kv‡Ri avivi ˆewkó¨
wQj †h wZwb ïay cÖkœ Ki‡Zb Ges Gme cÖ‡kœi DËi `v‡bi Rb¨ ZË¡
ˆZwi Ki‡Zb|
4. weÁvbx Zuvi ZË¡‡K hvPvB cix¶v−wbix¶vi Rb¨ cix¶‡Yi e¨e¯’v
K‡ib| (M¨vwjwjI, wbDUb) : M¨vwjwjI cix¶‡Yi Dci †ewk †Rvi
w`‡Zb Ges wbDUb cix¶Y I cÖvß djvdj‡K MvwYwZK m チ ‡ Îi gva¨‡g
cÖKv‡ki cÖwZ †Rvi w`‡Zb|
5. weÁvbx Zuvi cix¶vj× djvdj †_‡K Zuvi ZË¡‡K cÖ‡qvR‡b cwieZ©b
ev ms‡kvab K‡ib|
6. weÁvbx Ab¨vb¨ ch©‡e¶Y e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z ev fwel¨‡Zi NUbvewj
m¤•‡K© fwel¨revYx Ki‡Z cv‡ib| DcwiD³ avc¸‡jvi mgš^‡q MwVZ
nq ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ|
wb‡P ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi GKwU cÖevn wPÎ †`Iqv nj :
16 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

mgm̈v
w
bẁ©
óKi Y

Z_¨msMÖ nI
w
e‡k­l Y
bZz
b Avby
gvw
bK
wm×vš
Avby
gvw
bK
w
m×vš

ci x¶vi
cw
i Kí bv
Avby
gvwbK wm×vš
eR©b/ms‡kvab
ci x¶Y

ch©
‡e¶Y

dj vdj
w
e‡k­l Y w
m×všMÖ
nY dj vdj cÖ
Kvk

wPÎ : weÁvbx‡`i Kv‡Ri avc

ˆbe©¨w³K
cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√)
wPý `vI|
1. m チ h©B †h †mŠi RM‡Zi †K›`ª K. †c‡Uv √ L.
Ges c„w_ex I MÖn¸‡jv Zvi A¨vwi÷vKvm©
Pviw`‡K Ny‡i P‡j‡Q GK_v Avgiv M. A¨vwi÷Uj N. M¨vwjwjI
Kvi KvQ †_‡K ï‡bwQjvg?
2. Kvi †jLv eB‡qi bvg †_‡K
(wm.†ev. 2005; h.†ev. 2003)
†fŠZweÁv‡bi weKvk 17

