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Кайуа Р. Игры и люди

Кайуа Р. Игры и люди

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Roger Caillois

LESJEUX

ET LES HOMMES

ESSAIS DE SOCIOLOGIE DE LA CULTURE

PO)Ke Kariya

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© Editions Gallimard, 1958, pour -Les jeux et les hornmes© Editions Gallimard, 1945, pour ~Etrcs de crepuscule-

© Editions Gonthier, 1964, pour -L'esprit des sectes-

© Editions 1£ Saggitaire, 1944, pour les autres textes

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Pa60TbI PO)J(C KaHya (1913-1978), coopamrsre B HaCTm!II~eM 113AaHHH, OTHOOITOI K TOMY nepaony ero TBOpqecrna, KOTOPbIH paasepnynca nocne ssrxona B CSeT ero nepssrx KHHr «Mmp 11 qeJIOBCKi) (1938) 11 <·qeJIOBCI< H caxpansnoe- (1939)1. XpOHOJIOmqeCKH HX CJIC,I1;OBaJIO 6bI q11TaTh 01' KOHlJ,a K na-rany rosra, HaqHH:uI co cTaTcH H acce. qacTh 3TH X TeKCTOfl (~OnyeToIIIeHHocrb», <,COlJ,HOllOrIDI nanaxa-, <,COl~HOJIOrHH KlIHpHKa,») snepsue ony6JIHKOBaHhl erne no BOHHbI; ApyrHC «,CCKpeTHhle COKPOBHuta-, <TOJIOBOKp)')KCHHe.), <)..I,YX ceicr-, (,CYMepeqHHKH") - B ronsr BOHHbl HJIH cpasy nOCJIe nee, HaKOHelJ" MOHorpacpIDI -Hrpsr H 1I1O,I1;H·' BhIIIIJIa ,I1;eC5ITHJIeTHeM n03)J(e, B 1958 rom, II crana O,l1;HHM H3 rrraansrx TPYAOS KaHya2. B 3TOM. XpOHOJIOrHH KPOeTC5I pesxaa, flpaMaTHqecKJJ! 3BOJI1OlJ,IDI mrreparopa H yqeHoro, XOT5I OCHOBHble TeMhI H np06JIeMhI npoxonar HeH3MeHHbIMH 01' pamnrx KHIIr K 3peJIbIM, a nexoropsre H3 lOHOIIICCKHX scce BbIfJI5I,IJ;5IT nepsbIMH orrsrrasnr, 3arOTOBKaMH K rr03,11;HeM.IIIHM xpynHhIM TpY,l1;aM.

1 CM. PYCCKHH rtepesort KA flYA P. MH¢ H 'feJIOBCK '-JCJlOBCK H CJKp3JlbHOC. M.:

Ol'H, 2003. B npe~HCJTOIlHH K yKa3aHHOMY H3gamllO KpaTKO xapaKTCpH3yKYfCH )KH31!b H TBOP'fCCTBO Karrya go lia'faJla BOHllbl.

2 I1CTO'fHHKH ¢paHL(y3cKHX TCKCTOB, HCnOJIb30BaHHbIC IIpH IICpCBOgC: )l;JUi eraTeH (,COU;HOJIOnrn narrasa-, .CeKpeTHbIC COKpOBHll\ai>, .rOllOBOKPy;KCHHC», -Couaonoras KJIHpHKa·., -Orrycronremroc'n« - C60PHHK: CAJ1.1.01S R. La communion des forts. Marseille. Le Sagittatre, 1944 (nepsoe H3gaHHe - Mexaxo, 1943); )l;JUi 3CCC ~CyMcpe<[HHKH" - C60pHHK: CAJ1.LOIS R. Lc rocher de Sisyphc. Paris:

Gallimard, 1945;,1I/U! CTaThH {,t!:yx CCKT", anepasre HblWCgIllCil OT~enbHbIM H3,[1aHHeM ira HcnaHCKOM H3bIKC B MCXHKO B 1945 rorry, - C60pHHK: C A I L 1.0 I sR. Instincts et societe. Paris: Gonthicr, 1964 (B 3TOM C60PHl1KC ncpenevaransr HTpH nepnsre CTaTbl1, ynosenryrsre BbIIllC); HaKOHeIl,,)l;JUi MOHorpa¢HH *HrpbI H rnona- - BTOpOC OT1\CllbHOC H3gaHHC: CA I L LO 1 sR. Les jeux et les hornrnes. Paris: Gallimard, 1967 (nepnoc H3gJHHe - TaM )Ke, 1958).

7

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3TOT ,ll,paMaTHlJeCKHH onsrr nanpacnon )KepTBbI, 6ecrrOJIe3HOrO nperpeureaaa MJIH rro KpaHHeH Mepe pacxa KaK 'raxoaoro, OlJeBH,ll,Ho, rny6oKo YH3BHlI Kal1ya H BbI3BaJI E HeM BlfYTpeHHHH KpH3HC; B 1945 roAY BO !J>paHU:HIO BepHYlIC5I yxe He TOT qe.nOBeK, 'ITO rrOKHHylI ee JIeTOM 1939-1'0. OTKa3aBIIIHCb 01' IOHOIIIeCKoro Pl,ll,HKaJIH3Ma, OT 3aBbIIIIeHHbIX rrpUTH3aHHH aa nenocpencrnennoe H3MeHeHHe MHpa, OH rrepernen B llAeOJIorHH na rr03HU:HH TPl,ll,HU:HOHHoro ryMaHH3Ma, a B TBOplJeCTBe - K TPl,ll,HQHOHHOH)Ke nnrepa'rvpaoa 3cceHCTHKe, H 3TOT IIYTb CHaxana ooecne-ran esry ycrreIIIHYIO xapsepy EO BHOBb C03,ll,aHHOH xynsrvpHOH opraHH3aU:HH 06'be,ll,HHeHHbIX HaU:HH (IOHECKO), a B 1972 rozty H npasen ero (eAHHCTBeHHoro H3 scex 6bIBIIIHX ClOppeaJIHCToB) B 'lJICHbI caM oro KOHcepBaTHBHoro xyrrsrypnoro yqpe)K)l,eHllii !J>paHl~HH - !J>paHU:Y3CKOH aKa,ll,eMHH.

Ilepssre IIIarH na 3TOM IIYTH MO)KHO paana-nrrs B ero TBOpqCCTBe -rrpoerezcyroaaoro- nepaona, B scce -Orrycromennocn,- (1938), KaK H B pszte npyrax npenaoeamax TeKCTOB, OH nponoseztyer cnacaTeJIbHYlO -crporocrs-, a B narracamnax HeCKOJIbKHMH rO,ll,aMH noszmee

Cy,ll,b6y PO)Ke Kal1ya rrepeBepHylIa BTOPa51 MHpOBa5I BOHHa, 3aCTaBIIIaJi ero so BpeM5I KpaTKOCpOqHOH, KaK npezmonaranocs, a B H1'Ore 3aT5IHYBllIeHC5I na IIIeCTb JIeT noeaznca B ApreHTHHy. Ka3aJIOCb 6bI, B aa-razre BOHHbI He 6bmo HH"lerO neoxomaunoro. B KOHII,e 30-x Kaliya, COBMeCTHO C )Kop)KeM BaTaeM H MHIlIe.neM JIeHpHcoM, B03maBJIlliI napWKcKHH KOJIlle)K COU:HOJIOrHH l, 'IbID Ae5lTeJIbHOCTb o,n:yweBJIHJIH ocrpoe ripenqysCTBHe BOHHbI H )KeJIaHHe MOPaJIbHO BOOp)?KHTb aanaznryio U:HBHlIH- 3aU:HIO nepen HeMHHyeMoH CXBaTKOM. 11 see )fCe BOMHa, a 3aTeM H CKOpOTeqHOe nopaacenne <fJpaHQ1111 B 1940 rozry, OKa3aJIHCb ,!l,JIH Kanya He TOJIbKO HaU:HOHaJIbHO-nOJIlnHqeCKOH, HO H JIHqHOH, HHTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHOH xaracrporpon. TI03,ll,Hee OH BCrrOMHHaJI 06 nOM TaK: -Te TeMHbIe CHlIbI, 'ITO Mbl Me"lTaJIH npasecra B ,ll,eMCTBHe, OCB060,ll,MJIHCb caMH rro ce6e, C HHbIM11 rrOCJIe,ll,CTBH5IMH, qeM O)KH,!l,aeMhIe HaMH,)2.

Ilon ('TeMHbIMH CMJIaMH'> 3AeCb rrO,ll,pa3YMeBaIOTC5I CMJIbI caxpansnoro, xoropsre TpaKTOBaJIHCb yqaCTHHKaMH KOJIlle)Ka B aayxac-ssarePHaJIHCTHqeCKOM CMbICJIe (caxpansnoe He CHHCXO,ll,HT na 3eMJIIO H3 MHCTHqeCKOrO MHpa, a BbIpa6aTblBacrC5I caMHMH JIIOAbMH rtocpencrsov; ortpenencanerx COU:HaJIbHbIX rrpaKT11K), HO ace )Ke MbICJIMJIHCb KaK He'ITO '!)?KAoe, '·l1HOO, ('HeaCCHMMJIHpOBaHHoe» no OTHOIIIeH111O K 06bIqHbIM CMJIaM, p'eHCTByro~HM B 06~eCTBe. Haxano BOMHbI I10Ka3aJIO, 4TO Hafi1IY"lIIIHMH B03MO)KHOCT.HMH B npHMeHeHHH TaKHX CMJI 06JIlAalOT He ,ll,eMOKpaTHlJeCKHe HaU:HH, HarrpaCHO npocaemaesssre ,<caKpaJIbHbIMH COU:HOlIoraMH* BpOAe BaTa5I MJIH Kal1ya, a )KeCTOKHe TOTaJIHTapHble pe)KllMbI, TaKHe IqK repMaHCKHH HaU:H3M.

Heyzta-ra yronuxecxoro npoexra KOJIlle)Kl COU:HOJIorHH osaasaJIa neyna-ry Ha,ll,e)l(JJ; PO)Ke Kallya aa Pa,ll,HKaJIbHOe 06HOBJIeHHe HHTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHOll KYJIb'IYPbI CBoeH CTpaHbI. B 30-e rozna OH HaCTOHqHBO TBep,ll,HJI 0 He06xo,ll,HMOCTH yrseprnrrs B Hell ('CTporOCTb'>, nOBTOpHf! 31'0 CJIOBO KaK 3aKllHHalme H HHKaK He onpeztenas ero CMblCJI: TO JIH pe-n, IIIJIa 0 JIorH4ecKoH CTPOHHOCTH, rrOCJIeAOBaTeJ]bHoCTH MbICJIH, TO )111 0 ee Ha)"lHOll rrpOBep5leMOCTH, COOTBeTCTEHH 06beKTHBHOMY onsi'ry, TO JIH, HaKOHeII" 0 rrOCJIel\CTBH5IX, xoropsre MbICJIb H TBopY:eCTSO, ecJIH pa3BHBaTb ax AO 1I0rHqecKOrO 3aBepIIIeHH5I, ,ll;O)DKHbI norryaa'n, na npaxraxe. ¢aKTHqeCKH HMCJIOCb B BMY BCC cpaay: CaMO,ll,HcU:11rrJIlma rmcsypca, C6JIH)KeH11C JI11Tepa'IYPbl C HayKoH H CTpeMJIeH11e npespaTHTb KYJIb'IYPY H3 axopcpaoa MaCCbI q,HKu:Hll B xencyio cHcTeMY H,ll,eM,

1 0 TOM, KaK 130cnpHHHMaJIHCb 13 npensoemrue roztsi H,lIeH Kal1y3 0 *,n:HaJIeKTI1Ke ,n:06POBOJlbHOrO paocrsa- (H3CT. H3,n:., C. 294), CBH,lIeTeJIbCTByeT TaKOH KpacHope'IHBbIH ¢aKT. Era scce ... OnyCTolIIeHHOCTb') (.~ridite.), aaneuaraanoe B )J{}'PH3- zre <,Me3IOp' B anpene 1938 rona, rrpnanexno K ce6e BHHMaHHe HeMelJ,KHX ¢HJI0- cO¢oB-aUTH¢aUIHCTOB Bans'repa EeHbJlMHHa it Teonopa N:lOPHO, xoropste 06a BCfpeTHJlH ero pesso OTpHlJ,aTeJIbHO. EeHhlIMHH, lKHBlIIHH B 3MHrpalJ,HH B ITapH)Ke 11 caM yqaCTBoBaBlIIHH (npaana, C cepbe3HhlMH COMHeHillIMI1) B ,n:eJlTeJIbHOCTH KOJIJIe)Ka COlJ,HOJlOl'I1I1, He,r:J,H)'cMbICJIeHHO nHCaJI B pelJ,eH3HH na CTaThIO Kal1ya, 'ITO 3Ta nponoseas <'C 3aMeqaTeJIbHOH npOCTOTOH xapaxrepaayer npaxTHKY ¢aIIlH3Ma., a AJ:\OPHO B nepenacxe C HHM TalOKe OlJ,eHHBaJI 3TOTTeKCT KaK nOIIHTH'IeCKH Henpl1eMJIeMblH H KaK H3MeHY asropa coecraenaosry TaJIaHTy. CM.: B Ml H rAP n M_ KOJIJIe;>!( COlJ,HOJIOfHH 11 I1HCTl1'I)'T COlJ,HaJIbHbIX HCCJIe,n;oBaHHH: EeHbJlMHH H EaTaH. HOBoe rnrreparypnoe 0603peHHe. N2 68. 2004.

C. 32-33.

1 CM. PYCCKHH: nepeson era MaTepHaJIOB: KOJIJIe)K COlJ,HOIIOI'HH, 1937-1939. CTI6.: Haysa, 2004. Ha OnHOM 113 3aCenaHI1H KOJIJIe)Ka B ¢eBpaJIe 1939 ro,lV Karrya, B 'IaCTHOCTH, asrcrynan C ,n:OKlla,uOM -Counonorax nanaxa-, COOTBeTCTByIOIIl,HM rry6J1HKYeMoH anecs o)J,HoHMeHHoH cra'rse.

2 Becena Kariya C )K J1arr)')KeM, 1970, B c6.: Les Cahiers de Chronos. Roger Calllois, Sous La direction de Jean-CLarence Lambert Editions de La Difference, 1991. P. 137.

8

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<,CYMepe'IHHKaX" «.Etres de crepuscule-, 1945) 1 rrponoaezu, CMeHHeTCH fOPbKOH ncnosem.ro, rrpH3HaHHeM Hey,n:aqH. B XO,n: nner xaparcrepnaa }J.JlH cOBpeMeIIHoH K)'JIbTypbl JIaMeHTaIJ;IIH na TeMY Me)f(eYMO'lHOrO, -rrorepaaaoro nOKOJIeHH51»2 , JII0,n:eH, POf\HBIllHXCH CJI11IllKOM pano 11 npe,!];HJ3H3qeHHhIX yCryTIHTb MeCTO HOBOMY rrOKOJIeHHIO -sapsapOR'>, «MOJIO,ll;bIX H CYPORblX pa60THHKOB~ (nacr. H3A., c. 303). 3Tll «sapBapbl" - nepCOHaJKH CTOJIb )Ke neortpenenennste, KaK II <·CTporOCTb·); non HHMH BPM JIll MO)KHO nonpaayaeaars K3KOH-JIll60 KOHKpeTHblH CKJIap, rnozteri, cxopee OHll CBOllM H}J.eaJIbHbIM rrpHcyrcTBHeM 061>RCHHIOT H onpaansmator HCTOpHqecKYlO ueY,ll,aqy -cysrepe-maxos-. Onn OTJIHqalOTCH OT nOClIe,n:HHX npeacne scero CHJIOH H peIIIHMOCTbIO - TeMH caMblMll KaqeCTBaMH, KOTOPbIMH 60JIee ncero ,ll,0PO)KHlI .lOHblH Kanya, - HO caM-TO OH rrpHqHCJIHeT ce6H K -cyaepe-nraxaa- II cpaKTHqeCKH paCCTaeTOI C nperenaaaaa mrreparypsi na aKTHBHOe npeoopa- 30BaHHe MHpa. OTHbIHe JHfTepaTYPa y Kartya 60JIbilie He nepepacraer 3aKOHOMepHO B OC06yIO, ('OPTO,llOKCaJIbtryIO'>, COIJ;HaJIbHO ,n:eHCTBeHHYlO HaYKY - OHa RCyYI1aeT B cxpsrrsra, He RnOJIHe npHHu.HIIHaJlbHblH KOMnpOMHCC C HaYKOH, rrpHAaBaH pa60TaM nnca'rezra l(BOHCTBeHHbIH, IIOllytIayqHblH craryc.

Ilepsaa as CPOpM raxoro HeHBHoro rrpacyrcrnas JIHTeparyphI B HaYKe - aBTo6Horpa¢HqeCKaH OCHORa 0606m;eHHb1X nocrpoeana. Tax, B He60llhilioH TpaKTaT Kanya (',[(yx cexr- (1945) BRe,ll,eH KpaTKHH, HO CHMIITOMarnqHhIH perpocnercrasnsra paccxaa 0 Konnexce COU;HOJIOfHH3, cpaKTHqeCKH caMOKpHTHKa, 'lTo6hl He CKa3aTb rrOKaHHHe, O,ll,HOro H3 coaeropos sroro npoeicra: <.HaM He XBaTHJIO M)')KeCTBa, a TaK)Ke, ,ll,yMaIO, H y6eiK,lleHHOCTH') (HaCT. H3,ll;., c. 257). TeM caMbIM 0603HaqaeTCR JIHqHaR BOBJIeqeHHOCTb aBTopa B CBOH co6cTBeHHblH TeKCT, He CBOHCTBeHHaR HayqHOMy ,ll;HCKYPCY, 3aTO 6ml3KaH mrreparypnoay nHchMy. TOqHO TaK )l(e II 6e3JlHqHOe no ¢opMe scce -Cexperuue COKp0BHll\a" (1942) OqeBHAHhlM o6pa30M ormpaerca aa onsrr ,ll,eTCKHX nepesorsaHHH casroro aaropa. 3Il1130,!];bI 06parn;eHilH peoenxa co CBOHMH ~COKpO-

RHll\aMH') (CK3)KeM, rrOXHll\eHHOH H3 IIIKOJIbHOH na60paTopHH p'ryrsro) H3JIO)f(eHhl 3}J.eCb CTOJIb zieransao H COqyBCTBeHHO, 'ITO COMHeHm) HC ocraercs - napannensno C HayqHhIM, ITCHXOJIOrHqeCKHM aHaJIH30M aBTOp (·npOCTO~, KaK mo60H xexyapacr, HaCJIa)K}J.aeTCH IlPHI10MHHaHl1eM 06CTOflTeJIbCTB coricreennor-o npOIIIJIoro.

BTOPOH MOMenT znrrepa-rypnocra - xaparerepno rnrcarenscnoe OTHOIIICHHC asropa K H3blK)'. LLmr nero CllOBO npencraer He npOCTO KaK HeHTpaJlhHoe cpeztcrso H3JlO)l(eHHH aapanee }J.aHHoH HH¢opMal~HH, HO KaK HCTOqHHK, OTK}',!];a xepnarcrca B:vKHelfIIII1e 3HaHHR 0 npezerere. 3,ll,eCh Kartya C61IH)I(aeTCR He CTOJIbKO C aHTpOnOJIOrOM-rr03HTHBHC'fOM Mapcenesr MOCCOM, y KOTOPOI'O OH y-mnca B IOHOCTH, CKOJIbKO C CPHJIOcocpaMll repMCHeBTlIqeCKoro TOJIKa, TaKHMH KaK MapTHH XaH,n:errcp HJiH naBCJI c(:IJIOpeHcKHH. TaK, BO BBe,ll,CHHH K KHHre -Hrpsr H JIIO,ll,H') OH /VIR BblHCHCHHH CY~HOCTH Hrpbl nO,ll,p06HO aHaJlH3HpYeT ceMaHTHK)' cppaHI~Y3CKOfO CJIOBa ieu (nrpa), BKJIIO'laH nepeaocaue CMbICJIbI, KOTOpsre )')Ke He OTHOCHTCH K HrpOBOH }J.eHTeJIbHOCTH KaK TaKOBOH, 3aTO pacxpsrsaror my6llHHble rrpe}J.CTaBJIeHHH, CBH3bIBaeMble ¢paHu;ysaMll C HI'POH. C TOqKH 3peWIR nay-ntoro McrO,ll,a 'raxoe ncnonsaonaaue R3bIKa neoeccnopno: ,n:eHCTBHTCJtbHO, oomee, ytIHBepCaJlbHOC HBJIeHlle nrpsr Kanya OCMhIC)lHCT HCXO}J.H H3 qaCTHOfO MaTCpHaJIa, 113 C1'PYKT)'PbI rppamryacsoro CJIOBa (B npyrou MeCTe IlpHBJIeKaH TaK)f(e namrsre KH~ rancxoa JIeKCHI<H). Me)f()zy TCM B npyrnx R3hIKax ceMaHTHqeCKaH CTPYKTypa MO)f(eT OKa3aThCR HHOH: CKa)f(eM, B aHrJIHHCI<OM assrxe cyuiecraenaa MaJIOaKTyaJIbHaH ,lVIH CPpaHU.Y3CKOro ormoamnor IlOHHTHH play (nrpa KaK <'Heccpbe3HaH', ,n:eHTeJIbHOCTb) H game (nrpa, rne 6hIBa.lOT nsrHrpaBIIIHC H npoarpanmaej, a B pyCCKOM, nanpnxrep, nparcra-recxa 01'CYTCTBYcr TeXHHqeCKoe 3HaqeHHe czroaa «nrpa», IlpHCYIIIce ¢paHu.y3- CKOMy jeu - ('3a30p, JI}OCPT, CB060}J.HbIH XO,!]; ,ll;CTaJIcif MCX2HH3Ma,} _ H ocooemro B3)KHOe MH Karrya HMeHHO KaK aHTHTe3a aexorna YTBep)f(,!l,aBIIIeHCH liM a6COJIIOTHOH <'CTPOfOCTH·). -Hrpa- sooonre Ol(HO 1I3 caMblX Tpy,Il;Hoonpe}J.eJIliMbIX norerrari xynsrypi«, JI JIJO,ll;B11r BarrenIIITeHH HMeHHO Ha ero npasrepe CCPOPMYJIliPOBaJI H}J.CIO «ceMeHHOfO CXO,ll,CTBa') KaK cJla60ro, HeTOqnOrO Mo,nyca JIOfHqeCKOM ,ll,C¢HHHU.I1U I; HeTO'lHblM oxaasrsaerca ll.aiKe yrrorpetineane CJIOBa OT,n:eJIbHhIM aal1;HOHaJIbHbIM H3bIKOM, H 3TO rrpORBJIHeTOI CII(C CHJibHCe, eCJIH rrparern,

BO BHHMaHHe pa3HbIC H3bIKH2. -

1 B nacroamev Jil3gaHHll 06a 3TllTeKCT3 nOMeru.CHhl B cneturant.noxr pasnene, TaK KaK OHH IlpeACT3BJUIIOT C060H He Ha)"IHhle crarsn, a XYAO)f(eCTBCHHhle scce, IlpHMhle Bhlp3)KeHIDf llH'!HOI'O zryxonnoro orrsrra.

206 sroa 4l0pMe KyllhlypHoro caMOOUZYlqeHlllI CM.: 3F.flKI1H C. H. <·TIoKOJleHlle~:

OIlhlT ,[ICKOHCTPyKlJ;l1.H nOHJtTllll / / CMeHa IlOKOJIeHllH B COU.HOKyJIhrypHOH gHHaMHKe XX nexa, M.: Hayxa, 2005 (B rrena'rn).

3 B y"lKe rtpouarnpoaaanosr Bhune I1Hl'epBbJO 1970 rozta Katiya npH3HaBaJI, 'ITO BBeCTH paCCKa3 0 KOJIlIe)f(e BO BC1)'J1JIeHHe K ~)..(yxy cercr- ero rr06Y,[ll1JIa Ily6JIHKall,11J1 B )K)'PHaJIe HhJO-iloPKCKHX ClOppeanJilCTOB-3MHrpaHTOB .V.V.v.,) (1944. N" 4. C. 41-49) IlMCtM HeCKO)JhKJ1X 6hIBJIlllX yxacrtrmcoa KOJlJIe)f(a; ncposrrtro, HMeJIOCh B Bllgy OC06CHHO ITHChMO )Kop"lKa )..(101'1011 AH,Ilpe 6peTOBy, 1',[Ie cooomanncs, no MHeHHJO KaHya, HCK3)KeHHbre ceenenns 0 3aMblClle Konnexca.

1 CM.: B H r r E H II1TE till n. cDJilJIocoqx:Kl1e pa60ThI '{ 1. M.: rH0311C, 1994. c. 110-111 H !l.aJIee.

2 BOJIee OCMO'rpHTtllhHbIM, qeM y Karrya, JIllHfBllCTHKO-CeMaHTllqeCKl1M aHaJIH3 ITOHHTHH -nrpa- ocymecrsnen B XOPOIIlO H3BeCTIWH CMY KHHre HoxaHa XeM311Hrll -Horno Iudens- (rnasa II "KOHLJ;enll,IlH H BbIp;[)KeHlle rronsraa l1rphl B H3bIKe.), me aBTOp IlPHBO,[lHT H ConOCTaBJIJlcr ,[IJHHbIC 113 uenoro paaa HCPO,[lcraenasrx H3bIKOB. TIpaB,[Ia, cpena OiTllX H3bIKOil Her rppaauyscsoro, TOqHtC,

OH yrrO~UlHyr llHIIIh oxem, 6erJIo; B03MO)KHO, HMeJ-lHO IlOTOMY Karrya cqen H)')K-

10

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06Ill,eCTBeHHbIe HaYKH XX sexa 4aCTO CTpeMHllHCh C6JIH3HTbCR C HayKaMH ecrecraenasma. erne B KOHUC XIX crOJIeTH.IJ 3MHllb .I1:IOPKfCMM npn- 3bIBaJI H3yqaTb COUHaJIbHble cpaKTbI KaK -nema-, BO BTOPOH nOJIOBHHe XX BeKa CTPyKTypaJIH3M cran npHMCH.lJTb ecrecrseatroaaysmae MeTO,ll,bI K HBJIeHH.lJM KYJIbTypbI; ztpyr H coparnmc Kai'tya no KOJVIe~ COLl,HOJIOrHH )KoP)K J3aTaH B 40-e rozna pa3pa60TaJI TeopHIO <>06Ill,CH 3KOHOMHKH'> 06be,ll,HHHBllIeH B pasrxax enanoro ,lI,BH)I(eHH.IJ npoueccu Ll,HPKYJI.lJLl,H~ COJIHe4HOH 3HepfHH B KOCMoce C nponeccasur HaKOrrneHH.IJ H pacroseHH.IJ 60raTCTB B COLl,HaJIbHOM MHpe.

PO)Ke Kaliya, He BbmBHfa}I crone fJI06aJIbHbIX TeopHH, KaK J3aTaH, CJIC,lI,OBaJI B pycne TOM )Ke TeH,ll;eHLl,llH: Ha4HHaH C paHHHX scce, OH HCKaJI T04KH conpHKoCHOBeHID.! Me}KJJ;y npapoznrsnr H 4CJIOBe4eCKHM 6bITHeM, xaparcrepaayn HX rrOHHTID.lMll 406ncKTHBHOH H,lI,CorpaMMbI»1 HJll1)Ke ('MH<pa'>, r,ll,C 4CJIOBe4ecKoe C03HaHlle BblPJ)KaeT ,lI,04enoBC4ecKHe, npnponaue HHCTIIHKTbI. ITO,ll;06HbIC Hccne,D,OBaHID.!, nporpasory KOTOPbIX Kaliya BHOBb C¢oPMYJIHPOBaJI B crarse 1959 rona 4)J,HaroHaJIbHbIC HaYKw2, rpe60BaJIH ocoooro, np~craJIbHOrO 3peHH.IJ, 'ITo6bI pacnoaaaears B Macce pasnoponHbIX HBJIeHHH He scerna 3aMeTHbIC, ~HeOl sropocreneansora, HO ~eC1'BeHHbIe ¢aKTbI. 31'0 BHHMaHHe K MaJI03Ha'IHTCJIbHOM)', CCPOPMylIHponannoe B naTHHCKOM ,lI,eBH3e, KOTOPblM OTKpblBaeTOI KHHra «Hrpsr H JIIO,D,ll», ~ -Secundurn secundatum-, 4CJIC)J,yH sropocrenennouy-, ~ npOHBJIHeTCH BO MHOfHX pa60TaX Kaliya; C 30pKOCTblO srnorparpa OH BHHKaeT B ,lI,eTCKHC 3a6aBbI, B C03,D,aHHe «COKpOBHIll,~ HJlH 4TaMHbIX COI030B'> H o6Hapy)KllBaeT B HHX MOI)'4YIO cIDIy JIH4HOCI'HOro caMorrocrpoeHID.!, a B TaHHbIX COI03ax ~ erne H rpoarryro onaCHOCTh TOTaJIHTaPHbIX cercr; H3 6pOCOBOro, Ka3aJIOCb 6bI, MaTepHana ra3eTHbIX 3aMeTOK 0 cxeprn naprcscxoro nanasa OH H3BJIeKaeT BbIBO,ll;bl 0 TOM, KaK crOHKO coxpansrorca B COBpeMeHHOH KYJIbrype apxatrrecsne npC,ll,CfaBJIeHHH 0 caKpaJIbHOH CHJIC.

Kai'tya OCym.eCTBJIHeT OpIIrHHaJIbHOe B caMOH CBoeH 3KJIeKTH'iHOCTII COC,ll,HHeHIIe ,ll;Byx HayK ~ COUHOJIOrHH H ITCHXOJIOrHH. ITepBaH H3 HHX, ocooenno BO <l>paHuHH, y .I1:IOpKreHMa II Mocca, npaKTHKOBaJIa CPYHKUHOHaJIbHbIH II01J.XO,D" paCCMaTpIIBa.H COLl,HaJIbHbIe HBJIeHHH KaK crryxcaume OJUl1.f,eZO-mo B YCTPOHCTBC 06lll,CCTBa; nropaa )Ke, H B aicazreMH4eCKOH II B «HeO~¢HUHaJIbHO}h nCIIxdaHaJIHTH4eCKOH BepCHH, ziep)l(anaCb Kay3aJIbHOH MO,D,CJIH, 06bHCHHH, n01.f,eMY HMelOT Mecro Te HllH

HblM .ll.OIIOJlHHTh aHaJIII3 rOJIJIaH,ll,CKorO yxeuoro paaaepayrsia O'lepKOM q,paHJ.IY3CKOI1 nexcevrsr [eu,

1 BAPT P. KPHTHKa H I1CfHHa (1967) /1 Bapr P. H36paHHble patiorsr, CeMHOTHKJ. n03THKJ. M.: Ilporpecc, 1989. C 326.

1 CM. 06 3TOM IlOIDITI1I1 Moe npenncnosne K )'iKe ynOMHHYfOMY 113.ll.aHHIO:

KAI'I YAP. MI1q, 11 y:eJlOBeK 'IenoBeK H caxpansnoe, C 11 ~ 17. n03,ll,Hffl1 Kanya, BOAHOM H3 IlpHMe'lJHHH K KHHre 4frpbl 11 JlIOAH> (HaCT.1l3.ll.., c. 58), q,aKTH'leCKH Ae3aBYHPYcr ecrra He H,lJ,elO OfueKTHBHbIX naeorpasoe, TO, BO BOlKOM crryxae, paztmcansmae BbIBOAhl1l311ee, C!l.eJlaHflblC 11M xorzta-ro B 3CCC .MHMHKpllH ~ nereHp;apHaH IlCHXJCTeHllH. (1935, BOIllJIO B C60PHllK .Mllq, H Y:eJIOBeK~).

CM.: CAl L L o r s R. Meduse et Cie. Paris: Gallimard, 1960. P. 9~ 18.

12

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IIHble PC3Kll,HII, nepeIKIIB3HII5I II IIMnyJlbCHBHble nOCryIIKH. KaHya Tl.bfTaeTCH CMOTPeTb Ha neno cpasy C 06ellX CTOpOH - nOKa3bIB3Tb, K3KlIM 06pa30M <'OfiUl,eCTBO, AalKe B npOMbJlIIJleHHO-aAMHHIICTpaTIIBHbIH BeK, OCT3eTCl'I BTOpm1 npIIpOAOH, nOA':IHHeHHOH, C OAHOH CTOPOHbI, cneu;mpll'.feCKHM 3aKOHaM II CHJlaM Tl'IIKeCTII, a C ,LIpyrOH - pbIBKaM, 3aBIIXpeHlIl'IM, npncrynaa rOJlOBOKpyJKeHII51., B KOTOPbIX He Y':I3CTByIOT C03- aanne II pacser- 1. C60PHHK, H3 npe,LIllClJOBII51. K KOTOPOMY B351TbJ 3TH ClJOBa, Ha3bIBaeTOI 4IHCTHHKTbl II 06rn;eCTBO'>: aSTOp XO':leT CKa3aTb, ':ITO ('3aKOHbI» oomecraa, BceMY B HeM npnnncsraaiouiae onpezrcneuHYIO ¢yHKll,IIIO, H HHCTIIHKTIIBHble <'3aBIIXpeHHl'I'>, BbI3bIBaIOUI,IIe B03- MYlll,CHHl'I B ,LIeHCTBIIH 3THX 33KOHOS, HaXO,L\5l.TCl'I B ,LIHHaMH'IeCKOM pasHOBeCHII. CYUI,eCTBeHHO, 'ITO, B OTJIH'IHe 01' vnonauyrsix BbIlIIe CTpaCTeH JlHTeparypHO-pYiTOpH'IeCKOH (,nCYlXOJlOrHW>, HHCTHHKTbl He nonneacar HpaBCTBeHHOH ouemce, OHH npe,LICTaBJll'lIOT C060H npHVO,LInsre, MOPaJIhHO uerrrpansaue HMIlYJlbCbI. O,LIHaKO OHH MOryr no-pasHOMY, H n03HTYlBHO II neraraano, BJIWITb H3 IKH3Hb 06rn;eCTBa; 6bIBaIOT KaK 6bI -nporpeccnsnue- II -peasanroansie» HHCTYlHKTbl, cnyzcaunre pa3BuTHIO HJlH crarnannn COU;HyMa, TO ecru HX Bce-T3KH MOIKHO oueHHBaTb, TOJlbKO He no MOPaJIbHblM, 3 no COU;YlaJIbHO-YlCTOpYl':leCKHM KpYlTepH5l.M.

npIIpO,LIHbIH xapaxrep HHCTHHKTOB n03BOAAeT npe,LInOJlOIKYITb, ':ITO aa HYlMH CKpbIBaeTCl'I erne fioJlee rJly60KaR, yJKe He fiHOJlOrYlqeCKa5l. peaJIbHOCTb, KOTOPa5l. Hepe,LIKO 0603HaqaeTC5I y Kai1ya ueonpenenaensrMII TepMUHaMYI <'IKYIBble CHJlbI~ YIJIH <'3HepfHH». 11 B ¢U3HKe, H B ncnxoJlOfYlH anepraa l'IBAAeTOI He BeKTOpHOH, a CKaJIflPHOH BeJlIIqHHOH, OHa He HMeeT H3npaBJIeHH5l. H MOJKeT ,LIeHCTBOBaTb B pa3HYID CTOPOHY B 3aBHCHMOCTH 01' caryauan, 01' 1'01'0, KaK ofiI~eCTBO cnpaanaercs C 3a,[13'1eH ('CBfl3bIBaHHfI~ HJlH -rrornomerraa- «cB060,LIHbIX 3HeprHH'>, nOCpe,LICTBOM KaKHX HHCTHHKTOB O¢OpMAAeT HX paoorv, 3aBHCUT ero YlCTOpH'IeCKaR CY,LIb6a. Ero sanasa - Ta IKe, "ITO H Y HCene,LIOBaTeAA: paIJ,HOHaJIH3UPOaars coocreemuae ~TeMHble CYlJlbH, BbIBO,LIHTb HX aa CBeT -crpororo- pa- 3yMa. nO,LI06HO CBoeMY ,LIpyry EaTaIO, nocrwmpoaaanresry TaK naasisaeMyIO -rereponormo- «<enoBo 06 HHOM~ YIJIH IKe ~HHOpO,LIHOe cnoso-j, Kai1ya COCPC,L\OTO'lIIB3eT BHYlMaHHe na MOMeHTax *<Iy)K,lJ,oro~ H «He acCIIMHJlHpOSaHHoro~ Ofilll,CCTBOM; HO ero TeOpH5l., no cnosaa COBpeMeHnoro Hcene,LIOBaTeAA, ¢aKTHqeCKH OTPHIJ,3eT cofiCTBeHHbIl1 npeziaer, npe,LICT3BJll'!eT C060H <'YlMeHHO TO, '1ero On3CaJIOl EaTaH, - mouuyto 1itlYxy 06 U1-t0POOHGW,2.

Taxas aM6uU;H03Ha51. H pacxosauaaa MeTOAOJlOfHqeCKaH nporp3MMa ozryuresnaer C060H MOHorpa¢HIO *l1rpbI H J1IO,LIH~. «BTOpOCTeneHHbIH» MaTepHaJI nrp, KOTOPblMII HCTOPHKYI qaCTO rtpeneoperaIOT KaK necepseaasns, *pe651.qeCKHM~ 33HflTHeM, mrrepecyer Kaliya

1 CAILLOIS R. Instincts et societe. Gonthier, 1964. P. 5.

2 HEI MO N Et J-M. Politiques de l'ecriture, Jean-Michel Place, 1989. P. 73-74.

14

PO:JICe Kaura: u2pa, R3b15 capaJZbHoe

He caM no ceoe. l1lll,a ¢YH,LIaMeHTaJlbHbIX C6J1HIKeHHH npnponu H KYJlhTypbI, aBTC:p KHHrlI onucsraaer He CTOJlbKO ,LIeTCKHe HrphI, CKOJlbKO, C OAHOH CTOPOHbI, nrpisr B3pOCJIbIX, 3 C npyroa CTOPOHhI, 6J1H3KHe K HYiM nrpsr JKYlBOTHhlX, Cy:r.QeCTB, OTCTOmlJ,HX AaJIeKO 01' '1eJlOBeKa na 3BOJlIOIJ,IIOHHOH J1eCTHHu;e, HO HBJIHIOlll,IIX C060H 6330- nsre IIHCTIIHKTbI scex JKIIBbIX cymecrs. fJlaBHafl aaaaxa HCCJle,D,OB3TelUi - uHe npezraoaorn, eme O,LIHO B PHAY MHOfOqHcneHHblx ortpezieJleHIIH HrpbI, a C,LIeJlaTb CJle,LIyIOlll,HH mar, BhIBO,L\5l.rn;YlH aa paMKYI c06CTBeHHO HaYKH 06 nrpax- nOCTpOYlTb «COIJ,IIOJlOrHIO, OCHOBaHHYI? na nrpax» (traer, H3,L1., c. 86), THnOJIOrHIO COIJ,YlaJIbHbIX crrryaU;YlH H peIKHMOB B 3aBHCHMOCTYI 01' npe06J1a,[1aHHfI 1'01'0 YlJlH nnoro p33pH,LIa nrp YI YlrpOBhIX YlHCTYlHKTOB; TaKaH THIlOJIOrYlH n03BOJlHeT CTaBYITh YlCTOplI':IeCKHH (',LIYlarn03') U;HBYlJlH3aU;YlHM, 0u;eHIIB3Tb I1X cnocoeaocn, K nporpeccy.