Avj‡Reiv bv‡gi D™¢e? K. Avj dvRvix L. Be‡b nvBqvb


K. Avj evËvwb L. U‡jwg M. Avj n¨v‡Rb ✓N. Avj
√ M. Avj-†LvqvwiRwg N. †LvqvwiRwg
6. cix¶vgjK ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi
Avj dvRvix
cÖe³v †K wQ‡jb?
3. cvwLi Dov †`‡L D‡ovRvnv‡Ri (P.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2002)
g‡Wj ˆZwi K‡ib †K? K. AvjevU©vm g¨vMbvm L.
K. iRvi †eKb √ L. wjIbv‡`©v `v wbDUb
wfw M. iRvi †eKb ✓ N. M¨vwjwjI
M. Igi ˆLqvg N. ivBU åvZ…Øq 7. cigvYyi cÖv_wgK aviYv †`b
4. †KvcviwbKv‡mi gZev` cÖPv‡ii †K? (Kz.†ev. 2001)
Rb¨ Av¸‡b cywo‡q gviv nq K. wc_v‡Mvivm ✓ L.
†Kvb weÁvbx‡K? †W‡gvwµUvm
M. Be‡b wmbv N. Avj nv‡Rb
K. M¨vwjwjI √ L. wR‡qv`©vbv
8. †Kvqv›Uvg Z‡Ë¡i cÖwZôvZv
eª“‡bv †K? (Kz.†ev. 2000)
M. U‡jwg N. wc_v‡Mvivm| K. AvjevU© AvBb÷vBb L.
iv`vi †dvW©
AwZwi³ ✓ M. g¨v· cv¼ N. bxj&m †evi
ˆbe©¨w³K 9. KZ mv‡j i‡qj GKv‡Wwg
cÖwZwôZ nq?
cÖ‡kœvËi (h.†ev. 2006; iv.†ev. 2001; P.†ev.
1. ˆeÁvwbK †¯j †Kvb †`‡ki 2001)
Awaevmx ? K. 1860 mv‡j ✓ L. 1660 mv‡j
(Xv.†ev. 2003; iv.†ev. 2003) M. 1760 mv‡j N. 1960 mv‡j
K. BUvwj ✓ L. Rvg©vbx 10. jwR †eqvW© KZ mv‡j
M. wgki N. d«vÝ †Uwjwfkb wPÎ †cÖi‡Y m¶g nb?
2| π (cvB) Gi gvb‡K 22/7 e‡j †g‡b (P.†ev. 2002)
†bb †Kvb& fviZxq weÁvbx ? K. 1925 ✓ L. 1926
(Xv.†ev. 2003) M. 1894 N. 1928
A_ev, π Gi gvb GB Z_¨wU 11. KZ mv‡j Avjmv‡›`ªv †fvÎv
me©cÖ_g †K cÖKvk K‡ib? me©cÖ_g Zwor †cÖi‡Y m¶g
(ewi.†ev. 2005) nb? (P.†ev. 2002)
K. Kbv` L. Avh©fÆ ✓ K. 1794 L. 1834
M. gnvexi ✓ M. fv¯‹ivPvh© M. 1894 N. 1961
3| cÖvPxb c„w_exi me©‡kÖô 12. cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi Ab¨Zg †kÖô
†R¨vwZ©we` †K? (P.†ev. 2003) †R¨vwZwe©` fv¯‹vivPvh©
K. wW‡gvwµUvm ✓ L. c„w_exi e¨vm KZ wbY©q
A¨vwi÷vg K‡iwQ‡jb? (iv.†ev. 2002)
M. wcev‡Mvivg N.Avj nvB Lvb ✓ K. 7182 gvBj L. 8271 gvBj
4| cigvYy †h wdkb‡hvM¨ Zv †Kvb M. 7926 gvBj N. 7982 gvBj|
weÁvbx Avwe®‹vi K‡ib? 13. KZ mv‡j g¨v·I‡qj Av‡jvi ZwoZ
(Xv.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. 2003; †PŠ¤^K Z‡Ë¡i AeZviYv K‡ib?
iv.†ev. 2000) [P.†ev. 2006]
K. K¬vK© d¨v·I‡qj L. K. 1905 L. 1900
I‡Uvnvb
✓ M.1864 N. 1960
M. †÷ªmg¨vb ✓ M. (L) I (M) DfqB
5. exRMwYZ I w·KvYwgwZi wfZ 14. †K e„n¯•wZi GKwU DcMÖ‡ni
cÖwZôv K‡ib †K? MÖnY ch©‡e¶Y K‡i Av‡jvi †eM
(h.†ev. 2001) cwigvc K‡ib? [wm.†ev. 2006]
18 GUg ✏ gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

K. †Kcjvi ✓ L. †ivgvi Avgiv Kvi KvQ †_‡K ï‡bwQjvg?


M.M¨vwjwjI N. W. wMjevU© [h.†ev. 2003; wm.†ev. 2005]
15. Avj-gvmy`x KZ mv‡j gviv K. †c‡Uv ✓ L.
hvb?[ewi.†ev. 2006] A¨vwi÷vK©vm
K. 672 mv‡j ✓ L. 957 mv‡j M.A¨vwi÷Uj N. M¨vwjwjI
M.1007 mv‡j N. 1107 mv‡j 20. e„‡Ëi e¨vm e„ˇK
16. †W‡gvwµUvm †Kvb †`‡ki mgwØLwÊZ K‡i−G K_v †Kvb
bvMwiK wQ‡jb? cÖvPxb weÁvbx e‡j‡Qb?
[ewi.†ev. 2006] [Xv.†ev. 2005; h.†ev. 2002]
K. fviZ L. BZvwj K. cx_v‡Mvivm L.
✓ M.wMÖK N. wgki AvwK©wgwWm
17. †Kvb weÁvbx †Mvjxq `c©‡Yi M.†W‡gvwµUvm ✓ N.
mvnv‡h¨ mh©iwk¥ †K›`ªxf‚Z †_wjm
K‡i Av¸b aiv‡bvi †KŠkj 21. cÖvPxb fviZxq cwˇZiv π Gi
Avwe®‹vi K‡ib? [iv.†ev. 2005] gvb KZ wbY©q K‡ib?
K. †_wjm L. wc_v‡Mvivm [Kz.†ev. 2004]
M.U‡jgx ✓ N. K. 3.1416 L. 3.1561
AvwK©wgwWm ✓ M. 3.1623 N. 3.1821
18. 'House of Science' †K wbg©vY 22. ch©‡e¶Y I cix¶vi gva¨‡g
K‡ib?[h.†ev. 2005] weÁv‡bi me mZ¨ hvPvB Kiv
✓ K. Lwjdv Avj-nvwKg L. DwPZÓÑ †Kvb weÁvbx G gZ
Be‡b BDbym †cvlY Ki‡Zb?
M.wbDUb N. M¨vwjwjI [Kz.†ev. 2005]
19. mh©B †h †mŠiRM‡Zi †K›`ª K. wbDUb L. M¨vwjwjI
Ges c„w_ex I MÖn¸‡jv Gi ✓ M.iRvi †eKb N. A¨vwi÷Uj
Pviw`‡K Ny‡i P‡j‡Q G K_v