KaiIya CTPOI1T, Ka3aJIOCh 6hI, npOYl3BOJlbHyIO, 3MrrlIplI'IecK)'IO KJIaCCH¢HKaU;IIIO nrp, p33,L1eJlIDI IIX na arOHH'IeCKl1e (COCTH33TeJIbnsre), aaaprnsre, MIIMeTlIQeCKHe (nonpaacarensnsrej II 4rOJlOBoKPyJKHTeJlbHhIe». TIpaB,LI3, nexoropsre peazn.ao cymecrsyioume nrpsr 3TOil KJIaCCH¢IIK3U;lIeH He nOKpbIBaIOTCH, nanpasrep ,LIeTCKHe MaHHnYJlHQIIH C ,<COKPOBYlrn;aMII'>, 0 KOTOPbIX rOBopHJlOCb B scce caxioro JKe Kanya -Cexpermae COKpOBm~a,\ HJlII yrroMIIHaeMble B O,LIHOM 113 npHJlOJKeHIIII K ero KHHre COBpeMeHHbIe nrponsre aBTOMaThI (0 HHX pe-n, erne Bnepe,LIYl). O,LIHaKO 31'01' 1I3'bHH He cymecrsea, HaCTOHlll,YIO xonuerrryaJIhHyIO CTPYKTYPY 06p33yIOT He C3MlI 'rnnsr urp, a nOpOJK,L\aIOlll,Yle IIX IIHCTHHKThl, TO ecrs nCHXlIqeCKlIe IIMnyJlbChI, naxonamne ce6e COIJ,IIaJIbHYIO ¢YHKll,HIO B ¢opMe IIrp. KaK yJKe CK333HO, 3TH IIHCTHHKTbI pa3,L1eJIHIOTCH no OTHOIIIeHHIO K npoueccy I.l,YlBHJlH3aIJ,HYI: O,LIHII, KaK IIHCTHHKT COCTH3aTeJIbHOCTYI YlJlII a3apTHOH -noronn aa y,LI3qeH'>, CBYIAeTeJlbCTByIOT (XOTH He 065133TeJlhHO crroc06CTBYIOT eH) 06 opnerrraQHYI oomecrsa Ha ycrrex H nporpecc, ,LIpyrYie JKe, KaK YlHCTIIHKT nO,LIpa)KaHHH H 'rara K rOJlOBoKPYJKHTeJIbHOMY P3CCTPOHCTBY BOCrrpH5l.THH 11 c03HaHIIH, xapaxrepnsi ,llllH oomecraa sacroaaoro, JKHBy:r.Qero B TeMHOM yacace nepen MaCKaMYI-,LIYX3MII YI B qepe,LIe 3KCTaTII'IeCKYlX pnryaJlOB, c:,6eCneqIIBaIO~IIX se-ruoe B03Bp3meHlIe O,LIHIIX II Tex )Ke nepcoH3JKeH, nOJlOIKeHHYI, rrepeJKHBaHIIH. Pasyaeerca, B J1I060M peaJIbHOM oomecrne BCTpeqaIOTCH IIrphl ncex '1eTJ:iIpeX TlInOB, HO pa3J1II'IHa IIX COU;lIaJIbHO-rrOJIIITW.JeCKaH POJlh: r,LIe-TO OCHOBHhlM peryJlYlPYIOlll,IIM npOI~eCCOM B oomecrse flBJIHeTCH COCTH3aHlIe II!YlJlH JKpe6lIH (01' IIIKOJlbHhIX 3K3aMeHOB ,LIO BbI60pOB BhICIIIIIX ,LIOJl)KHOCTHbIX JIIIIJ,), a r,LIe-TO - 33BOpOJKeHHOe BCM3TpHBaHYIe B apxaa=ecxax qy,D,08Y1m 1. o TOM, CKOJlb BaJKHO AM KaHya COOTHOlIleHlIe IIrp co CTaHOBJIeHHeM

1 31)' KOPPeJUllJ,HIO MC)K,lzy MHMeTH3MOM 11 ¢aCLl,HHaIV'IeH, MeJK,lI,Y HHCTHHIcrOM [JOJI,pIDKaHIffi 11 llllJIeHHeM 3aBOpOJKeHHOCTH BlleIIlHHM 06beKTOM Kailya HaMeTID:! )l)Ke B CBoeM paHHeM scce .MHMJilKpHII JiI llereH,ll,apH<lI! [JnrxaCTeHHII~, a I103g~

15

C. H 3emam

PO:H<;e Kauya: uzpa, J/3b1lC, caxpaneuoe

UHBlUIH3aLl,llll, rOBopHT BTOPJJl, BcnOMoraTeJIbHJJI KJIaCCll¢llKaLl,HJI, JIHillb napeznca BCIIJ1blBaKl~a51 B ero 113JIO)KeHHll: CorJIaCHO eif, HrpbI pa3Mem;a1OTCH na mxane Me)K,lJy 6YHHo-xaOTH'!eCKOif, pe¢JIeKTOpHOHeOCMbICJIeHHOH nO,!J,BH)KHOCTbKl (Y)KHBOTHbIX, y MaJIeHbKllX AeTel1) H ynopHAo'!eHHbIMli llrpaMH no npaBHJIaM, CBHAeTeJIbCTByKJm;llMll 0 nporpecce KYJIbTYPbl H BocnHTaHHOCTll HH,o;HBHAa. TaKJJI onn03HLl,WI BOCXOAHT eme K nepsoa 3HaMeHllTOH anonorna nrp, C KOTOPOH BbIC'fYIIlUI <l>PMPliX IIhmJIep B «nHChMax 06 3CTeTH'leCKOM BocnllTaHHH 'leJIOBeKa~ (1793-1795): nrpa, C O,!J,HOH CTOPOHhI, CJI)I)KllT eocnumaHum JIIOAeif, a C ,!J,pyrOH CTOPOHbI, caxa pa3BllBaeTCH H 06JIarOpa)KHBaeTCH B xone sroro socmrranaa, rrpeBpaIIl,JJlCb B ¢OpMbl C06CTBeHHo 3CTeTll'leCKOH, XY,!J,O)KeCTBeHHoH ,!J,eHTeJIhHOCTH 1.

BMeCTe C TeM Kal1ya y,n,eJIHeT nepaanoe BHHMaHlle pa3HhlM THnaM nrp. nrpsr, cnocoecreviomuc rrporpeccy lJ,HBliJIll3all,llH, aHaJIH3HPyIOTCH MeHee nO,!J,p06HO - 11, B 06m;eM, MeHee OpHrHHaJIhHO, - 'leM arpu 3aCTOHHo-apXaH'leCKllX 06IIl,eCTB; uenapox B nonsaronosxe ~Hrp H JIKl,!J,el1'> aBTOp Ha3hlBaeT, napymaa paBHonpaBHe, npHHLl,llnhl He 'leThIpeX, a TOJIbKO AByx nOCJIe,!J,HllX BMOB nrp - -Macxa H rOJIOBOKpy*eHHe,>. HaH60Jlee cyMMapHO rosopnrca y Hero 0 np"3HaHHO ~nporpeCCHBHOM» HrpOBOM npanuane - npHHll,Hne COCTH3aTeJIhHOCTH, KOTOPblH npOHBJlHeTCH II B yrropMO'leHHOH 3aKOHaMH 3KOHOMH'leCKOH KOHKYPeHLl,Hll, II B MexaHH3Max nOJIllTH'leCKOH H H36HpaTeJIbHOH 60Ph6bI, H B c06CTBeHHO HrpOBhIX ¢opMax cnopra H npyrnx arOHH'leCKHX nrp. Hx pons B ¢OpMHpOBaHHH COBpeMeHHoro 06~eCTBa 6blJla nonpoono noxasaua 3HaMeHHThIM npe,!J,llieCTBeHHHKOM KaHya _ I10X-aHOM XeH3HHroH, H nepBhlMH pa60TaMH Kaiiya 06 nrpe CTaJIH MMeHHO ,!J,Be peueH3HH na ero KHHry «Homo ludens- (1938), onyfiJlHKOBaHHh1e B 1943 H 1946 rOAax (BTOpa» H3 HllX BnOCJIe,!J,CTBHll

nee pJ3BWl B KHHre ~MeJW3a H K',) (1960).06 HCfopwlecKoM 1I3aHMO,11,ellCfBHH apXaH'leCKorO MHMeTH3Ma H COCf1I3aTeJIbHOrO paL\HOHaJIH3MJ CM. TalOKe era 3Cce «TeHH Ha,11, 3ilJ1a,11,O». (c6. «MHQJ H "IeJIOlleK").

1 I1,rJ;eH illWlJJepa, 'lell TpaKTJT KafiyJ nO'lTHTeJJbHO L\HTHpyeT B OAHOll H3 ,11,0- I10JJHHTeJIbHblX rJJJB -I1rp H monea-, I1epBOCTeneHHO BJ)KHhl,1l,JlH ero KOHLI,eIlL1,HH li ,n:aJKe QJpa3eOJJorHH. Cp. XOTX 6bI ABe cppa3bI - OAHJ H3 manneposcsnx «f1HceM ..» : "KaK TOJJbKO "IeJJOBeK HJ"IliHaeT CPOPMY Bo06II~e I1pe,11,I10qliTaTb MJTepHH H He m;a,11,HT peansnocra pa,11,H BH,11,HMOCTli < ... >, TOTt.tJC xpyr ero IJ{HBOTnoro 6bITHJl pacxpsmaerca, li OH BbIXO,11,HT HJ IJY'l'b, KOTOPOMY HeT KOHL\a·) (llhtJ1J1EP <fl. Co6p. COq.: B 7 T. T. 6. M.: fOCJJHTH3AaT, 1957. C. 350), - a zipvras H3 KHHrl:! KafiyJ: -Ofintecrao, CYMeBmee [li36aBI1TbCll OT «qapYIOm;ero xaocaapxaasecsnx I1pe,1I,CTaBJJeHHH], BCT)'IIJeT B I-tHOe, 6oJ1ee nepsxoe H I1pO,11,yKTHBHoe ABIDKeHHe, xoropoe HOCHT J1HHell.Hbrit xapaxrep, xoropoe He eosspauraeror nepHOAH'leCKH K 0AHOMY 11 TOMY JKe nopory, xo'ropoe ncnsrryer H accnenye'r, xoropce He HMecr KOHL\a H xoropoe ecrs He 'ITO naoe, KaK rryTb L1,HBWlH3aLl,HllO (lUCf. 113A., c. 146).

somna B nepeaaaanae ero c06CTBeHHoH KHHrll <,'4eJIOBeK II caxpansHOe,»). nOBTOpJlH H nozrraepsoraa OCHOBHble Te3HCbI XeH3HHrH 0 COCTH3aTeJIbHblX urpax, <ppaHll,Y3CKHH nHCaTeJIb He CTOJlbKO onacsrsaer nx ¢YHKll,llOHHpOBaHHe ~ll3HyTPH'), CKO)lhKO YKJ3bIBaeT, "ITO CBOHCTBeHHbIll HM npaumm pacxera H paLl,HOHaJIbHOrO COH3MepeHllH CllJI np"XOAHT na CMeRY ApyrHM COLl,HaJIbHO-HrpOBbIM npmumnaa - MHMeTll3My H ronosoxpyacenmo, rocnOACTByIOIIl,llM B )!(H3Hll -xaortoteCKHX'> llJIH ~MaCOqHbIX 06m;eCTB». OAHHM H3 npOMe:>K)'TOqHhIX 06pa30- BaHHH, ooecnexasaromax nepexon OT apxan=recxoro COCTOHHHH K COBpeMeHHoMy, MOryT 6bITb MMeKll.QHeCH y HeKOTopbIX HapOAOB «60~ rll-napOAHCTbI~ - KOMHqeCKHe MaCKH 60rOB-TpHKCTepOB, xomopux 1-f,U1Cmo ne tioumcn.

I1TaK, nOJIe3HbIH npmnnrn COCTH3aTeJIbHOCTll 3aHliMaeT B KHHre KaHya 06 llrpax noxernoe MeCTO aa BTOpOM nnane. Asrop cocpenoro'lHBaeT BHllMaHMe aa «HeaCCllMlUIllpOBaHHbIX'> HrpOBbIX npnaunnax, xoropsie HepeAKO CqHTaIOT(5l COLl,llaJIbHO 6eCrrOJle3HblMH HJIll AaJKe Bpe,n,HbIMH. TaK, aaaprnsie arpsr, llCKJIKlqaeMble H3 paCCMOTpeHMH MHorHMll TeOPeTHKaMll KaK muuennste BCHKOH passasaromert llJIH COll,HaJIbHo-peryJlHpyIOIIl,eIl3Ha'lHMOCTH, npeztcraror y Hero KaK BaJKHellllIHH xoxneecaropaua MexaHH3M, ,!J,onOJlHHTeJIhHbIll rro OTHOIlleHHIO K HrpaM arOHHqeCKHM: B caMOM AeJIe, He Ka)KAblH MO)!(eT na paBHhIX COCTH3aTbCH C ,!J,pyrHMll B cnopTHBHbIX llJIH 3KOHOMHqeCKllX copesnoaaHwrx, H TeM 60JIee JIHIllb nesraorae MOryT B HHX n06e)KAaTb - npOCTO nOTOMy, "ITO MeCT na «nsenec'rane no-rera- MaJIO; OCTaJIhHbIM npuxoAHTCH AOBOJl~CTBOBaThCJI ('yTeIllHTeJIbHbIMH llrpaMH~, TOTaJIH3aTOpOM llJIH norepeen, B HllX, KOHeqnO, TO)Ke BbIHrpbIBaKlT oveas HeMHorHe, HO 3aTO 3,!J,eCb BbIHrphIIll He 06ycnoBJIeH HllKaKHMH OC06bIMli cnocooHOCTHMH n06eAHTeJIH H no'rojry, rrapa,n,OKCaJIbHhlM 06pa30M, OKa3bIBaeTCH -cnpasenmtaee- sacrrysceaaoro, OTBeqJJl ypaBHHTeJlhHOMY nOHHMaHHIO cnpaBe,!J,JIllBOCTM. BTOPblM xossneucaropnsm MexaH1l3MOM B.hlCTyllacr OC06bIH BapHaHT MHMeTll3Ma - -cortepeaoteaune» (delegation), KOfAa CYPOBJJI ll36HpaTeJlhHOCTb COll,HaJIbHblX COCTH3aHHll nCHXOJlorH'leCKH ypamrosernunae'rca B C03HaHHM npoarpasurax H)1ll OTKa- 3aBIllHXCH OT COCT.li3aHllH Bo06paJKaeMbIM OTO)KAeCTIlJIeHHeM ce6H C TpHyM¢aTopoM - 3HaMe~mThIM cnoprcereaosr llJIH KHH03Be3AOHj TO ecn, HeYAaqHHKH B O,!J,HOll nrpe 3aTeBaKlT'APyryIO - nrpaior B noztpa)!(aHHe n06eAHTeJlKl copesaoaanaa.

Oc060e MeCTO B rrpe)J,JIO)!(eHHOH Kanya KJIaCCH¢HKaLl,HH nrp 3aHHMacr rpynrra rOJIOBoKpY*HTeJlbHbIX nrp, 0603HaqaeMbiX rpe=reCKHM CJIOBOM ilynx'. Asrop He,!J,aBHO ssmremuero orexecraennoro

I O,11,HH 113 HCCJle,11,OBJTeJ1eit nOKa3b1BaeT rny6oK}'lO J1HqHO-nCI1XOJlOrHqecK}'IO 3HaqHMOCTb TeMbI ronoaoxpvscenaa y Karrya: r0J10BoKp)')KeHHe acconnnpyerCJI y Hero co «CTpaXOM npOCTpaHCfHJ', C "nJHH"IeCKOll 60l'l3HblO (TallHbIM )KeJ1aHHeM~) 6b1Tb nOJICUpae.Mbl.JM, HaKOHCQ, C yrpoaon HCl'IKOll 6yf1HOll rtopoc-

16

17

C. H. 3eH1·.-zm

H KlJaCC «MeHee BCerO CB5I3aH 06- rpvna 06 Hrpax nnurer, qTO ,lJ;aHHb~H no oCTaTOqHOMY" npHHll,HflY'>1;

m~M OCHOBaBHeM') H ~Crpyn:H~~~ OTH~, BbI,D;eJIemle rOJIOBOKP)')llliHO 31'0, KOHCqHO )Ke, He Tau . arero HH 51BHJIOCb opHrl1HaJIbHbIM 01'TeJIbHblX Hrp KaK OT,lJ;eJIbHOH K ~HpaeTC5I no ero MbICJIH, Ha ennKpbITHeM Kaliya, H 3Ta KaTerOpH5I 0 ,lJ,pvroe ~eJIo qTO no BHcIIIHeMY HbIH H secswa rJIY60KllH HHCTHHKT. • Up~!l0TCH: 31'0 H TaHl.\bI THIIa

o pona CHJIbHO Bapby. t r-: •

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cxoe BpameHHe WIll 6 eHHH WIH <'HHlJ,yKIJ.llH'> rOJIOBO-

PyceJIH H T. rt.), HO TaK)Ke II npllcnO~~a~pllBaHllH BO flHeIIIHHH 06beKT Kp~eHml nyreM npHCTaJIbHOrO B aa npe,lJ;CJIaMH nrp 1'01' )Ke ca-

ynIHbIH 3MeH} HaKOHeL\, e

(BOJlqOK, B03,lJ; is naCHoe Y)J,oBJIeTBOpeHHe B )J,OCTH)K -

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KOTopble OH Ha"laJl KOJIneKll,HO v. i es de Roger Caillois / / Les Cahiers de

rax na CKJIOHe ner (CM.: PEREZ c.-p ert g

Chronos: Roger Cail\ois. P. 388-393), ro ens. 113,1l-BO cnerv, 2003.

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POJK!! Kauya: uzpa, J!31>11C, cax:paJlbHOe

CJIOBJICnHOrO aKTHBHoH axcnancaen H asrpaxcaiomeroca B cocrxaaTeJIbHOH BOJIe K BJI3CTH I.

I13yq;ur B3aHMO,lJ;eticTBHc «HIiCI'HHKTOB H oomecrsa», PO)Ke KaHya aHaJIH3HpyCT He TOJIbKO HHCTHHKTHBHOe CO,lJ;Cp"lKaHHC llrp, HO H HX COQHaJIbHYIO CPOPMY, OC06CHHO H30JIHpOBaHHOCTb nrpst B npocrpanCTBe H BpeMCHH H 06pa30B3HHe 3aKpbITbIX C006rn;CCTB, K KOTOPOMY OHa AaCT nOBO,lJ;. 06a 06CTOHTeJIbCTB3 OTMCqaJIHCb )')ICe XeH3HHroti2, HO Karrya ,lJ;aCT HM HOBYIO HHTepnpeTaL\HIO. Ero CIII,C C 30-x rOAOB HHTePCCOBaJIH cpeHOMeHbl nOBbliliCHHOH COQllaJIbHOCTH - xorzra 1I1OlJ,H 06pa3ylOT HC pacceHHHYIO, cJIa60 CTPYKTYpHpOBaHlIyro COBoKynHOCTb llH,lJ;HBH/I,OB, a cnrronemryto rpynny, CKpcrmCHH)'lO aKryaIIbHblMll COBMCCTHbIMll nCpC)KHBaHll5IMH H HCnpCJIQ)KHbIMll 06H3aTeJIbCTBaMll. TIO,lJ;06HOC pa3JlHqeHHC BOCXO,lJ;HT erne K PyCCO, rrpOTHBOnOCTaBJUlBIlleMY Hc06Il~CCTBeHHoe H 0611~CCI'BCHHOe COCTOHHHe JIKJ,lJ;efi B -PaccyxneHHH 0 rrpOHcxOJK,lJ;elIHH II OCHOBaHll5IX HepaBeHCI'Ba Me)K,1l;y JIIOAbMH»; HOBCHiliHe 06IIl,eCTBCHHble H3YKH ,lJ;31OT eMY HOBOC OCHOBaHlle. B KHHrc "qeJIOBeK H caxparnoroe- K3J1:ya npHBO,lJ;l11I B npnjaep 6hlT 3CKHMOCOB, KOTOPblC J1CTOM )KHBYT OT,lJ;eJIbHblMll ceMbHMH, cpastnrrensao AaJICKO OAH3 01' zrpyron, a 3HMOH c06HpalOTCH na KOMnaKTHbIX CTOHHK3X, H HMCHHO B 3TOT nepnozt CXOJK,lJ;eHll5I H nnornoro npozcasanaa aapozta CnpaBJIHIQT CHOH 06PMbl, rrpaKTHKyIOT prrryansnsre, nOBbIlIleHHO Tpe- 60BaTCJ1bHble npaenna noseneaaa. Ilpmreposr MO"lKCT 6blTb, no MbICJIH HCCJIC,1l;OBaTCJIH, H JII060ti npa3,lJ;HHK, C06HpalOIlI,HH H3 nnomann TOJIny, KOTopaH ozrytuennena 06IIl,HMH nopbIBaMH H HaCTpocHHHMH, 06be,lJ;HHeH3 HC06blqHblM, OTcyTCTByroIll,HM H nazce aanpemaensnr B 06blqHOe BpCM5l nosenennen - cpaMHJ1bHpHbIM 06paIII,eHlleM, COBMeCTHblM HeYMCPCHHbIM nOTpe6J1eHHCM nHII~H, cexcyansnoa BOJ1hHOCTbIO.

I .llaHHaH II.IleH orcunaer He TO}lbKO K ¢pel'i):{oBcKOMY OCHXOaHaJIH3Y, na KOTOPhIi1I Kanya Bo061I\e CCbmaeTCH penxo. TaK, B npCl.\HCJIOBHH K KHHre ~MH¢ H 'fCJIOBCK. OH npoTHB0I10CTallJUlJl <',1~llC OCHOBOnonaralOW;He YCTaHOBKH qenOllC'lecxoro ztyxa: tuauauusu; BblPaJKalOllI,l1i11 MO~eCTIlO HH)J.J1Bll,[Ia B 6oPb6e I1poTHB ecrecrneanoro nopHJVC<l,lleHCTBl1TeJIbHOCTH, H.MallU3M, TO ecrs 0TKa3 OT CRoeH JI11'1- HOCTH H nOHCKH TO)f(JJ;CCTlla MeJK,11y ,,51" H "He-51", MCJK;J;y C0311aHHeM H BHelIIHHM MHpOM" (KAtlYA P. MJ1(j:l H 'ICJIOBeK. Henoaex H cakparrsuoe. C. 37). B ,rPHHOM cnyxae OH CCblJlaJICH HJ aH1p0I10nOfH'fecKylO Hayr<y - TPYTlbl lIeo <fJp06eHHYCa 11 (HMIIJIHL\HTHO) yqe6Hble KYPCbl Mapcena Mocca, pannunantuero 3TH zme MO,[ICJIH KaK OCHOBbl.Ma2UU H penueuu. Mnoro n03,D,Hee ra xe onI103HlJ,HiI "PeJIHI'IDI/MarHll. 6blJlJ neperoaxoaana B TepMHHax CeMHOTHKH H 'reopnn KOMM)'HHKalJ,H11, npenvyniecrnenao Ha MJTepHaJIe nonocnponericxon KynbTYPbI, B crarse IO. M.lIoTMaHa ~,.n:orOBOp" H "BpyqeHHe ce6H" KaK apXCnfTIH'IeCKHe MO,ll,eJm KyIIbTYPbl" (lI OTMAH IO. M. 1136pJHI!ble CTaTbl1. T. 3. TaJIJIHH: Ancxcannpa, 1993. C.345-355).

21 CM.: X B tl3111I r A tt Homo ludens. B TeHH aasrpaunsero ,ll,IDI. M,: Ilporpecc-Axa~eMHH, 1992, C. 20-23.

19

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C. H. 3emam

Ho eCJUI npa3lJ,HH"IHble 3KClJ,eCCbl, CBH3aHHble C ~HCTpe6JIeHHeM 60raTCTB~ II <'TpaHCrpeCCHeil:» (3HaqHMbIM HapymeHHeM) nOBCeIJ,HeBHbIX aanperoe, llHTepeCOBaJIII cxopee )l(0plKa Baran, TO Kaliya )'IKe C 30-x ronoa npellMYlll,eCTBeHHO 3aHllMaJICH HHblM THIIOM KOMllaKTHOro II 060c06JIeHHOrO COlJ,HaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHliH - 1l0CTOHHHO CYlll,eCTByIDlll,llM KOJIJIeKTllBOM, CllaHHHblM CTporOH IJ,HClJ,HIlJUfHOM, KOTOPbIH qalll,e scero Ha3bIBaK)T <.co06m,eCTBOM» (communaute),

a MOIKHO 6bIJIO 6bI nepeBOIJ,HTb H KaK ~06lll,HHa", eCJIH 6bI He C6HBaJIa

C TOJIKY aCCOlJ,HalJ,llH C PYCCKOH KpeCTbHHCKOM 06lll,llHOH. ).1,eHcTBllTeJIbHO, B OTJIHqHe OT 1l0CJIeIJ,HeH, «co06lll,eCTBa» <pOPMHpyroTCH He no eCTeCTBeHHbIM npH3HaKaM (TeppllTOPHll npOIKHBaHHH llJIH POIJ,CTBeHHblM OTHOllIeH11HM), a B IlOpH,D;Ke llHIJ,IIBHP.YaJIbHOrO npnexta, C CO- 6mOlJ,eHlleM IJ,OCTaTOqHO CTporHX npouenyp oroopa. B Coo6lll,eCTBO BXOIJ,HT He BCHKHM, a JIIIlllb TOT, KTO caM 3Toro nOIKeJIaJI 11 xoro COqJIll IJ,OCTOMHbIM. )l,06POBOJIbHOCTb BCTYIlJIeHllH H CTporOCTb IJ,llClJ,HIlJI11- HbI _ IJ,Be B3allMOCBH3aHHbie -rep'ru coo6Ill,eCTBa, IJ,eJIalOIll,lle ero MOIll,HbIM H YCTOHqHBbIM 06pa30BaHHeM, nOTeHlJ,lIaJIbHblM llCTO"llHHKOM BJIaCTIl. <DeHoMeH TaKoro HenpllpO,ll,HOrO Coo6lll,eCTBa 6bIJI snepBble 113yqeH HeMelJ,KHMH COlJ,IIOJIOraMII, B "llaCTHOCTll MaKCOM Be6epOM B paoo're <.npOTeCTaHTCKlle ceKTbl 11 IJ,YX KanIiTaJIIl3Ma,>; B03MOIKHO, llMeHHO BJIllHHlleM Be6epa 06bHCHHeTC5! TO, 'ITO Kaliya B TpaKTaTe 1945 rona ~)l,yx cexr-, HenocpelJ,CTBeHHO nOCBHIIJ,eHHOM 3TOM np06JIeMe, BbI6pan iJ,JIH pOIJ,OBOro 0603HaqeHll5! ~co06IIJ,eCTB'>, ,1I;aJIeKO He Bcer,1l;a llMelOl~l1X peJlIIrII03HyIO npapony, pemlrII03HhIH

TepMllH <,ceKTl,>I.

a6IIJ,eCTBeHHaH pOJIb -cercr- ,1I;BoHcTBeHHa, KaK II pOJIb nrp: c 0,11;-

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I HanOMHIiM, 'ITO H KOJme)l( CO~HOJlOrIiH, no CJIOBaM Kaliya (IlnpO'leM, 3TO eAIlHcrBeHl-iOe CBH,!I,eTeJlbCTBO na ce» cxer, KOTopoe TpYAHO nposepHTh). 6bl!1 c03AaH ~p,mi l13yqemrn 3aMKH¥TbIX rpynrt - ~CKHX COlO30B Y nepBo6blTHbiX naponoa, HHm~HaTHqeCKHX co06IIIecTB, ~epKOBHbIX 6paTCTB, epeTHqeCKHX HJlIi oprHacrHqeCKHx ceKT, MOHaIIIecKHx HJlH BOHHCKHX opnenoa, TeppOpHCl'HqeCKHX opraHH3aUH», Ta»HbIX nomiTliqeCKHX 06'be,!J,HHeHHH Ba )l,aJIbHeM BocrOKe IiJlH B CMYTHble nepaonu eBponeHcKoH HcrOPHHO (Hacr.1i3A., c. 256). 0 COOTHOIIIeHHH TepMllHOB *ceKTa.) H .UepKOBb" B COqHBeHillIX Kaliya CM. HillKe B nacres-

mea crane.

20

POJiCe Kauya: uzra, R3bJ!C, caxpansuoe

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, ~ errepb BhIHyJKAeHa 6

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. ormrsarouraeca, rrO,1l;06HO <.ce'KT~M~ce xce YCTOH"IllBble c006llJ,eCTBa,

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MJ H"IeCKll HeB03MO)KH0 6

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, , irya rrpllBoAllT 11 APyryro, KOHKPeTHO-

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21

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Me}K)J;y TeM CIMH ero CYiKt\CHHH 0 K)'JIbT)'Pe BTIHCbIBalOl'CH B HCTOpH'leCKOC BpeM.II - BpeM.II COll,llaJIbHOH H HHTeJIJIeKTyaJIbHOH HCTOpHH XX sexa. B 'laCTHOCTH, sa npoureznnae nOJIBeKa nperepnenn 3aMeTHYIO 3BOJIIOLl,HIO cOBpeMeHHble TCOpHH K)'JIbTypbI, rrpOAOJDKaH HJIH oraepraa KOHLl,enJJ,HH Karrya; xoe B 'leM 113MCHllJIaCb H caM a KYJIbTypa, c06CTlleHHbIM pa3BHTHCM 3aCTaBJUIJI IlHOCHTb nonpamcn B MaCIIITa6HbIe anenpeMeHHbie 0606meHHH. Ha'lHCM C sroro rrOCJIe}1,HerO ¢aKTopa.

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23

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1 Cp. ct>l1rypbl BmmoB llllVleMax WII1 MaCKaX, cOCTaBAAlOll\He TI1IlH'-IH)'lO IlPHHa,n,TleJKllOCTb COBpeMeHHoro ct>aBTaCTH'-IeCKOrO KHHO. 0 HOllI13He H nenousrHOCTH ct>eHoMeHa 6oeJloti MaCKHPOBKH B Harne BpeW! rOBopHT onsrr crozrs TOHxoro "'-II1TaTemt* COJlpeMeHHoit K)'JJbl)'PbI, KaK POliaH EapT: aHaJJH3HPYll B K1il1fe d{aMepa JJlO!IH)l.a* (1980) penop1.';DKH)lIO ct>oTorpact>l1lO HHKaparyaHcKHX fOPOACKHX IlapTH3aH C 3aMoTaHHblMI1 JII1!IaMI1, OH paccMa-rPHBaeT B Ka'-leCTBe B03- MO)KHbIX 06bllcHeHllit HX MacKHpOBKH TOJJbKO ABa - .01' BOtIH> H ",li,JUI cexpcrHOCTH». CM.: RARTHF.S R. CEuvres completes. T. 3. Paris: Seuil, 1995. P. 1124.

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25

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Hexoropsre xacrmse l1)J.eI1 11 MOTI1BbI KaI1:ya HaXOiJ,HT ceoe JII060- nsrnnae COOTBeTCTBHH B paoorax <'HOBbIX ¢paHIJ,~'3CKHX TeOpeTHKOB". TaK, POllan Bapr B scce «l1rpYIllKH'> H3 KHHfH <.MwpOJIOrHH", no speaeHH no-rm COBna.n,aIO~CM C «lirpaMH H JIIO/1bMI1') KaI1:ya (31'01' TCKCT 6bVl snepssre nanexaran B 1955 fOAY, aa HCCKOJIbKO MeCHIJ,CB,IJ,O nepastx CTaTCrt Kaifya, CBH3aHHbIX C KHHroll 06 nrpax), rtoznsepr Kpl1THKe MHMCTHqCCKHll xapaxrep 60JIbllIHHCTBa COBPCMCHHblX nrpyruex, KOTOPbIC aaCTallJUlIOT petiemca II CBOCH nrpe rrO,11,pXKaTb KOMY-HH6y,a;b H3 B3POCJIbIX:

1 HEIMONET J.-M. Op.cit. P. 55. CM. TaJOKe: STAROBINSKI J Sarurne au ciel des pierres / / Europe, 2000. NQ 859-860. P. 15.

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TeOpeTHKa CXO,lVITC51 B KyJIb'IypHOM a RJICqeHll11. 1 CM He MCHCC 06a q,H3HOJIOfHqeCKOro HHJleHIDI BU1T' CMbICJICHHH, Ka3aJIOCb 6bI, qHCTO

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1 BAPT P. MI1<POJlOI'HH. M. 11

21aM JKe. .. 3,'1-BO I1M. Ca6aUlHHKoBbIX, 1996. C. 103.

3 CM.: )f{ E H E TT )1<. 1>I1I)'phI: Pa60ThI no n03T1I

KOBhlX, 1998. C. 201 xe, T. 1. M.: I1311-BO 11M. Ca6aUlHII-

4 .

GE NET T E G. Raisons de la cririque ure / .

10/18 1968 P 203 0 p I ChemIns actuels de fa critique Paris

' '. . MOTIIBC rOJIOBOKpy'iKCII )f{ . , ,

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27

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nnonor-areacr ¢aKTH'leCKH TOJIKyeT 0 -nepxna- Il xassrxxax, nO,[l,06- HO TOMY KaK B KaBhllJKaX cnenyer lJHTaTb CJlOBO *CeKTa9 B ero scce (.,LI,yx cexr-. C06CTBeHHO, CJIOBO ('JJ,epKOBb'> 3AeCb lfMeHHO If osnaxaer ('CeK'ry-: HHTeJIJIeKT, no MbICJIH Kaliya, CTaHOBHTC5I CHJIOH JIHllIb B cocomeCTBe, rne ecrs A06pOBOJIbHOe 1.[]lenCTBO, CTpOra5I ,[I,HCJJ,MnJIMHa H eAM' Ha5I ,[I,OKTplfHa. Me)K,IJ,y TeM npn Tpa,[l,MJJ,MoHHOM ycrponcrse oornecraa K JJ,epKBH TaK MJIlf mraxe npmraanexorr npaKTMlJeCKH Ka)K,II,bIH, TOfAa KaK cexra KOMnJleKTyeTOI. HH,[IHBlf,[l,yaJlbHO, co crpornx oT60pOM (cp.3aMelJaHH5I na 31)' TeMy y Maxca Be6epa M B (·,LI,yxe ceKT'> caxoro Kariya). MO)KHO CKa3aTb, 'ITO, YTBep)K,II,a51 CBOIO <'JJ,epKOBb'>, Kailya MMeer B BH,IJ,y He BC10 Maccy nxonanrax B Bee MMp5lH, a lfMeHHO KJlUPWWB, TO ecrs ee ,[I06POBOJlbHbIX M no)KH3HeHHbIX CJlf)KMTeJleH. Ho ecrs erne 60JIee Ba)KHOe oocrosrenscruo. /VHI Hero H nop;06HOM C006llJ,eCTHe rnasuoe ~ MMMaHeHTHa51 COJJ,HaJlbHa}!. CIIJlO'leHHOCTb, a He aepa BO 'lTO-JlM60 TpaHCJJ,eH,[IeHTHOe; M ecnn COBpeMeHHbIe MHTeJlJIeKTyaJIbI - 3TO <'KJIHPHKH 6e31I,epKBH» (HaCT. M3,[1,., c. 250), TO JJ,epKOBb, 0 xoropon Me'lTaeT KaI1ya, ~ 3TO ¢aKTMlJeCKlf JJ,epKOBb 6e3 60ra.

TIOIDITHO, KaKHM 06pa30M 3Ta YTomUI nCeB,[IOJJ,epKBlf, JJ,epKBMCHMyJl5IKpa CB5I3aHa C rtpoexroxr co06111eCTBa CTPOfMX H caMOOTBep)KeHHbIX MbICJlHTeJleH-.LIeHTeJleil, KOTOPblI1 Kariya npOnOBe,[lOBaJI B KOHJJ,e 30-x M nbITaJlC5I peaJIH30BaTb B napIDKCKOM KOJlJle)Ke COJJ,MOJlOrHH. TIoH5ITeB M IIJla'leBHblH ¢MBaJI 3TOfO npoercra, OT xoroporo Karrya asr~eH 6bVl 06eCKYPa)KeHHO orcrynarsca, 3aMeTMB onacnyio 6JlH- 30CTb csoea aHTlflfH,[l,HBHAYaJIMCTlf'leCKOH M O,[l,HOBpeMeHHO 6e360)KHoil ptrropuxn K ,[I,MCKYPCY cpallIMCTOB 1. Kpirrmca <'KJlHPlfKOB» y Kaliya 3lf)K,II,eTC5I na He5lHHOM y6e)J([l.eHMH, 'ITO 513bIK nOMaeTC5I MMMaHeHTHOMY ynopsno-reamo, 'ITO B npanum.no opraHlf30BaHHOH COI.I,MaJIbHoil crpyxrype OH ,[I,a)Ke npa OTcyTCTBHM TpaHCJJ,eH,[l,eHTHbIX, seponcnoaenHhlX OCHOBaHlfH cnocooen ooecne-nrrs He06xop;HMyro «crporocrs» 06llJ,MX npMHJJ,MnOB M BblBO,[lMMhlX M3 nnx KOHKPeTHbIX cy)K,II,eHMil. YTonM5I CBeTCKoil JJ,epKBM, KaK M Boo6111e BC}!' TeOpllil. KyJlhTYPbl y Kaliya, OCHOBaHa na ,[I,OBepI1M K 513b1Ky KaK HeHTpaJIbHOMY, BHecoJJ,MaJIbHOMY OPY,[Ilf1O MbICJlM, KOTOPblM MH,[I,lfBHAYaJIHCTbl - MHTeJlJleKTyaJIbI npocro He YMeIOT ,[I,OJl)KHbIM 06pa30M nOJIb30BaTbC5I, nOCKOJlbKy He,[lOCTaTO'lHO Tpe60BaTeJJbHbl K ce6e.

,lJ,aJIbHeHrnee HAeOJIOrH4eCKoe H tray-moe pa3BMTMe rrropon noJlOBHHbl XX sexa nonmo He no rryru BOCCTaHOBJleHH5I ~CBeTCKOH JJ,epKBH'>, a no rryrn Hanp5l)KeHHOH KpMTHKH 513bIKa, KOTopaH aenacs C paaHbIX noanuna - KaK co CTOPOHbl CTPYK1YPaJIbHOil JIHHrBHCTMKM, TaK 0, nanpustep, CO CTOPOHbl aHaJIHTM'leCKOH ¢MJIOCO¢MM. oTa KpMTHKa 'rpeficeaxa OT,[IaBaTb ce6e OT'leT, 'ITO lJeJIOBeK B 513blKe scerrta Bb1CKa3blBaeTC5I na CBoil crpax If pnc«, BeM CJlO)KHyro, He scerna ycneunryio, HO

I 0 q:,allH:ICTCKOM aHTHHHTeJIlIeK1)'aJIH3Me B 1'paKTOBKe TeOpeTIlKOB KOJIJIOKa COlJ,HOJIOI'HH CM.: HE 1M 0 NET J. - M. Op. cit. P. 160 sq.

29

C. H. 3ell1om

nOTeUUHaJIhHO TI1l0.nOTBOPHYIO Hrpy ~ B TepMHHaX KaHya ee, rrosca.nyil, MO:lKHO H33BaTb 3rOHH'leCKOH - C COUH3JIbHhlMH HHCT3HUWIMM, ynpaBJUIIDIlJ;HMH Jl3bIKOM, COm'BeTC'l'BeHIiO, M poxs OL\HHOKOro <'3Hr3- :lKI1POll3HHoro,> HHTeJIlleKTyaJIa, SHOBb yrBep)K,ll,CHHafI BO q:.paHUY3- CKm1 Kyllbrype CapTpOM M KaMIO, a 33TeM, na HlIOH qmnoco¢CKOH OCHOBe, MbICJIHTeJIRMH CJIe.nYIOIlJ;erO nOl(OnCHHR - EapTOM, 1:>YKO, ,IJ,eppH,!l,a I, - coxpaanna csoe 3HaQeHHC sonpexn KpHTHKe Kal1ya, BDJIOTb )"10 HOBbIX )"IHCJ<YCCH'H 0 <·CMep'T'H Hl}'feIIJleKry3JIOB" BO <llP3BQHH KOH(~a XX BeKa2,

Ho 06 3TOM I1HCaJI y:lKC He PO:lKe K3i1ya, a .npyrHe J1ID,D,H.

I1fPbI 11 JIIO~H

I I

i I

MaCKa

If rOJIOBOKp)')KeHMe

I POJIaH Bapr, P0/l;H6IUHI1CH B 1915 rony, 6hUI scero ,UIlYMff rOAaMH MJI3,1l.IHe Kaliya, HO B ciory 6Horpaej.mQecKl1x 06croHTeJIbCTB (TSDKeJIOH ,!l;J1HTeJlbH0I160- ne3HH) BC1ymm B J1!neparyp)' HJMHoro fI03)!(e Hero; MHwe.1Jb (l:>}'KO H )f(aK ll,eppnaa POI\11JlHCb COOTBeTCTBeHHO B 1926 H 1930 ronax,

z JlHCKyCCHH 06 mrrenncxryanax BHOBb paaacprrynacs nOCJJe 3HaMeHi-iToli CTaTbff ucropaxa Dbepa Hopa (,'-ITO Moryr HHTemIeKT}'aJIbl/» (1980), If ce pa311HTHe OKa3aJIOCb TeCHO CIDl3aHO C KPHTHKOl1 ecert C'fP)'KT)'PJJlHCTCKOH H nocrcrpyicrypaJJl1CTcKo» TCOpl1H K)fJ1b'f)'Phl, c03J\allaumCHCllltHTeJmcKT)'anaMI1 .noA ce6f\". HOBeHUIHe BbK'TfWICtU1Jl Jl 3TOti I(HCKyCCHH CM. B c60pHJlKC: Pecny61lHK! CJJf)BeCHOCTll: <DpaHl . .l,HH B MI1POBOH I1HTcJUleKTyaJIhHOI1 KyJlb1)'pC, M.: HOBoe JlI1'l'ep;nypHoe ofiospenue, 200), C. 535~592.

Bncztenne

CV",'CTBYET IieC'rnO>oruoe MHOX<eCTBO Rep, CanOHH"'e nrpsi, nrpu aa JIOIlKOCTb, arpsr asaprmse, cnop'rnnnsre, HrpbI aa TeprreHHe, Hrpbl-KOHCTPYKTOPbl H T. ,ll,. HeCMOTpR aa 'raxoe no-rm 6eCKOHe'-IHOe pa3H006pa3He, cnoso -nrpae C rrpHMe'-IaTeJIbHbIM nOCTORHCTBOM accounnpyerca y HaC C O,ll,HHMH H TeMH )Ke H,ll,eJIMH - paCKOBaHHOCTl1, pHCxa HJIH yMeJIOCTH. A rnaaaoe, nrpa nenpeaenno HeCeT C C060H aTMQcrpepy ornsrxa HJIH pa3BJIe'leHlliI. Hrpa ycnoxansaer H 3a6aBJIJIeT. OHa oanaxaer TaKyIO ,ll,eJITeJIbHOCTh, me HeT CTeCHeHlliI, HO HeT H rrOCJIe,ll,CTBHM AJllI peaJIbHOfi )KH3HI1. OHa npOTHBOCTOHT cepbe3HOCTH 3TOH )KH3- HH H orroro C'-IHTaeTOI '-IeM-TO JIerKOMbICJIeHHbIM. OHa rrpOTHBOCTOHT TaK:lKe If 'rpyzry, KaI< norepsnnoe BpeMJI - BpeMeHH pa3)'MHO ncnonssyeMOMY. B caMOM ,ll,erre, urpa HH'-Iero He npOH3BOAlIT: HH MaTepHallbHblX 6JIar, HH ,ll,yXOBHbIX TBopeHHH. OHa rro cyrn CBoeH 6eCrmO,l.l,Ha. B Ka)K,l.l,OM HOBOH naprna, ,ll,aJKe eCJIH CTaBKOH CJIy:lKl1T BCJ.I HX )KH3Hb, HrpOKH OIDITb Ha'-IHHaIOT C HYJIJI, B TeX:lICe yCJIOBlliIX, '-ITO H B caMOM naxane. He COCTaBJIHIOT HCKJIIO'-IeHlliI H ,l.l,eHe:lKHble arpsr, TOTaJIH3aTOpbl HJIH JIOTepeH: OHH He C03,ll,aIOT 60raTCTB, a JIHIIIb nepexieutaror HX H3 PYK B pyxrr.

3Ta CPYHAaMeHTaJIbHaJI ~nYCTOTa,) urpsr - 'lepTa, KOTOPaJI 60JIee scero speznrr ee perryranan. O,ll,HOBpeMeHHo OHa n03BOJIJIeT C 6ecne'lHOCTbIO npeaaaarsca nrpe H rrO,ll"ll,ep)KHBaeT ee H30JIHIJ,HIO OT nporryxTHBHblX BH,ll,OB ,ll,e5lTeJIbHOCTH. To ecrs Ka)I(,ll,hlH H3Ha'laJIbHO rrOHHMaeT, '-ITO nrpa - 3TO scero JIHIUb npaaraan npuxori, H rrycras saoasa, C xaKHM 6bl TIIl,aHHeM B nee HH HrpaJIH' xaxne 6bI aannr crroc06HOCTH OHa HH npHBOAHJIa B ,lJ;eMCTBHe, KaKOH 6hl crporo ynopH,ll,O'-IeHHOfi OHa HH 6bIJIa. 3TO XOPOlliO HJIJIIOCTpHpyeT CJIe,ll,ylOIl1,aJI rppasa IlIaT06pHaHa: ~B crreKyJIJITHBHoI1 reoxierpaa ecrs CBOH 6eCrrOJIe3Hhle Hrpbl, KaK H B APyrHX nayxax-,

npe,ll,CTaBJI5leTCH OC06CHHO rrOKa3aTeJIbHbIM, 'ITO BbI,lJ,alOIl1,HeOI licrOpHKH, B pC3yJ1bTaTe rny60KHx accnenosaana, H BeCbMa ztoopocoBeCTHble rrCHXOJIorH, B irrore CHCTeMaTH'-IeCKl1X, MHorOKpaTHO rrOBTO-

33

POlKe Kanva. I1rpbl H JIIOAH

peHHbIX Ha6mop,CHHH, CO'lJII1 H)0KHbIM paCCMaTpl1BaTb zryx nrpsr KaK onHV 11.3 BJ)Kl-ICHIIII1X p,BYDKYlll,HX om, B03p,eHCTB)'iO~I1X ua pa3BHTHC BbIC~I1X npmnmcmu':J K)'JIbl)'PbI 06lll,CCTBa, aa MOPaJIbHOC BOCnl1TaHHC H HHTCJIJICKT\'aJIbHbIH pOCT HHp,HBH,D,a. HC3HaYHTCJIbHOCTb arpsr, KOTOPOH MO)KHO' npeneope-n-, CTOJIh HcnpaBP,onop,o6HO KOHTpaCTl1pYCT C orpOMHOH BJ)KHOCThIO PC3YJIhTaTOB, KOTOPbIC snpyr OKa3bIBaIOTOI C HCIO CBH3aHbI, 'ITO Ha<II1Haellib p,yMaTb, HeT JII1 3,[1CCb npOCTO napanoxca, 1130II~pCHHoro, HO HH na <ICM He OCHOBaHHoro.

npC)K):\C YCM paCCMaTpHBaTb TC3HCbI HJIH npcp,nOJIO)KeHHH TCX, KTO BOCXBaJIHCT nrpy, MHC npe,[lCTaMHeTCH nOJIe3HbIM noneepravnaHaJIH3Y I1MnJIHl~HTHbIC npel~CTaMeHHH, 3aJIO)KeHHhIC B nOIiHTHI1 nrps; H npOHBJIHIO~HeCH B pa3JIH'lHblX HenpHMbiX ynoTpc6JIeHHHX aroro CJlOsa, xorna OHO npHMCHHeTCH KaK MeTacpopa. ECJlH nrpa ,[ICHCTBHTeJIbHO H3HaYaJIbHaH P,BIDKy~aH cuna ~11BI1JIH3a~HH, TO 3TH BTOPWIHblC 3HaQCHIUI CJIOBa HaBepHHKa OKaJKYrCH xoe B 'lCM rroyqHTeJIbHbIMH.

Dpc)K):\e ncero, B Op,HOM 113 CBOliX caMbIX paCXO)KllX ynorperincHliH, Hali60JIee 6JIli3KllX K npHMOM)' CMbICJIY, CJIOBO -arpa- osnaxaer HC TOJIbKO Ha3blBaeMyID TaK CnC~l1cpH'lecK)'lO ,1l;CHTeJIbHOCTb, H~ TaK)KC 11 na- 60p CPHl)'P, CliMBOJIOB IiJIli Opy,1l;liH, He06xo,[lHMbIX ,lI,lIH 3TOli ,[IeHTeJIbHOCTH HJIli NIH pa60TbI KaKorO-TO CJIO)KHoro KOMnJICKca. Hanpnstep, CJIOBOM jeu [<'lirpa'>1 cppaHlzy3bl Ha3bIBaIOT KapTO'lIi)'iO KOJIO,11;)', TO eCTb Ha60p xapr, HJII1 )Ke Ha60p IllaxMaTHblx rpnryp, aeooxomoasrx JI,IDll1rpbI B III ax - MaTbl. 31'0 nOJIHbIH, nOMaIO~HHcH nepecsery KOMIIJIClIT: p,OCTaTO'lHO O,[lHOrO HC,[IOCTaIOlll,CrO lUIH nmnnero 3JIeMCHTa, 'lT06bl nrpa CTaJIa HCB03MO)KHOH llJIH HCnpaBIiJIbHOH, ~ eCJIH TOJIbKO Y,[IaJICHliC O,[lHOrO llJIll HCCKOJIblQ-iX 3JICMCHTOB He 06'bHMCHO sapanee C KaKllM-TO orrpCAeJICHHbIM HaMcpcmlCM; HanpHMep, 113 KapYO'lHOH KOJIO,[lbI y,[IaJIHIOT ,ll;)KOKcpa, a B uraxMaTHOH nrpe ,[IaIOT rpopv, CHI1MaH C p,OCKll KaK)'lO-mi~O CPl1rypy, 'lT06bI ypaBHHTb ClUIbl P,Byx HrpOKOB. TO'lHO TaK )Ke CJIOBOM JCu MO)KHO Ha3BaTb OCHaCTKy oprana (COBOK)'I1HOCTb ero rpy6 H ioiamnu) lUIH panroyr CY,[lHa [jeu de voiles] ~ nOJIHbIH KOMIIJIC~lIT ero pa3JIll'lH~IX napycoa TaKaH HACH 3aMKHyTOH, H3HaqaJIbHO nOJIHOH li He3bl6JICMOH ~eJIOCTHOera, 3a,1l;yMaHHOH TaK, YT06bl OHa pa60Tan~ 6e3 BCHKO:O BHeIIIHcro B03- ,[ICHCTBHH, KpOMe TOH saepraa, 'ITO naaa CI1 IiCXO,[lHblli TOJI'lOK, ~ necoMHCHHO, oopasyer Ba)KlIOC HOBOBBC,[IeHliC B MI1PC, KOTOPblH no npnpone CBOCH nO,[lBH)KeH, 'lbl1 ncxozmsre 3JICMeHTbi npaxncrecxa HCHC'lIiCJIliMbl, na K TOM)' )Ke HcnpeCTaHHO npespamaiorca ,1l;pyr B npyra.

O1oBO «urpa- 0603Ha'lacr TaK)KC CTlUIb, IicnOJIHHTeJIbCK)'IO MaHepy MY3blKaHTa I1JIH axrepa, TO CCTb xapalITCpHble OC06CHHOCTI1, KOTOPhIC OTJIli'laIOT 01' Apyrl1x ero cnocof nrpars na M)'3blKanbHoM I1HCTpYMCHTe llJIH liCnOJIHHTh pOJIb Ha C~CHC. CBH3aHliblH HOTaMH liJII1 TeKCTOM ponn, OH BCC)KC,[IO HCKOTOPOH crenenn BOJICH BbIKa3bIBaTb CBOIO nn-rHOCTb HcnO,[lpa)KaCMbIMI1 orrenxaaa I1JIH BapHaqliHMH.

TaKllM 06pa30M, CJIOBO <'Hrpa,> coxeraer B ce6c H,D,CI1 npenenoe, cB060AbI Ii li306pcraTCJIbHOCTH. B ApyrOM, cocennen CMhICJlOBOM perrt-

34

BB cuac

crpe OHO BbIpa)KaeT cnoeoopaaaoe CMeIIIeHl1e lUIH conpH)KeHI1C B3al1- MO,[lOnOJIHHIO~I1X npe,ll,CTaBJIeHHI1 06 y,[la'le li YMeJIOCTI1, 0 pecypcax, nOJI)"-laeMblx 6JIarO,[lapH CqaCTJlI1BoM)' Cll)"-IaIO, 11. 06 HX 60JIee I1JIH Menee pa3)'MHoM I1CnOJlb30BaHHI1, C ~eJIbIO H3BJIe'lb MaKCHMaJIbHyID ssrro,11;)'. DepHoMY npeACTaBJICHI1IO cooTBeTCTByeT supascenae ('HMCTb see KO- 3bIpH Ha pyrcax- [avoir beau ieu], BTOpOM)' :lKe ~ TaKHe, KaK <'BeCTI1 TO'lHyID I1rpy'> [jouer serre], -craparscs nepearpars» [jouer au plus fin]; naxoneu, CCTb 11 TaKHC ~ CKaiKeM, <·nOKa3bIBaTb CBOH xaprsr- [rnontrer son jeuj nna, Ha060poT, «cKpbIBaTb CBOI1 K03blPli'> [dissimuler son jeu], ~ KOTOPbIC OTCbIJIalOT K 060l1M npC,[ICTaBJIeHHHM BMeCTe, B HHX CJIOBO "111'pa- 03HaqaCT 11 I1CXO,ll,HbIH KarrHTaJI, 11. yMeJIOC passeprsraaaae npozryMaHHoll crparerna.

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Hrpa BHOBb npeztcraer xpeaesrsaaao CJIO)KHbIM nOHHTHeM, rrte CB5I3bIBalOTCH BMeCTC cpalITl1'lecKaH ,[IaHHOCTb, 6JIarOrrpill.lTHbIH I1JIli HI1- KY,II,bIIIIHbIH pacxnan xapr, KOTOPbIM BJIaCTBycr Cll)"-IaH 11 KOTOPbH1. I1rpOK nozrysaer KaK 6bI B Y,[IaqHOe I1JIH Hey,[laqHOe HaCJIe,ll,CTBO 11 HI1KaK He MO)KCT Ha nero nOBJIliHTb; )'MeHl1e HalUI)"-lIIIHM 06pa30M paCrrOpH,[(I1TbCH 3'I'I1Mli HcpaBHbIMH pecvpcaxa, KOTOPble MO)KHO rrpHYMHO)KI1Tb npo- 3Oplll1BblM paCqCTOM I1JII1 :lKe 6CCI1J]0,1l;HO paCTO'lHTb no He6pc)KHOCTH; HaKOHe~, Bhl60p Me:lK,ll;y OCTopmKHOCTbIO H ,[ICP30CTbIO, KOTOPblH orrpe,lI;CJll.IeTC5I rrOCJIe,ll,HIIM napasterpoxr ~ TeM, HaCKOJIbKO nrpotc rOTOB ztenars CTaBKy aa HenO,[lBJIaCTHblC CM)' rpaxropsr, a HC na TO, 'ITO OH MO)KCT KOHTPOJIl1pOBa Tb.

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35

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36

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38

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40

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KaK .neesanpaanv" H BHe nOBCe}.l,HeBHOH )KH3HH BblIIOJIHJleMOe 3aHJlTHe, O}.l,HaKO OHa MO)KeT u;emIKOM OBJIa}.l,eBaTb nrparomn», He npecnezryer npa 3TOM nmcaxoro npsxoro MaTepHaJIbHOrO mrrepeca, He HIII,eT nOJIb3bI, - CB060}.l,HoH }.l,eJlTeJIbHOCTblO, KOTOpa51 cosepmaerca BHyrPH HaMepeHHO OrpaHH'-IeHHOrO rrpOCTpaHCTBa H BpeMeHI1, nporeeaer ynopMO'-leHHO, no onpe}.l,eJIeIlHbIM npaBHJIaM H BbI3bIBaeT K )K113H~H 06II1,eCTBeHHble r-pynnnposxa, npe}.l,nO'-lHTaIOIII,l1e OKp)'JKaTb ce651 TaHHOH JIH60 nO}.l,'-IepKHBaIOIII,He csoe OTJIH'-IHe 01' npovero MHpa BceB03-

MO)KHOH MaCKHpOBKOH·)l.

TIO}.l,06HOe onpe}.l,eJIeHI1C, B KOTOPOM see CJIOBa O'-leHb BJ)KHbI H

nOJIHbI CMbICJIa, O}.l,HOBpeMeHHO 11 CJIHIllKOM III HpOKO, H CJIHIIIKOM )'3KO. Ba)lUIOH. H IlJIO}.l,OTBOPHOH. 3aCJI)'TOH asropa 51BJIJIeTCH TO, l.J:TO OH YJIOBHJI CPO}.l,CTBO HrpbI C CeKpeTOM HJII1 TaH.HOH., HO 31'0 I1X C006II1,HI1'-1eCTBO see )Ke He }.l,OJDKHO 6blJI0 BXO}.l,HTb B COCTaB }.l,ecpHHI1U;HH, H60 Hrpa no-rm scerna HOCHT 3PeJIHIl~HblH., ,Il,J)Ke nOKa3HOH xapaxrep. KOHe'-lHO, C:KPeT, TaH.Ha, ,Il,J)Ke nepe06JIa'-leHHe MOryT BKJIIO'-IaTbC5I B COCTaB HrpOBOH nesTeJIbHOCTH, HO casta TIa ,Il,e51.TeJIbHOCTb HeH36C)KHO OcyIIJ,eCTBJI51.eTC5I B yIIJ,ep6 TaH.He H cexpery. OHa BbICTaBJIJIe1' HX HanOKa3, npenaer macHOCTI1 H B KaKOM-TO CMbICJIe pacmpauueaem. O,ll,HHM CJIOBOM, B TeH,ll,eHUHH OHa JIHIIIaeT HX c06CTBemlOH. rrpHpO,ll,bI. HarrpOTHB, xorna cexper, MaCKa, nepeoncsauae BbIflOJIH5IIDT HeKOTOpyIO caKpaMeHTaJIbHyIO CPYHKu;HIO, MO)KHO 6bITb ysepeHHblM, l.J:TO nepen HaMH He nrpa, a COU;HaJIbHbIH. HHCTHT)'T. Bce, '-ITO no npnpone 51BJIJIeTC5I TaHHCTBOM HJII1 CHMyJIJIU;HeH., 6JIH3KO K nrpe, HO H)')KH0 erne, '-IT06bl B HeM npeoonanano CPI1~THBHO-pa3BJIeKaTeJIbHOe Ha'-laJIO, TO ecrs '-IT06bI TaH.Ha He 6blJIa '-ITHMOH, a CHMYJIJIUHH He 0603Ha'-laJIa H He Ha'-lHHaJIa c060H. MeTaMopCP03Y HJIH

O}.l,ep)Kl1MOCTb.

BO-BTOPbIX, Ta '-IaCTb onpe}.l,eJIeHH5l. XeH.3HHI'H, rne nrpa npeacraBJIJIeTC5I KaK ,Il,e51.TeJIbHOCTh BHe BC5IKoro MaTepHaJIbHOrO mrrepeca, HCKJIIO'IaeT H3 Hero TOTaJII13aTOpbI H asaprusre Hrpbl, TO ecru, nanpnMep, nropnsre ,Il,OMa, Ka3HHO, armonposrsr, JIOTepeH, xoropue, XOPOillO 31'0 HJIH IlJIOXO, HO 3aHHMaIOT 3Ha'lHTeJIbHOe Mecro B 3KOHOMHKe H noBCe,ll,HeBHOU )KH3HH pana naponoe. <I>OPMbl TaKHX nrp 6eCKOHe'-lHO pasHo06pa3HbI H 51BJIJIIOT c060u nnexarrouomec nocroHHCTBO OTHOIIIeHHH Me)K}.l,)' CJIY'laH.HOCTbIO H BbIrO,ll,OH. A.3apTHbIe HrpbI, KOTopble TaIOKC HB-

JUlIOTCH ,Il,eHeIKHbIMH nrpasm, He 3aHHMalOT rrpaKTH'-IeCKH HHKaKOfO MeCTa B KHHfe XeH.3HHrH. TaKaJI npe,ll,B3HTOCTb He 06xOAHTCH 6e3 noCJIe,ll,CTBHI1.

B TO )Ke BpeMH y nee ecrs csoe o6'bHcHeHHe. RCHO, '-ITO ,Il,OKa3aTb K)'JIbT)'PHYIO npO,ll,yKTHBHOCTb a3ap1"HbIX nrp ropaaao TPY,ll,Hee, 'IeM Hrp COCTH3aTeJIbHbIX. B.rn·UIHHe a3ap1"HbIX nrp O'-leHb BeJIHKO, ,Il,J)Ke eCJIH II Cl.J:llTaTb ero HeraTllBHbIM. Kpoxe mro, He rrpHHIIMaJI HX B pacxer, Mhl rrpHXO,ll,llM K TaKOMY Onpe}.l,eJIeHIIIO nrpsr, B KOTOPOM yraepacaaercs ana nonpasyaesaeTCH, '-ITO OHa He BJIe'leT sa COooH HHKaKOH 3KOHOMH'-IeCKOH 3aHHTepeCOBaHHOCTH. Ha caMOM nene cnenyer nposonjrrs pa3JIII'-leHIIe. B HeKOTopbIX CBOHX npOHBJIeHll5IX nrpa, nanporaa, 51BJIHeTCH H npnsaana 6hlTb B BbICIIIe:H crerrena 060ralIl,aIOIII,eU llJIH pa30pHTeJIbHO:H. Ho, HeCM01"pH na 31'0, arpa ,Il,J)Ke B CBOeH. ,Il,eHeJKHOU cpopMe ocraercs a6coJIlOTHo HenpOH3BO,ll,IITeJIbHOlt CyMMa nsnrrpsnna }.l,J)Ke B JIy'lIIIeM cnysae MO)KeT 6bITb JIHIIIb paaaa CyMMe npoarpsnna ,Il,pymx HrpOKOB. B,Il,eHCTBllTeJIbHOCTH OHa no-rm BCerna MeHbrne ee, H3-3a opraH1I3aIJ,IIOHHbIX paCXO,ll,OB, HaJIOroB H npII6bIJIH YCTPOIITeJIH HrpbI - 'roro, KTO C,Il,llHCTBeHHbIH. He nrpaer llJIH )ICe 'IbH nrpa 3alIl,HIII,eHa OT KanpH30B CJIy'laJI 3aKOHOM 60JIbIIIIIX '-IHCeJI, TO ecn, KTO C,Il,llHCTBeHHblU He MO)KeT nozrysars Y,ll,OBOJIbCTBll5I OT arpu. Ilpoucxooum nepeueuienue coocmeenuocmu; "HO He npoU3600cm80 "HOBbIX tinaz. BOJIee 'roro, 31'0 nepevemenae aarparasaer onmrx JIIIIIIb HrpOKOB H JIHIIIb noCTOJIhK)', rrOCKOJIhKY OHH comaIIIaIOTCH - CB060}.l,HbIM peIIIeHHeM, B0306- HOBJIHeMblM rrpu KJ)K,Il,OH. naprna, - C B03MOIKHOCTbIO 'raxoro nepenoca. AeH.CTBHTeJIbHO, xapaxrepnaa xepra nrpsr B TOM, '-ITO OHa He C03,1l,aeT HHKaxoro 60raTCTBa, HIIKaKOro npOH3Be}.l,eHHH. 3'rn:M OHa OTJIH'IaerCH OT TPY}.l,a H XY,ll,O)KeCTBeHHOro TBOp'-leCTBa. B KOHue naprnn see MO)ICeT HlIH ,Il,OJIJKHO Hal.J:HHaThCH 3aHOBO, H B xozre ee He B03HHKaeT HH'-IerO nosoro; He coonpaeTCH YPO)KlU, He H3rOTaBJIHBaIOTCH KaKHe- JU100 H3}.l,eJIHH, He C03}.l,aIOTCH ure,Il,eBpbI, He pacrer KanHTaJI. Hrpa CJI)l)KHT nOBO,ll,OM K tmcroH. TPaTe: TPaTe BpeMeHH, "meprHH, XHTPOCTH, JIOBKOCTH, a aaxacrvro H ztener - aa noxynKY HrpOBhIX npHHa}.l,JIC)l(HOCTeU H B nexoropsrx CJIy'llHX H3 HaeM novemeHHH. qTO )fCe xacaerca nporpeccaoaansnsrx OOKcepOB, BeJIOfOHIIl,HKOB, )KOKeeB HlIil aKTepOB, xoropsre na pnnre, BeJIO,ll,pOMe, nrmoztposre HlIH nO,ll,MOCTKaX 3apa6aTbIBaIOT ce6e aa )KH3Hb H KOTOPble }.l,OlDKHhI ,Il,)'MaTb o npH30BOM cpOH,ll,e, sapnnare llJIil ronopape, TO B 31'0M OTHOIIIeHHH OHH, paayxeerca, BOBce He IIrpOKH, a peaecneanaxa. HrpaIOT OHH B HHhle HrpbI.

l XE~3I1HrA fl.. Homo ludens. B TeHH 3aBTpalIIHcro p;IDI. M.: TIporpeCC-AKa.n;eMHJl, 1992. C. 24. (npUMe<t. nep.) HIDKC (ua c. 41 PYCCKOro H3p;aHlliI. - Ilpuueu. nep.), naxomrrca ,ll,pyroe onpe,o;eJIeHHe, He crone 60raTOe, HO He MeHce orpanaxaTeJlhHOC: ,'I1rpa ecrs p;06pOBonhHOC ,ll,eHCTBHC nH60 3aIDITIle, conepmaewoe BHfrpH YCTaHOBJICHHhlX rpanau MeCTa H BPCMCHYl no ,!l,06pOBOn~HO npmUlThIM, HO a6comOTHO 06Jl3aTeJlhHbIM npaBHflaM C nensio, 3aJUlIO'-ICHHOH B HeM caMOM, conpoBo~aeMoc 'f)'BCTBOM HanpIDKCHW! H panocra, a -ratoxe c03HaHHCM "HHOro 6blTllil", HC)KCllH ,,06hJ.,1l,CHHan" )KH3Hb~.

C ,Il,pyrOH CTOPOHhI, HeT COMHeHHH, 'ITO nrpy ,Il,OJI)KHO paCCMaTpHBaTb KaK CB060,ll,HyIO H ,Il,06POBOJIbHyIO }.l,eHTClIbHOCTb, HCTO'-lHHK paaoCTH H 3a6aBbl. ECJIH 6bI B nrpe npHXO}.l,llJIOCb ysacraoaa'n, nOHeBOJle, OHa cpasy zce nepecrana 6bI 6hITb HrpOH.: OHa C,Il,ClIaJIaCb 6bI 06H3aHHOCTblO, TIDKKHM ,Il,OJlrOM, OT xoroporo see crreIIIHJlH 6w OT,Il,eJIaTbCH. OcymeCTBJIHeMaH no 06H3aHHOCTH HJlH ,Il,J)Ke npocro no cosery H3BHe, nrpa TepHJIa 6bI 0}.l,H)' H3 CBOliX CPYHAaMeHTaJIbHblX srepr - TO, '-ITO HrpOK npeztaercs eH. npOH3BOJIbHO, no c06cTBeHHOMY XOTeHHIO H Pa}.l,H C06CT-

44

45

POlKe KafiYa. Hrpl>! H Jl108H

senaoro Yl~OBOJIbCTBlliI, scerna 6yA)"IH BOJIeH He arpart., a OTOHTH B CTOpony, npoxorrsa'rs, yH.TH B ce61I, B npasnnoe O)J,HHO'leCTBO HJIH )Ke B noneanyio ~elITeJlbHOCTb. OTCIO~a onpenenenne nrprsr, xoropoe npeztnaraer BaJIepH: 3T0 xorna <'3aB1I3aHHoe YBJIe'lemleM MO)KeT 6bITb pa3BH3aHO CK)'KOH» I. Hrpa 6bIBacr lII1Illb 'rorna, xorna HrpOKaM X04crCH nrpars, KOrna OHH arpaior - 6bITb MO)KeT, B casryro 3aXBaTbIBalOruYIO H H3HYPHTCJIhH}'lO nrpy - C U,ClIbIO pa31lJIC'lbClI H 3a6bITh CBOH 3a6OTbI, TO ecn, y~aJIHTbOl. or 06bI"IHOH )KH3HH. A KpOMe Taro, H 3TO rnasnoe, Hy)KHO, 'lT06bI OHH 6billH scerna BOlIbHbI BbIHTH H3 nrpst, CKa3aTb: <.JI 6anbUie Tie uzpaso-.

KpOMe nee caMoH. C06CTBCHHO, rrOTOMy-TO ee npasnna TaK HMrrcpaTHEHbI H nenpencosnsr H He ~onycKaIOT HHKaKoro 06cy)K,1:(CHIffi. Y HHX HeI' HHKaKOH npH"IHHbI 6bITh HMCHHO TaKHMH, a HC HHbIMH. TOT, KTO He COrnacen C TaKI1M HX xapaKTCpOM, HCH36eJKHo ~OJDKeH C"ICCTb HX "IeM-TO HBHO Heco06pa3HhIM.

1 V At. tRY P. Tel quel, II. Paris, 1943. P. 21.

JIIO~H HrpalOT JIHIllb eCJIH XOTHT, JIHIllh 'rorna, Kor~a XOTHT, JlI1Illb CTOJIbKO, CKOJIhKO XOTlIT. B 31'0M CMbICJIe nrpa - CB06o)J,HaH ~eHTCJIbHOCTb. Kposre roro, 31'0 eute H AeHTCJIbHOCTh C HCOrrpe~CJIeHHbIM HCXO~OM. Ee pa3~H3Ka ~oJI)K[i:a no KOHlJ,a OCTaBaTbCH COMHHTCJIbHOH. Korna B KapTO'lHOH nrpe HCXO)J, napran CTaHOBHTOI HeCOMHCHHbIM, Hrpy npexpamaior - see OTK~bIBaIOT CBOH xapru, B JIOTCpee I1JIH B pynert«; ~CJIalOT CTaBKH na KaKOH-TO HOMep, KOTOPbIH MO)KeT nsmrpa'n., a MO)KeT H HeT. B cnoprusnon copeBHoBaHHH CHllbI conepnaxos ~OJVKHI,I 6bITb ypaBiiOBeIIIeHbI, 'lT06bI KaJK,lJ;bIH H3 HHX Mar crpesurrsca K vcnexy ~O KOHua. B JII060H nrpe aa JIOBKOCTb y nrpoxa no onpencnemuo OCTaeTCH PHCK npOMaXHYIbCH, onacuocn, norepnen, Hey~ay:y, HHa"Ie nrpa rrepeCTaJIa 6hI pa3BJIeKaTb. 11 ~eHCI'BHTCJIbHO, ona He pa3BJIeKaeT Tex, KTO CJJHIIIKOM onsrreu wm CJJHIllKOM JIOBOI(, a nOTOMy' BbIHrpbIBaeT nerxo H HaBcpHHKa.

C rrpHpO~OH nrpsr HCCOBMCCTHMO 3apaHce H3BeCTIioe pa3BHTHC, B KOTOPOM HCB03MO)f(HbI OIllH6KH H HeO)f(~aHHOCTll, xoropoe C o-reB~HOCTblO Be~eT K HeH36e)KHoMy llTOry. Hy)f(HO, qT06bl CHryaUH.lI BHO~h H BHOBb Henpe~B~eHHO MeHHJIaCb, KaK 3TO nponcxoznrr npn xa)K,lJ;OH araxe H KOHTpaTaKC B CPyT60JIe HJlll cpeXTOBaHllH, npa K:VK,lJ.oH rrona-re B TCHHHce HJlH C KaJK,lJ;bIM XO~OM B IIIaXMaTax. 11rpa 3aKJIIOqaeTCH B TOM, 'ITo Heo6xo~HMO cpaay HaXO~HTh, rrpH)J,yMbIBaTb OTBeT, xomopua C60600eH B npeoenax npaeun. 3Ta cB060~a nrpoxa, npOCTpaHCTBO MH MaHeBpa, KOTOPbIM OH pacrronaraer, - B3)KHeHIIICC CBOHCTBO nrpsr, H HM orsacrn 06bHCIIHCTOI ~OCTaBJIHeMOC CIO y~OBOJIbCTBHC. 11M )KC 06bHCHHIOTCH H TaKHe BJ)K[i:blC H xapaKTepHbIC yrroTpe6JICHH.lI CJlOBa .Hrpa,>, KaK B Bblpa)f(eHH.lIX -nrpa aPTHCTa na cueire- lIJIH «3a30p [jeu] MC)K,lJ;y 'laCTHMH MexaHll3Ma~, 0603Ha"IaIOruHX B O~HOM cny-rae JIHqHbIH CTMJrb HCrrOJIHeHHJI, a B ~PyrOM - HenJIOTHylO nOll.rOHKy )J,CTaJICH.

~ ECTb MHOI'O Hrp, rne HCT rrpasaa. TaR, He 6bIBacr CKOJIbKO-HH6Y[J;b YCTOH4HB~IX H )f(eCTKHx rrpaBlIJI)J,JIH arpu B KyKJIbI, B COJIAaTHKa, B -xasaIm-pa360HHHKH.>, B JIOIIIa)J,Ky, B napOB03, B CaMOJlCT - Boo6ruc, ,l1,JUI TaKHX nrp, KOTOPbIC np~nOJIaraIOT BOJlbH}'IO HMnpOBH3all,HIO H npHBJIeKaIOT npescre ncero y~OBOJIbCTBHeM HrpaTb KaK}'lO-TO pOJIb, BCCTH ce6J1 1Ca1C ecnu 6bt Tbl 6bIJI KCM-TO HJIH ~a)f(C qCM-TO npyrn«, nanpnnep MaIlIHHOH. XOTH TaKOC yrBep)f(,i:lCHHC H MO)f(eT nOKa3aTbCH napa,D;OKCaJIbHbIM 1I 6h[ CKa3aJI, 'ITO B nozrooasrx CJIyqaHX CPHKTHBHOC nOBCIl,CHHe «,rrOHa: ~OIlIKy~ ) 3aMCWICT C060H npasana H BbIIIOJlHHeT TOqHO 'ry xce CPYIIKll,HIO.

e~b npamora CJMH no ce6e C03~aIOT HCKyIO MHHM)'IO cHryall,HIO.

B caMOM ~CJIC, nrpa - 3TO 3aHH.THC no cyrn CBoeH o6oco6JlCHHOC, TIIl,aTCJIbHO H30JIHpOBaHHoe OT OCTaJIbHOH )f(H3HH H 06blqHO oCYIIl,eCTBillleMOC B crporo orrpC~CJlCHHbIX BpCMCHHbIX H rrpoCTpaHCTBcHHbIX pasncax Y nrpsr 6blBaeT CBOC npOCTpaHCTBO - B 3aBHCHMOCTH 01' paaHbIX nrp 3TO MOryr 6hlTb Ha'lCpqeHHble na 3CMlle «KJIaCCbI», IIIaXMaTHa51. WIll uranrearraa nocxa, CT~HOH, 6CI'OBaH noposoca, I1JIOrua,D;Ka !I)Ul PbIuapcxoro TYpHHpa, puar, cueaa, apena H T. ~. 3~eCb HC npHHHMaIOT B pacser HHqero npOHCXO,ll.5l.IIl,Cra no ry CTOPOHY rpaanust. OIllH60qHbIH CJIY4aHHbIH WIH BbI~CHHbIH BbIXO)J, aa paMKH nrpoaoro rrpoCTp;HCTBa, BbI6HBaHHC MHqa aa npenensi nOJIH BllCKyT aa C060H Jm60 ,ll,HCKBaJIHcpHKaUI1IO, JIH60 nrrparpaon ynap.

Hrpy CJlell.YCT Ha'lHHaTb C YCJIOBHOH qCpThl. To )Ke caMOC H BO BpcMeHH - naPTH.lI HaqHHaCTC5I. H 3aKaH'lI1BaCTOl no cnrnany. Y.aCTo ee MHTCJIhHOCTb cj:JHKCHPYCTCH aapanee. CqHTaeTGI n030pHbIM 6pocaTb WIll npepemars nrpy 6C3 YBJ)KHTCJlbHOH rrpHqHHbl (CKaJKCM, B [J;eTCKHX nrpax xpasar ~qyp MCH5I.'», ECJIH Hy*HO, cc npO~OJl)KaIOT cnepx YCTaHOBJICHHOI'O BpcMeHH no COfJIaCHIO npOTHBHHKOB HJIH no PCIllCHHIO aporrrpa. Bo scex TaKI1X CJIyqaHX 06JIaCTb nrpsr BhlCTyIIaeT KaK OT~CJIbHbB"1:, 3aMKHyTbIH, 3aIl~HII~cHHbIH MHP, KaK 'lHCTOC npocrpancreo.

B 3TOM O'lCpqCHHOM npocrpancree 11 BbI,ll,CJIeHHOM BPCMCHH CJIO)f(HbIC H aarryraansre 3aKOHbI 06bIqHOH )f(H3HH 3aMCHH.IOTOI TO'lHbIMH, npOH3BOJIbHO yCTaHOBJICHHhlMH H He rrO)J,JIe)f(arullMH OTMCHC npaBWIaMH, KOTOPhlC CJJeA)'eT rrpHHHMaTh 6e30rOBOpOqnO H KOTOPhIMH ooecnexaaaerca npaBWIbHOC pa3BHTHe nrpsr. .n:J)f(e CCJIH HrpOK IK)'JIbHHYaCT, OH BCC-TaKH ~CJIaeT BHIl" 'ITO co6JIIO~aeT npanana. OH HC ocnapHBaCT HX - OH 3JIOyrrOTpc6JIHeT ,l1,OBCpHeM ztpyrnx HrpOKOB. B 3TOM CMhlCJlC CJIeA)'CT COfJIaCHTbCH C TCMH, KTO nO,ll,qCpKHBaJI, 'ITO HC'leCTHOCTb raxoro nrposa HC paspynraer nrpy, Paspymaer ee TOT, KTO OTpHuaer nrpy, KTO 06JIHqaCT aocypnnocrs, cyry6YIO rrpOll3BOJIbHOCTb ce npana», KTO OTKa3bIBaeTClI urpars, rrOTOMY 'ITO nrpa He HMeeT HHKaKOro CMbICJla. Era ~OBO,ll,bl ueonpoaepsomsr, Y nrpt-r HeT npyroro CMhICJIa,

46

47

PO)l(e KaHya. l1rpbl M }1l0AH

Bee 3TH C006paJKeHHfI, npH3BlHHble yrO'IHI1Tb npHpOP;Y nrpsr, HaHTU Hau60J1bIllMH 06ru;I1H 3HlMeHaTeJ1b BCeX nrp, O,ll,HOBpeMeHHO H rrOKa3bIBaIOT BCe HX MHOro06pa3Ue, H 3aMeTHO paCIllHpHIOT xpyr HBJIeHMH, KOTOPbIH 06bI'IHO 06CJIep;yIOT npu UX H3yqeHUH. B 'IaCTHOCTU, npIIBe,ll,eHHbIe 3aMe'IaHilfI 3aCTaBMIOT BKJIlO'IUTb B nero ,ll,Be HOBbIe 06- JIaCTU: Bo-nepBblx, TOTlJIH3aTOpbI H a3apTHbIe urpbI, BO-BTOPbIX, nonpaJKaHMe H HHTepnpeTall,UIO. H see )l(e OCTaeTCH cute uexano ,ll,pyrux nrp M pa3BJIe'IeHHH, xoropue oCTaIOTCH B CTOpoHe WIH onHCbIBalOTCH JIUlIIb npH6JIM3MTeJIbHo: HanpHMep, B03,n,yrnHbIe 3Meu, BOJI'IKll, naanu, rraCbHHCbI U KPOCCBOP,ll,bI, KapyceJIH, Ka'IeJIM 11 nexoropuc HPMlpO'IHble

l'ITpaKIJ,HOHbI. K HHM erne Hl,L\O 6y,ll,eT aeprryrsca, TIOKl :IKe nposeneuiblft asnne aHaJIH3 n03BOJIfleT onpeaenars nrpy B fJIlBHblX xeprax KaK ~eHTeJIbHOCTb:

1) CBo6o(')ft)'1O, TO ecrs ee HeJIb3H cztenars 06H3aTeJIbHOH ,ll,JllI nrpoxa 'IT06bI nrpa 1)'T:lKe He yrparnna CBOIO npnpony pl,L\OCTHO-BJleKY~ utero pasanexenna;

2) o60C06neHH)'1O, TO ecrs OrpaHU'IeHHYIO B npOCTpaHCTBe H apesreHH TO'IHbIMH H aapaaee yCTlHOBJIeHHbIMH rrpe,a,eJIlMW

3) C neonpeoeneunuu UC:XOOaM, TO ecrs HeJIb3.!I HH rrpenonpezternrrt, ee pa3BHTHe, HH npeztyranars ee peaynsrar, nOCKOJIbKy neotixo,ll,HMOCTb BbIp;yMKil OCTaBJl.!IeT HeKOTOpYIO CB060p;y ,ll,JllI UHUlI,HaTUBbI nrpoxa,

4) nenpouseooumensnyto, TO ecn. He C03,ll,aIOIIJ,yIO HH 6JIlr HH 60- raTCTB, sooome HUKaKilX HOBbIX :,meMeHTOB U, eCJIU He ~'IUTaTb nepeMeru;eH~ c06CTBeHHOCTH Me)Kp;y urpOKaMH, npHBOMIIJ,yIO K TO'IHO TlKOH :IKe ctrryaun», 'ITO 6bma B Hl'IaJIe naprua,

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ero see iKe BPM JlH MO)!(HO yCTaHOBHTb a6COJllOTHO TOqHO. Haorna, KaK B urauncax lIJIH maxnarax, npeHMYIUecrBo ziaerca npaaosi nepaoro xona, TaK KlK 3TO nepBeHCTBO n03BOAAeT 3aHHTb xrnonensre rr03Hl.I,HH na AOCxe HJlH HaB.!f3aTb npOTHBHHKy CBOIO CTpaTerHIO. Ha060pOT, npn nrpax C ('TOprOM~ BbICTyTIalOlUHH nOCJIe,ll;HHM nOJIh3yeTCH TeMH CBe,ll;eHHHMH, KOropsre AalOT esry 3aHBJIeHHJl npOTHBHMKOB. Taicse M B KpOKeTe B03MO)l(HOCTH nrpotca YMHOiKalOTCJl, eCJIH OH nrpaer nOCJIe,ll;HHM. Ilpn cnOp'I'HBHbIX copeBHOBaHHJlX aepenxo TaKHMH )!(e K03blPHMH lIJIH 06Y3aMH, BJ)K}{OCTblO KOTOPbIX nopoa HeJIb3H npeueoperars, crrysear nOJlO)!(eHHe O,nHOH H3 KOMaH,ll; JlHl.I,OM lIJIH cnanoa K COJIHl.I,y, B HanpaBJIeHHH serpa HJIH npOTHB Hero; a npn 6ere lIJIH roaxax no 3lMKHyTOM}' KOH1)'py - nOJIO)!(eHHe aa BHelIIHeH HJIH BHyTpeHHeH ,nopO)!(Ke npn BHpl)!(ax. 3TH HeH36e)I(HbIe napymenaa paBHOBeCHH YCTpaWllOTOI HJIH CM.!fr4aIOTCH

B rrpannnne, MO)!(eT nOKa3aTbCH, 'ITO iKHBOTHble He MOfyT 3HaTb ag6n'a, 4.'1'0 OHH He rrOHIIMalOT HH npeztenos, HH npaann H JIHIIIb ,ll;06HBalOTOI rpy60H n06e,ll;bl B 6ecnOma,ll;HOM 6010. KOHeqHO, anecs HeJIb3.!f npaaomrrs B npnaep HM nomamnrue CKa4KH, HH rreryunnnae 60H - B 3Tl!X BH,ll;ax 60Pb6bI caMH JlIO~H 3aCTaBJI.!flOT conepmrsars cnennansHO npeccaposanasrx iKHBOTHbIX, COrJlaCHO IIMH )!(e YCTaUOBJIeHHbIM HopMaM.11 see )!(e, eCJIH yxec'rs nexcropsre ¢aKTbI, rrpe,ll;CTaBJIHeTCH, "ITO y iKHBOTHblX ~e HMeeTCH HeKaH CKlIOHHOCTb npOTlIB060pcrBoBaTb ztpyr C npyrov, H XOTH B TaKHX copeBHOBaHIliIX, KaK H CJIe,ll;OBaJIO OiKH,ll;aTb, HeT npaann, O,ll;HaKO ecrr, nonpaayaeaaexme II cnOHTaHHO C06JIlO,naeMble YCJIOBHbJe npenerrsr. Hanpasscp, TaK 06CTOHT neno C KOTHTaMH II meHHTaMH, Me,ll;BeiKaTaMH H TIOJleHHTaMII, xoropsre C y,nOBOJIbCTBlleM ztepyrca Me)l(,lJ,y c060il., HO CTapalOTCH ,ll;pyr Apyra He pamrrs,

Erne 60JIee y6e,ll;HTeJlbHbIH npmiep - rrpansrsxa nOJIOpOrHX, KOropsre, HarH)'B rOJloBY H yrmpaacs JI6aMII, nsrrarorcs 3aCTaBHTb nporasHHKa OTCTyTIIITb. Taxoro iKe pona 'rosapamecxae nOe,ll;HHKH npaxraxy- 10'1' H noruana, Y KOTOPbIX ecTb erne H ,ll;pyrOH BlI/( 60Pb6bI: 4T06bI nosseprrrsca CHJIaMH, OHH BCTalOT Ha ,ll;bI6bl H 06pYIIIHBalOTCH ztpyr Ha ztpyra, crapaacs nOBaJIHTb npOTHBHHKa MOlUHblM TOJ]qKOM c60Ky. T04- HO TaK)Ke Ha6JIIO,ll;eHW1MH 3a¢HKcHpoBaHo MHoiKecrno nrp aa npecne,ll;OBaHHe, npoacxoztmuax no BbI30BY lIJIH rrpHrJIalIIeHHIO. 3BeplO, KOTOPOl'O ztornan npOTHBHIIK, He npHXO,ll;HTCH onacarscs OT Hero HHKaKora spena. Oc06eHHO iKe Bblpa3HTeJIeH, BepOHTHO, CJIyqaH MOJIO,nbIX ,ll;IIKHX naBJIHHOB, KOTOPbIX Ha3bIBalOT «60Hl.I,OBbIMH'" KaK mnuer Kapn Ipooc', OHH BbI6HpalOT ce6e ,lJ,lIH 60H ~60Jlee lIJIli MeHee B03BhlIlleHHoe MeCTO ooasarem.ao BJIJ)K}{oe M noxpsrroe POBHOH TpaBOH, ,ll;HaMeTpOM B non-

I GROOS K Les [eux des animaux. (Trad. franc.) Paris, 1902. P. 150-151.

52

53

POlKe Kaftva. Hl"pbl 11 J1J08H

"IaCTb llepBillI.. II. KnaCO!pHKaI\I151 mp

Y nerea, B npouecce ymep)K,ll;eHIDI JIll'.J:HOCTH Heme P;O noaaneHlUl COCTJ.l3aHHH rro npasnnax, qaCTO BCTpeqalOTCJ.I crpaausrc rrpOTHBO- 60pCTBa, Korp;a npOTHBHHKH CTapaIDTCJ.I npeB30HTH p;pyr npyra B BbIHOCJIHBOCTH. OHM, HarrpHMep, COCTfl3aIDTCJ.I, KTO p;OJIbIlIe CMOJKeT rnazters na COJIHl.I,e, TeprreTh mexo'ncy, 3a,n,epJKaTb p;blxalme, He MopraTb rnaaaxa H T. p;. HHorp;a 3ap;aqa ente cepseanee. H)'lKH0 Bb~epJKHBaTb roJlOP; ruIH 60JIb, B cpopMe nopxn, unmxos, )'KOJIOB, OJKOrOB. Bee 3TH -acxeTH'IeCKHe~ nrpsr, KaK HX Ha3bIBaIDT, CJI)'JKaT npeMBepHeM no-nacroame My CYPOBbIX HcrrbITaHHH. OHH npennemaro'r C060H )J(eCTOKOCTH H H3p;eBaTeJIbCTBa, xoropsre npnxoznrrca nepezcaaa'rs nonpocncasr npn HHHl.I,Hal.l,HH. TeM caMblM OHM OTp;aJIflIDTCJ.I OT ag6n'a, KOTOPbIH noaznree ooperaer CBOH qHCTble CPOPMbl - JIH60 B c06CTBeHHo COCTJ.l3aTeJIbHbIX nrpax M BH,ll;ax crropra, JIH60 B TaKHX nrpax H cnopTHBHbIX vnpaaorenaax, xoropsre aauenensr aa penrenae TPYP;HhlX 3ap;aq (oxo'ra, aJIbrrHHH3M, KPOCCBOpp;bI:IIIaxMaTHble 3ap;a"lH H T. p;.), xorzta correpHHKH, He CTaJIKHBaRCb Herrocpep;CTBeHHO p;pyr C p;pyrOM, rrOCTOJ.lHHO ysacrnyior B KaKOMTO rpaH,ll;H03HOM, p;rH:P¢Y3HOM xoaxypce.

C Ha,n,e)J(,ll;OH H rperrerox POKOBOro peIlIeHHJ.I. OH pHCKyeT HeKOTopOH CTaBKoH. CrrpaBe,ll;JIHBOCTb - anecs K He" TaKJKe CTpeMflTCfI, HO rrO-HHOMy, H anecs OHa TaKJKe p;OJDKHa ocymeCTBJUfThOI B H,ll;eaJIbHblX YCJIOBHsx - noanarpaxnaer nrpoxa crporo rrpOnOpL(HOHaJIbHO pMCKy. ECJIH B rrpep;hl,ll;yrn;eM cnysae co BceM Tlll,aHHeM CTapaJIHCb ypaBH1ITh IIIaHCbI KOHKypeHTOB, TO B nsmeuraexr CTOJIb JKe Tlll,aTeJIbHO CTapaIOTCJ.I ypaanoBtCHTb pIfCK If BhlfOIlY.

B rrpOTHBOrrOJIOJKHOCTb ag6n'y, alea orpnnaer TPY,[I, TepneHHe, JIOBKOCTb, KBaJIH¢HKal.l,IfID; B HeH yrrpa3,[1Hf1IDTCJ.I rrpo¢eCCHOHaJIbHOe yMeHlle, perynapnocrs, TpeHMpOBKa. B HeM: MrHOBeHHO OTMeHJ.IIQTCH nee HX pe3YJIbTaTbJ. Cy,[lb6a 3,[1eCh JIH60 sceueno BpXJK.[(e6Ha, JIH60 a6COJIIOTHO MMJIoCTrma. Y,[IaYJIHBOMY nrpoxy TaKaH nrpa rrpHHOCHT necpasaeaHO 60JIblIle, qeM MO)KeT rrpHHeCTH l.I,eJIaH JKH3Hb, rrpOBep;eHHaR B TpY)J,e, ,LlHCl.I,MrrJIHHe H yCTaJIOCTH, OHa npeacrasnaer C060H KaKyIO-TO Hamyro H BJIaCTHyIO HaCMelIlK)' nan JIHqHbIMM aacnyraxa. Or nrpoxa 3p;eCb Tpe- 6yeTcJ.I nacrpoeane )J,HaMeTpaJIbHO rrpOTHBOrrOJIOJKHoe TOMY, xaxoe OH asncaasraaer B ag6n'e. TaM OH nOJIaraJIOI TOJIbKO na ce6J.1; 3,1(eCb 'Ke OH nonaraercs na "ITO yrO,1(HO, na MeJIbqaHrnyID npasrery, na MaJIeHIIIYID BHelliHIOIO 4epTy, KOTOPyro OH ryr JKe npaaasraer aa 3HaMeHHe HJIM npe,1(OCTepe)J(eHHe; na JII06yro 3aMeqeHHyro HM oc06eHHOCTb - Ha see, KpOMe ce6R caxroro.

Topa-p;Ba MeTpa,>. TaM eJKe)J,HeBHO CXO,I:IJ.ITCR MOJIO"ble casnrsr. TIpHLLIe)J,LIIMH nepBbIM ,1(OJKH,1(aerCR npOTHBHHKa, H HaqHHaeTCfI 60Pb6a. Bopusr CO,1(poraIOTCfI H HeCKOJIbKO paa CKJImrnIOT ronouy. Ilepsa Y HHX BCTaIOT ,[IbI60M. OHH 6pocaIOTnI ,1(pyr aa npyra, BbICTaBHB srtepezr KJIIOB, 11 HaHOCRT y,1(aphI. OHu HU}(020a He npecneoyom opyz opyea U He 60plOmCfl 8He nn014aoK:U, Om8eOe1-tHOU 0Jm mypuupa. TI03TOMY, a TaKJKe B crury rrpe,ll"hl,lU'II.l;HX rrpHMepOB, MHt K:vKeTCJI npaBOMepHbIM ynO"fpe6mrTb 3)J,eCb TepM11H ag6n, H60 HCHO, "ITO B TaKHX CXBaTKax 3ap;aqeH Ka'K,ll;Oro npoTHBHHKa HBMeTCJ.I He HaHeCTH 3Ha"lHTeJIbHbIH yrn,ep6 conepnnxy, a ,1(0- Ka3aTh c06CTBeHHoe npeBOCXO,1(CTBO. 111O,[IH JIHilib -ronsute H To'-mee pa3pa6aTbIBaIDT 3TO rrpaBHJIO.

Alea. - rIo-JIaTbIHH TaK Ha3bIBaerCH nrpa B KOCTH. 3)J,eCb J.I HCrronssyro 31'0 CJIOBO ,ll;lIJI 0603HaqeHHJ.I JII06bIX arp, KOTOPble, B OTlIM4He OT ag6n'a, OCHOBaHbI na peIlIeHHH, He 3aBHCHIl~eM OT nrpoxa H HMKaK He rrO,1(KOHTPOJIbHOM eMY, TO ecrs B KOTOPbIX Tpe6yercH nepenrpars He CTOJIbKO rrpoTHBHHKa, CKO)IbKO CY,ll,b6y, To-nree CKa3aTb, CY,[lb6a e,T(rmCTBeHnO II onpezrezser rro6ep;y, II, KOfp,:l T:lKaH rro6e,ll":l CBepmaeTCJI, OHa p,;IJKe npn HaJIH"IHH COnepHHqeCTBa oanaaaer JIHlIlb TO, qTO n06e,1(HTeJIIO 60llee, qeM rr06e)K,ll;eHHOMY, 6l1arOrrpHHTCTBOBaJIa CY,[lb6a. Hanoonee qHCTble npassepsr 31'0H KaTerOpHH nrp ztaior KOCTH, PYJIeTKa, OPMHKa, 6aKKapa, JIOTepeJ.l H T. p;, B HMX He TOJIbKO He crpeMHTCJ.I YCTpaHHTb Hecnpasennaeocrs CJIyqaH, HO HMCHHO ero rrpOH3BOJI H oopasyer e,[lHHCTaensryio ,1(BHJKYIII,YIO cuny urpsr,

Alea orree-raer H BbrnBAAeT C060" MHJIOCTb CY)J,b6bI. TIpH 3TOM HrPOR BCel.l,eJIO naCCHBeH, He BbIKa3bIBaer HHKaKHX ,1(OCTOHHCTH HJIH crroC06HOCTeH, B03MO;KHOCTeH C80eH )10BKOCTH, CHJIbI, yMa. OH lIHilib )K,l:\eT

Ag6n - 3TO YTBep)l(,D,emfe lIHqHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, alea - OTpe-remre OT c06CTBeHHOM: BOJIH, xoraa qeJIOBeK OT,Il,aeTCJ.I na BOliID CYP;b- 6b!. B HeKOTopbIX nrpax, aanpnxep 8 ,1(OMHHO, TpHKTpaKC, 60JIhlllHHCTBe KaPTOqHhIX nrp, ag6n H alea CO"leraIOTCJ.I: 01' CJIY4aa 3aBHCHT -cnaxaK<DK,[(oro nrpoxa, a 3aTeM lCa)K,ll;bIH crapaercs KaK MOJKHO ny-nne, B Mepy CBOHX CMJI, HCnOJIb30BaTb TOT Ha60p xapr, KOTOPhlH B~ellMJIa eMf CJIenaa CY,1(b6a. B TaKOH nrpe, KaK 6pHWK, nrpoxa cpaKTHqeCKH 3a~HlIl,aIOT 3HaHlliI. H paCcyJK.l(eHHJ.I, n03BOMIOlll,He H3BlIe"lb MaKCMMfM BblrO,[lbi H3 rronyaennsrx KaPT; a B nrpax THrra noxepa 3Ty pOJIb MrpaIOT cxopee ncnXOJIOfH4eCKaH npOHHl.I,aTeJIbHOCTh H B~ep)KKa.

B 06lll,eM M l.I,eJIOM ,LleHbfM HrpaIOT 3,1(eCb TeM 60JIbrnyID PO)Ib, qeM 3Ha"lHTeJIbHee ,[10M cnyqaHHOCTH H, CJIep;OBaTeJIbHO, 4eM CJIa6ce 3aIII,Hmea HrpOK npHqHHa sroro HCHa: sanaua alea He B TOM, 4T06bI OT,[IaBaTb BhIHrpblill caMblM YMHbIM, a B TOM, QT06bI, HJo60pOT, ynpaaaaars BCJ.lKOe BpO)K,ll;eHHOe HJIH 6JIarOnpH06peTeHHoe HepaBeHCTBO Me)K,ll;y JIIO,Il,bMH, ,1(a6bI Bee 6bUIH a6comOTHO pasasr rtepezt CJICrrbIM Bep,1(HKTOM y,[la4H.

TIOCKOJIbKy pe3YJIbTaT ag6n'a rro He06xop;MMOCTH neonperteneHCH H napap;OKCaJIbHbIM 06pa30M C6l1IDKaerCH C 3cpcpeKTOM qHCToro CJIy'Iaa, rrOCKOJIbKy IIIaHChl conepmncoa B npronmne MaKCHMaJIbHO ypasuoaemensr, TO OTCIOp;a cnezryer, 'ITO BCJ.lKOe copeBHOBaHHC, conep)Kallwe B ce6e K3KHe-TO qepTbl H.l{ea.rrbHo-perylUlpHoir COCTJl3;ITeJIhHOCTM, MO)K.eT CTaTb noaonosr ,ll;lIJI napa, TO ecri, ,ll;JIH alea, TaKOBbI 1I0IIIap;HHbIC CKa4KH H C06aqbH 6era, MaT4H rro cpyr60JlY HJIH rro 6aCKCKOMY

54

55

PO)Ke K:IflYa. HrpbI H !IIOW1

qaCTh nepBaR. n KnaCCH<t?HKaLtHJI Hrp

MHt.ry, nerymaasre 60ll. Bsmaer ,lJ,IDKe, qTO paasiepsr (TaBOK see BpeMH MeIDIIOTOI B 'rexenae nrpsr, CJIe;:zyH rrepHIIeTHHM agon'a I.

A3apTHbIe nrpsr - 3TO qeIIOBeqeCKHe nrpsr no npeasrymecrsy. y )KHBOTHbIX 6bIBaIOT nrpsr COCTH3aTelIbHble, CllM)'lIHTHBHble H rOlIOBOKp)I)KHTelIbHble. B qaCTHOCTH, K Fpooc rrpHBO,1l,HT y6e,lJ,HTelIbHbIe npasrcpsr ,lJ,lIH K:VK,1l,OH H3 3THX xareropan. HarrpOTHB, )KllBOTHble CJIHIIIKOM nornoutensr HerrOCpe,lJ,CTBeHHOH ,lJ,aHHOCTbIO H CJIHIIIKOM saBHCHMbI OT c06CTBeHHbIX rr06)?K,1l,eHHH; OHH He MorlIH 6bl Bo06pa3HTb OTBlIeqeHH)'lO H 6eCqYBCTBeHH)'lO BlIacTH)'lO CHlIY, peIIIeHHHM KOTOPOH OHH 6bl aapanee 6e3porrOTHO noxopamrcs B nopaznce nrpsr. naCCHBHO H C03HaTelIbHO lK,11,aTb poxosoro peIIIeHHH, pHCKOBaTb npn 3TOM xaKHM-TO HMyllI,eCTBOM, 'lT06bI rrpHYMHO:lKHTb ero nponopmroaansao IIIaHcaM ero YTpaTHTb, - ,ll,lIH TaKoro HaCTpoeHHH rpeoyeror B03MO)KHOCTb rrpe,lJ,BH,11,eHHH, penpeaerrranaa H cneKyAAQHH, K KOTOPbIM crroC06HO O,lJ,HO lIHIIIb 06'beKTHBHO-paC'lerlIHBOe C03HaHHe. B03MO:lKH0, HMeHHO rrOCTOlIbKy, rrOCKOlIbKy pe6eHOK erne 61IH30K K :lKHBOTHOM)', aaaprnsre nrpsr He HMeIOT,lJ,AA Hero raxoro 3Ha'leHIDI, xaxoe rrpnoopeTaIOT ,lJ,lIH napocnoro, ,l.I,n:H Hero arpars - 3Ha'lHT ,lJ,eHCTBOBaTb. C ztpyrOll CTOPOHbl, He HMeH 3KOHOMH'leCKOll He3aBHCHMOCTH H c06CTBeHHblX nener, pe6eHOK He HaXO,lJ,HT B a3apTHbIX nrpax roro, qTO COCTaBlIHer HX rnasnyro nparnrarensayio -repry, OHH He B CHlIlX Bbl- 3BaTb B HeM 'rpcrter, KOHeqHO, ,lJ,lIH Hero POlIb MOHeT HrplIOT 61IeCTHIIIHe IIIapHKH. O,lJ,HaKO B HX ,lJ,06bIBaHHH OH 601IbIIIe nonaraerca na CBOIO 1I0BKOCTb, qeM na y,lJ,aqy.

06bIKHOBeHHOH )KH3HH COBepIIIeHHblMll CHTyaQIDIMH. 3TO TlKHe CHryllJ,HH, rrte -rerxo H 6eccrropHO rrpOHBlIHeTOI pons lIH60 aacnyrn, lIH60 CJIy'laHHOCTH. OHH TaIOKe rtpertrronararor, qTO see ,lJ,OJI:lKHbI o6n:l,lJ,aTb POBHO O,lJ,HHaKOBbIMH B03MO:lKHOCTHMH ,lJ,OKa3lTb CBOIO ,lJ,061IeCTb HlIH, na ztpyrort IIIKane, POBHO O,lJ,HHlKOBbIMH IIIaHClMH rronyqHTb MHJIOCTb. 11 B TOM H B npyros« CJIy'lae qeIIOBeK YCKOlIb3aer OT MHpa, geIIaH em ,lJ,pyHIM. Ho OT Hero MO:lKHO YCKOJIb3Hyrb H ,lJ,eIIaH ,lJ,pyrHM cetin. 3T0M)' cooTBerCTBYeT mimicry.

•••

Mimicry. - JII06aH arpa rrpezmonaraer BpeMeHHoe rrpHIDITHe ecJIH He HJIJII03HH (c06CTBeHHO, 3T0 CJIOBO oaaasaer He "ITO HHoe, KaK BCTyIIJIeHHe B Hrpy - in -lusio), TO XOTH 6bI aexoero aasnoryroro, YCJIOBnoro H B HeKOTopbIX OTHOIIIeHIDIX CPHKTHBHOro MHpKa. l1rpa MO)KeT 3aKJIIOqaTbOl He B pa3BepTbIBaHHH KaKOH-TO )1,eHTClIbHOCTH HJIH rrpeTepneBaHHH aexoen CY,lJ,b6b1 B Bo06p:DKaeMOH cpeae, a B TOM, "{T06bl caMOM)' CTaTb HJIJII030PHblM nepCOH:DKeM H BeCTH ce6H COQTBerCTBeHHblM 06pa30M. 3,lJ,eCb rrepen HaMH - lJ,ClIhlH PH,1l; paanooopasmax HBlIeHHH, HMelOllI,HX ofinryro OCHOBY: cy6'beKT arpsi AYMaer, y6e:JK).J.aer caxr ce6H HJIH ztpyrax, "ITO OH KTO-TO ,lJ,pyrotl:. OH na BpeMH 3a6bIBaer, CKPbIBaer, orepacsrsaer CBOIO c06CTBeHH)'lO lIH'lHOCTb H rrpHTBOpHO npnooperaer qy:JKyIO. 3TH HBJIeHIDI H peIIIHJI 0603HaqaTb TepMllHOM mimicry, 0603HaqaIOIII;llM no-aarnaacsn MHMerH3M, ocorieuno MHMHKpHIO Y nacesoxsrx, ,lJ,a6bI rrO,lJ,"IepKHYTb CPYHAlMeHTanbHO-CTHXHHHbIH, ezraa JIH He OpraHH'leCKHH xapaicrep rr06yJK,1l,eHIDI, xoropoe Bbl3bIsaer HX K :lKH3HH.

no cplBHeHHIO C 'lClIOBeqeCKHM MHpOM MHp HaceKOMbIX rrpeztcraer KaK HaH60JIee pe3KO OTlIHqalOllI,HHOI IIYTb, KaKOll TOlIbKO JlBJIeH B npnpone. 3TOT MHp BO scea rrpOTHBOrrOJIO)KeH MHPY 1IIOAeH, HO OH (TOJIb )Ke neransno paspaeoran, CJIO)KeH H Y,lJ,HBHTeJIeH. n03TOM)' MHe K<DKeTOI OnpaB,lJ,aHHblM paCCMa'I'pHBaTb sztecs cpeHOMeHbI MHMHKpHH, HaH601Iee nopaarrrernsnsre npmsepsr KOroPbIX rrpencraanensr aacexoMblMll. ,lJ,eikTBHTeJIbHO, IIOBe,lJ,eHHIO xenoaena - CBo60,lJ,HOM)', nepeMeHqHBOM)', rrpOH3BOJIbHOM)', HeCOBeprneHHOM)', a rnaanoe, HalJ,eJIeHHOM)' Ha KaKOe-TO BHeIIIHee ,lJ,OCTH:lKeHHe - y :lKHBOTHblX H oc06eHHO y HaceKOMbIX cooraercrayer oprana-recsoe, HerrO,lJ,BH:lKHOe H a6COlIIOTHoe H3MeHeHHe, npncymee ,lJ,lHHOMY BHAY n COBeprneHHO TO"lHO rrOBTOpaesroe 6e3 KOHlJ,a MHlIJIHap,lJ,aMH ocooen H3 rrOKOlIeHHH B rrOKOlIeHHe: narrpnsrep, BMeCTO KJIlCCOBOH 60Pb6hl - KaCTbI Y M)'PlBbeB HJIH TepMHTOB, BMeCTO HCTOpHH :lKHBOrrHcH - pacxpacica KPbIJIbeB Y 6a60qeK. ECJIH rrpHIDITb 3Ty rHrrOTe3Y (H BrrOJIHe OT,lJ,aIO ce6e or-rer B ee pHCKOBaHHOCTH), TO He06'bHCHHMaH MHMHKPlliJ nacexosrsrx BHe3arrHO npencraer He06blqaHHO TOqHblM COOTBeTCTBHeM t.renOBeqeCKOH CTplCTH npeooPa:JKaTbCH, nepeoaesarsca, HOCHTb lIH'UiHY, uepame ttb10-mo pons: TOlIbKO B ,lJ,aHHOM cnyqae lIHlJHHa HJIH MaCKap:l,lJ,HhlH KOCTIOM HBlUlIOTCH He HCKyCCTBeHHO H3rOTOBlUleMOH npHHa,lJ,lIC)KHOCTbIO, a t.raCThIO TeJIa. 3aTO

Agcn H alea BbIp<DKaIOT C06011 rrpOTHBOnOJIO:lKHble H B KaKOM-TO CMbICJIe CHMMC'I'pH'lHble HaCTpoeHIDI, HO 06a OHH nO,lJ,t.rHHeHbI O,lJ,HOMY H TOMY)Ke 3aKOHY - HCKyCCTBeHHOMY C03,lJ,aHHIO rrpe,lJ,IIOCbIJIOK,lJ,lIH 'lHCTOro plBeHCTBa MelK,11,Y HrpOKaMH, B KOTOPOM OTKa3bIBaeT JIIO,lJ,JIM peansaocrs, 1160 B :lKH3HH HH'ITO He 6b1BaeT HCHO, KpOMe Toro, qTO ace B Hell H3HalJaJIbHO CMyrHO, KaK IIIaHCbI, TaK H aacnyra, l1rpa, ag6n ruTH alea, - 3TO, crane 6blTb, nonsrrxa 3aMeHHTb HOpMalIbH)'lO rryranmry

) Hanpnvep, TaK 06croHT AeJIO na Baneapcxnx ocrposax npa nrpe B 6aCKCKHH MJlL(, B KOJI)'M6ml J1 na AHTHlIbCKHx ocrposax npn nerymansrx 6oJlx. CaMO CO- 60H pa3)'MeeTCJI, L(TO 3AeCb He caenyer yqHTblBaTb Te AeH~ble npassr, KOTOpble MOIyr nOJIY'IaTb )KOKeH HlIH BJla,o;eJIbLl,b1 nomanert, roHllI,HKH, 6oKcepbl, ¢yr- 60JIHCTbI HlIH sooome KaKHe yrOIlHO aTJleTbl. CKOJIb 6b1 3HaL(HTeJIbHbI Hll MornH 6bITb 3TH npaasr, OHJ1 He nonnanaror nOA xareropmo alea I1MM soaaarpaxnaerOI nooena B »eaPKOH 6opb6e. Taxoe aoaaarpaxaenne, 06YCJIOBJIeHHoe aacnyraMH, He HMeeT HH'Jero 06ll1,ero C MruIOCTblO CYAb6bI, C IDIOilaMJ1 YilaL(J1, xoropue OCTaKYfCJI HeHa,o;~O-MOHonOJlbHblM IlOCTOSIHJ1eM HrpoKOB, 3aKJIIO'JaIOllI,Hx napn, 3T0 ll<OKe HX rtpSIMaSI npOTHBOnOJlOJKHOCTb.

56

57

Poxcc KaBya. Hrphl l1. m04l1.

l.JaCTb lleps<Ui. II. Knaccm\mKal\lliI lirp

B 060HX CJIy'!a5IX OH11 OI)')KaT O~HOH 11 TOH iKe UeJI11 - H3MCH5ITb BHCUIHOCTb caoero HOC11TeJI5lll nyrars ~pyr11xl

11 I)'M nanonooae MOTopa. O,ll,HaKO nOBe~eH11C, onuceraaesroe nOH51THeM mimicry, B 3Ha'f11TeJIbHOH crenean nepexoznrr H3 ,lI,eTCTBa 11 80 B3pOCJIylO 1KH3Hh. OHO noxpsreaer C060H see Te pa3BJIe'feHlUI, npn KOTOPbIX H)')KHO HOCI1Tb MacKy llJI11 nepeonesa'rsca 11 xoropue 3aIOUO'faJOTCH 11MeHHO B TOM cpaKTe, 'fTO RrpaJOlQH.H 3aM3CKHpOBaH WIn rrepeoner, H B TOM, 'fTO H3 sroro CJIemeT. HaKOHCU, O'feBH,lI,HO, 'fTO B 'ry iKe rpynny no npasy BXO,ll,5lT TCaTpaJIbHOe npeacraaneaae H HCrrOJIHCHHC ,lI,paMaTHYCCKHX pOJIeH.

Y,lI,OBOJIbCfBHe 3,l1,CCb - B TOM, 'fT06bl 6bITb ,lI,pyrHM HJIH rrpHH5ITbIM aa ztpyroro. Ho, nOCKOJIbKy pe-n, H)J.eT 06 nrpe, maBHa5I saaaxa 3,l1,eCb HC B TOM, 'fT06bI 06MaHYTb 3pHTeJIH. Pe6CHOK, HrpaJOIl\HH B rrOC3,l1" MO)KeT YKJIOHHTbCH OT rrOUeJIyH csoero orua CO CJIOBaMH -Ilaposoa He ueJIYIOT~, HO OH see :JKe He nsrraerca y6e~HTb orua, 'fTO OH HaCTOHIl\HH napOB03. Ha xapnaeane 'feJIOBeK B MaCKC He rrsrraercs KorO-JIH60 y6e,ll,HTh, 'fTO on HacrOHlQHH MapKH3, HaCTOHIl\HH TOPCa,lI,Op, HaCTOHlQHH KpaCHOK01KHH, - OIl crapaercs aarryrars ztpyrnx H BOCrrOJIb30BaTbCH OKp)')KaJOIlIC.H BOJIbHOCTblO, KOTOPa5J. caMa BblTCKaeT H3 .roro, LITO MaCKa CKpbIBaeT COUHaJIbH)'lO pOJIb H BbICB0601K,ll,acr rrO,lVlHHH)'IO JIH'fHOCTb. Taioice II axTep He nsrraercs y6C)lllTb 3pHTeJIeH, 'fTO OH «BrrpaBm') KOpOJIb Jhrp llJIH KapJI n5lTbIH. ,I1)rn nacromnero 06MaHa OKp)liKalOrn;llX rrepCO,ll,eBaIOTC5I IIIrrHOH lUIH 6emcu - rrOTOMY "ITO OH11 He 11rpaIOT.

Y rr03BOHO'fHbIX TCH,lI,CnUHH K CHMYJI5IU11ll rrpOHBJIHeTCH npeacne scero B 'fHCTO cpH3H'feCKO.H, rrO'fTR HCrrpCO!lOJIHMOH 3apa3HTeJIbHOCTH, KaK 31'0 6bIBacr C 3eBaHlleM, 6crOM, rrpllxpaMbIBaHHeM, YJIbI6KOH II BO- 06Il\e ~BJ1)I(CHlleM. ry~COH nonaran, 'fTO ,ncreHbllli iKilBOTHoro caztortpoll3BOJIbHO (·CTpeMllTCH sa JIJ06bIM y~aJlHJOIl\llMCH H yoeraer OT moooro npll6J1ll:JKalOrn;erOCH 06'bcKTa,). Hrnenox OTCKaKJIBacr H ortieraer ~J)KC 'rorna, xorna K HeMY nosopa-raeaerca H HarrpaBJIHeTC5I MaTb, ~ OH He Y3- naer ee, 3aTO cnezryer 3a 'feJIOBeKOM, c06aKOH llJlll J10IIIa,lI,blO, KOI'Aa BHART, 'fTO OHH yxonar npo-rs. 3apa3llTeJIbHOCTb 11 rtonpaxcnme - aTO erne He HaCTOHIlI,aH CllMyJIHUlliI, HO OHll AeJIaJOT ee B03M01KHOH II nopo- 1K,lI,alOT anero MllMeTll3Ma, BKyC K HCMY. Y TITHU sra CKJlOHHOCTb BC,lI,eT K6pa'lHbIM HrpaM - rOPAeJIHBO-UepeMOHHaJlbHOH CaMO,lJ,CMOHCTpaUMH, KOTOPO.H anorna CaMLl,bI, a msorna CaMKJI npenaiorcs C cyry6blM TmaHHCM M C OqeBH,ll;HblM y.n;OBOJlbCTBHCM. ~TO)1(e KaCaeTCH OcrpOHOCblX Kpa60B, xoropsre sonpyacaror ce6e aa nanunpt, BCHKYlO BO,ll,OPOCJIb llJI11 nonnna, KaKHC MOryr YXBaTHTb, TO 'feM 6bl Hll 06'bHCH5ITh 3TY nx cnocobnocrs K MaCKapa,ll,y, caM ¢aKT ee He OCTaBJIHeT COMHeHHH.

HTaK, MllM11Ka 11 TpaBeCTllH CYTb nse B3aHMO,ll,OTIOJlHHIOIl\lle .n;BH1KflQlle CWIbl sroro KJIaCca nrp. Pe6eHOK ll3Ha'faJIbHO nonpaxaer B3POCJIbIM. Orroro TaKJIM ycnexosr rr0J1b3YlOTCH nrpytue-nrsre Ha60Pbl rrpHHa,lVre)K}IOCTeH, BOCC03,L1alOIlI,HX B MllHllaTJOpe HHCTpYMeHTbI, npacrrOC06JIeHWI, opysore, MalllHHbI, KOTOpbIMM rrOJlb3YlOTCH B3pOCJIble. ,lI.eBO'fKa nrpaer B MaMY, B xyxapxy, B npa-ncy, B I'JIa,lI,HlIbIIl,Hll,y; MaJlb'fllK rrpHTBOpHeTCH COJI,ll,aTOM, srymxerepox, nOJlHll,eHCKJIM, IIllpaTOM, KOB- 60eM, MapCHaHllHOM 11 T. ~.2 OH ll306p3)KaeT CaMOJleT, paCCTaBJIIDI PYKH

I TIPJilMCPhl ycrpairraioutero MJilMeTI13Ma JilJIJiI MaCKJilPYIOll\eH Mop<po.norHl1 y HaCCKOMblX (noaa rrpnspaxa y 6oroMOfloB, TpaHC y 6a60l.[CK Smerinthus ocellata) MO)KHO HaHTII B Moen crarse *Ml1MHKpJill1l1JlCreH,llapmlJt ncnxacreaan- (CAILLOIS R. Le Mythe C[ l'Homme, Paris, 1938. P. 10 I -t 43) (KAI1 YAP. Mmp a xenoseic Y.e.rrOBCK JiI caxpansnoe, M.: oni, 2003. c. 83-104. - Ilpuue« nep.]. K COJKallCHJiIIO, B }'Ka3aHHOn crarse rtpooneMa paccsrarpasaercs B TaKOn nepcneicraae, KOTOpaH HblHC npencrasnserca MHC B BbICmei1 crerrena npoassonsnon. B caMOM .lIeJIC, -rencps 11 nOflJI".1I0, 1.[1D MHMHKpl1li - YI'O HC KaKoe-1D napymeaae npocrpancmeaaoro nocnpnaraa JiI rennenuaa K B03Bpa1)'

B COcrO:llHHC HC0.llYillCRJJCHHOn MarepHl1, a 3KBHBarrCH[, y HaCCKOMblX CJilMYJUlTIIBHblX nrp l.[eJIOBCKa. TCM He MCIICC rtpmrepsr coxpanmor BCIO CBOIO 3Ha'-lHMOCTb. HCKOTOPbIC H3 HI1X BocnpoH3BOlVITClI B.llOKyMClfraIJ.HH, B KOHl~C aacroamea KHHfH, c. 186-188.

2 KaK 6wIO cnpaaeWIHBo nO,!l;MC'ICHO, HrpymC'IHblC Ha60PbI wm .lICBO'ICK npertuaanaxema .lVI:II HMHTaU;J1H 6Jl113KHX, PCJJIbHO-;:lOMaIllHHX Bl1.L\OB .lIe:llTCJIbHOCrH, :I .lVIH MJJIbl.[J1KOIl - .lVI:II nO.1lpaJK:lHIDI .lICJlTeJlbHOITJiI .lIaJlCKOit, pOM:llmqCCKOn, HC.lIOcryT!HOH ill!}1 aoooute HCPC3JlhHon.

. . BKJllOqaH B CC6H .n;eB:TeJIbHOCI'b, Bo06p3)KeHHe, HHTcprrpCTaLlJf!O, rrurrucry OKa3bIBaerCH no-rm JlHllIeHHOH CBH3H C alea, 3aCTaBJIHlOIIl,eH nrpoxa rpenerars B Hcrro.nBH1K:HOM 01KH)J,aHllH, saro He llCKJIJO'feHO, l.JT0 ona MO)KeT CO'feTaTbCH C agon'osr . .H llMeJO B BH.n;y He KOHKypCbl sracsapaaaerx KOCI'IOMOH, rne aTO co-reraune HOCHT cyrytio BHCllIHHH xapaxrep, Me;K,Uy ~BfMH BH)J.aMH nrp JleI'KO 06Hapf1KHTb H 60Jlee my60KYlO 6J1ll30CTb . .ll,.Jrn BCCX 'rex, KTO He yYaCTByeT B ag6n'e, OH HBJIHeT C060H 3peJIHIlI,e. Ilpaana, 3TO TaKOC spenmne, xoropoe UeHHO llMeHHO TCM, 'fTO HCKJIJO'faer CHMyJIHUMIO. TeM He »renee 60JIblllHe cnoprasnsre copeBHOBaHHH npencraannJOT C060H y.n;06Hble rrOBO,lJ,bI.n;JIH mimicry, nOCKOJIbKy CHMYJIHUHH B HHX nepexO,LIHT OT aKTepOB K 3PHTeJ1HM: MHMeCllCOM 3aH11MaIOTCH He aTJIeTbl a rry6JIIlIQ. Y)f(e O.n;HO TOJIbKO caMOOTO)K,ll,eCTBJleHHe co crrOpYCMeHOM 06~ pasyer mimicry, P01l.CfBeHHyIO TOH, KOTOPaH 3acraBJIHeT 'fHTaTeJIH Y3HaBaTh Cc6H B repoe poaana, a KJIH03PHTeJIH ~ B repoe ¢lUIbMa. Y.T06bI y6e,lI,HTbC5I B aTOM, ~OCTaT04HO BCrrOMHllTb IIOJIH)'IO CHMMeTpmo ¢YHK1~HH qCMrrHoHa H KHH03Be3~bI, 1-Ia qeM y MeH51 CIlI,C 6YAeT cnyqaH OCTaHOBHTbCH 60J1ee nonpoono. Y.eMrrI10HbI, TPHfM¢aTOpbl agon'a, - ::ITO 3Be3,l1,bl crrOpT11BHbIX apemnn, 11 Ha060pOT, KJIH03Be3,l1,bI HBJUIIOTCH rr06e.n;HTeJ1HMll B KaKOM-TO ,lI,ll¢l¢Y3HOM copeBHOBaHHH, B 60Pb6e aa 6J1aroCKJlOHHOCTb rry6JlHKH. 11 re H .n;pyrHe nOJI}"laIOT MHO)KCcrnO rrHceM, ~alOT HHTepBblO ~HO ,lI,OMOI'aIOIlI,eHCH HX npecce II asrorpaqisr CBOllM rrO'lHTaTeJIHM.

BeJIOroHKH, copeBHOHaHHH rro 60KCY HJIH 60pb6e, M3T'l11 rro ¢yr_ 60ny, TeHIIHCY Will rrOJIO cpaKTH"IeCKJI caMH npencraanaror C060H ape-

58

59

POJKe KaHya. I1rpbl H 1I108H

Ilinx, - nOCJIe,n.HMH: pa3PM BKJIIO'laer B cc651 TaKHC nrpsr, KOTOpsre OCHOBaHhI aa crpeMJIeHIIII K rOlIOBOKppKeHIIIO II 3aKlIIO'laIOTC5I B TOM, 'ITO nrpox na M11r aapyiuaer crariansnocrs csoero nocnpusrraa 11 npHBO,o;HT CBOe C03HaHHe B cocroxnae KaKOH-TO CJla,o;OCTIIOH rraHHKH. Bo scex TaKHX CJIy'la51X 'leROBeK crapaerca ,Il,OCHI:'!b csoero pona cnasMa, snacrs B YpaHC lfJUf B COCT05lHllC Of'JIyureHHOCTH, KOTOphlM pe3KO H BJJaCTHO OTMeH51eTOI saeunras p,eHCTBHTeJIbHocrb.

fOJIOBOKp)?KHTeJIbHoe CMJlTeH11e qysCTB car-to no ce6e ,o;OBOlIbHO 'laCTO 51BmIeTOI ll,eJIbIO, K KOTOPOH CTPCMHTCH, - Ha30BY B Ka'leC1'Be rrpnMepa lIHIIIb ynpaaoteuaa BepT5IIIl,HXCH nepnamea 11 MeKCHKaHCKHX voladores'. H cneunansno Bbl6paJI HX, TaK KaK nepssre H3 H11X rro rrpHMeH51eMoiI TexH11Ke c6mflIClIOTcH C HeKoTopbIMH p,eTCKHMH nrpassn, a B1'Opsre cxopee HanOM11HaIOT ClIO)J(Hb]C nosrepa aKpo6a1'HKH HlIH B03p,y!IlHOM 3KBwm6pHCTHKH; TeM caMbIM OHH CMhIKaI01'C5I C ,Il,ByMH npOTHBOrrOJIO)KHhIMll nOJIIOCaMH rOJIOBOKpYliG1TelIhHblx nrp, ,ll,epB11wH

,Il,0611BaIOTC5I 3Kcra3J, see 6bICTpec H 6bICYpee spauiascs na MeCfe non yqaIIl,aIOIIl,HHOI 6apa6aHIlbII1: 60H. Ilanmca II rHTIH03 C03HamUl p,OCTMraIOTC5I 61Iarop,ap51 rrapOKCH3MY aencrosoro spamenas - KOJIJIeKI'I1BHOrO H 3apa3HTeJIbHOr01. A s MeKcHKe voladores - HH,Il,eilll,hI-yacreKH HJIll TOTOHaKH - 3a6HpaIOTol na sepunnry p,Ba,o;u,aTH-YpllAll,aTHMeYpOBOro urecra. K 3arr5lC'I'bHM OHH rrpHKpCITJIHIOT llCKycCTBeHHble KpbUlbH, H30- 6paJKaH OplIOB. OHH npHB5I3blBaI01'cH BCpeBKOti: sa noac K sepxynrxe uiecra, I10TOM 3TY BCpCBKY nporrycxaior ce6e MOK,lzy naJIbll,aMII nor, TaK LJT06bI MO)KHO 6bmo crrvcrcrrscs Ha3a;I, COJIOBOH BH1l3, pacCTaBIIB p}'RH. npCJK)J.c 'lCM ,Il,OC1'HrHYTb 3CMlIH, OHH ycnesaior HeCKOJIbKO paa - rpanazmars, KaK vrsepxnan Topxaexsazta, - cnenars rrOlIHbIH ooopor 110 BCC 601Ice WHPOKOH cnapann. 3TY IICPCMOIl11IO, KOTOpa51 BKJIIO'laeT B ce- 6H HCCKOlIbKO TaKHX rrolICTOB II IU'lHHae1'C5I B nOJI,Zl,eHb, 06bl'lHO pacCMaTpHBaI01' KaK TaHeII B xecn, aaxona cOlIHIIa, corrpoeoactaeaoro IITHIIaMH - 06mKecTBlICHHb]MH MepTBeIIaMH. MeKCHKaHCKHe BJIaCTH HbIH)')KJIeuhI 6bUIH aanpenrn- 31'0 onacnoe ynpaxnerore H3-3a 'laCTO rrpOHcxop,HBIIIHX nCC'laCTBb]X crrysaes-',

BrrpO"ICM, HeT ocooon H)OK.l~hI np11HO~HTb CTOlIb pemcae H nnesrarrrmounre npmrepsi. KaJK,lJ,OMY pe6eHKY II3BCCTHO, 'ITO 6bICTpOe KppKeHlle Ha Mecre rr03BOJIJleT npasecrn ce651 B COcrOHHHC uerrrporexororo yCKOpCHll5I, xorna TClIO J1HUlb C TPYflOM oeperaer paBHOBeCHe, a BOCnpHHT11e - "IeTKOCTh. HCT COMHeHHH, 'ITO peoeaoxnexaer 3'1'0 B nopaznce nrPb] H 'ITO eMY 31'0 HpaBHTCH. TaKOBJ nrpa B "BOJIqOK~, xorna H)?KHO KaK MOWIO 6bICYpce apatna'rsca aa O,lJ,Hon 05lTKe. CxO,ll,HbIM 06pa30M npa raHTRHCKOl1 nrpe H ('30JI0TOH MaHC'> zmoe nerea Aep:llClTOl aa P)'KH, Bb]THHys HX H eros lIHIIOM p,pyr K ztpyry, Koprryc Y HllX HanpIDKeH H OTKHHyT nasan a HorH C,Il,BIIHfI'bl H cocrasneasr BMCCI'C C HOraMH napraepa, oaa BpaIll,aIOTCH, CKOJIbKO XBaTaeT l1.yxy, II rrOTOM, ocranoaaamacs, C YI1.0BOJIbCTBllCM lIIaTaIOTCH 01' rOlIOBOKPpKCHlliI. CXOWfI>le onryuieana B03HHICaIOT 0'1' rponxoro KpHKa, 0'1' 6blcrpOro crrycxa no eKlIORy, OT aMepHKaHCKHX ropox, OT KapYCeJIeH 11 Ka4ClIeH, eClIH OHU KpYTHTOI p,OCTaTO'lHO 6blcrpO H B31IeTaIOT p,OCTaTO"IHO BblCOKO.

TOT :lKC 3CPCPCKT Bb]3blBaIDT II pa31IH'lHble qIH3H'leCKHe B03p,eHCTHUJI: pacxasnsaaae, rrazterrrre HJlH pesxoe rrepesrenreaae B rrpocrpancrse, crpesorrensaoe eparueune, CKOJIhlKeHHe, CKOPOCTHaJI e311.J, YCKopeHHe nocryttarensnoro I1.BIDKeHllil HJIll )ICe ero KOM611Ha~lliI C p,BH)lCeHHeM spautarensauu. Ilapannern.no c 3THM 6bIBaer H rOlIOBO-

nama, rne CCI'b 11 KOCT1OMbl, H TOp:lKeCTBCHHoe orxpsrrae, csoero pozia peJIHm03Ha5I CJIy:lK6a, H TO'lHO onpenenenuoe npananaem pa3BHTHc. Op,HHM CJIOBOM, 3TO nacrosmae p,paMbI, KOTOpb]e CBOHMH nepurreruaMH p,CP)lClT rry6lIHKy B Hanp)1:lKeHIIH H npHBO,ll,HT K pa3B5I3Ke, BbI3hIBaIOIII,eH y Op,HHX BOCTOpr, a y npyrax pa30'lapOB;U-IHe. 110 csoea npHpOI1.C TaKHe 3pCJIHma 0CI':lI0T0I agon'ox, HO C BHCWHHMll npH3HaKaMH npcnCTaBJJeHll5I. Ilpacyrcreyionme Ha HHX He 1'OlIbKO rrO/l:6a,o;pHBaIOT KpHKaMH II )lCeCT:lMIl aTJIeTOB, aa KOTOPhlX 60JIeIOT, a na nrmonpoxe - AaJKe nornanea, Hx CJIOBHO sapaacaer KaKoe-TO cp113H'leCKOe B036yJK,iJ.eHHe, 3aCTaBJJ5lIO~ee KaK 6b1 nonpaacars rrOBC,Il,eHHIO 1I1O,Il,ciI H nouraaea, rrOMOran HM, nop,06HO TOM)'" KaK nrpox B Ke]'JlH HCBOlIbHO HaKlIOH51eTC)1 B TY CTOPOHy, Kyp,a OH XOTeJ1 6bI aarrpamrn, TIDKClIblH. wap. B 3TOH. CHTYaIIIIH rrOMHMO spenama cpena rry61IHKII Ha'lHHaeTCH erne 11 COCTH3aHHe B mimicry, p;y6JIllpyIOIIl,ee co6otJ: HaCToHlI~11tJ: ag6n na urpoaox none 11J1H na 6eroBOH nopoaoce,

Mimicry HBJUleT see xapaxrepasre rrpH3HaKH nrpsr, KpoMe Op,HOro. B HeM ecrs H csoeona, H YCJIOBHOCTb, H npnocranosxa PCaJIbHOtJ: )l(]13HH, II 06ocOMeHHOCI'b B npocrpancree 11 BpeMcHH. Ozraaxo B HeH HeRb35I xoncra'rapoaars nOCTOHHHoro nonxaneana HMrrepaTHBHbIM npasanasc KaK MhI Bll,Il,eRH, BMecro Hero anecs nponcxomrr COKpbITHe peaJIbHOCTH II CHM)'"JUlll,IDl KaKOl1-TO BTOPW'IHOtJ: peansuocrn. Mimicry - 3TO aerrpecranaaa Bbl,o;YMKa. B TaKoH nrpe ecrs ep,HHCTBCHHoe npasano: AJI5I axrepa - osaponsrna'n, 3pHTCJl5I, 'lT06bI HH OP,HOH OWH6KOI1. He aacramrrs ero OTBcprHYTb HlIlII0311IO, a AJI5I 3pHTeJlH - nonnasarsca HJIJII03HII, He OTBepraJI C XOP,Y p,CKopaIIHII, MaCKII, HCKyCCTBeHasre npnexu, B xcropsie eMY npennararor Ha BPCM5I noeepars KaK B HCKyIO peansnocrs, 60JIee peanstryro, "'eM HaCTOHIIl,aJI.

1 Jleryms (ucn.). - npUMe'l. nep.

1 D EPONT 0., COPP{lLANI X. Les confreries religieuses musuimanes. Alger, 1887. P 156-159,329-339.

2 CM. ero ortucanae 11 ¢OTorpa¢HH B CTaTbHX: LARSEN H. Notes on the volador and its associated ceremonies and superstitions II Ethnos, Vol II NQ 4.)u1y 1937; STRESSER-P£AN G. Les origines du volador et du cornelagatoazte II Acres du XXVIUC Congres International des Americantstes. Paris, 1947. P 327-334. 41parMeHT OIlHcaHIDI 113 IlTOPOH CTaThI1 H npusoacy B .llOK}'MeIITa.QHH (c. 188-189).

60

61

POlKe Kat\ya, I1rpul H JIIOI\H

Kpy>Kelme HpaBCTBeHHoro nopazuca, BHC3arrHO 3aXBaTbIBaIOIu;ee HH)],I1- BHAa ysnesenne, Taxoe rOJIOBOKpy>KCHHe JIerKO CO'ieTaeTC5I C 06bNHO rro)],aBJ15IeMbIM BJIe'leHHCM K 6eC'iI1HCTBY 11 paapyuremno. B HeM npoaaJIJ.!IOTC5I rpytiue, PC3KHC ¢OpMbJ lIl1'iHOCTHoro caMoyrBep)K)J.CHWL Y ztcTeH ero OTMe'laIOT, B 'iaCTHOCTH, rrpH nrpax B -ropa-ryio pyxy-, B -roJIy6b JIeTHn 11 B xexapny, xoraa OHH BHC3arrHO rrpCBpaIIl,aIOTC5I npOCTO B K)"lY-MaJIy. Y B3POCJIbIX OC06CHHO rrOKa3aTCJ1hHbIM B 3TOH 06J1aCTH 51BJIJ.!eTC5I crpannoe y,ll,OBOJ1bCTBHe, xoropoe ,lI,OCTaBJIJIeT 11M, KaK MaJ1eHbKHM, c6HBaHHC TPOCTbIO BbICOKHX QBeTOB na JIYIY, l1JIH copacersaHHe J1aBHHOH cnera C KpbIIIIl1, HJIH xce rrb5lH5IIII;He OIIl,yw;eHH5I 01' HpMapO'iHbIX pa3BJ1e'ieHI1H, nanpasrcp pa36HBaTb B)]'pe6e3I'11 -repenxa 01' HerO,ll,HOH nOCY)],bI.

LJ:T06bI 0603Ha'illTb BceB03MO)KHble pa3HOBHAHOCTH aroro f10Cropra, KOTOPbIH O)],HOBpeMeHHO npC)],CTaBJIJ.!eT C060H 11 paCCTpOHCTBO - nopoa OpraHH'iCCKOC, nopon rrCHXI1'iCCKOC, ---' 51 npC)J,J1araIO TepMHH ilinx, no-rpeaecxn (·BO,ll,0BOPOT,>, OT tcoroporo B 3TOM 513bIKe KaK paa H npoucxornrr CJ10BO «roJ10BOKPy>KCHHC'> (ilingos).

,[LaHHoe y,ll,OBOJ1bCTBHe TaK)Ke He COCTaBJIJ.!eT HCKJ1IO'iHTeJJbHOH rrpI1Ha)J,J1C)KHOCTJ1 '1eJIOBeKa, OIC)],YeT HanOMHI1Tb eepmflttKJi y HeKOTOpsrx MJ1eKOnHTaIOIIl,HX, OC06CHHO y oseu, XOTH 3TO 11 rraT0J10rH'ieCKOe npOHBJ1eHHe, HO OHO CJIllIIIKOM rrOKa3aTeJ1bHO, '1T06bI 0 HeM yMaJNHBaTb. K TOMY)Ke HeT He)],OCTaTKa H B zipyrnx npuwepax, mpOBOH xapaxTCp KOTOPbIX HC OCTaBJ151er COMHeHllH. C06aKa )],0 ynaay KpyrllTCJ.[ aa MeCTe, JlOBH CBOH XBOCT. I1HOH paa eIO OBJ1a,l1,eBaeT J1HXopa)],O'lHa51 crpacri, K 6ery, rrpeKpaw;aIOIII;a5IOI JIHIIIb C nOJIHbIM aarrvpenaesi. AHTHnon, ra3CJ1eH, P;llKHX JIOIIIa,lI,eH qaCTO OXBaTbIBaeT rtamnca, He COOTIlC'I'CTByrDIIl,aH HHKaKOH peaJ1bHOH l1JIll ,lI,J)KC KJ)K)'IIl,eHC5I orraCHOCTH H CKOpCC BblpJ)KaIOIll,aJI. c060n 3¢cpeKT Hcnpeo)],oJlI1Moli 3apa311TeJIbHOCTll 11 roTOBHOCTI1 Tyr)KC cli nOMaTbOJ1. BO)J,J.!HbIC KPbICbI pa3BJICKaIOTC5I K)'BbIpKaHl1eM, KaK 6Y,ll,TO I1X HCCeT BO,ll,HOC 're-remre. Eme 60lICC rrpl1MC'iaTeJJeH CJI)"iali C cepnasra. ComaCHO KapJIY fpooey, 3TH )KllBOTHble B36npaIOTCH na CHC)KHbIC ¢IlPHbI H no osepenn, pa36e)KaBIIIHCb, CKOJlb3J.!T BHH3 no xpyrosry CKJ10HY, CJIC,Wl )]'pyr aa ztpyrox.

06e3bJIHa - rH660H BbI6Hpaer ce6e ynpyryro seney H crnoaer ee )],0 rex rrop, IlOKa OHa He paCrrpHMI1TC5I H HC 3a6po01T 06e3bHH)' B B03,l1,)'X, Koe-xax 3aQerrHBIlIHCb sa qTO-HH6Y,ll,b, OHa BHOBb H BHOBb nOBTOp5leT 31'0 6eCnOJIC3HOC ynpaaorenae, 06bHCHHMOC O,ll,HOH J111IIIb CBOCH TaHHOH npI1T5IraTeJ1bHOCTbIO, OC06CHHbIMH JII0611TeJ1HMn rOJIOBOKPy>Kl1- TCJIbHblX nrp 51BJ1HIOTCH rrrarrsr. OHH KaMHCM nanator C 60J1bIIIOH BbICOTbl II pacxpsmaro'r KPbIJ1b51 JlHIIIb B HCCKOJ1bKHX MeTpaX 01' 3CMJIH, KaK 6Y,ll,TO BOT-BOT BpC~CH B tree, TIOTOM B3J1eraIOT BBbICb 11 CHOBa naztaior BHH3. Bo BpCMJI 6pa'lHOrO CC30Ha caxusr HCrr0J1b3yrDT 3TO ynP3)KliCHHC

1 GROOS K Op. cit. P. 208.

62

'-bCTh llepB;tiI, II. KJIaCCH(pHKI~Hil I1I'P

B rcpOHCTBC ,lI,JIJ.! npl1BJ1C'ICHH5I caMOK OC06CHHbIM MaCTcpCTBOM B 3TOH 3¢¢CKTHOH B03;zyrnHOH aKp06al'HKC OTJ111'-IaerCH, no onacaanro O)],IO- 60Ha, aMCpHKaI-lCKHH I-IO'iHOH COK0J11.

BbIH,Wl H3 B03paCTa, xorna ,lI,CTH nrparor B BOJIQOK H ('30J10TOH Ma- 110, KaTaroTOI na CaHKaX, KaPYCCJ15IX H Ka'iCJ15lX, B3POCJIbIC HMeIOT B CBOCM paCrrOpH)KeHHH rrpezczte BCCro 3¢¢CKTbI onsmrenaa H pa3J1H'lHbIX TaHQCB - 01' yYTHBO-CBerCKoro, HO H xoaapnoro BllXPH BaJ1bCa H BIlJIOTb )],0 paansix BMOB HCIiCTOBoro, 1IIiXOP3,ll,0'lHO-KOI-lBYJ1bCllBI-IOro nepraHbJI. npHMCpHO TaKOC)KC y)],OBOJ1hCTBHe OHH nOlI)"'ilIOT, ynlUlaJICb BbICOKOH CKOPOCTblO, aarrpauep, na J1bJ)KaX, I-Ia MOTOQl1KJ1C HJ1H B OTKPbITOH MaIIIllHC. QT06bl rrpl1)J,aTb raxoro pona OII~yw;eHilllM Cl1JIY H PC3KOCTb, cnocoonsr« B03)]'CHCTBOBaTb Ha oprannaa sapocnoro QCJ10BCKa, npaIIIJ10Cb asooperars MOIII;HbIe TeXHl1'ICCKHC npacnocoonenan. TI03TOMY HC y,ll,HBHTeJ1hHO, QTO r0J10BOKpy>KCHIie CTaHOBHTOI I-IaCTOJ.!IIl,CH xareropHCH nrp B 3HaQI1TCJ1bHOH CTCnCHl1 J1HIIIb C aacrynnenaea rrpOMbIIIIJ1CHEOro BCKa. Teneps ero )],OCTaBJ15lIOT MHO)KCCTBy OXOTHHKOB BCJlKOrO pozia TO'lHblC annapa'ns, YCTanOBJIeHHbIC na apsrapxax H B napxax arrpaxuaonos.

Pa3YMeeTcH, CCJIH 6bI pC'Ih mna npocro 0 B03,l1,CHCTBHll na airyrpCHI-Iee yxo, 01' KOTOPOI'O 3aBHCHT Y:ysCTBO paBI-IOBCCH5I, 3TH npncnoC06J1CHl151 OKa3aJ1IiCb 6bI CJIl1IIIKOM CllO)KHbIMH H MorIJ;I-IbIMH. Ho 3)],CCb Bo06III;c BCC TCJ10 '1CJIOBeKa noztsepraercs npoueztypav, KOTOPbIX KJ)K,lI,hlH orracarrcs 6bI, CCJIH 6hl HC BHACJI, KaK ztpyrne TOJIrrOH cnemar HX nepe:arnTb. B caMOM )],CJ1C, CTOHT nOI-la61IIO,lIaTb, B KaKOM BHAC BbIXO)],l1T QCJ10BCK H3 TaKHX MaIIIllI-l rOJIOBOKPy>KCHHJI. OHH o'rrrycxaror ero 61IC,lI,I-IbIM, rnaTaIOIIl,l1MC5I, na rpann TOIIIHOTbI. TOJIbKO 'ITO OH BOnl1Jl 01' crpaxa, Y nero nepexearsmano ,ll,bIXaHllC 11 6bIJIO yacacnoe '1)'BCTBO, 6y,ll,TO BI-JYTpH ,l.I,J)KC OT,lI,eJJhI-lbIe opranu OKHMalOTCH 01' ncrryra, 'lT06bl KaKTO YKpbITbC5I 01' 31'01'0 crpanmoro na'racxa. O,ll,HaKO 60JIhlIlHHCTBO 3THX J1ro)]'eH, )],J)KC He ycnes npaarn B ce6H, )')KC TOJ1I151TCJ.[ Y KaCChI, 'lT06hI KVrrliTb ce6e npaso eute paa OrnyrHTb Ty)Ke caM)'lO IlbITKy, OT KOTOpOH O~H )K)J.yr HaCJIa)K)J.CHHH.

CJ1CAYer rosopars HMCHI-IO 0 HaCJIa)K)J,CHHl1, TaK KaK TPY)],HO aa- 3BaTb <'pa3BJIC'iCHllCM,> rro)]'06HbIH BOCTopr, 60JIbIIIC nOXO)KllH HC aa aa- 6aBy, a aa cyztopory. C apyroa CroPOHbI, cyrn;CCTBCHI-IO OTMCTJ1Tb 'iTO rrepe)KllBaCMbIH IIIOK HaCTOJIbKO PC30K, 'ITO B I-IeKOTOpblX CJl)"laJIX' BJ1a,lICJ1b~bI armaparoa np"BJ1CKaIOT naaunsrx rrocerHTCJICH 6eCIlJIaTI-IOCTbIO aTTpaKI~HOHa. OI-lH MHorOKpaTHO 06b5lBJI5IIOT, 'iTO <'pa3BJ1C'iCHl1C'> HH'icro I-IC CTOHT -eme TOJIbKO O,D;HI-I pas-. 3aTO CO 3Pl1TCJ1CH B3HMaIOT IlJIaTy sa npano crrOKOHHO Ha6J1IO,lIaTb C BbICOKOH ranepen aa MYKaMIi ,lI,06POB0J1bHbIX l1JIli 06MaHyrbIx )KCPTB, nonsepraexsrx onacasnr B03- )],CHCTBllJ.!M l1JIlI CTpaHI-IbIM rrpl1XOT5IM.

I GROOS K. Op, cit. P. Ill, 116,265-266.

11

63

PO)Ke KaWa. MpbI H JII08H

Bstno 6bI CJlMUIKOM CMeJIO 113BJIeKaTb H3 sroro )KeCTOKoro JIl060- rrbITCTBa KaKHe-JIH60 ortpenerrennsre BbIBO,11,bI. Taxoe pacnpenenenae poxen xapaxrepno He TOlIbKO ,1I,lliI ,11,aHHOro rnna nrp, OHO npHcyrCTByer B 60Kce, KeT'Ie H B 60HX fJIa,11,HaTOpOB. Frrasnoe 3,11,eCb - B CTpeMJIeHHH ,11,OCTHqb cneuaqnorecxoro BHYTpeHHero paCCTpOHCTBa, MrHOBeHHOH rraHHKH, 0603HaqaeMOH TepMHHOM <·rOlIOBOKp)')KeHHe,), H B HeCOMHeHHbIX npnsnaxax nrpsr, xoropsre C HI1M CM3bIBaIOTOI, TaKHx, KaK CB060- ,11,a npmorrs HlIH He npHHHTb ncnsrranae, ero He3bI6JIeMo-crpOrl1e npe,11,eJIbI, OTpeUIeHHOCTb OT ocransnoa peaJIbHoCTH. To, 'ITO ncnsrranne csepx nposero enre 11 CJl)')KHT npe,11,MeTOM apemnna, He )'MeHbUIaeT, a JIHUIb YCHlIHBaeT ero HrpOBOH xapaxrep.

B) OT IIIAJIOCTI1 K I1PABI1JIAM

C ,11,pyrOH CI'OPOHbJ, OHO HBJDIeT C060H MHO)Kecrno TaKHX CMbICJlOBbIX paaBeTBJleHHH, K KOTOpbIM MHe eme npeztcroirr seprryrsca,

ECJlH yql1ThlBaTb 3TI1 ceMaHTH'IeCKHe C61II1)KeHHH H HCKJIIO'IeHHH, TO KaKHM )Ke MOryr 6bITb 06beM 11 3Ha'IeHl1e TepMI1Ha paidia? CaM H 6y.n:y onpeztemrrs ero KaK CJlOBO, OXBaTbIBaIOIu;ee cnoirramnre npOHBJIeHHH nrponoro HHcrHHKTa: rrerxe scero onoanasaexure rrpHMepbI raxoro PO,11,a ,11,eHTeJIbHOcrH naior KOTeHOK, nyralOIIl,HHOI B IIlepCTHHOM KJIy6Ke, OTpHXHBalOlQaHCH cooaxa, MJIa,11,eHe~, CMelOlQHHCH OT 3ByKa norpesryunca. 3TO rrpOHBlIHeTCH BO BCHKOM C'IaCTJIHBOM B036)')KAeHHH, nupaacnonreaCH B HenOCpe,11,CTBeHHOH, HeynopH,11,OqeHHOH ,n:eHTeJIbHOCTH, aaxacryto -rpeaaepao aKTHBHOH, BJ)KHeHIIleH 'IeproH KOTOPOH HlIH AJ)Ke e,qHHCTBeHHbIM ee OCHOBaHl1eM OCTaeTCH I1MrrpoBH3a~HH 11 orcyrcrsae npasan. CKaKaHl1e Ha MeCTe, pl1COBaHHe xapaxynea, rpOMKaH rrepeopanxa, 6ecnOPMOqHblH IIl)'M H raM - O'IeBH,11,HbIX npasrepoa TaKOH 3YAHmeH noTpe6HOCTI1 B ABl1)KeHWIX, xpacxax H ssyxax 601Iee qeM AOCTaTO'IHO.

3Ta 3JIeMeHTapHaH norpeonocrs B 6ecrrOKOHCTBe H rBaJITe H3HaqaJIbHO rrpOHBJIHeTCH B CTpeMlIeHI1H KO scesry npHKOCHYTbCH - CXBaTI1Tb, nonpooosars aa BKYC 11 sanax, a 3aTeM 6pOCHTb BCHKHH ,n:ocrynHbIH npeztsrer. qaCTo OHa CTaHOBHTCH CTpaCTblO JIOMaTb 11 paspyurars, 3THM 06bHCHHeTCH Y,11,OBOJIbCTBl1e pesars 6yMary aa MeJIKI1e KYCO'IKI1, unman, xopnmo, paasanaean, KaKoe-HH6YAb COCTaBHOe coopyxeaae, rrpOCKaKHBaTb 6e3 oxepezm, paccrpaana'rs 'I)')KYIO nrpy HlIH npyroe aaHHTl1e H T. A. L(anbIIle B03HHKaeT iKenaHl1e MHCTmpl1Ul1pOBaTb HlIH npasHHTb nlOAeH, BblCOBbIBaH H3bIK, CTPOH rpmsacsr, AeJIaH BH,11" 6YATO Yporaenrs HlII1 6pOCaellJb 3anpeTH)'IO senu, Pe6eHOK crapaerca yrnepzurrs ceoa, OIIJ,yTHTb ce6H npU1tU1iDU, 3aCTaBHTb 06paTHTb aa ceria BHHMaHl1e. TaK)Ke 11 K rpOOC rrpHBO,11,HT CJIyqaH 06e3bHHbJ, KOTOPaH JIlO6HlIa zteprars sa XBOCT )KHBwyro BMeCTe C HeIO c06aKY, KaK TOJIbKO 'ra 3a,11,peMJIeT. ne?BOObl'I'H'om P'JAOC1'b 01' p'.npymeHllil. Yi. onpo~bmaHllil. Bem,eli TIPOcneacena, B 'IaCTHOCTI1, C rrpl1Me'IaTeJIbHOH TOqHOCTblO AeTarreH cecrpon f.-)I{. POMaHa y ooeasmrsr-xarryrnma 1.

Ha 3TOM pe6eHOK He OCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH. EMY HpaBHTCH nrpars C c06- CTBeHHoH 60nbIO, aarrpaxep paanpaxaa H3bJKOM 6oJIbHOH 3y6. EMY TaIOKe HpaBIITCH, xorna ero rryraror, I1pl1 3TOM OH crpesnrrca ucnsrrars B O,11,HOM cny-rae ¢11311'IeCKOe crpananae - HO orpaaroreaaoe, ynpaanaeaoe, KOTOPOMY OH caM HBJDIeTC5i npa-nmoa, a B npyroa - rrCllXH'IeCKYIO 'rpesory, HM iKe CaMI1M )!(eJIaeMYlO H npexpamaesryro rro ero Tpe60BaHlilO. B 060lIX CJIY'IaHX )')Ke MO'lKHO onoaaars ¢YHAaMeHTalIbHble 4epTbl lIrpbI KaK ,11,eHTeJIbHOCTH ,n:06poBonbHOH, YCJlOBHOH, 06oc06neHHOH 11 ynpaeaaexoa.

Bcxope B03HlIKacr 11 CKJIOHHOCTb rrpH,11,yMbIBaTb npasana 11 ynpaMO, nlO60H ueHOI1 c061IlOAaTb lIX: pe6eHOK aaronosaer C CaMI1M c06011 11 CBOI1MI1 TOBapHll~aMH BceB03MO'lKHbIe napn, xoropsre, KaK MbI )')Ke BH-

TIpaBlIJIa CTaHOBHTCH HeOTbeMJIeMOH rrpHHa,1I,Jle'lKHOCTbIO nrpu, KaK 'ronsxo OHa, TaK CKa3aTb, npnooperaer HHCTH~HOHaJIbHOe cyI.QeCTBosaaae. C sroro MOMeHTa OHI1 COCTaBJIHIOT 'IaCTb ee rtpnponsr. l1MeHHo OHI1 npeapamaror ee B rrpOAyKTI1BHbIH H npmnrartaansno BJ)KHbII1 I1HcTpYMeHT KYlIbrypbI. TeM He MeHee B lICTOKe CBoeM nrpa npe,11,CTaBJIHcr c06011 nepB03,n:aHH)'IO cB060.n:y, rrOTpe6HOCTb B paapsnxe, o,11,HOBpeMeHHO pa3BJIe4eHHe H I1MrrpOBI13aUl1lO. 3Ta cB060,11,a - ee aerrpesiemsaa AB~aH CHlIa, OHa Jle)Kl1T B OCHOBe C3MbIX CJlO'lKHbIX 11 crporo opraH1I30B3HHblX ¢OPM nrpsr. TaKaH HCXO,11,HaH BJIaCTb I1MrrpOBH3aUHH H BeCeJIbH, xoropyro H H33bIB3IO paidia, conpsraercs C H,11,eeI1: rrp0l13BOJIbHO C03AaB3eMblX Tpy,n:HOCTeH, H npennaraio Ha3B3Tb ee ludus. OHH B srrore 11 nOpO'lKA3IOT pa3Ho06pa3Hble nrpsr, KOTOPblM MO'lKHO 6e3 npeysena'IeHHH npanacaru ~I1BHlIH3yromyro cIIoc06HOCTb. B caMOM AeJIe, OHH HlIlIIOCTpHp)lIOT c060I1: MoparrbHbIe 11 mrrenneicryarrsnsre ~eHHOCTI1 TOH lli11t! 1t!HOH. K'jIlb.Typb.l. KpoMe '(oro, ORR UOMoralOT vro-norrs H pa3BHBaTb 3TH ueHHOCTH.

5.! H36pan TepMHH paidia rrOTOMY, 'ITO B ocaose ero - xopeas co 3HaqeHHeM .. peoeaox-, a TaK)Ke H3 )KeJI3HHH He C03AaBaTb qHTaTe.1lI0 HeH)')KHbIX CJlO)KHOCTeH, npaoeraa K TepMHH)' 1I3 H3bIKa KaKHX·HH6y,11,b aHTHTIOAOB. OAHaKO C3HCKpHTCKOe kredati 11 KHTaHCKoe wan rrpe.n:CTaBJIHIOTCH erne 60JIee eMKHMH H rrOKa3aTeJIbHbJMH Ha3BaHllHMH, 6naro,n:apH pasaooopa- 3H1O H CaMOH rtpnpone ,n:orronHHTeJIbHbIX 3H3'IeHHH. ITp3B):(a, 3THM speaMepHbIM 60raTCTBOM OHH TaK)Ke H HeyAo6Hhl: nanpaxep, C03AaIOT orracHOCTb rryraaanu, Kredati 03HaQaeT arpsr B3POCJlbIX, AeTeI1: H )!(I1BQTHbIX. Bonee CIIe~anbHbIM 06pa30M ::ITO CJlOBO rrpl1MeHHeTCH K 6ery H rrpbDKKaM, TO ecrs K pe3K11M H rrpHXOTJIHBblM ,n:Bl1)KeHHHM OT H36bITKa pa,n:OCTH 11 'lKI13- HeHHOH CHlIbJ. OHO TaIOKe ynorpeonaerca ,ll,JUI 0603HaqeHllH He,a:03BOJIeHHbIX 3pOTHQeCKHX CHOllJeHHH, PHTMHqHOro ,11,Bl1)KeHHH aozra H B006IIl,e scero roro, "ITO xoneonercs rro BOlle serpa. CnOBO wan eme 60JIee 3KCIIJIHQHTHO, H B CHJIY Toro, "ITO HM Ha3blBaeTCH, H 'roro, 4TO 11M He Ha3bIBaeTC5i: 3T0 arpsr aa nOBKOCTb, nrpsr COCI'H3aTCJIbHble, ClIMYJIHTHBHbJe H a33pYHhIe.

1 Hafonoztenae npaeeneno y K Ipooca COp. cit. P. 88-89) H socnpoaaeeneao ll,ll,oKyMeHTaQHH (c. 189).

64

65

Peace Kallya. I1l'pbl H mOWI

'-iacTh neonaa. II. Kllaccm:j?HKallllil Hrp

Bo06Il1,c rosopa, nepssre rrpOHRJICHlliI paidia HC HMelOT H He MOryr HMeTb Ha3BaHlliI - HMeHHO rrOTOMY, '1TO B HHX erne Her HHKaKOH CTa6HJIbHOCTH, anxaxoro OTJIH':tHTeJIbHOrO 3HaKa, HHKaKoro ':teTKO OT/1,eJIbHOrO cyn.ICCTBOBaHlliI, KOTOPOC rr03BOJUU[0 6bI aaxpemrrs HX caMOCTOHTCJIbHOCTb CrreIJ;HaJIbHbIM HaHMeHOBaHHeM B CJIOBape. Ho KaK TOJIbKO rrOJ.lBJIHIOTCH KOHBCHIJ;HH, TCXHHqCCKHe npacsna, opvnna, BMCCTC C HHMH B03HHKaIOT H nepssre onpenencmrsre Hrphl: qexap/1,a, rrpHTKH, E03/.l.YIllHhIH 3MeH, EOJiqOK, Cbe3)KaHHC C ropxn, )KM}'PKH, KyKJIbl. 3/1,eCb HaqlIHaIOT paCXO/1,HTbCH rrpOTIIEOpe'1alU,He /1,pyr npyry rrvrir: agon, alea, mimicry H ilinx. 311.eCh TaK)KC nOJ.lBJIHerCH y/1,OBOJIbCTBHC OT npeononeHlliI CnCIJ;HaJIbHO cosnaaaexoa, npOH3BOJIbHO onpe,[leJIHCMOH Tpy/1,HOCTH - TaKOH:, '11'0 crrpaBIIBIllHH:C5I C HeIO HC norrysaer HHKaKoH HHOH: Bblrortsr, KPOMC BHYTpcHHcro YJ:\OEJIerBOpCHlliI 01' PCIllCHHOH: 3a/.l,a'm.

3To rr06yJK.!1,cHHC, xoropoe C06CTBCHHO H ecrs ludus, TaK)KC oonapv)Kl1BaeTCH B pa3HbIX xareropnax HlP, KpOMC 'rex, '11'0 BCeIJ;enO OCHOBanbI na O/1,HOH BOJIe CY/1,b6bl. OHO npH6aBJIHeTCH K paiclia H BOCIUITbIBaeT, ):\HCll,HrmHanpyer, o60raIll,aeT ee, OHO /1,acr nOBO/1, /.l,JIH rpeHHpoBoK H 06bl'-lHO BC/1,CT K OBJIa):IeHHlO onpc/1,CJIcHHOH YMeJIOCTblO, npH06pCTeHHIO KaKOrO-TO oco- 6eHHOro MacrepCTBa B 06paIll,CHHH C TeM HlIH HHbIM armaparox HlIll )KC Il HCK}'CCTBC HaxO,[\HTb npaannsnsre peIIIeHMJ.! /.l,JIH cyry60 YCJIOBHbIX 3a):1a'1.

OTJIH"IHe OT ag6n'a 3aKJIlO'1aCTCH E TOM, '11'0 B ludus'e narrpazceHHC H O/1,apeHHOCTb nrpoxa npOJ.lBJIJ.lIOTCJ.I BHC BC5IKHX 3KCIlJIHll,HTHbIX nepe)KHBaHHH COCTH3aTeJIbHOCTH HlIH conepmrrecraa: 60Pb6a H/1,CT C rrpeIl5lTCTBIICM, a He C O/1,HHM HlIH neCKOJIbKHMH KOHKypeHTaMH. Cpe/1,H nrp Ha YMCJIOCTb PyK MO)KHO Ha3BaTb 6HJIb60Ke, /1,lla60JIo, HO-HO, B 3THX npOCTbIX npHcrroc06JIeHHHX 06bI"IHO HCrrOJIb3yroTC5I OqCBH/1,HbIe 3aKOHbl rtpnpozur: CK~CM, /1,JIH HO-HO 31'0 CHlIa T5DKCCTH H apautenae - arpa COCTOIIT B npc06pa30BaHHH B03BpaTHO-ilOCTyrraTClIbHoro ll.Bl1)KeHHH rro rrp5lMOH B uerrpepuauoe ll.Bl1)KCHHe no xpyry, Ha060poT, npmrIJ;Hrr B03,[IyIIIHoro 3MeH - HCrrOJIb30BaHHC KOHKpeTHOrO COCTOHHlliI arMoccpepbl, 6JIaro/1,apH KOTOPOMY arpaionnm KaK 6bI nponrynsmaer He60 rra paCCTOHHHff. OH rrpOCu;I1pYCT csoe npHcyrCTBUC 33 rrpc,a;cnbl co6cTBCHHOI'O TCJIa, CXO/.l.HbIM 06pa30M arpa B )KM)'PKH naer rrOBO/1, ncrrsrrars B03MO)KHOCTII csoero nocnpnarus, 06xOMCb 6C3 3peHlliIl. Jlcrxo no-

lliITb, '.ITO B03MO)KH0CTI1 ludus'a npaKTH"IeCKH 6e3rpaHII'1HhI, .

BHyrPH nannoro rana TaKHC Hrpbl, KaK COJIHTCp HJIH 6arHO/1,2, yace rrpHHa/1,JIe)KaT K npyroa rpyrrrre: B HHX ace BpCM5! ~bI pacxer

H KOM6HHHpOBaHHe. Haxoneu KPOCCBOP,ll,hI, MaTeMaTH'ICCKHC rOJIOBOJIOMKJ1, aHarpaMMbI, BCHKOJ'O pona OJIOPHMbI1 H JIOrOrpHcpbI, 3KTHBHOC '1TCHHC /1,CTCKTHBOB (TO CCTb rronsrrxn caMOMY BblqlICJUITb npecrymmxa), 3a):1a'IH B uraxsra'rax H 6pH/.l,)Ke, rne HCT crrCI~HaJIhHhIX HHCTpYMeHTOB, rrpC,D,CTaBJIHlOT C060H BapHaIJ;HII HaH60JIec pacnpOCTpaHCHHOH II HaH60JIee 'IHCTOH CPOpMbl ludus'a.

"CJIH, rrpC,ll,CTaBJIHlOT C060H 3JICMCHTapHYJO CPOPMY agon'a. OIl CKa'1CT na O,a;HOH HO)l{KC, XO,rJ,HT 33/l0M nanepezi C 3aKpbITbIMH rna3JMH, cnoprrr, KTO /.l.OJIbIIIe CMO)KCT DUl,D,CTb na COJIHIJ;e, Bbl,Jl,Cp)Kl1BaTb 60JIb HJIH OCTaBaThCJI B KaKOH-TO HCYJ~06HOH nose,

B K3)K)J,OM TaKOM cnysae MO)KHO OTMeTHTb HCK)'lO HCXO,D,HYJO CHTYa~HlO, KOTOpaJi MO)KCT 6eCKOHC'1HO rrOBTopJlTbCH H aa OCHOBe KOTOPOH MOryI' B03HHKaTb BCC HOBbIC H HOBhlC KOM6HHaI~HH. OHH 3aCTaBJIH- 101' nrparontero COCT5I3aThC5I C caMHM C060H H rr03BOJIHlOT eMY roprto OTMC'1aTb J)Ke npoaneuaue HM ararrsr nepen llH~()M TCX, KTO pa3,D,CJI5ICT ero YBJIe'1CHHC. CB5I3b ludus'a C agon'ov OqCBH/1,Ha. C06CTBCHHO, MO)KCT ,rJ,aA<C CJIyqHTbCH, KaK B IIIaXMaTHbIX H 6PH/.l,)KCBhIX sanasax, '1TO O/1,Ha H 'ra )Ke nrpa npencraer TO KaK agon, TO KaK ludus.

He MCHec qaCTO BcrpCqaCTCH H coxeraaac ludus'a C alea: B qaCTHOCl'II' ero MO)KIIO pacnoanars B nacsance, rne XH'I'p0YMHaJI CJIO)KHOCTb MaHCBPOB,[IO KaKoH-To CTcnCHH BJIlliICT aa HCXO,n, nrpsr, H B HIPOBbIX aBTOMaTax, rne HrpalOII."(HH MO)Ker B He60JIbIIIOH CTcnCHH pacc-nrra'rs HMrryJIbC IIIapHKa, /.l.alOII."(cro eMY O'1KH, H HanpaBJIHTb ero /1,BIDKCHHC. KOHC'IHO, B OCHOBHOM B 3TlIX zrsyx nrpax BCC peuraer c..rryqaH:HOCTb. O/1,HaKO TOro rpaxra, '11'0 HrpaIOII."(Hl1 BCC )KC HC COBceM 6e30p~CH H MO)KCT, rrycn, B Hl1'1TO)KHOH MCPC, paCC'Il1TbIBaTb na CHOlO 1l0BKOCTb HlIII O/.l.apCHHOCTh, J)KC /.l.OCTaro'IHO, qT06bI B ,n,aHHbIX CJIY'IaJIX ludus COqeraJICH C alea-.

Ludus TaK)KC JIerKO COqCTaeTCH C mimicry. B rrpocTcHIIICM CJIy-rae 31'0 /1,aCT HrphI-KOHCTPyKTOPbI, xoropsre scerna nocar MJIJII03HOHHCTCKHH xaparcrep - 6Y,rJ,b TO H3rOTOBJIeHHe )KHBOTHbIX H3 cTc6JIeH MHlUI /.l.CTbMH nJICMCHH /1,OrOHoB3, COOP)')KCHIIC nO/.l.bCMHbIX KpaHOB H aBTOM06HJICH H3 MeTaJIJIH"IeCKHX rrJIaCTHH H IIIKI1BOB /1,CTCKoro KOHCTpYKTopa HJIH )KC TIu;aTCJIbHOC C03,rJ,aHIIe MO/1,CJICH CaMOJICTOB HJIH Kopa6JIeH, KOTOphIM HC 6pc3ralOT 3aHHMaTbC5I II B3POCJIbIC. Ho BaA<HCHIJIHM CJIY'1aCM TaKOI'O CO'1CTaHHH HBJI51CTC5I 'fCaTpaJIbHOC npeztCTaBJICHHC, rne mimicry /1,IICI~HnJIHHHpyeTcH II CTaHOBHTCJI HaCT051- lU,HM HCKyCCTROM C MHO)KCCTBOM KOHBCHIJ;IIH, H30II."(PCHHbIX yMeHIIH, TOHKHX H CJIO)KHbIX npHCMOB. Bnaronaps 3TOMY Y,rJ,a'IHoMy B3aHMOC6JIH)KCHHIO trrpa B rrOJIHOH Mepe rrpOHBJIHCT CBOIO KyJIbTYPHYlO npo,lIJ'KTHBHOCTb,

I 31"0 3aMeqan)IiKe KaJ-lT. eM.: H! R N Y Les jeux d'enfants. (Trad. franc) Paris, 1926. P. 63. 2 Hrpa J-Ia cocp,I1J-1eHI1C I1JII1 pacnyrblRalll1e coenmrcnusrx KOJICl.I,. - llPUMe<i. nep.

1 OJIOPHM - lClJIaM6ypI-laH pmpMa, pacnpocrpanmomaaca na BOO CTI1XOTBOPHYIO CTPOKY (B PYCCKOH TeOpl1H CTHxa B 6JIH3KOM 3HaqeHlIH yn01pe6JDIeTc1! TepMI1H -natrropndiaa 0). - Ilpuue«. nep.

20 nopa311TeJJbHOM pa3BHTI11111rpOBhlX aBTOMaTDB B COBpeMeHHOM MHpe H 0 BbI- 3blBaeMblx I1MI1 q,aCI\HHal.l,HI1 H ooceccasx CM. JJ:OKYMeIlTal.l,H10, c. 189-195.

3 Haponaocrs B 3an<l,l..lHOH A¢PI1KC, QTJII1'.raIOU\aJlClI 60l'aTOH K)'JIb1)'pOH H sepoBaHillIMI1. - npUM(J1.t. nep.

66

67

POlKe KaMya. l1.rphl Ii J1101l11

'{aCTb rrepBa1I. II. KJIaccmtm:Kal..\lliI llrp

HanpOTHB, KaK He MO)KeT 6bITb COI03a MC)KJ..\)' III)'MHO-9KCnaHCHBHOM paidia 11. naCCHBHbIM O)l(H,lJ.aHHCM PCllICHIDI CY~b6bI, HenO,ll.BIDKHOHeMbfM TpeneTOM B alea, TaK TeM 60nec He MO)KeT ero 6bITb Me)K,ll;)' pac'-leTJIHBO-KOM61-IHaTOpHbIM ludus'osr H Ilinx'osr KaK '-lHCTbIM yBJIC'-lCHHCM. JII060Bb K npeO,ll.OJIeHHIO TPY~HOCTCM MO)KeT anecs C.lI)7)KHTb JIHllIb npoTHBOBeCOM rOJIOBOKPy>KCHHIO, He ,lI.alOrn;HM CMY npCBpaTHTbCH B nOJIHOe paCCTpOHCTBO H nanmcy. Torzta nrpa CTaHOBHTCH YPOKOM caMoo6JI~aHIDI, TPY~HbIMH YCHJIIDIMH ;.vur coxpanenna XJIa,ll;HOKPOBIDI H paaaoseCHH. OHa OTHIO,lI.b He scrynaer B COI03 C ilinx'ost, a oepasyer - KaK B ansnHHH3Me HJIH B03,ll;yllIHOH aKp06aTHKe - ,lI.HCll,HIUIHH)', noeroraionryro HeMTPaJIH30BaTb ero onacnsre 3ctxJ:>eKTbI.

,lI.HBH,!J;YaJIbHOe 3aHHTHe, KaKHM OH KaJKeTOI.. Ha caMOM zterre OH norpy)KeH B arvocrpepy xomcypca OH nOMCp)Kl.fBaeTCJI JIHllIb nOCTOJIbKY, noCKOJIbKY ycepznre YBJlC'-leHHbIX HM yqaCTHHKoB npespanraer ero B BHPryaJIbHbIH ag6n. Korna ace nOCJIC~HHM OTcyTCTBYcr, nrpa He B CHJIax ztonro npO)KHTb casta no cc6e. ,[(ellCTBHTeJIbHO, ee HC~OCTaTO'-lHO nOMep)KHBaer zryx oprannaoaannoro COCTH3aHHH - BC,lI.b OH B HCll HC rnasnoe; H OHa HC cosnaer mncaxoro 3pCJIHIIl,a, cnocoonoro npHBJIC'-lb TOJIny. OHa ocraerca 3bI6KO-,lI.HqxpY3HOH HJIH)KC PHCKYeT npesparareca B aaBH3'lHBOC YBJIC'-leHHC O~HHOKoro MaHbHKa, KOTOPbIM rrpC,lI.aCTCH Cll 6C3- pa3~eJIbHO H paan sroro BCC 60JIec npeneoperaer OTHOllICHIDIMH C ~PYffiMH JIIO,lI.bMH.

•••

TIpoMbIllIJIeHHaH ll,HBHJIH3all,HH nopomrna HOByIO ¢OPMY Iudus'a ~ ,-,x066H'\ He06H3aTeJlbHOe sropocrenennoe 3aHHTHe, H36Hpaesroe H npononacaesroc ;.vur Y,lI.OBOJIbCTBIDI: KOJIJICKl.l,HOHHpoBaHHe, JII06HTCJIbCKOC 3aHHTHe HCKYCCTBOM, Pa,ll;OCTH lJ,OMallIHHx nonenox HJIH H306pcraTCJIbCTBa - O~HHM CJIOBOM, BceB03MoiKHbie BH,lJ;bI ~CHTCJIbHOCTH, rrpC~CTaBJIHIOrn;HC e060M npexore scero KOMnCHCal.l,HIO ypozrytontero B03,l1.CH.CTBIDI, xoropoe OKa3bIBaeT na JIH'-lHOITb KOHBCH.epHbIH TPY,lI., no npnpone csoen aBTOMaTH'-leCKHll H paanpooneaasra na MeJIKHe onep311,HH. Y)Ke OTMe'-laJIOCb, 'ITO Y paocsero, KOTOPblll TaKHM 06pa30M CTaHOBHTCH peMCCJICHHHKOM, x066H '-laCTO rrpaaaxraer rpopsry H3roTOBJIeHHH yMCHbllICHHblX, HO 3aTO uenocmuux MOlJ,CJICH. TCX MaWHH, B npOH3BO,ll.CTBe KOTOPbIX OH 06PC'-lCH ysacrsosan, JIHWb O,ll.HOH., Bee BpCMH rrOBTOp5lCMOll onepaunea, He Tpe6yIOrn;ell OT nero HH YMa, HH YMCJIOCTH. Hrpa C O'lCBH,II,HOCTblO rr03BOJl5lCT B351Tb pesamu Y pCaJIbHOCTH; H :ITO rrOJIe3HbIH., IIJlO,ll.OTBOPHbIH. penanm, OH o'raexaer O,ll.HOH H3 BblCllIHX ¢YHKl.l,Hll nrposoro HHCTHHKTa. He YlJ,HBHTCJIbHO, '-lTO TCXHH'-lCCK3.K lI,HBMJIH3all,HR cnocoficrsyer ero pa3BHTHIO, nyCTb AaiKe B KaqeCTBe npornsoaeca CBOHM HaH60JIec OTTaJIKHBaIOlI.\HM acnexrass. X06- 6H - 31'0 06pa3 TCX ll,CHHblX ~OCTOHHCTB, xoropue ,lI.CJIaIOT B03MOiKHbIM CC pa3BHTHe.

Booome, ludus CTaBHT nepB03~aHHOMY )KCJIaHHIO PC3BHTbOI H pa3BJICKaTbOl. npOH3BOJIbHbIC, rrOCTOHHHO B0306HOBJIHCMbiC npernrrCTBWI. OH npH,lJ;yMblBaeT MHO)KCCTBO cHryall,HH. H CTpYKTYP, rzte norry-ra- 101' Y,lI.OBJIeTBOpeHHe O,ll.HOBpCMeHHo H )KeJIaHHC pa3pMKH, H HCHCTPC- 6HMaH, nO-B~HMOMY, l.J.CnOBC'lCCKaH nOTpe6HOCTh B HarrpacHoM, 6CCrrOJIC3HOM npHMcHcHHH CBOHX 3HaHHH., npHJIe)KaHIDI, JIOBKOCTH, YMa, HC ronopa y>Ke 0 caMo06JIa,ll;aHHH, YMCHHH npenoaxorari, 60JIb, ycTaJIOCTb, fIaHHKY HJIH Onb5IHeHHC.

B ::>TOM CMbICJIC TO, '-lTO H Ha3bIBalO ludus, npeztcraanaer C060ll TaKOH 3JICMCHT HrpbI, '-lbH 3Ha'-lHMOCTb H rrpO,ll.YKTHBHOCTb B KYJIbType OKa- 3bIBaIOTCH HaH60JIee Brre'-laTJUlIOIIJ,HMH. B HeM rrpOHBJIHCTCH He CTOJIb pe3KO BbIPaJKCHHoe nCHXH'-leCKOe HaCTpOCHHe, KaK B agon'e, aka, mimicry HJIH ilinx'e, HO, ~HCll,HrUIHliHPYH paidia, OH B paBHOH. Mepe crroco6-

CaM no ce6e ludus KaK 6bI erne HenOJIOH, HM 3aHHMaIOTCH JIHllIb noneBOJle, 'lT06h1 paasesrrs cKYKY. Maorue corJIallIaIOTCH aa 3TO 3aHHTHe TOJIbKO B o)KHlJ,aHHH ny-nnero, noxa He nOHBHTCH naprnepsr, C KOTOPbIMH MO)[(HO 6y,lI.CT OT sroro y~OBOJIbCTBHH, JIHlIIeHHOro snennrero 01'KJlHKa, nepeif.TH K Hrpe COnCpHHl.J.eCTBa. Ho ,lI.aJKe B cny-rae nrp na JlOBKOCTb HJIH KOM6HHaTopmcy (naCbHHC, na3JI, KPOCCBOP,ll. H T. n.), HCKJIIO'-lalOmHX HJlH lJ,eJIaIOmHX He)KCJIaTCJlbHbIM yqacTHe npvroro 'leJIOBeKa, ludus TeM He MeHce nOMep)KUBaCT B nrparontess H~e)K,!J,y noCJIe HeY,lI.a'-lH ~06HTbCH ycnexa npn HOBOH. nonsrrxe HJlH Ha6paTb 60JIbure Ol.J.KOB, '-lCM B npournsnt pas, TeM caMblM 3,ueCb onHTb-TaKH CKa3bIBaCTCH BJIHHHHe ag6n'a. ct>aKTH'leCKH HM nponnaaua BCH aTMOccpepa Y,lI.OBOJIbCTBHH, norryaaesroro 01' npeOlJ,OJICHHH npOH3BOJIbHO ycTaHOBJICHHbIX TPYlJ,HOCTeH.. )J,eH.CTBHTeJIbHO, XOTH Ka)K,ll;a5l H3 TaKHX nrp nenercs B O,uHHO'-lKY H B npnmnrne He CO,ll.ep)KHT B ce6e HHKaKoro copeBHOB3HlUl., B JIlo60ll. MOMCHT ee nerxo MO)[(HO rrpesparwrs B KOHK)'pC, C npH3aMH MJIH 6e3, H TaKHe KOHKypCbl 'laCTO YCTpaHBalOTcH B raaerax He CJIyqaH.HO TaK)Ke nrpoasre aBTOMaTbI yCTaHaBJIHBaIOT rJIaBHbIM 06- pa30M B xarpe, TO ecri, B TaKHX MeCTax, rne BOKPyr arparomero MOryT coonparsca KaKHe-TO 3pHTeJIH.

O,ll.HaKO y ludus'a ecrs OAHa 'lepra (06bHCHHlOmaHCH, KaK 51 rrOJI3- rare, CKpbITbIM BJIIDIHHeM agon'a), KOTOPaH see BpCMH orxromaer ero, - TaK:uJ. nrpa B BblCilleH creneau 3aBllCHT OT MOAbl. fio-Ho, 6HJlWoKC, ).l.H"a- 60JIO, 6arHO,ll. - see 3TH rrrpst rrOHBJUUIHCh H HC'le3aJIH CJIOBHO no BOJIme6CTBY. OHH nOJIb30BaJIHCb MaCCOBOH. nonyJUlpHOCTbIO, KOTOPaH 3aTeM 6eCCJIe,ll.HO HCl.J.e3aJIa H ycrynana MeCTO KaKoMy-TO ,lI.PyrOMY YBJIe'leHHIO. Mona na HHTCJIJlCKryaJIbHble 3a6aBbI 60JIee YCToi1'-lHBa, HO Bce-TaKH TO)KC orpaaaseaa BO BpeMeHH: CBOH. paClI,BCT rrepC)KHJIH H pe- 6yChl, H aaarpawxsr, H aKpOCTHXH, H urapansr. BepOHTHO, Ta xce CY,ll.b6a o~aeT H KPOCCBOP,ll.bI C IICTeKTHBaMH. ,[(aHHoe HBJIeHHe OCTaBaJIOCh 6bI 3ara,nOl.J.HbIM, eCJIH 6blludus ~ei1cTBHTeJIbHO npC[lCTaBlIHlI C060H. HH-

68

69

POlKe Kailya, 11 ['Rbi 11 1110/\11

CTByCT TOMy, '-IT06bl 3TH cp)'lmaMCHTaJIbHbIe xareropnn nrpsr 06pCJIH CBOIO '-lHCT01Y H HbIClllee BbIpaJKetme.

•••

Op,HaKO ludus - He ep,HHCTBeHHO H03MOiKHaH MCTaMopcp03a paidia B KI1- Tac, narrpuxep, Ll,IIBHJIH3al~IIH rrpHp,yMaJIa AJUI nee IIH)'IO cyp,h6y. KwrallCK3H KyJIb1)'pJ, nO]1Ha5\ MYI\pocm H C,ll,ep)KJIlHOCTH, He TaK pK eocnpnHM'-lHBa K CaM01\OBJIelOw:eH HOBH3IIe. IToTpe6HOCTb B nporpecce H npcp,npHHM'-IHBOCTb '-laCTO Ka)K)'T0I eH KaKliM-TO 6CCIVlOp,HhIM 6ecrroKOHCTBOM. B TaKOH CliTYall,IIII 6yHHblH H36blTOK aacpran, CBOHCTBeHHbIH paidia, caM C060H nanpasnaercs B f\pylylO CTOpOHy, 60JIee COOTBeTCI'HYIOW:yIO BbICIllIIM ll,eHHOCTHM KYJlhT)1pbI. 3p,CCb YMeCTIiO 6yp,eI' HCpHyrbOI K TepMHH)' wan. ITo MHCHHIO HeKOTopbIX, OH 3THMOJlOrH'-ICCKH 031Ia'-laJI <'Pa3fJIaJKl1BaTb H rrOJIHpOBaTb PyKOH KyCO'-lCK HccppHTa, lIaCJIa)K,!l,aTbCH ero l'JIap,KOCTblO H 0 '-leM-JIII60 Me'-lTaTh". B03MQ)KHO, B (WlY TaKoro CBOcro rrpoacxosctenaa OH nOKa3bIBaeT p,pyryID B03MOJKH)'1O cyp,b6y paidia 113Ha'-laJIbHO onpCP,CmIlOW:HH CC sanae BOJIbHOrO p,HillKeHHH B 3TOM crry-rae KaK 6hI nCpeHall,CJIHBJcrOI - He aa BHCIllHHC p,OCTIDKeHHH, He HJ pac'-IcrJIHBOC npeoaonemre Tpy,LIHOCTeH, a lIa crrOKOHCTBHe, 1'epnCHHC, 6ecLl,eJIbHbIC rpessi. ,D,eHc1'BH1'eJIbHO, HCpOrJIHCpOM wan 060311a'-la1OTC5I maBHblM 06pa30M BC5IKHe rronyMJIUl1HaJIhHbIC 3aH51THH, OCTaBJUlIOW:HC yM B COCTO»HHH pacCeHHHOI'O 6JIYJKP.aHHH: nexoropue CJIO)l(HbIC nrpsr, rrpnHa,LVIe)KaU\He K xareropna ludus, a TaKJKe 6ecne'-lHaH pa3m'M'IIIBOCTb H neHliBaH C03Cpll,a1'CJIbHOCTb.

lIlyM H cyera 0603Ha'-lalOTCH BblpaJKeHHeM jeou-nao, 6)'KBaJIbHO «ropR'iMH 6ccnopRAOK'>, Coxeraacs C TeM )Ke TepMMHOM. nao, HeporJ1H<:p wan oooaaasaer m060e BOJIbHO-pap,oCTfIOe 3aHHTHe. Ho OH p,OJl)KeH 6hl1'b coezmnea HMeHHO C 3THM HCpOfJImpoM. B COqcraHHH )Ke C neporJIH¢oM tchouang (rrpHTBopHTbCH) OH osna-raer ~pap,H 3a6aBbI p,eJIaTb BH)l" 6y/I,1'O ... ». KaK Mbl BHJT.HM, OH B TO'-lHOCTH cosnanaer C pa3JIH'-lHbIMH B03MO)KHbIMH npOHHJleHHHMH paidia, B O,D,HHO'-lHOM )Ke yrroTpc6JICHHH He MOJKeT 0603Ha'-laTb HHKaKOfO O1J\eJILHoro pozra nrp, OH He npusieIIHeTCH HH K COCTH3aHHHM, HM K nrpe B KOCTII, HH K Cu,eHH<leCKOMY HCrrO.TIHeHHlO POJIH. To ecrt, H3 Hero HCKJIlO'-laefOI PM Ka1'eropm1 nrp, H:1- 3B3HHblX MHOIO IIHCTHTyll,HOHaJIbHhlMH.

TaKHc nrpsr 0603Hay.a1OTOI 60JIee cneuaansastau TepMHHaMH. l1eporJImp bsi COOTBeTCTByeT nrpav, CBM3aHHhlM C nepeonesanne» H CHMYJI5Ill,HeH, - OH noxpsrsaer C060H 1'eaTp H p,pyrHe 3pCJIHInHbIe HCKYccTBa. Heporrnup cboua OTCbVlaeT K nrpaxr aa JIOBKOCTb H YMCJIOCTb; HO efO yrroTpe6JIHIOT TaKJKe rrpHMeHHTeJIbHO K COCTH33HHHM B uryrxax H H:1CMCIIIKax, K cpexToBaHHlO, K TpeHHpoBKaM B K3KOM-JIH60 TPyp,HOM HCK)'ccTBe. l1epOrJIII¢ teou oanaxaer 60Pb6y KaK TaKOBYlO - ne'rymnHblC 60H, nocp,IIHOK. O)1,HaKO ero ynorpcorraror H B OTHOIIIeHHH KaPTO'-lHblX nrp. Haxonen, HepOrJIH¢ tou, KOTOPblH HII B KoeM crrysae HeJIb3H

70

I

II"

1

'-[JC'Tb nepBaJI. [I. Krlaccmj?I1KaL\I'U! mp

npHMCH5Il'h K p,eTcKHM arpav, 03H:1'-1aCT aaaprnsre HrpbI, pHCK, napn, opp,aJIHH. I1M 'raioxe H33blBacrC5I 60roXYJIbCTBO, II60 ncnsrrsrsart, yp,a4Y paCLl,eIIHBacrOI. KaK KOW:YHcTBeHHoe napa C cyp,h60H 1.

Bee 3TO nenaer erne mrrepecaec IllHpOTY ceMaHTH'-IeCKOrO nOJIH caaoro TepMHHa wan. ITpe)K}J,e ncero, OH BKJIIO'-IaeT B CC6H ,LIeI'cKylO nrpy II Bo0611~e JII060e 6eCne'-lHO-JICrKOMbICJIeHHOe pa3BJIe'-leHHe, xoropoe MO)KeT 0603Ha'-laTbCH, HanpHMep, rJIarOJIaMH {'pe3BHTbC5I'>, {<3a6aHJIHTb- 01» H T. /l,. Ero ynorpednator }J,J1H 0603HJ'-IellHH BOJlhHbIX, HCnOpMaJIhHhlX HJIH )J(e CTpaHHhIX ceKCYaJIbIlbIX ,LIeHCTBHH. Op,HOBpCMeHHO 01I HCnOJIbsyerca rrpHMCHIITCJIbHO K arpasr, rne HyJKHO pa3MbJIII1l5lTh H nenss» rnoponumbCfl,- 1'aKHM, KaK uraxeiarsr, urannor, na3JI (Tai Kiao) 11 nrpa B p,eBHTb KOJICn2. OH BKlIIO'-IaeT raicse yp,OBOJIhCTBMe OLl,CHHBaTb BKYC 6JIIO.na HlIH 6)'KeT BHHa HJIH )Ke paCCMaTpHBaTb, cnanocrpacrno nepreri, H pyxax HJIH P,J)KC JIenHTb MCJIKHe 6C3,L1eJIYIllKH, 'ITO C6JIH)J(aeT ero C sananHLIM nOHHTHeM «x066H», TO ecn, CTpaCTblO K KOJIJIeKIJ;HOHepCTBY H MCJIKHM nOp,eJIK3M. Haxoneu OH nstpascaer' C060H MHfKo-paCCJu6lHllOIuee crrOKOHCTBHe JIYHHoro rreH3aJKa, KaTaHHe na JIOp,Ke no 03epHOH nIa;~l1, WIHTCJIbHOe C03epLl,aHHe noztonana '.

•••

Ha npasiepe CJIOEa wan yJKe rrOHHTHO, KaK cyp,b6a paaasrx Ll,HBHJIH3all,HH '-IHTaeTC51 rrOMHMO npoxero B HX nrpax. Ilpezmo-rrcuae, OKa3bIsaeaoe 3THMH ll,HBHJIH3all,HHMI1 ag6n'y, a1ea, mimicry HJIH ilinx'y, CK3- 3bIBael'CH H3 HX 6yp,yw:eM. ToqHO TaK )J(e B TOM, 'ITO aanac 3HCprI1H, KOTOPbIH rrpep,CTaBJI5IeT c060H paidia, HanpaBJI51IOT Ha 11306pcTeIlHc nosoro HJIH Ha naccaeavro MeqTaTerrbHoCTh, npocrynaer HeKHH BbI- 60p - paayxree'rca, HeHBHbIH, no cp)'H,LIaMeHTaJIbHO BaJKHbIH H HeOCnOPHMO 3Ha'-lHMbIH.

1 KpOMt roro, B KHTaH:CKOM H3blKe I1MCerC51 TepMI1H yeou. 03Ha'lalOIl\HH: nporvnKH 11 HrpbI na cselKeM B03Ayxe, ocooeano C B03/zyIIIHbIM 3MeeM, a C tlPyrOH: CTOPOH)'I, aarpofinsre crpaucrsaa A}'lII, MHCTH'IeCKHt ITy'TemeCTIlIUI masiaaoa, 6nylK,l\aHllil rrpuapasos H rpeITIHHKOB.

2 Hrpa, aU<lJIOB1'-1Hai! 6aI'IIOt\Y: zteears xonen COClIHHHIOTO! Il ueno-ncy, OHI1 rrpo!leThI lIP)T B npyra H l-laGUKCHbl na crCPIKCHb, 3J.KpenneHBbIH Ha OCBOBaHHYl. 111'pa COCTOHT B TOM, '1T06bl pa3!1eJIHTb HX. I1pH HCKOTOPOM HJllh!KC 3TO YAaerC51 c,rJ,CJIaTb, IIO'lTH He 3Jl1YMbIlla:RCb 06 ocyrQeCI1lJUlCMbIX orrepaunax - npu TOM '11'0 01-[11 CJIO)KHhl H TOHKH, 3aHHMalOT BCerAJ MHOI'O BptMCI-lH, a MaJIetllllaH OIIIH6Ka 33CI"allJUlCT Ha'lHHaTb nee crtasana.

3 eM. CSCl\eHIUI, 1l351'rhIC XeH:3I1IIIUH: y JJ:cIlSCll,ll,aKa (Homo Iudens, (Trad. franc.) P. 64), accneztoaauac AOKTOpa qy flHHil, ueuasre yrcaaannx AH/IPC A'OpMOHJ

11 CJIOBapb: GILES H. A Chinese-English Dictionary, 2d ed. London, 1912.

p. 510-511 (bsi), 1250 (choua), 1413 (teou), 1452 (wan), 1487-1488 (tau), 1662-1663 (veou).

71

POJKe Kama. I1rpbl H nlO8H
TAEJIHL\A 1
Knaccnqraxauas nrp
Ag6n Alea Mimicry llinx
(COCfH3JHfle) (Ylll'la) (CllM)'!JJ[l1l1J!) (ronoBOKpYlKcHlle)
PAIDIA [OHKH } C'lI1TanKII )lercKoe nOllpa- Ilertxaa -sep-
lli)'M 11 raM EoPb6a 6e3 OpmnlKJ JKaHHe TJ(qKJ·
Bcrorna 11 T. 11.. npaBI1Jl !1JmI03HOHllblC KapyCCJIb
XOXOT ATlIeTI1KJ mph! Ka'leJllI
K YKJIbI, Ha60- Bansc
phi zocnexos
MacK<!
Maoapan
B03JlYlllHblH EoKC Dl1JlbllPfJ. TOTaJIl13aTOp Volador
3MeH ¢eXToBaHl1e lllauncr Pynerxa 5!pMapO'lHble
Connrep ¢yr6011 Illaxxaru J1TpaKlllloHbI
Ilacsaac
KPOCCBOPIl B006lI\e cnoprasnue Jlorepea npo- Te~ JIbIlKll
cocraaanna CTalI, C1IOlKHaJI Boo nte Mbnl1HI13M
LUDUS I1JlI1 C nepeno- 3PeJJI1lI\llble 3KB11!l1l6pl1~
COM CTaBKII lle~CCTBa CTIlK<! III. COIJ;llaJIbHOe naanaacaae nrp

Taxaa TeH,ll;eHl.I,ID! K cocrH3aTeJIbHOCTll He,n;OJIrO ocraeror HMIDIHl.I,HTHOll H CnOHTaHHoll. OHa aacraanaer BBO,qHTb TQqHbIe npasana, npnHHMaeMble no 06II1,eMY COmaCHIO. Harrpaaep, B WBellQapHH ycrpaasatorCH rro BCeH cpopxe KOHKypCbI B03,lJ,yUIHbIX 3MeeB. TI06e,D;HTeJIeM 06bHBlUlIOT roro, qell 3Mell rro,n;HHMeTCH nsnue scex Ha BOCTOKe aTO copeBHOBaHHe npHHHMaeT CPOPMY naCTOHIII,ero 'rypnnpa. HHTb, na KOTOPOll nonnaaaerCH 3Mell, Ha HeKOTopoM paCCTOHHHH OT Hero npornrnaaaror CMOJIOll H 06- KJIeHBaIOT ocrpsnrn OCKOJIKaMH crexna 3a,n;alJeH HrpOKOB HBlUleTCH nepepeaars HHTH 4YJKHX JIeTaTeJIbHbIX annaparon, MacrepcKH cKpeIIl,HBaH HX co csoea, - 3TO caeroe nacroamee COCfH3aHHe, supocmee H3 TaKOll saoaBbI, KOTOPaH, Ka3aJIOCb 6bI, B npmnurne He naer ,n;JIH Hero nosozta,

,LWyrOH Pa3HTeJIbHhIH npioaep nepexona OT O,n;HHOKOro paaaneveHID! K copeBHOBaTeJIbHOMY HJIH ,n;aJKe 3PeJIHUUiOMY y,ll,OBOJIhCTBHIO zraer 6HJIb6oKe. Y 3CKHMOCOB OH B rpy6bIX xeprax H306paJKaeT C060H KaKOe-TO )KHBOTIioe: Me,.qBeM, PbI6y. B HeM npoaenano MHO:lKecrno oraepcrna, H nrPOK ,n;OJI)KeH JIOBHTb HrpyrnKy na ace 3TH OTBepCfIDI, B TO'lHO onpenezenHOM rrOPMKe H He BbrrrycK.a.!I H3 PYKH ocrpna ,lJ,aJIbUIe OH Ha'lHHaeT BCIO cepmo 3aHOBO, nepsca ocrpne O,ll,HHM COI'HyTbIM rraJIbQeM, nOTOM _ 3aJKH~ MaH ero JIOKTeM, nOTOM - nepzca B 3y6ax, B TO BpeMH KaK caxra arpymxa nponensraaer BCe 60JIee CJIO:lKHble ,n;Bl1)KeHllil. TIPH Ka)K,!l;OH OUIH6Ke HeJ)OBKHH HrpOK o6H3aH nepeztasart, HHcrpYMeHT conepnaxy, TOT Ha'lHHaeT 1)' :lKe caMYIO rrOCJIe,n;oBaTeJIbHOCTb, nsrraaci, naaepcrars csoe OTCTaBaHHe HJIH o60maTb nporasaaxa, TIo,n;6paChIBaH H JIOM 6HJIh6oKe, HrpOK O,n;HOepexenno MHMHqeCKH H306paJKaeT KaKoe-TO rrpHKJIIOlJeHHe HJIH nOCJIe,n;OBaTeJIbHO paCCKa3bIBaeT 0 KaKOM -TO ,ll,eHCrBHH. OH nosecrsyer 0 nyremecrsaa, 06 OXOTe, 0 Cpa:lKeHHH, nepe-racnaer pasmae cra,n;HH Pa3.ll.eJIKH 1)'I.lIH 3BepH - onepatum, KOTOPOH 3aHHMaIOTCH TOJIbKO )KeHIll.HHbI. ]lOM 6HJ1h60Ke na HOBoe OTBepcTI1e, OH TOpJKeCrBeHHO rrpHrOBapHBaer:

N . B. B ](J)I(,!10H 113 BepruKJnbHblX KOIiOIlOK mpbl BeCbMJ npll61I1l31lTeJlbllO pacnonosma B TaKOM nopl!,11Ke, 'ITO 31leMeHT paidia Bee 60lIee cospauiaercs, a 3JleMeHT ludus'a - pacrer,

Hrpa - 3TO He npocro HH,Z:J;l1BH.n;yaJIbHOe paasne-renae. TIO)KaJIYH ,n;a:lKe, OHa 6bIBaeT TaKOH ropasno peace, qeM ,n;yMaIOT. KOHelJHO, ecn, MHO:lKeCTBO Hrp, ocooenno trrp Ha JIOBKOCTb, B KOTOPbIX rrpOHIUl5!eTCH cyryoo JIH'lHaH JIOBKOCTh H B xoropsre BrrOJIHe B03MO)KH0 arpars O,nHOMY. Ho oxem, CKOPO Hrpbl na JIOBKOCTb OKa3bIBaIOTCJ:I arpaxn na COCTH3aHHe BJIOEKOcrH. TOMY ccn, OlJeBH,qHOe ,ll,OKa3aTeJIbCTBO. CKOJIb 6bl HH,n;HBH,n;yaJIhHbIM HH Ka3aJIOCb nproaeaenne HrpOBbIX npmraanescaocrea - B03.IJ.YllIHoro 3MeH, BOJIqKa, HO-HO, ,n;Ha60JIo, 6HJIb60Ke HJIJ1 cepco, ~ nrparomexy CKOPO nanoecr 3Ta 3a6aBa, eCJIH Y Hero HeT HH coneprmxoa, HH 3pHTeJIeH, XOTH 6bI Bo06paJKaeMbIX. Bo scex 3THX pasaooopaaaux vnpaxorenasx rrpOJ:IBJIHeTCH 3JIeMeHT conepmrsecrea, H KaJK,ll,blH crpeMHTCH nopasnrs CBOHX rrpOTHBHHKOB - B03MO)KH0, HeBH}1,HMbIX HJIH OTcyTCTByIOllI,HX, - BbI,n;eJIhIBaH KaKHe-TO ,n;HKOBHHHble ¢OK)'CbI, see 60- nee nOBbIUIaH HX Tpy,n;HOCTb, yCTaHaBJIHBaH na KaKoe-TO BpeMH pexopnsr ,ll,JIHTeJIbHOCTH, CKOPOCTH, TO'lHOCTH, BhICOTbI, - O,n;HHM CJIOBOM, 'ropaceCTBeHHO OTMe'laH, XOTH 6bI JIHIIIh B co6CTBeHHhlX rnasax, JII060e csoe ,n;OCTH:lKeHHe. 06bl'lHO JII06HTeJIh arpars C IOJIOR penxo 3a6aBJIHeTCH ero B KOMnaHHH npaeepxemrea 6HJIb60Ke, a JII06HTeJIh B03.IJ.YllIHbIX 3Mees - B rpyrrrre arparoumx E cepco. BJIa,n;eJIbQbI O,n;HHX H 'rex :lKe urposux HHCTpyMeHToB BCTpClJaIOTCH B KaKOM-TO Tpa,n;Hl.I,HOHHOM HJIH npocro nonxonamea MeCTe; TaM OHH H MepJ:IIOTCH CBOHM YMeHl1eM. B 3TOM 'lacTO 3aKJIIOlJaeTCH I1X rJIaBHOe ynoaonscruue.

OHa CHOEa 6epcr HO)!(, Bapesaer TIOJIeHH, CHHMlcr UIKypy, 113BJIeKacr KHIIIKH, Bapeaaer rpy,ll,HHy, BhlHHMacr BHYI'peHHOCfH, Bblpe3acr pe6pa, . Bsrpeaaer n03EOHOlJHHK, Bblpe3acr H!1)KHHe KOCTH, Orpeaaer 3a,D;HHe JIanbI, Orpeaaer rOJlOBy, Bsrpesaer )KHp, Cxnansraaer mxypy, CMat·mBacr ee MO'IOll, BhlcyrnHBacr rra COJIHqe

HT.,[I.

72

73

Poxce KaHp. HrpbI 11 )]]0811

51 Tc6H 6blO, >I Te6H y611JI,

51 orpveiaio rcoe roJIOEy, 51 orpyoaro reoe pyKy,

A IlOTOM /1,PyryI<),

51 orpyoaro Te6e HOI}',

A IlOTOM }..\Pyr)'lO, Bpocaio KyCKH c06aKaM, 11 co6aKH HX C,/..\HT ...

::l'fOH nyCTOTbL To-nto Tal(;KC }JCHU, qTO qeJIOBeK Ha,lJ;CBaCT MacK)' HJIH qy;KOC IIJ]aThC JIHlllb pa,n;H 11.pyrHX JI1O,[IC?t. Haxoncu C1O,lI,a )Ke OTHOCHTCH H rOJIOBoKP)?KHTCJlbHbIC nrpu: l(;JqCJIH, KapYCCJIb, aMepHKaHcKHC ropxn TO;Ke 'rpefiyror KOJIJleKTHHHoro H036}')K,1l,cmIH H pa31'OpHqCHHOCTH, KO- 1'OPblC IlOMCp)KHBaIOT H YCl1JIHBaIOT Bbl3bIBaCMOC HrpOH OnhJlJICHHe.

l11'a1(, pa3JIHqHblC xareropna nrp- agon (no onpC,lI,CJlCHHIO), alea, mimicry, ilinx - rrpenrronaraior, qTO B HHX nrpaior HC B O,ll,HHOqCCTBC, a B KOMnaHHH. Ozmaxo II 60JlbIIIHHCTHC cny-iaen 3'1'0 no HC06XO,[lHMOCTH y:3KHH KP)')KOK nOCKOJIhK)' Ka)KJ~bIH ,lI,OJI;KCH nrpars ITO OqepC,[IH, ,lI,eJIaH XOAhI no C06CTBCHHOMYYCMOTPCHH1O H O;:J,HOBPCMCHHO ITO rrpaaanax, TO KOJlHqCCTBO HrpOKOH HC MO)f(CT paCTH 6CCKOHCqHO, KOJIb CKOpO BCC OHH npHHHMalOT aKTHBHOC y-racrne B nrpe. B rraprnn MO)f(CT vsacraoaarr, JIHlIIb OrpaHH'-lCHHOC 4HCJIO nrpoxon - 06bC,lI,HHCHHblX HJIH HCT B KOMaH.L\bL TI03TOM)' Hfpa 'laCTO npC,lI,CTaHJIHCT C060H 3aIDlTHC Hc60JlbIIIHX rpynn m06Hl'CJICH HJlH aficionados 1 , KOTOPhIC HC,[IOJIroc BPCMH, ITOO,ll,aJIh 0'1' BCCX, rrpeztarcrca caoesry JIlU6HMOMY pa3BJ1C'-lCHH1O. O,ll,HaKO )?KC ll.JI1I mimicry nOJlC3HO MHO)f(CCTEO 3pHTCJICH, T04HO TaK ;KC KaK KOJIJICKTHEHOC y'BJIC'-lCHHC Ilinx'oxr CTHM)'JIHpyCT Hrpy H cavo nHTaCTC}J C1O.

B HHhIX ClI)"-laHX ,[I3)f(C TC HI'PbI, KOTOPbIC, Ka3aJIOCb 6hI, no CHOCH npapone npC,lI,Ha3Ha'-lCHbI Will Y3KOI'0 xpyra HrpOKOB, npopsmaror 3TO OrpaHH'lCHHC H HBJlHIOTCJI B TaKHX rpopsrax, xoropsre XOTb H no-npezcHCMY HCCOMHCHHO OTHOOI.TCJI K 06JIaCTH nrp, HO rpeoyior pa3BHTOH opraanaauna, CJIO)f(HOrO 060PY,[IOBaHHJI, cneunansno nO,ll,fOTOBJICHHOrO H HCpapXH'lCCKH ynOpH,ll,O'lCHHOrO nepconana, O;:J,HHM CJIOBOM, ll.JI1I HHX H)?KHbI nOCTOJIHHblC H TOHKO naJI3)f(CHHhIC crpyicrypsi, npespautarornne HX H HII.CTHTyThI - HCOCPHl.l,HaJIhHhIC, npasarnsre, MaprHHaJIhHbJC, HHOrna TaHHbJC, HO 'lPC3EbI4ai1Ho crOHKHC H AJIHTCJlhHbIC.

TaKHM 06pa30M, B Ka)f(,IJ,OH H3 cp)'H,ll,aMCHTaJIhHbIX KaTCrOpHH nrp HMCIOTCSI. COl.l,HaJIH3HPOH3H1lbIC acrrexrsr, KOTOPblC 6J1arol~3PJl CBoeH UIHpOTC H YCTOH'U1BOcrH 3aBOCBaJIH cc6c npH3HaHHc E )f(H3HH 06Ill,CCTBa. ,lJ,rnr agon'a TaKOH COI~HaJIH3HpOBaHHOll CPOPMO?t HBJlHeTCSI nposne BCCro cnopr, K KOTOpOMy rrpHMbIKaJO'r TaIOKC HCKOTOPhlC HfC'lHCIbIC» EH,ll;hI COpCBHOEaHHH, HCHEHO CMCUIHBJ1O~HC aacrryry C Ylla 'lell, aarrpnsrep pazmoarpsr H PCK ~ JIaMHbJC KOHK)'pCbI; lVUI alea 3TO Ka3HHO, I1rrIIO,ll,pOMbI, rocynapcrsennsre JlOTCPCH H MHO;KCCTBO HIp, KOTOPblC ycrpaanaiorca KpynHhlMH 6yKMCKCPCKHMH KOMnaHHHMH; AJIH mimicry 3T0 rearpansaue HCK:ycCTBa, OT onepu ,[(0 rearpa MapHOHeTOK Ii fHHbOJ]Jl, a TaIOKC - B 60JICC /WYCMhlCJICHHOH CPOpMC, YJKc C6JIH)f(alOIll,CHCJI C rOJlOBoKPYJKCHHCM, - KapHaHaJI H MaCKJpa,IJ,; HaKOneu AJIH ilinx'a 3TO RpMapO'lHhIC ryllilHHH Ii I~HKJIH'lCCKHC C)f(cro,ll,Hble npaaauecrna, ,IIHH CEJlThlX yrO,[lHHKOH H npyn«: YSCCCJICHHH.

I I pn HCCJIC,Il,OBaHHH nrp OT,lI,CJlhHaH rnasa ,lI,OJI;KHa 6hITb nOCBHIll,Crra HCCM 3THM JlEJlCHHRM, 6J1aroAapJl KOTOPhlM HIpbI npHMO BKJIIO'-lJ1OTCJI B nOECC,lI,tICBHhIC npanu. LLci1CTBHTCJIhIlO, TaKHC HBJlCtIHJI cnocoocr-

I1HOf,ll,J nrpo«, pa303J1HBIUHCh Ha conepnmca, Ha'lHHaCT ero HO- 06P3)I.(JCMOC paC4J1CHCHHC na KyCKH:

11 HC 1'OJIhKO c06aKH, HO TaJ()f(C H nncsr, HOPOHhI, Kpa6hI - ace, '-lTO npH,/..\CT Ha YM. BTOPOMY HrpoK)', npexote '-lCM B0306HOBHTb noennnox, npHXO,ll,HTCR c06HpaTb CBOC TCJIO no K)'CO'-lKaM B 06paTHOM nopanxe. rna Boo6p3)f(aCMaH nOCJIC,lI,OEaTeJlhHocrb conpOBO)f(,[laCTCJI B03fliacaMH 3PHTCJICH, )'BJIC'-lCIIHO CJIC.LVI~HX 33 ncpHne-fHJIMH ITOCAHHKa.

Ha ):IanHOH CTa,lJ;HH nrpa Ha JlOHKOCTb C nCCOMHCHHOCfhIO npenCTaBJIHCT C060H JlBJlCHHC KyJlbl)'Pbl - OCHOBY WlH KOJIJICKTllBHoro C,lI,HHCHHJI H YECCeJlCIIHH CpC,lI,H XOJIO,ll,a H ThMbl nOJUlpIIOH HOqH. 31'01' 3KCTPCMaJIhHbIH CJI)"-laH HC cCTb 'ITO-TO HCKJIIO'-lH1'eJlbHOC. ITPOCTO OH y,ll,06CII TCM, 'ITO noxaasraaer, KaK caMaH HHlIHBHAYaJIhIIJJI no npnpoztc H I1a3Ha'lCHlllO nrpa JIcrKO nOMaCTOI ECCB03MO;KHOMY pa3BHTHIO H 060rall~CHHIO, K01'OPbIC nopori nO'lTH npespamaior ec B CO~HaJIbHbIH HHCTH'IYf. MO)f(HO ,lI,3)f(C CKa3aTb, 'ITO HrpOHOH ACHTeJIhHOCTH '-lcrO-TO HC;:J,OCTaCT, xerna OHa CBO,ll,HTCH JlHIIIh K ynpa)KHCHHJlM OAHHO'ICK.

06hI'lHO urpsr ,lI,OCTHraIOT nOJIHOrO pa3BllTJ.UI JlllIIIb B TOT MOMClIT, xorna Bhl3hIBalOT 3aHHTcpCCOBaHHhIH OTKJIHK. LLa)Kc 1'or,[la, xoraa HrpOKH B npmumne MOfJIH 6hI 6C3 BCHKHX HeY;:J,06cTH npC,lI,aBaThCJI I1f~ pc K3)f(,lI,blH no OT;:J,eJIbHOCTH, OHa O'lCHb CKOPO craHoEHTCR nOHO/~OM AJill KOHKYPCOB H 3PCJIHllJ;, KaK Mbl KOHCTJTHPOEaJIH 31'0 B CJI)"laHX C E03AYIIIIIhIM 3MCCM H 6HJlh60KC. LLCHCTBHTCJIhHO, 60JlbIllHHCTEO nrp ITpC,[ICTallJlHIOT c060H nonpoc H OTBCT, BhI30B H pCJK~H1O, npOEoKaqHIO H aapazccHHC, COHMCCTHO nCpC)f(HBJCMOe CTPCMJICHHe l1JIH Ha!lpH*CHHC. OHH H)l)K[I;aIOTCH BO BHHMaHHH H CO'l)'BCrBHll ,lI,pyrHX JlIOACH. TIO-BH,lI,HMOMY, 3TOMV 3JKOHV nOA'lHIffilOTCJI BCC KaTCfopHH nrp. LL3)f(e a3apTHhIC nrpsr llhlr~T npi1THraTCJIhHCC E TOJlnC, MO)f(CT 6bITh ,lI,3)f(C H AaBKC. HH'lTO He MCIIIaCT HrpOKaM 3aKJIIO'-laTh napn no TCJlecpOHY HJIH ,lI,CJIaTh CTJEKH, CH,lI,JI C V,ll,06CTBaMH B '-lbCH-HH6Yl~h THXOi1 rocTHiiOH. Ho BeT - OHH ripennO'l~T3IOT npncyrcreona'rs Ha Mecrc, B TOJInC nOCCTHTCJICH HIInO,ll,pOMa HJlH KJ3HHO, nOToMY 'lTO HX Y,lI,OBOJlbCTEHC H B036)')K,ll,CHHC HJpaCTJ10T 01' PO,ll,CTBCHHoro -rpenera MHO;KCCTEJ HC3IIJKOMbIX JlIO,lI,eH BOKPyr·

CXO;:J,HbIM 06pa30M rsrocrno CH,/..\CTb O"HOM)' B 3pHTCJlhHOM saJlC - ,lI,J;KC E KHHO, rne HCT )f(HBbIX aKTepOB, BhlHyJK,IJ,CHHbIX CTpa,ll,aTb 01'

1 11lo6I1Te.rrei1 (ucn.). - JIPUMe<I. nep.

74

75

PO)l(e KaHya. Hrphl M JIlOIlM

IV. I1cKaJKeHl1e nrp

)KeJIaHHIO BpeMeHHO napynnrrs YCTOH:'UIBOCTh If paBHOBeCHe c06CTBeHaoro TeJIa, BbIpBaTbCH H3-nO).l, BJlaCTH caoero socnpnaraa, BhI3BaTb pacCTpOH:CTBO csoero C03HaHHH.

ECJm nrpa 3aKJIIO'IaeTCH B TOM, '1T06bI ).l,aBaTb 3THM MOIIl,HhlM HHCTIfHKTaM ¢OpMaJlbHOe, H).l,eaJlbHOe, orpaaasennoe Y).l,OBJIeTBOpeHHe B croporre OT 06bItlHOrr )K]13HH, TO '1TO)£(e rrponcxoznrr, xorna see KOHaemma OT6poIIIeHbi? Korna MIfP nrpsr nepecraer 6bITb nenponnuaeMbIM? Korzta rrpOIfCXO).l,HT ero KOHTaMHHaQlliI C MHpOM peaJIbHblM, rne K~bIH: IKeCT BJIe'leT aa c060H: He06paTIfMbIe nOCJIe).l,CTBHH? Torna KaJKAOH H3 HallIHX ¢YH.D.aMeHTaJIbHhlX 'py6PHK COOTBeTCTByeT aexoropoe cneQIf¢H'IeCKOe naapanteaae, BbITeKaIOIII,ee H3 OTcyTCTBlfH KaK c).l,ep)KJ1- BaIOIII,IfX, TaK H 3aIIl,IfTHbIX ¢aKTOpOB. Korna BJIaCTb HHCTHHKTa BHOBb CTaHOBHTC5I 6e3pa3).l,eJIbHOH, TO CKJIOHHOCTb, KOTOPyIO ynasanoce 06MaH)'Tb 060co6JIeHHOH:, BBe).l,eHHOH B paMKH H KaK 6bI HempaJlH30BaHHOH HrpOBOH ).l,eHTeJIbHOCTbIO, BbIIlJIeCKHBaeTC5I B 06bI'IHyIO )fCH3Hb H nsrraeTCH no Mepe CHJI nO).l,'-IIfHHTb ee CBOHM c06CTBeHHbIM Tpe60BaHHHM. qTO 6hlJIO Y).l,OBOJIbCTBHeM, CTaHOBIfTCH HaBH3'flfBOH: H).l,eer1; 'ITO 6bIJIO yxOAOM 01' ).l,eH:CTBIfTeJIbHOCTH, CTaHOBHTCH 06H3aHHOCTbIO; 'ITO 6hlJIO pa3BJIeqeHHeM, CTaHOBHTCH cTpaCTbIO, HaB~eHI1eM H HCTO'-IHHKOM TpeBorH.

I1pHHIJ;l1rr HrpbI OKa3hlBaeTCH HCKaJKeH. 3).l,eCb Bl)KHO nonsepxH)'Tb, '-ITO HCK~eTCH OH He H3-3a cyIIJ,eCTBOBaHlfH HeqeCTHbIX HJIH )Ke npocpeccnoaansnsrx HrpOKOB, a TOJIbKO H3-3a CMeIIIeHlfH C peansnoCTblO. I10 cyrn, rrpOIfCXO).l,HT He aaspamemre nrpsr, a 6JI)')K).l.aHHe, OTKJIOHeHIfe O,l{HOro H3 nepBUQHbIX n06}?KAeHHH, KOTOphlMH yrrpannaerca arpa. I10,n;06HbIH ClI)"laH: - OTHIO,n;b He ffCKJIIOQeHI1e. OH B03HIfKael' ncerzia, xorna ,n;aHHbIH IfHCTffHKT 60JIbIlle He ¢IfKCIfPYeTCH ,n;IfCIJ;IffTJIIfHOH If paMKaMH COOTBeTCTByIOIII,eH: xareropna nrp HJIH )fCe xorna OH OTKa3hlBaeTC5I ,n;OBOJIbCTBOBaTbCH TaKOH npHMaHKoH.

qTO )Ke xacaerca ne-recrnoro nrpoxa, TO OH OCTaerCH B MIfpe nrpsi, OH 06XO,n;HT ee npaeuna, HO Bce-TaKH nenaer BH).l" 'ITO C06JIIO,n;aeT HX. OH nsrraercs I1X '-IeM-TO I1o,n;MeHHTb. OH He'-IeCTeH, HO JIHIJ;eMepeH. TaKHM CBOHM OTHOIIIeHHeM OH nozrraepxotaer H npOB03rJ1ainaer .n;eHcTBeHHocTb aapyuraexisrx 11M )ICe npaBHJI, rrOCKOJlbK)' eMY fIYiKHO, '-ITo6hl HM Bce-TaKH rro.n;'lHHHJlHCb OCTaJlbHbIe. ECJIH ero paso- 6J1a'laIOT, TO H3rOHHIOT. MHp nrpsr OCTaeTCH HenpIfKOCHOBeHHbIM. TO'-IHO TaK)lCe xenosex, .n;eJlalOIll,HH HrpOBYIO ,qeHTeJIbHOCTb CBOHM peMeCJIOM, HHKaK He H3MeHHeT ee npnpozrsr. KOHe'-IHO, casr OH )')Ke He Ifrpaer - OH 3aHHMaerCH rrpocpeCCHOHaJIbHOH ,ll;eHTeJIbHOCTblO. I1PIfpozia )Ke COCTH3aHIfH HJIH apemnna He MeHHeTCH OT Toro, \ITO arne'rst HJIH arcrepsr - He J1106IfTeJIH, O)KH).l,aIOIII,He 01' nrps; JIHIIIb Y,ll;OBOJIbCTBHH, a npo¢eCCHOHaJIbI, HrpaIOIII,Ife aa nna'ry. Pa3JIH'-IIfe xacaerca TOJIbKO caMHX 3TH X J1IO,ll;eH.

)Lrrn npocpeCCHOHaJIbHhIX 60KcepOB, BeJIOrOHIII,HKOB HJIH aKTepOB agon ll1IH mimicry - )')Ke He pa3BJIe4eHIfe, npuanaaaoe ,ll;aTb OT,ll;bIX OT

sytor TO My, '-ITO pa3JIH'lHble K)'JIbT)'Pbl npIf06peTaIOT aexoropsre If3 CBOax caMblX nerxo on03HaBaeMbIX 06blqaeB If IfHCTIflyrDB.

Korna MbI rrepe4HCJIJUIIf OTJlH'H1TeJlhHbIe npIf3HaKH, onpenenmomae nrpy, TO arpa npencrana HaM KaK ,ll;eHTeJIbHOCTb 1) CB060,ll;HaH, 2) 060c06- JIeHHaH, 3) C Heorrpe,ll;eJleHHbIM HCXO,ll;OM, 4) HenpOH3BO,ll;HTeJIbHaH, 5) perynapnaa, 6) qmKTHBHaH; npa 3TOM nsa nOCJIeAHHX npnanaxa B TeH,ll;eHI.I,HH B3aIfMHO HCKJIIO'IaIOT npyr npyra.

3TH urecrs '1HCTO CPOPMaJIbHbIX Ka'leCTB eme MaJI~ '-ITO rOBopHT HaM 0 pa3JIIfqHbIX nCIfXOJlorH'-IeCKHX HaCTpoeHHHX, 01' KOTOPhlX 3aBHCHT UrpbI. Pe3KO npOTHBOnOCTaBJIHH MIfP IfrpbI H MHp peaJIbHOCTH, non'-IepKHBaH, 'lTO nrpa ecrs no cynr CBoeH omoensuoe 3aHRTHe, OHH 03Ha'-IaIOT, '-ITO BCHKaH KOHTaMHHal.l,HH C 06bI'IHOH )f(H3HblO rp03HT ee HCKaJKeHHeM H paapyurenneja CaMOH: ee npapozna.

Orroro HHTCpeCHblM MO)f(eT OKa3aTbOI sonpoc 0 TOM, 'lTO)Ke npOHCxoznrr C IfrpaMIf, xorna rpaaana, pe3KO OTAeJIHIOIII,aH 11X H).l,eaJIbHhle npamtJIa OT ,ll;H¢¢Y3HbIX H HeHBHblX 3aKOHOB rrOBCe,ll;HeBHO:H )Klf3HIf, yrpaxaaaer He06xo,ll;HM)'lO 'leTKOCTh. HCHO, '-ITO OHH He MOryT He1l3MeHHhlMH pacnpocrpaaarsca sa npenensr OTBe,ll;eHHOH: HM TeppHTOpI1H (IllaxMaTHOH: HJIH utaIIIe'-IHOH ,ll;OCKH, T}'PHHPHOH fTJIOIIl,a,ll;KH, rOHO'IHOH AOPO:lKKH, CTa,ll;HOHa HJIH CIJ;eHhI) HJIH nepnona BpeMeHH, '-IeH: xoneu nenpcnoaoro oanasaer saxpsrTIle mpOBOH: llHTepMt',ll;HH. I1pll TaKOM pacnpocrpauenaa OHIf HeH36C)KH0 nOJI)'4aIOT secsxa OTJIH'-IHble, nopon ).l,J)Ke Heo)KH,Tl;aHHhIe cpopMhI.

Kposre Toro, B xozte urpsr yy:aCTHHKH nOBHHyIOTcH O,ll;HOMY JIHllIb crporoxy H a6COJIIOTHOMY KO,ll;eKCY npaaan, HX npeABapHTeJIbHOe corrracne C HHM COCTaBJIHeT YCJIOBHe HX yxacrna B 3TOH 060co6JIeHHoH H cyry60 KOHBeHI.I,HOHaJIbHOH ,ll;eHTeJIbHOCTH. Hy a eCJIIf B,ll;pyr KOHBeHIJ;IDI nepecraer npHHHMaTbcH ll1IH nepC)KHBaTbCH KaK TaKOBaH? ECJIH 060c06JIeHHOCTh OT BHeIIIBero MHpa 60JIbIIIe He C06JIIO.n;acrcH? I1pH 3TOM, KOHe'lHO, He MOryT COXpaHRTbCH HH ¢OpMbJ nrpsr, HH ee csooona. OCTaeTCH JIHIllb OAHO THpaHH'-IeCKH BJIaCTHOe nCHXOJlorI-f'-IeCKOe nacrpoenne, 3aCTaBJIHBIIIee npHHHMaTh nrpy ll1IH )fCe HeKOTopbIH BH).l, Ifrphl B rrpOTHBOnOJIO)K}IOCTh ,ll;pyrHM BH).l,aM. BcnOMHHM, 'ITO 3THX pasJIH'-IHbIX HaCTpoeHI-fH: - scero -rerupe CTpeMJIeHI-fe n06e,ll;HTh B peryJIHPHOM COCTH3aHIfH 6JIarO,ll;apH OAHOH: J1HIllb JIIf'-IHOH: sacrryre (agan), orpeaenne 01' c06CTBeHHOH: BOJIH H naCCIfBHO-TpeBO)KHOe O)f(H).l,a~H.e nparosopa cY,ll;h6bJ (alea), )KeJlaHHe 06J1e'-IbCH B '-I)')KyIO JIH'-IHOCTh (mimicry), naiconeu 'rara K roJlOBOKp)')KeHIfIO (Hinx). I1PH agon'e arpox pacC'IHTblBaeT TOJIhKO aa cetis, aa csoe YCll1IHe H ynOpCTBO; npn alea OH paCC'-IHTbIBaeT aa see, KpOMe ceea caxoro, H ornaerca na BOJIIO HenOAKOHTPOJlbHbIX eMy Cll1I; rrpn mimicry OH sooopaacaer ceos KeM-TO HHbIM H npHAYMbIBaeT ce6e cpHKTHBHbIH MHPi npa ilinx'e OH y,ll;OBJIeTBOPHeT

76

77

PO)KC Kaava, I1rpl>l H nJOllH

YCTaJlOCTI1 l1llH nepejacrry nocne MOHOTOHHoro, TIDKKO-H3HYPHTeJlbHO- 1'0 rpyaa. ,lI)rn HHX 31'0 H ecrs TPY.L\, He06xOAHMhIH ,lJ,lUI npornrrarma, noCTOHHItaH H sceueno nornomaiouias HX ):ICHTeJlbIlOCTb, nOJIHaH npensrCTBHH H CJIO)KHbIX 3a,1J,a'-l, H, '-IT06hI OT.L\OXHyrb OT nee, OHH uepatom B TaKMe urpur, xoropue He 51HlliIIOTCH WIH HHX 065l3aIlHOCTbIO.

,lI)rn axrepa TeaTpaJlbHOe rtpeztcraanenue TO)l(e HBJl5leTC5I aKTOM CHMYJI5111,HH. OH rpHMHpYeTC5I, Ha,IJ,eHaeT Cll,eHH'-ICCKHH KOCTIOM, H30- 6pa)l(acr )l(eCThI H nocryrnca, npOH3HOCHT pe-ru caoero nepconazca. Ho xorna sauanec nanaer, a CBeT racner, OH B03HpaU~aeTC5I K peaJlbHOCTH. Pa3.L\eJleHHOCTb .L\B}'X MHpOB OCTaeTC51 nerrpenoxcnori, Taiose H WI5l rtpo¢eCCHOHaJIhHOrO BeJlorOHI~HKa, 60Kcepa, TeIIHHCHC1'a HJlH ¢yr60JlHCTa copeBHOBaHH5I, MaT'f, rOHKa OCTaIOTCH CPOpMaJIbHO-peryJl51pHhIMH COCTM3aHH5IMH. KaK TOJlbKO OHH 3aKaH'-IHBaIOTCH, ny6JlHKa cneunrr K BbIxorry, a caM '-IeMnMOH soaapamaercs K CBOHM nOBCe.L\HeBHbIM 3a60TaM, OH AOJI)I(eH 3alll,Hlll,aTb CBOH mrrepecsr, nporrysnaaa'n, Ii ocymecranrrrs nomrrnxy, KOTOPaH HaHJIyYUlHM 06pa30M 06eCne'-lHT era 6Y.L\)'lll,ee. KaK TOJIhKO OH YXO.L\HT co CTa,IJ,HOHa, senonposra Will pnara, BMeCTO H,[\eaJIbHO-TOqHOrO COnepHH'-IeCTBa, me OH .L\OKa3blBaJI CBOIO ,q06JIeC1'b B COBepmenno HCKyCCTllenHhlX YOIOBl-mX, Ha'-lHHaIOTUl. COBceM HHble, ropaauo 60JIee onacnsre COnepIIH'-ICCTBa. OHH He3aMeTHbI, nenpepsmnsi, neyxoJlHMbI II nponrrnasarcr C060H BCIO ero )l(H3Hb. I10,ll,06HO axrepy BHe cueHhI, OH OKa3bIBaeTC51 B nOJIO)KeHllH 06bl'-IHOfO qeJIOBCKa, KaK TOJIhKO Bblfi:;:(eT H3 3aMKHyTOI'O npOCTpaHCTBa H ocoooro BpeMeHH, rzte uapsrr CTpOfHe, npOH3BOJIhHble H 6eccnopHhle 3aKOHhI HrpbI.

•••

L[alll,e scex HI'p HCKJ)I(aeTOI. ag6n, H nacrosmee ero naapameane Ha'-lHHaeTC5I BHe aperrsi, rrOCJIe qlHHaJIbHOrO ronra. OHO npoannaercs BO scex KOH¢JIHKTaX, xoropue He CM5lI"'laIOTC51 CTporoCTbIO trrpoaoro zryxa. Bens 6e3pa3.L\eJlbHaH KOHK)'PeHU;H5I - 31'0 rrpOCTO 3aKOH npnponsr. B ofimecrue OHa ooperaer CBOIO ll3Ha'-IaJIbHyIO )ICecrO](OCTb, KaK TOJIbKO HaXO.L\HT ce6e JIa3eHK)' CKB03b cers MOPaJIbHbIX, oomecreennsrx H IOpHAH'-ICCKMX Orp3HH'-IeHHH, xoropsre, nonoono HI'pOBhIM OI'paHH'-ICHH}{M, npe.L\CTaBJlHIOT C060H npenerrsr H KOHBeHQHH, I103TOMY aencronoe, naBH3'-IHBOe '-IeCTOJII06He, B KaKoH 6bI o6JIacTM ono HH npoannanocs, eCJIH TOJIhKO npa 3TOM He C06JllOAaIOTCH rtpannna '-IeCTHOH nrpsr, - crrezryer CqHTaTb npHHll,HrrHaJIhHhIM HCK3)KeHHeM, 3 B AaHHOM CJIy'-Iae B03BpaTOM K .L\OMrpOBoH CH1')'aQHH, C06CTBeHHO, HH'!TO TaK XOPOIIIO He nOK3- asrsaer L\HBHJIH3yromyIO ¢ynKnHIO Hrphl, KaK Te nperpazns, xoropsre OHa CTaBHT npHp0.L\HOH aJI'-IHOCTH, H3BeCTHO, '-ITO HaCTOHlll,HH HI'pOK - 31'0 TOT, KTO yMecr OTCTpaIleHHO, orpeineuno H KaK MHHHMyM C sueurHHM XJI3AHOKpOBHeM CMOTPCTh H3 HeY.L\a'-IY AJ)I(e caMhIX ynopnsrx CBOHX YCl1llHH H aa npOHrpbllll caMOH 60JIbillOH CTaBKM. Pemenae apfiirrpa, l~a)ICe necnpaaennasoe, npHHHMaCTC5I H3 npH1I1~Mna. A HCKJ)I(eHHC

78

,

'-facTI> lIepBaJI. rv HCKJ)KCHHC Hrp

agon'a HaqHHaeTCH TOr.L\a, xorna BOo6lll,C He npH3HJIOT HHKJKOro ap- 61'Hpa H nmcaxoro Jp6HTpJ)l(a,

CXO.L\HhIM 06pa30M HCK3)K3el'O! H rrpauunn aaaprustx Hlp - KOrAJ nrpox rtepecracr npH3HaBJTh CJI)"l.aHHOCTb, TO ecn, 60llhlllC He C<.JHTaCT ec 6e3JlH'-IHO-I1eihpa.IJbHhIM cpaKTOpOM 6e3 cepaua H 6e3 naserrn, <.JHCTO Mexaml<.JeCKHM 3ctxPeKTOM 3aKOHOB BepOHTIiOCfH, I1cK3)I(eHHC alea Ha'-IHHaeTCH C cyeBepH51MH. B CJMOM AeJIC, WI5l usepsnomeroor CYAb6e CO- 6Jla3HllTeJIhHO nOnbITaThCH npensnnen, ee rrpnroaop l1llH npnaneas ee 6JIaI'OCKJIOHHOCI'b, TaKOH HrpOK npnaaer Be~HH CMblCJI caMhlM pasnooopa3HbIM 51BJIeHH5IM, ncrpexan H '-fYAeCHhIM npOHCllleCTBH5IM, xoropue B era Bo06p3)l(eHHH npC.L\peKaIOT eMYY.L\a '-IY l1llH HeY.L\a'-l)', OH mner TaJIHCMaHbI, KOTOPble 6hI KaK MO)KHO 60Jlee .L\eHCl'BeHHO era 3an~H~aJIH. OH B03.L\ep)I(HBaeTCH 01' HrpbI rrpn MaJIei1meM npeneecran, IloJI)"-feHHoM OT CHOBH,[\eHHH, npmrer HlIH npeAqyBCTBHl1. Haxoneu, '-IT06hl OTBeCTH arrsre BJIH5IEIWI, OH caM HlIH C qyiKOH nosronu.ro npaI<THK)'CT 3aKllHTH5I.

Co6CTBeHHO, nO.L\06Hoe nacrpoeane IIHlllb yCl1llHBaeTC51 aaaprHbIMH HrpaMH - OHO aoorime qpe3Bbl'-IaHHO <.JaCTO scrpevaeror KaK nCHXOJIOrH'-IeCKHH CPOH. OHO 3aYparHHJeT .L\aJICKO He TOJlbKO Tex, KTO XO.L\HT B Ka3HHO H na HnnO.L\pOMbl HlIH )Ke noxynaer JIOTepeHHhle 6l1lleTbI. ,Dim MHO)KeCTBa qHTaTeJIeH e)l(e.L\HeBHOH H e)l(eHeAeJIbHOH npeccsr, ny6JlHKyIOll~eH ropocxorm, K3)K):IhIH nens H K3)K):IaH He.L\elliI npenpama- 10TCH B KaKOe-TO 06eTOBaHHe l1llH yrposy, cnocotinsre OC)'lll,eCTBHTbCH no BOJle neoec l1llH no TeMHOH BJIaCTH CBeTllJI, 9alll,e BceI'O 3TH ropocxonsr rrpawo yKa3hIBaIOT, xaxoe '-IHCJlO 6JIarOnpH51THO B AaHHhIH AeHh WI5l '-IHTaTeJIeH, POAHBIllHXCH nOA TeM HllH HHbIM 3naKOM sonnasa. Torna xa)K):IhIH MO)l(cr noxynari, ce6e COOTBeTCTByrolll,He norepenasre 6HlleThl _ TaKHe, '-IT06hI HX HOMep OKaH'-IHBaJICH na 31')' QH¢py, CO.L\ep)KaJI ec HeCKOJIhKO paa HllH )ICe COBna;raJI C HeIO npa CBe.L\eHHH K e.L\HHH~e PMOM nOCJIell.OBaTCJIbHhIX CJIO)l(eHHH, - TO ecri, npaI<THqeCKH nee'. TIoKa3aTCJIbHO, '-ITO 3.L\eCb cyesepae B cBoeH caMOH nonyJIHPHOH H caMOH 6e3- Bpe.L\HOH cpopne OKa3bIBaeTC51 np51MO CBH3aHHbIM C a3apTHhlMH HrpaMH. Cnezryer, OAHJKO, rrpaanars, 'ITO ono He CBO.L\HTO! K HHM.

.L\eJIO npC.L\CTaBJlHIOT TaK, 6Yll.TO K3)K):IhIH qeJlOBeK, ensa BCTaB C noCTeJIH, )')I(e HBJUleTCH BhIHrpaBlllHM l1llH npoarpamnau B rpaHAH03HOH, HenpeKpalll,aIOlll,eHC51, 6eCIlJlarnOH H HeH36e)KHOH rrorcpee, KOTOPaH Ha naanuars qeTblpe xaca nneperr onpe.L\eJlHcr ero 061I~HH K03¢¢HnHCHT Be3eHH5I l1llH neBe3eHHH, 3TOT K03¢¢HIJ;HeHT paBHO KaCaeTCH 06hlqHhIX nOCTyIIKOB, HOBhIX npezmpnarnn H cepnesusrx .L\eJI. Fasernsnt acrponor npe.L\)'llpe)KlJ.acr, '-ITO BJIH5IHHe CBeTHJl 0C)'ll\eCTBJUleTCH B BCChMa pasJIHqHblX npenenax, TaK 'ITO /l,:vKe ynpomemroe rrpOpO'-IeCTBO He MO)l(eT OKa3aTbC5I COBceM JIO)KHhIM, KOIfeqHO, 60JlblllHHCTBO qHTaTeJIeH JIHlllh C YJIhI6KOH 06palll,JIOT BHHMaHHe Ha 3TH nenensre npCll,CKa3aHHH. Ho

1 eM. )lOKyMeHT311HR), c. 195-196.

79

Poace Kaliya. I1rph! 11 JIlOI!I1

Bce-TaKH OHI1I1X 'H1TalOT - 60JIee 'roro, HyJK,IJ,alOTCH B TOM, <lT06bI I1X '-IH- 1';1Tb. MHOrHe ,Il,alKe, CaMII 3aHHJIJUI 0 CBOeM HeBepIIH, Ha'lI1HaIOT '1I1TaTb ra3eTyl1MeHHO C aCTpOJIOrH'-ICCKOH pyopaxa, CYAH no BceMY, KpynHOTHPa2KHbIC H3,1l,aHHH npOCTO HC pCIIIaIOTCH JII1IIII1Tb CBOlO ny6JIHKy 3Toro y,ll,OBJ1eTBOPCHHH, Ba2KHOCTb M pacrrpocrpanemrocrs xoroporo HC CTOMT nenooueanaars.

Caxure zroeep-masre He ,Il,OBOJIbCTByroTCH 06ml1MM CBC,Il,CHHHMH H3 raser M llJIJIlOCTpHpOBaHHbIX JKypHaJIOB. OHM 06pamalOTCH K CnCIJ;MaJIbHbIM H3,1l,aHHHM. B Ilaprose O,ll,HO M3 HHX nC'IaTaeTCH THPaIKOM 60JICC CTa TbICHQ 3K3CMrurnPOB. HCPC,Il,KO anerrrsr aCTpOJIOrl1H 60JIce llJIH MCHec pCryAAPHO noceutaror ,Il,I1IlJIOMl1pOBaHHblx TOJIKOBaTeJICH.. IIpl1Be,ll,eM HCCKOJIbKO nosaaareasmax IJ;mpp: e:JKC,Il,HeBHO CTO TblCH'I napazcaa noJIY'laIOT KOHcYJIbTaQHlO Y IIICCTH TbIOI'l rrpOpHIJ;aTeJIeH, npOBl1,Il,QcB H xapro-nnax rananox, no ,Il,aHHbIM Hal.l,110HaJIbHOrO HHCTHTYTa CTaTHCTI1KH, e:JKero,ll,HO BO c.I>paHIJ;I1H TPaTHTCH Tpll,ll,IJ;aTb xersrpe MHJIJIHap,ll,a cppaHKoB1 aa oIlJIaTY ycrryr aCTpOJIorOB, MaroB H npoxnx «paxapoa-. B COe,ll,HHCHHbIX IIITaTaX COQHOlIOrH'IeCKOC HCCJIe,nOBaHHC 1953 rona HaC'IHTaJIO Tpll,ll,QaTb TbICH'I ozumx TOJIbKO nporpeccaoaansasrx, OCPllIJ;HaJIbHO 3apcrHCTpHpOBaHHbIX aCTpOJIOrOB, ,Il,Ba,Il,IJ;aTb aCTpOJIOrH'ICCKllX JKypHaJIOB, O,ll,HH II3 KOTOPbIX THPaIKOM B rutTbCOT TbICH'I 3K3eMnJIHpOB, a TaK:JKC nse TblCH'IH ,Il,PyrHX nCpHO,ll,H'IeCKllX II3,1l,aHHll, HMClOmHX py6PHKy ropocxorroa CYMMbl, aarpa-nraaexsre TOJIbKO Ha TOJIKOBaHHC CBeTHJ1, HC C'IHTaH HHblX cnocooos rananaa, OQCHHBaJIllCb B ,Il,BeCTH MHJIJIHOHOB ,Il,OJIJIapOB B ron,

He COCTaBHlIO 6bI TPY,Il,a BbillBHTb MHoro npH3HaKoB, no KOTOPblM aaaprnsre urper C6JImKalOTCH C ranaanea, O,ll,HH H3 casnax O'lCBll,Il,HbIX H uenocpencraenaux COC1'OI1T, nO:JKa.II)'11, B TOM, 'ITO O,ll,HI1 11 TC :JKC xapTbI C.lly:JKaT KaK HrpOKaM, '1T06bl HcnblTbIBaTb Y,Il,a'!Y, TaK H ra,ll,aJIKaM, '1TO- 6bI rrpencxassraa'n, 6y,lzyIUcc. IlOCJIc.n;HHC JIHIIIb pana 60JIbIIIcro npCCTH:JKa nonssyiorcn OC06bIMI1, CnCIJ;HaJIbHbIMH KOJIO,ll,aMH. K TOMY :JKC ::lT0 BCC paBHO 06bl'lHbIC MaCTH, JIHIIIb cpaBHH1'tJIbHO rr03,1l,HO ,Il,OnOJIHCHHbIC naHBHbIMH nO,ll,nHCHMI1, 3Ha'lamHMH pHcyHKaMH H 1'Pa,ll,HIJ;HOHHb1MH aJIJIeropHHMM. ,l.l,a H CaMI1 xap'rsr 'rapo npHMeHHJIHCb H rrpHMCHHIOTCH AM 06CHX QeJICll. Bo BCHKOM crrvsae, cyniecrsver KaK 6b1 CCTCCTBCHHaH CKOJIb3KaH ,Il,opO:JKKa 01' PHCKa K CYCBCpHlO.

q1'O xacaercs KOHCTaTHpYCMblX HbIHC :JK3,Il,Hb1X nOHCKOB MllJIOCTCH CY,ll,b6b1, TO, BCPOHTHO, OHil CJIy)K31' KOMnCHCaIJ;ileil nOCTOHHHoro HarrpIDKCHHH, Tpe6yeMoro COBpCMeHHOH KOHKypCHQHCH.. To MY, KTO yrpa'ran sepy B C06CTBCHHbIC B03MO:JKHOCTII, npnxomrrca paCC'IMTbIBa1'b aa cy,Il,b6y. qpe3MepHaH IKCCTKOCTh COCTH3aHHH y,ll,PY'laeT MaJIO,ll,)'lllHOro H 3aCTaBJUlcr ero nOJIaraTbCH aa BHCIIIHHe CHlIbl. Il03HaHMeM H npMMCHeHHeM Tex I1IaHCOB, xoropsre ziaer esry Hc60, OH nsrraerca nOJ1Y'lHTb

1 Bee p;CHeiKHble CYMMbl, yxaaaausie B 3TOH xuare, eOO'l1leTCTByroT xypcy t 958 roria, Korp;a BbIllIJIO ee nepsoe 113p;aHHe.

80

,

B03Harpa:JK,ll,CHHC, KOTOPOC HC H3,Il,eeTCH 3aCJIYlKI1Tb CBOH.MH ,Il,OCTOMHC1'BaMM, ynPHMOH pa60ToH H 'repnenamaa ycepnaex, Bsrecro roro YT06b1 ynopcrsoaart, B He6JIaro,ll,apHblx 'rpynax, OH XO'leT, '1T06b1 xaprsr HJIM neoecnsre CBeTHlIa YKa3aJIM eMY 6JlarOnpH5ITHbIH MOMCH1' ,Il,JIH ycnexa ero Ha'lHHatlHH.

TaKllM 06pa30M, cyeaepae npencrasnaer c060H. H3Bpall~eHHC, TO CCTb npHJIO:JKCHHe K PCaJIbHOCTH npanuarra alea, urposoro npHHIJ;Hna, COCTOHmcro B TOM, 'IT06bl HIl'lCrO HC lK,Il,aTb 01' CC6H M scero - 01' czry'1aH. IlapaJIJICJIbHb1M rryress ll,Il,eT H HCKalKCHIIC mimicry: OHO nponcxo,Il,MT 'rorzia, xorna nonooae 60JIhIlIC HC C'IHTalOT nO,ll,06MCM, xoraa pIDKeHblH caM nepirr B peaJIbHOCTb CBOCH POJIH, KOCTlOMa II MaCKH. OH 60JIbIlIC HC uzpaem 'roro opyeoeo, xoroporo H306paIKacr, YBCpIlBIllHCb, 'ITO OH M CCTb 3TOT OPYZOU, OH BC,Il,eT ce6H COOTBeTCTByromHM 06pa30M H 3a6bIBaeT, KTO OH ecrr, Ha CaMOM ,Il,CJIC. Yrpara CBOCH rny6HHHoH JIIl'lHOCTM -- TaKOBO HaKa3aHMC TCX, KTO HC yMCCT orpanu-nrrs O,ll,HOH JIHIIIb MrpOH CBOlO CKJIOHHOCTb npanecsrsars ce6c 'lfIKYIO JIM'IHOCTb. 31'0 caMOC nacroamee omuyscoenue, TO CCTb cyseaaaecmeue [alienation].

3,1l,eCb onars-raxa nrpa CJIYIKI1T 3amHTOH 01' onaCHOC1'H. POJIb ax'repa CTPOI'O OI'PaHH'ICHa npOC1'paHC1'BOM CQeHbI M npO,ll,OJDKII1'eJIbHOCTblO crrCKTaKJIH. KaK TOJIbKO OH rrOKHHe1' 3TO BOJIIIIe6HOC rrpOCTpaHCTBO, KaK TOJIbKO 3aKOHqMTC5I cpaHTaCMaI'OpHH, ,Il,alKe caMbIH 1'meCJIaBHhlH JIMQC,o;CH, ,o;alKC caMh1H ywrCQeHHhIH HCrrOJIHMTCJlb OKa3hIBaCTC5I rpyoo rrpmiYJK,L\eH caMHMH YC1]OBH51MH rearpa O1'npaBMThCH B pa3,1l,CBaJIKy M BHOBb «06JIe'lbCH') B CBOlO C06CTBCHHYlO JIH'IHOCTb. ArmO,o;HCMCHTbl ny6JIHKH - 31'0 He npocro 0)J,06peHHC II B03HaI'palK,lJ;CHHC. OHM 060- 3HaQalO1' co6oH. KOHCQ nrpsr a HJIJl103IlH. Taioae H 6aJI-MaCKapa,ll, 3aKaH'IHBaCTCH aa paCCBeTC, II KapHaBaJI npO,ll,OJDKaeTC51 JIHIllb onpe,o;CJICHHOC BpCM5I. MaCKapJ,Il,Hb1H KOCTlOM B03Bpa~alOT B Mara3IlH llJIM seruaior B I1IKacp. KaIK,IJ;blH BHOBb craHOBHTC51 TeM QeJIOBCKOM, KaKHM 6bIJI pamI1Ie. TO'lHOCTb rpanau npenrrrcrayer 3,1l,CCb O'ft-I)?K,lI;eHHlO. OHO B03HHKaer JIHIIIb B PC3YJIbTa1'C rrOC1'OHHHOH HC3PHMOH. pa601'bI. OHO nOHBAAeTCH 'roraa, xorna HCT 60JIbIlIC 'ICTKOH rpaHHIJ;b1 MCIK)J,)' rpeepaea H peansnoCThlO, xorna Cy6'hCKTY yaaercs IIOCTcnCHHO 06pCCTH B CBOIlX C06C1'BCHHbIX rnaaax B1'OpM'IHylO, XMMCpHQecKyro JIMQHOC1'h, KOTOPaH 3aXBa1'hlBaCT ero H Tpc6yC1' ce6e HerrOMcpHblX npas no cpaBHCHHlO C peansnocn-ro, 3aKoHoMcPHO HeCOBMeCTHMOH C neio, 11 HacTyIIJcr MOMCHT, KOI')J,a om1l-YJICoel-t1-tbtu - Cl'aBIlIIlH HHbIM - Ha'lMHaC1' HPOCTHO H 6C3HJ,Il,C:JKHO OTpIIIJ;aTh, no,o;'1HHHTb cc6e WIll :JKe pa3pYIIIaTb 3TY CJIIIIllKOM Hcrro,o;aTJIHB)1lO 06c1'aHoBKy, KOTOPaH,!VIR aero HeMb1ClIHMa II BbI3bInaroure HerrpMeMJIeMa.

IlpMMC'Ia1'eJIbHO, 'ITO B CJI)"-Iac agon'a, alea HlIM mimicry rrpiranHOH naryonoro OTKJIOHeHHH HHKOI',Il,a He 5lBJ1HeTCH MHTeHCHBHOCTb nrpsr, OTKJIOHCHHe scerzta B03HHKacr H3-3a CMeIlleHHH HI'pbI C 06bl'lHOH.

81

PO)f(e KaQva< HI'Pl>l Ii IlJOllH

'-bCTb rrepB;Ut IV< HCKa)f(CHHC Hrp

JKI13HblO. OHO rrpOI1CXO,n;HT 'rorna, xorna yrrpaBJUlIOII1,Hl'1 I1rpOM HHCTI1HKT ssrpsrsacrcs 1I3 )KeCTKl1X paaos BpeMeHI1 H MeCTa, sonpexn aapance rrpmUITbIM I1MrrepaTHBHbIM KOHBeHIJ;HHM. MO)KHO nrpars CKOllb yronao cepsesuo, ,n;OXO,ll,I1Tb ,n;0 rrOJIHOI'O 113HypeHWI, pnCKOBaTh BeeM CBOI1M COCTORHl1eM, T\aJKe JKl13HblO, HO H)'?KHO yMeTh OCrJHOBHTbCH Ha aapanee 3aq)l1KCl1pOBaHHOM npenene U BCPH)'TbCH B csoe 06bI'-UIoe eoCTOHHHe, rne npasana I1rpbI, O,ll,HOBpeMeHHO oCB06mK.l'IalOIIIHe H 060- C06JUIlOII1,HC, 60JIee He ,n;eMCTBHTeJIbHbI.

Cocrasamre - :'ITO 3aKOH 06bI'-IHOM JKl13HH. CJI)"-IaMHocrb TaKJKe He rrpOTHBOpe'-InT peanbHOCTI1. B HeM: nrpaer CBOlO pOJIb U CHMyJUIIJ;HH, KaK :'ITO BH,l'IHO na npnwepe JKYJIUKOB, IIInHOHOB, 6erJIeIJ;OB. HarrpOTI1B, roJIOROKpYJKeHue npaKTH'-IeCKl1 rrOJIHOCTblO n3rHaHO U3 nee, eom He C'-IHTJTb HeKOTopbIX pe,ll,Kl1X nporpeccmt, me, c06CTBeHHO, npocpeCCHOHaJIbHblM ,Il,OCTOHHCTBOM '-IeJIOBeKa RllJlHeTCH YMeHue ero npeononenars. K TOMY )Ke OHO nO'-lTH HeMC,Il,JIeHHO BJIe'-Icr sa C060H yrposy cMepm. Ha HpMJpO'-lHbIX a'rrpaxunouax, oryJKaIIJ;HX ,ll;JIH HCKycCTBeHHoro rortoaoxpyacenna, rrpHHHMalOTOI crporne Mepbl 6e30rracHoCTH, '-ITo6hI ycrpaHHTh BOIKI1H PMCK aecxacnroro CJl)"-IaR. 11 ace paBHO 6blBacr, '-ITO OHM npOMCXO,ll,RT, ,n;aJKe Ha TaKl1X MaIIIMHax, xoropue 3a,rzyMaHhI H nocrpoemr C lJ,eJIblO ooecne-nrn, MaKCMMaJIbHYJO 6e30rrJCHOCfb KJIHeHTOB, ,1l,J K TOMY 'lKe nepMo,1l.HQeCKl1 nonsepraiorca TIIIaTeJIhHhIM rrpOBepKaM.iDM3M'-leCKOe rOJIOBOKpyJKeHHe, 3KcrpeMaJIhHOe cocroaane, rnuuaromee '-lenOBeKa BOIKI1X B03MO)KROcrCM 3aIIIHTbI, TaK JKe TPY,ll,HO flbl3hIBaTh, KaK n onacno ncnsrrsrsar». Il03TOMY crpesotenue K paccrpoil:CTBY C03HaHHH rum BOCnpHHTHH, '-lTo6bI pacnpocrpamrrsca HJ nOBce,n;HCflHYIO JKM3Hb, ,Il,OJI)KHO npMHHMaTb CPOpMhI BeChMJ OTJIHYHble 01' Tex, «oropue OHO norryaaer B armaparax, c03,1l,alOII1,HX spauienae, crpcsnrrcrrsnoe rrepexremeune, naneane HJIH ,n;pyroe pesxoe ,ll,BH)KeHHe, H M306pcreHHb1x ,ll;JIH 'roro, '-lT06hl BbI3bIBaTb roJIOBoKpYJKeHHe R 3aMKHYToM M 3aru;HUI,eHHOM MHpe urpsr,

3TH ,n;oporoCTORIIIl1e, CJIO)KRble, rpOM03,ll,Kl1e coopyzcenaa C)'I.UecrBYIOT JIMIIIb B napxax aTTpaKIJ,HOHOS crOJIH'-lHblX roponos HJIH 'lKe nepnoznrsecxa COOpYJKJlOTCH HJ HpMapO'-lHhIX IlJIOIIJ;JMx. Y'lKe caMoH csoea aTMoccpepOM OHM rrpHHJ,ll,JIC'lKJT K MHPy nrpsr. K TO My 'lKe BhI3hIBaeMble HMH rrOTpHceHHH no caMOH csoen npnpozte TO'-IHO COOTBcrcrBYlOT orrpenenenmo nrpu: OHH KpaTKOBpeMeHHbI, nenOCTORHHbI, TO'-IHO pJCC'-II1TaHhl, npcphIBHcrbI, CJlOBHO PM napraa HJIH copeBHoRaHHM. Haxoneu, OHH OcrJIOTCH He3aBHCHMblMH OT pearrsnoro MHpa. l1x ztencrane orpamrseno HX c06crBeHHhIM C)'I.UeCTBOBaHMeM. OHM npexpautajorca, KaK TOJIbKO MaIIIHny ocraHaBJIMBalOT, H He OCTaBJUlIOT y JII06HTCJI5J TaKl1X yrrPJ'lKHCHHH IIHblX CJIe,n;OB, KpOMe nerxoro KpyJKeHHH B rOJIOBe, noxa OH He sepnerca B 06hl'-lHOe ypaBHOBCIIIeHHoe COCTOHIIHe.

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B .naHHOM CJIY'-lae OIlHTb-TaKH noyqHTeJICH npnxep nacexoasrx. CpeAU HHX ecrs TaKHe, '-ITO JIl06lIT nrpart, B fOJIOBoKpy>K'eHHc, Ha'-lHHaH C 6a60- '-leI(, ITJIHIIJYII1,HX noxpyr IlJIaMeHll, II 3aKaH'-lHBaR MJHllaKaJlbHbIM npauteuaeM BO,ll,RHhIX JKYKOB- BCPT5J'-leK, npespamaioumx nOBepXHOCfb ManeHllIeH JIYiI01lJ,h1 B cepeopncryio KapyCCJIbnyIO rmomans, Ho y naccxoxux, OC06eHHO Y 06I1]eCfBeHHblX HaceKOMhIX, 6hIBaer H ~HCKa'lKeHHe rOJIOBOKpy>K'eHH5J» B cpoPMe OnhllHeHH5J H C caMhIMH 6e,1:1CfBCHHbIMII rrOCJIe,u,CfllHHMH.

TaK, MypaBbH O,1l,HOrO H3 casrsrx pacnpocrpanennux BH,ll;OB, Formica sanguinea, )l(J,ll;HO lIH'JKYT naxy-nre 3CPHPHO-JKHPOBhle BhmCJIeHH5J H3 6plOIIIHhIX 'lKeJIC3 He60JIbllIHX 'lKecrKoKphIJIhIX I10,n; Ha3BatIHeM Lochemusa strumosa, Mypaasn 3aHOCRT HX JIH'-Il1HKl1 K ce6e B MypaBeHHHK H KOpMHT HX crorrs Tru;aTeJIhHO, '-lTO He,ll;OKapMJIHBaIOT CBOHX. BCKOpe JIH'-IHHKH Lochemusa nozcaparor see nOToMcrBO MypaBbeB. Mypam,nnsre uapnuu, He rronysaa AOJl)KHoro yxoaa, rrp0l13BO,ll,RT aa CBCT O,!J,HHX JlHilih 6eCrrJIO,ll;HbIX ncesztormmsrx oe06eH. MypaBeMHHK BhIMHpacr H ncxeaaer, )]'pyrHe MypaBbH, Formica fusea, B CB060).l,HOM COCT05iHHH y6MBalOT JIOxeMy3, HO He 'rporaror HX, xorna HJXO,lVfTC5i B paocrae y Formica sanguinea Hcnsrn.maa TaKoH )fCe BKYC K naxy-rexry 'lKHpy, OHH ,n;epJKJT y ce65J napaaaros BH,l'Ia Atemeles emarginatus, xoropsre TaK'lKe npHBOl\HT HX K rH6eJIM. O,!J,HaKO OHM yHMQTO'lKalOT 3TMX rrapa3IITOB, naxonacs B paocrse y MypaBbeB Formica rufa; xoropsre TepneTh HX He MOryr, TJKl1M 06pa30M, nepezi HaMH He KaKoe-TO He060pHMoe BJIe'-!eHHe, a csoero pozta nopox, cnocoonsm HC'-Ie3aTb B onpenenennerx 06crOHTeJIbcrBax: B '-laCTHOCTH, pa6CTBO TO BbI3bIBaeT ero, TO n03BOJI5Jcr eMY conpOTHBJl5lThCJI. Iocnona nepenaror CSOH BKYCbI IlJIeHHHKaMl.

Ilo,ll;06Hble CJIY'-laM p,06POBOJIhHorO O,ll,y{JMaHHBaHn51 He 5IBJIHKlTCH H30JIHPOBJHHbIMH. Mypassn erne O/l,HOrO BH,l'Ia, Iridomyrmex sanguineus H3

1 P [£ J( 0 N H. Les instincts nuisibles a l'espece devant les theories transformistes II Scientia. 1911. T. IX. P 199-203.

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l.fTO xacaercs ludus'a H paidia, npe,[lCTaBJIHIOIIl,HX C060H He KaTerOpHH nrp, a crtocofisr nrpari, B HMX, TO OHM nepeHOCHT B 06blKHOBeHH)'KJ )l(H3Hb CBOll HeH3MeHHb1l1 xorrrpacr - KOHTpaCT Me)K,[ly 6eCCMbICJIeHHbIM IIIYMOM H CHMq,OHHell, 6ec¢opMeHHOH Ma3Hell H YMeJIbIM npaweHeHHeM 3aKOHOB nepcnercransr.Hx onn03H~HR no-npexcaexry BbI3bIBa-

I MORTON - WEEI.ER W Les Societes d'lnsectes. (Trad. franc.) 1926. P. 312-317.

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V. K COU;HOJIorr~IH, OCHoBaHHoI1 na nrpax

I ,lI,attHblll Te3HC HaH60Jlee uiaposo pacnpocrpanea, HalJ60Jlcc fIOrryJUlPCH; K HCM)' npacnynursaercs 06W,CCTBeHHOC MHCHue. OH )l(e npmnen B ronosy H CTOJIb MaJIO csezrymesry B 3TOH 06JlaCTJil nHCaTCJlIO, KaK)KaH )KJtpO,izy, KOTOPblH OCTaBJilJI ero KPaTKoe H3J]O)!(eHHe - l:IMfIPOBH3HpoBaHHoc, ofipaanoe, ¢aHTaCI"W-IeCKOe

B nO,l\p06HOCTlLX, HO 3Hay.HTeJIbHOe B U;eJIOM. ComaCHO eM)', JlIO,l\l1. -nocpencrsosr nrpsr HMl:ITI!pyroT re renecaue - a l:IIlor,o;a 1:I MOpaJJbHble - ,o;eHCI'BWI, 01' KOTOpblX H.X 3aCTaBJUleT QTKa3blBa1'bCK COBpe.MCHHa5l: )KJi(3Hb". Tencpb ,o;OC1'aTO'lHO 1l0- aooopaxars, 1:I see JleI'KO o6'hl!cIDlerca: <,CnopTCMeH -6eI)'H, XOl'lI ero rrpecrezryer correpaax, I"OHI1'1'Cli sa Boo6puaeMblM BparoM JilJIH OXO'l'HWfbCll ,l\06bly.ell. B03- .nymHblllI'HMHaCl' B361:IpaCTCJl na CBOH CI rapMbl, coonpaa ,l\Ol:ICTOpHy.eCKJile nno,l\bI. <I>eXToBaJJbIHHK Cp<VKaCTOl C rH30M JiIIlI1 Cnpaao, a MeTI.l'CJlb KOIlhH - C MHtJ,lIHaMH 1:I nepcasra. Pe6eHOK, Hl'palOIIJ,HH B "KOIllKY na zcpese" (pa3HoB~HOCTb CaJJOK - Flpuue« nep.), 3aJJe3aCT na nepeso, y.T06bl YKpblThCH 0'1' 3MeH. XOKKCl:ICT OTp<VKaCT KaMHH BH3aHTHllcKl:IX npaw,HHKOB, a HrpOK B noxep acrronsayer rrpoTHB CIlOl:IX napraepou B U;eJULX I'HrrH03a 1:I BfIYIlIeHlliI necs aanac KOJI,1IOBCTBa, KaKJilM ew,e pacnonaraior conpereennsre rpaacaaue B rrl1,l.l,)l(aKax. Or Ka)fi"JJ,oro 1:I3 0'1'Mepllll:IX 3<lIDlTHH COXpaHJilJIOCb JKI1BOe CBHJ\CTeJlbCTBO - nrpa, 3TO MHMl:Il.JeCKaH ncropaa nepsux BeKOB l.JeJloBey.eCI'Ba, 1:I cooreercrseano cnopr, TO ecrs nanroMHM<l HCfOPUl.JCCKHX cpaJKeHff11 H Clpa,lPHHH, B ocooerurocra XOpOUl p,m! roro, <rTo6b[ COXpaHHTh HaIIIl:I TCJIa B nepsoaaannoa JlOBKOCTlll:I CHJle. (G lRAIl DO 1I X ]. Y,ll'\S pouvoirs. Monaco, 1946. P 112-113).

B TCl.J:eHHe ,I1,O)H'oro BpeMeHH H3yqeHHc nrp 6bUla no-rrrr HCKlIlO'fH'J"EJlbHO HCTOpHeH nrpymex, 06palll,aJIH ropasno 60JIee BHHMaHIDI na IIHCTPYMeHThI M npHHa,ll;JIe)KHOCTH nrp, l.J:eM aa 11X npaporry, na ax xapaicrepHhle f1pH3HaKH H 3aKoHbI, aa npennonaraesrsre HMH HHCTl1HKThI, HJ THnhl Y,1l,oEJleTBOpeHIDI, xoropoe OHI1 AocTaBJUlIOT. B o61I~eM H ueJIOM HX C'IHTaJIn npocro He3HaY:11TeJIhHbIMH AeTCKHMH 3a6aBaMM. TIo::'lTOMY HHKYO 11 He mMaJI npnanaaara 33 HHMH KaK)'lO-J11160 KYJlhTYPHYIO UeHHOCTb. npe~rrp.!1HHMaBmHeCH HCCJle~OBaHHH npOHCXO/K,.qeHWI Hrp I1JIH arpynrex naun- nO,[lTBep)K,lJ;aJIH 3'1'0 nepsoe Bnel.J:aTJIeH11C: arpyuncn II HI'pbI eyre 3a6aBHhIe H MillI03Ha'll1TeJlbHhle opynI15! I1 ,n,CHCTBWI., npcnoc-

86

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TIopa rrpHBCCTH xoe-xaxne rrpHMCPbI. fllaBHbIH H, seposrmo, caMblH rrpllMC4aTClIbHbIH 113 HllX ,I1;aeT HaM MaCKa - nOBceMeCTHO pacnpocrpanennsm CaKpaJIbHbIll npezorer, 4be npespameaae B HrpYIIIKY npencrasnaer C060H ensa lIH He caxryio BaJICHYfO nepevenv B HCTOP"H UHBHJIH3all,llll. Ho ecn, H ztpyrne Ha,lI;e)!(HO 3acBH.D;eTClIbCTBOBaHHhle cnysaa nO,l1;06HorO C,!J,BHra. 51pMap04HbIll IIIeCT CBJl3aH C MHcpaMll 0 aaBoeBaHHH neoec, cpyr60JI - C 60Pb6oH sa COJIHe4HhIH map MCJK.D;y ,!J,BYMH rrpoTHBOrrOJIO)!(HbIMH cppa1'pHflMll. Hexoropsre HrphI C neperarnsaHlleM xaaara KOr,l1;a-TO nOMOraJIH onpenenars nacrynneaae nosoro BpeMeHll rona H nepsencrso COOTBeTCTByroU\eH eMY COI~HaJIbHOH rpyrrnsr. B03,!J,ylIIHbIH 3MeH, CTaBulHH HrpymKoH B Espone B xonue XVIII Bexa, ua ,ll.aJIbHeM BOCToKe HBllHJI C060H <'BHeIIIHIOIO~ rryury csoero BJIa,I1;ClIhUa, KOTOPhIH OCTaeTCH Ha 3eMJIe, HO MarH4eCKll (H peansno -

6e4eBKOH, KOTOpO» YlI.epIKHBalOT 3MeH) CBH3aH C xpyrncna 6YMaJKHbiM coopyaceuaesr, OT,!J,aHHbIM 80 BJIaCTb B03AYIIIHbIX rrOTOKOB. B Kopee 803- AYIIIHblH 3MeH CllYJKHlI K03JIOM orrrymeaaa, C nonontsio xoroporo rpeXOBHaH 06~HHa H36aBJIHJIaCh 01' 6e,[l. B KHTae ero HCnOJIb30BaJIH AJIH H3- MepeHllJI paCCTOHHHllj KaK rrpHMHTHBHbIl1 renerpaep - ,lI;JIH nepezta-nr HeCJ10IKHbIX coofintemni; aaxonen AllH roro, 4T06bI nepeopacsmars BepeBKY -repea BO/l,HYlO rrperplAY, ,!J,eJIaH B03MOJKHbIM HaBC}J.eHHe IIJIaB)"lero MOCTa. B HOBOH I'annee ero HCrrOJIb30BaJIH ,lI;JlH 6YKCHPOBKll JIO,!J,OK. Hrpa B <'KJIaCCHKll~, nO-BH,!J,HMOMy, npe,1l,CTaBJIlVIa C060ll JIa6HpHHT, r,D;e rroaa-rany TepHeTCH npOXO,ll;HII\HllHHHl.l,Hal\HIO. Hrpa B «KOlliKY na nepeBC~, necxorpn aa CBOIO ,!J,eTcKYJO HCBHHHOCTb H every, rr03BOJlHeT pacrro- 3HaTh B ce6e cTpaIIIHhIll 06hI4aH BbI60pa HCKyrrHTeJIbHOH IKCp1'BbI: orrpC,D;ClleHHaH pCIIICHHCM CY,!J,h6bl, a rr03,D;HeC C rrosiontsro 3B)"lHbIX, HO 6eCCMbICJleHHbIX cnoros C4HTaJIKH, :=ITa JKCpTBa Moma (no KpaHHeH Mepe, TaK npennorraraercnj H36aBHTbCH 01' CBoeH CKBepHbI, rrepenan ee xepea rrpHKOCHOBeHHe TO MY, xoro HaCTHrHeT na 6ery.

B Ernrrre BO speuena cpapaOHOB B rpoonmrax 4aCTO H306paJKaJIaCb llIaIIIe4HaH ,D;OCKa, H IIHTb ee HIDKHHX KJIeTOK cnpasa YKpaIIIaJIHCb 6JlarOTBOpHhIMH HcpomH¢aMH. Ha}J, rOJlOBOll nrpoxa 6hillH Ha}J,rrHCH, rOBopHBllIHC 0 nparosopax CY,D;HJIH~a MepTBbIX, rne npencenarenscreyer OCHpHC. B MHpC HHOM yconIIIHH CTaBHT na KOH CBOIO y-racrs 11 BbInrpsrsaer lllIH npoarpsmaer Be4Hoe 6JlaJKeHCTBo. B BC,ll,H4ecKoH I1H.D;HH JKpel.l, paCKa4HBaJICH Ha KaqemlX, 4T06bI nOM04b coamry nO,!J,HHTbCH aa Hc60CKJIOH. Tpaexropna Ka4clIcll, KaK C4HTaJIOCb, coe,!J,HHHeT He60 H 3CMJIIO. Ee cpaBHHBaJIH C Pa}J.YfOH - ,I1;pyr11M CBH3yro~HM 3BeHOM MCIK,lI;y Hc60M H 3eMJIell. KaqeJIH 4aCTO aCCOll,HHPOBaJIHCb C H,!J,CeH ,!J,01K,ll;H, IIJIO,1l,OPO,D;HH, 06HOBJICHHfI rrpHpOAhI. Becnon TOpJKCCTBeHHo pacxaxaBaJIH H306paJKCHHH KaMbI - 60ra JIlO6BH - H KPHIIIHbI - nOKpOBHTeJIH CTa}J,. Bce MHp03,!J,aHHe paCKa4HBaJIOCb na KOCMHQCCKHX Ka4eJIHX, H 31'0 ,1l,BHJKeHHe YBlIeKaJIO sa C060H JlIO,ll,ciI H uerrsre MHpbI.

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88

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B 3HaqHTeJIhHOH qaCTH OHH B3aHMHO HCKJIIO'-IaIOT ztpyr npyra. TaM, rrte B'ICCTH KaKHC-TO Op,HH H3 HHX, 06H3aTeJIhHO OTBepralOTOI ,Il,pyrHC. JIIO,Il,H TO nO,Il,qHH5IIOTOJ 3aKOHHHKaM, TO IlpHcnymHBaIOTC5I K 6C3YMll,aM; noJIaralOTCH TO aa pacxer, TO na B,Il,OXHOBCHHe; YBXlKalOT TO carry, TO ,Il,HIlJIOMaTHIO; OT,Il,aIOT npenrto-rrerrae 3aCJIyraM HJIH onsrry, MY,Il,POCTH HJIH KaKOM)'-TO HcnpOBep5lCMOM)' (a 3HalIHT, neocnoproaosry) 3HaHHIO, HCXO,Il,5lIIl,eMy, KaK nOJIaraIOT, OT 60rOB. TaK B KaIK,Il,OM xynsrype npOHCXO,Il,HT HCHBHoe, HeTO'IHOC, HeIlOJIHOe pacnpenencnae ll,eHHOCTeH Ha TC, aa KOTOPhIMH npH3HaIOT COll,HaJIbH)'IO 3¢cpeKTHBHOCTb, H na see OCTaJIhnsre. TIpH 3TOM nOClle,Il,HHC pa3BHBaIOTC5I B ocraanaexsrx HM nepnrpepHHHhlX 06JIaCTRX, CpC,Il,H KOTOPbIX BXlKHOC MCCTO 3aHHMaeT 06JIaCTh nrpsr, TI03TOMY MOIKHO 3a,IJ,aTbC5I BonpOCOM, HeT JIH COOTHOIIICHH5I MeJK,.rr;y pa3JIHlIH5IMH K)'JIbTyp, OC06CHHbIMH lIepTaMH, rrpH,Il,aIOIIl,HMH KaJK,lJ,OH 113 HHX ee OPHTHHaJlbHblH CKJIa,Il;, - H npnponoa HCKOTOPbIX Hrp, KOTO-

PbIC B ,o.alIHoH K)'lIblypC npOIJ;BCTaIOT, a B ztpyrnx He nOJIh3YIOTOI TaKo11 nonyJIHpHOCThlO.

CaMO c06011 pa3YMCeTCH, 'ITO IlbITaThC5I onaca'rs K)'JIblYPY qCPC3 O,Il,HH JIHlllb ce nrpsr 6hmo 6hI OqCHh CMCJIO H, RCPOHTHO, -rpesaro ounroKaMH. B caMOM ,n;eJIC, KaIK,Il,a5I K)'JIbTypa O,[lHOBPCMCHHO anaer H npaxrnK)'eT 60JIhIIIOC KOJIHlICCTBO nrp pa3HhIX BHAOB. A rJIaBHOC, HCB03MOJKHO 6C3 npC,Il,BapHTeJIhHOrO aHaJIH3a peunrrs, KaKHC H3 HHX cOrJIacYIOTC5I C I1HCTHTyU,HOHaJIbHhIMH U;CHHOcrHMH, nO[lTBCplK,Il,alOT HX, YCHJIHBaIOT, a KaKHe, Ha060poT, nporaeopexar HM, ancnpoeepraior HX, TO ecn, ClIYJKaT B ,Il,aHHOM 06IIl,CCTBC cjJaKI'OpOM KOMIlcHcaqI1H, npenoxpaurrrerrsHhIM KJIanaHOM. Hanpaxep, HCHO, lITO B KJIaCCHqCCKOH rpCU;HH nrpu Ha cra,IJ,HOHC HJIJIlOcrPHPOBaJIH C060H H,Il;CaJI nOJIHCa H cnoc06CTBOBaJIH ero OCYU~CCTBJICHHIO, Tor,n;a KaK BO MHorHX COBpeMCHHbIX rocynapcrsax HaU;HOHaJIhHbIC JIOTCPCH HJIH TOTaJIH3aTOp na CKaqKaX Hp;yT nanepexop npoeosrnanraeaoxry H,Il;cany; TCM HC MCHCC OHH BhIIIOJIH5IIOT cyIIJ,CCTBCHH)'IO, B03MOIKH0 ,[IXlKC HC06XO,Il,HMYIO POJIb, HMCHHO rrOCTOJIhK)', noCKOJIhK)' C03,o.a1OT aJIeaTOpHhIH rrpOTHBOBCC TCM B03HarpalK,ll,eHHHM, KOTOPbIC B rrpl1HLI;HIIe ,[IOJIJKHbI npHHOCHTh TOJIbKO Tpy,o. H JIHqHaJI aacrryra,

KaK 6hI TO HH 6bmo, IlOCKOJIhK)' nrpa 3aHHMacr oc06YIO 06JIaCTh, conepscaane KOTOPOM 113MeH'-IHBO H nopon 1(XlKC B3aHM03aMCHHMO C cO,Il,CpJKaHHCM 06hl'-lHOH 1KH3HH, BaJKHO 6bmo npeaote ncero KaK MOIKHO T04HCC onpenemrn, crrCu;H¢HqCCKHC 4CPTbI aroro 3aHHTHH, KOTOPOC C'IHTaeTOJ ,ll,eTCKHM, HO BO MHorHX CBOHX rpopsrax npnanexaer H B3pOCJIbIX. Taxosa 6bma MOH nCpBaJI aanasa,

BMCCTC C TCM npHIIIJIOCh KOHCTal'HpOBaTb, 'ITO, xorna B3POCJIbIl1 npeztaerca 3TOH HK06hl norexe, OHa nOrJIO~aCT ero HC MCHCC, '-ICM npo¢CCCI10HaJIhHa5I ,o.CHTeJIhHOCTh. '-{aero OHa mrrepecyer ero ,ll,XlKC 60JIhme. MHoil pas oHa Tpe8yer OT Hero 80/lb/IIek ssrpsru secotu«. 1[06[(0- era, YMa HJIH BHHMaHIDI. 3Ta cB060,o.a, HHTCHCHBHOcrh Hrpbl H TO, 'ITO yreepaciaeaaa CIO ,ll,eHTeJIbHOCTb pa3BOpaqHBaeTC5I B OT,[ICJIbHOM, H,Il;CaJIbHOM MHPC, 3aIIl,H~CHHOM OT nenonpaansnax nOCJIc,n;crBHH, - na MOll B3rJIH,IJ" 06'bHCIDIIOT K)'JIhTypH)'IO IlJIO[lOBHTOCTb nrp H Il03BOJI5llOT nOH.lJTb, KaKHM 06pa30M B BbI60pc nrp HaM 4aCTHqHO paCKphIBalOTCH JIHll,O, Cl'HJIh H ll,CHHOCTH KalK,[lOrO 061I~eCTBa.

I1TaK, y6C,Il,HBIIIHCh, '-ITO MeJK,IJ,y arpasnr, HpaBaMH H HHCTI1T)"faMH 3aKOHOMepHO CylI~CCTBYIOT TCCHhIC OTHOlllCHI151 KOMrrCHCall,HH HJIH 6JIH- 30CTH, npC,[ICTaBJI5ICTCH ,Il,OCTaT04HO pa3YMHblM IlOCTaBHTb sonpoc OTOM, HC 3aJIOJKCHa JII1 caMa CY,[lb6a pa3JIH'IHbiX K)'JIbTyp, HX nrancsr Ha ycnex HJIH PHCK 3aCT05l, B npC,Il,IlOlITCHHH, KOTOPOC OHH OT,Il,aIOT TOM HJIH HHOll H3 3JICMCHTapHhIx xareropmt, na KOTOphIC H pa3/l,CJIHlI HrphI H KO'ropsre 06JIa,IJ,aIOT HcpaBHOH rrpO,.rr;yKTHBHOCThIO. I1I-IaqC I'OBOPH,}! 3aHHMaIOCh HC npocro coqHOJIOrHCH nrp, M051 aanaxa 3aJIOIKHTh ¢)'H,Il,aMCHT COll,HOJIOrHH, OCHoeaHHOu ira nrpax,

94

QACTb BTOPA5I

VI. PaCIIIlIpeHHa51

TeOpl151 nrp

o en OSH'" H 'CHam"" OT xoropsrx aaaacar "'PM, - COCT'- 3aHHe, yp,a'"la, CHMyllilQIDI, ronosoxpyacenae - He sceraa sctpeaaxrrca OTAeJIbHO p,pyr OT zrpyra, Bo MHOrHX CJ1yqaHX MOIKHO f'OBOPHTb 06 HX KOM6HHaQHH. ECTb HeMaTIO TaKHX nrp, xoropsre HMeHHO H OCHOBaHhI ua HX cIIoc06HOCTH K CO'leTaHHIO. Op,HaKO 3TH pe3KO OTJIHYHbIe APyr OT npyra npHHQHIIbl cornacytorca no-paanoxy. ECJIH 6paTh HX no nsa, TO TeOpeTHyeCKH H3 YeTblpeX OCHOBHblX HaCTpoeHHH nOIIY'laeTCH meers H TOJ1bKO IIIeCTb paBHO B03MOIKHbIX COYeTaHHH. KalKp,oe noosepenao CO'"IeTaeTCH C Op,HHM H3 'rpex npynoc

COCTH3aHHe-yp,a '"Ia (agon -aIea); cOCTH3aHHe-CHMYJ1HQIDI (agon-mimicry); COCTJI321me-rOJlOBOKp}?KeHHe (agon -ilinx);

y p,Jya -CHMy AAQIDI (alea - mimicry); yp,a'"la-roJIOBoKp)'lKeHHe (alea-ilinx); CHMYllilQIDI - ronosoxpyxeane (mimicry - ilinx).

MOIKHO, KOHe'-IHO, npeAnOJIOIKHTb H rportasre CO'"le1'aHIDI, HO HCHO, 'ITO OHM nOYTH scerna npe,ll,CTaBJIHIOT C060H CJIyqaHHbIe coeznmeHIDI, He BJIIDIIDlll.He Ha xapaxrep 1'ex HfP, rne HX MOIKHO 3JMeTHTb: nanpassep, KOHCKHe CKaYKH, THnH'"IHbIH ag6n }J,llil zcoxeee, HBllilIOTCH ozmospexeano 3peJIHIl\eM, OTHOCHlll;HMCH K mimicry, H nOBop,OM}J,JIH 3aKJIIO'IeHIDI napu, TO ecrs CnyJKaT OCHOBOH }J,JIH alea Op,HaKO 3TH 1]JH 06- JIaCTH OCTaIOTCH OTHOCHTeJIbHO aBTOHOMHhIMH, I1pHHQHII cxaxex He MeHHeTCH OT Toro, 'ITO na JIOIIIa,qeH AeJIaIOTCH CTaBKH. 3AeCb HMeeT Mecro He COID3, a npOCTO scrpexa pa3HbIX HrpOEbIX npHHQHnOB, XOT}! OHa He 06YCJIOBJIeHa CJIyqaeM H 06bHCHHeTC}! caMOH HX rrpaponon.

OHH p,aJKe H nonapao CO'leTaIOTCH HeOp,I-maKOBO nerxo, I1PHHQHnsr HX TaKOBbl, ',ITO IIleCTb TeOpe1'H',IeCKH B03MOIKHbIX CO',IeTaHHH HMeIOT pa3HYlO crenens BepOHTHOCTH H 3cpcpeKTHBHOCTH. B HeKOTopbIX CJIY'laHX CO',IeTaHHe zmyx npmIQHnOB J1H60 OKa3bIBaerCH H3Ha',IaTIbHO HeMbICJIHMbIM, JUi60 HCKJIIO',IaeTCH H3 crpepsr nrp. Hexoropsre npyrae

96

If

'{aCTb BTOPaH. VI. PaclimpeHHaH Teopllil mp

KOM6HHaQHH, He 6YP.Y'"IH sanpernenu no npnpone nemen, see IKe OCTaIOTCH ',IHCTO CJIyqaHHbIMH. OHM He COOTBeTCTBYJOT KaKHM-JIH60 OTHOmeHIDIM cponcrna. HaKOHeQ, 6bIBaeT, ',ITO MelK,lzy OCHOBHhIMH pa3JIH'"IHTeJIbHbIMH TeH}J,eHQIDIMH aztpyr B03HHKaeT rny60KaH 6JIH30CTb.

I10:=JTOMY H3 IIIeCTH B03MOIKHblX CO',IeTaHHH p,Ba, KaK BbIHCWlcrCH, rrpOTIiBOeCTeCTBeHHbI, ABa p,pyrHX He 60JIee '"IeM B03MQlKHhI, rorna KaK ABa rrOCJIe,1l.HHX - BJ)K}IeHillHe coep,HHeHIDI npHHQHnOB.

He06xop,HMO rtna'rem.aee pa306paTbCH B 3TOH CHCTeMe.

1. 3AI1PEI.IJ;EHHbIE COQETAHI1JI

ITpe)K,lJ,e acero, HCHO, ',ITO fOJIOBOKp)'lKeHJ1e HeJIb3H coenaaars C peryllilpHbIM copeBHOBaHHeM, He JIHIIlHB nOCJIe,1l.Hee ero coocrsemroa npupozur, BbI3bIBaeMbIH: rOJlOBOKp)'lKeHHeM rtapanax, a B HeKOTopbIX czrysaHX H cnerraa HPOCTb, rrpep,CTaBJlHIOT C060H npanoe OTpHQaHHe «otrrponnpyesrsrx YCllJIHH. I1MH YHH'ITOlKaIOTC}! caMble yCJ10BIDI, orrpeAeJIHIOIQHe agon, 3¢¢eKTHBHOe npHMeHeHHe JIOBKOCTH, CllJIbI, pacserJ1HBOCTH; caMo06JIap,aHHe; crperanemre CpaJKaTbCH paBHblM opYIKHeM; H3Ha'1aJ1bHaH rrOKopHOCTh peilleHIDIM aponrpa, aapanee rtpnnsrroe 0651- 3aTeJIbCTBO OrpaHH',IHBaTb 60Pb6y YCJIOBJIeHHbIMH paMKaMH H T. A., - HH'"IerO 31"01'0 He ocraercs.

Ilpaaana H rOJIOBOKpyJKeHHe peIIlHTeJIbHO HeCOBMeCTHMbI npyr CApyrOM. CTOJIb IKe He crroc06HbI K COTpyp,HH',IeCTBY CHMYllilQIDI H y,1l;axa, B caMOM ,ll,eJIe, 1II06aH X11.TpOCTh nenaer 6eCCMbICJIeHHbIM HcnblTaHHe Cy,1l;b6bI. BeCnOJIe3HQ nbITaTbCH 06MaHYTh CJIyqaH. I1rpoKY H)'IKHO 'raxoe peIIIeHHe, xoropoe y6e,1l;llJIo 6bI ero B 6e3YCJIOBHOH MllJIOCTH cyp,b6bI. Kama OH rrpoCMT 0 TaKOM peIlIeHHH, exry HeJIb3R UMf1Tf1POB:!Tb xaxoeJIH60 naoe JIHI.J;O llJIH npezrcraana'n, ceos HHbIM, '1eM OH ecrs. K TOMY IKe HM O,1l;H:! CHMYllilQWI no onpenenennro He cnocoona 06MaHYTb POJ(. Alea npennaraer 6e3pa3,ll;eJlbHO OT,1l;aTbCH aa MllJIOCTb cyp,b6bl, OTKa3aTbCH OT MacKHpOBKH M scex ee YJlOBOK. Haase Mbl acryrraen B 06JlaCTh MarHH: ee sanasa - np11.HY,ll,HTb CY,1l;b6y. KaK B npezrsrnymen czryuae npHHI.J;Hn agon'a pa3PYIIIaeTCH rOJlOBOKp)'lKeHHeM, TaK H anecs pa3pYIIIeHHbIM osaasrsaerca npnrnum alea, H fiorrsure HeT HrpbI KaK TaKOBoH.

2. CJIYqAilHbIE COqETAHIDI

HarrpOTHB, alea 6e3 YIl\ep6a }J,JIH. ce6H COep,HHHeTCH C ronOBOKpYIKeHHeM, a cocrH3aHHe - C mimicry. ,lJ,eHCTBHTeJIbHO, XOPOillO H3BeCTHo, '1TO B a3apTHbIX nrpax H 'roro nrpoxa, K KOMY CY,ll,b6a MHlIocTHBa, H Toro, KO- 1'0 npecnerryer HeBe3eHHe, OXBaTbIBacr KaKoe-TO oco6eHHoe roJIOBOKPYlKeHHe, Onn 60JIbille He -ryacrayior YCTaTIOCTH H ensa C03HaKYT rtponcxonanree BOKPyr. CJlOBHO npn raTIJIIOQHHaQHHX, OHH BfJIH,1l;bIBaIOTCH B nrapmc PYJIeTKH, KOTOPbIH BOT-BOT ocraHoBHTCH, llJIH B xapry, KOTOPyro cenxac OTKpOIOT. OHH TepHIOT BCHKoe XJIa}J,HOKpOBHe 11. nopon pHCKyIOT

97

PO)!(C Kallya. I1rpbl H JIKJ8H

qaCTh BTOPaJI. VI. PacnmpeHilaR TeOpHl! Hlp

60JlbIIII1M, 4eM I1MeIOT. B cPOJlbKJIOpe Ka3HHO MHO)l(eCTBO xaparcrepasrx I1CTOPMH. Ha 3TOT C4eT. BJJKHO JIHlIIb 3aMeTHTb, '-ITO ilinx, KOTOPbIM paapynraercs ag6n, OTHIO,n:b He zienaer HeB03MO)KHOH alea OH napamrsyer, aaaopaseasaer nrpoxa, AOBO,n:I1T ero no 6e3YMH5I, HO OTHIO,n:h He 3aCTaBJIHer ero napynra'n, npannna nrpu. MO)KHO AJ)I(e YI'Hep)l(fl,aTb, 'ITO OH AeJIaer ero eure noxopnee peIIIeHlliIM cy,n:b6bI l1 y6e)l(fl,acr cute 6e3pa3AeJIbHee OT,n:aBaTbCH aa ee BOJlIO. Alea npezmonaraer OTKa3 OT c06CTBeHHOH BOJll1, 11 MO)l(HO nOH5ITb, '-ITO eio BbI3bIHacrCH COCT05llme 'rpaaca, OAep)l(l1MOCTli HJIli rarurosa. B 3TOM 1I 3aKlH04aeTCH coennnenne }J,HyX TeHJ~eHlI,l1H.

Ananornxnoe coenaaenne cymecrsyer 1I Me)l(fl,Y ag6n'oM 1I mimicry. MHC ~e npnxonurrocs 3TO nOA'"lepKHHaTb: JlI060e COCTH3:tHMe cano no ce6e ecre apernune. OHO paasopauasaerca no TaKHM )l(e npaannaxt, B TaKOM )l(e O)l(l1fl,aHl1l1 pa3IDI3KH. OHO 'rpeoyer npI1C)'TCTBIDl rry6J111I<H, KOTOPaH TOJlnl1TCH Y xacc CTJAliOHa 11JI1i BeJIOl-\pOMa, TaK)I(e KaK 11 Y xacc 'rearpon 11 KHH03anOB.

TIpl1 Ka)I(fl,OM ,n:OCTlIl'lryTOM ycnexe npOTlIBHI1KaM anJIO,lJ;l1pYlOT.

B lIX 60Pb6e 6hIBaIOT nepanernn, COOTBeTCTBYIOIIJ,He pa3JIH4HbIM aKTaM I1JIH 3I11I30,n:aM ,n:paMbI. Haxoneu YMeCTHo HanoMHHTb, HaCKOJlbKO 6J11I3- KH POJIH '-IeMnHOHa H KHH03Be3Abl. 3,n:ecb OIl5lTh-TaKH npoacxornrr COc,n:HHeHHe ,n:Byx TeH,lJ;eHlI,lIH, TaK KaK mimicry He TOJlbKO HI14CM He npe,lJ;HT npmnurrry agon'a, HO H YCI1JIHBaeT ero, Tpe6y51 OT Ka)I(fl,oro 1I3 KOHKYlXHTOB He 06MaHbIBaTb O)l(l1Jl,aHHH rry6J1lIKH, KOTOPaH O,[lHOBPCMeHHO 1I npHBCTcTByeT era 1I KOHTpOJlHpyCT. OH qyBCTBYeT ce6H ysacrHliKOM rrpeACTaBJleHHH, OH 06H3aH nrpars KaK MO)I(HO nyxnre, TO ecrs, C O,[lHOH CTOPOHbI, 6e3ynpe4Ho npaeunsrro, a C ztpyron - npnnaras see YCI1JIWI,[1,JI51 ,u:OCTll)I(eHIDl nooezn».

3. <I>YI-mAMEHTAJIbHbIE COQETAHI151

y,n:OBOJlbCTBlIe, HcnOJlb3YH He HM C03,aaHHYIO crrryaumo I1JIH JllIlIIb OTsacra nanpaansexnae HM nepurterua. Y.n:a'-la HJlH HeY,[la4a BblpJ)l(aeT Co- 60M TO conporuancane, xoropoe npnpona, BHeIIIHI1H. MHp 11]]11 BOAA 60- rOB OKa3bIBalOT Cl1JIe, JIOBKOCTH I1]]H 3HaHH5IM nrpoxa. l1rpa HBJlHeT C060H 06pa3 caMOM )l(H3HH - HO 06pa3 cPHKTMBHbIM, H,lJ;eanbHbIll, ynoPM04eHHbIH., 060c06J1eHHbIM, orpaHH4eHHhIH. paMKaMH. l1HaLJe H He MO)l(eT 6bITb, nOCKOJlhKY see 3TO HeOTbeMJIeMbie CBOllCTBa lIrpbI.

Ag6n H alea B mOM MHpe OTHOCHTOI K 06J1aCTH npaBI1JI. Ee3 npaBI1JI He 6bIBaer HH COCTH3aHHM, HH a3apTHhIX nrp. Ha npOTHBOnOJlO)I(HOM nomoce - mimicry H ilinx, xoropsre B paBHOM Mepe rtpermortaraior MHp 6e3 npaBI1JI, rzte nrpox nOCTOHHHO MMnpOBH311pyeT, nonaraacs na 6ypHYIO rparrraamo HJIH B,AOXHOBeHHe CBbIIIIe, He rrpH3HalOIII,l1e HHKaKOll KO,n:l1cpHKall,l1H. TOJlhKO 'ITO MbI BI1,n:eJIM, KaK B ag6n'e HrpOK onapaercs Ha CBOIO BOJlIO, a B alea OTKa3bIBacrCH OT nee. Terreps zce mimicry rpeoyer OT nrparoutero C03HaBaTb csoe rrpHTBopCTBO 11 ClIMYJI5ll.I,l1IO, rorna KaK f.lll5! rOJlOBOKp~eHIDl H 3KCTa3a xapaxrepno BbIKJII04eHHe C03HaHIDl.

l1HbIMH CJlOBaMH, B CHMyJl5l1l,11H MO)I(HO 3aMeTHTb nexoe pas,n:BoeHHe C03HaHWI axrepa Me)l(fl,y ero c06CTBeIIHOll JlHLJHOCThlO H HCnOJlH5IeMOH. HM POJlhlO; HarrpOTHB, npa rOJlOBOKp~eIIHH nponcxoznrr lIaHH4eCKoe paCCTpOllCTBO MJlH ,[IJ)I(e nonnoe 3aTMeHHe C03HaHWI. A xyace scero TO, '"fTO Cl1MyJl5l1l,IDl caxa no ce6e ecrs reneparop rOJlOBOKp~eHIDl, a pa3,[1BOeHHe lIH4HOCTH - 11CTOLJHl1K rraHHKH. TIpHTBOpsrsca ztpyraa - 3TO 3aH5ITHe, OT xoroporo nerxo 06e3YMeTb 11 BbIHTli H3 ce6H. HOlIIeHHe JlH4HHbI Onh5lH5IeT H CHHMaeT orpamr-renaa. OTTOro B 3TOM onacnoa 06J1aCTH, rAe pynrHTC5I HCHOCTb BOCnpH}lTWi, C04CTaHHe MaCKH 1I 'rpanca rp03HT ocooenao cepbe3HbIMli nocneAcTBWIMH. OHO Bhl3bIBacr TaKlle npnnanxa, zrocrnraer TaKHX napoKcH3MOB, '"fTO B ranJlIOlI,HHHpYIOIII,eM C03HaHHH o,n:ep)l(HMOrO epesienao YHH4TO)l(aexCR BeCh pe:J.l1bRblH Mllp.

Coxeranae alea C agon'osr - 3TO nrpa CB060,[lHOM BOJlH, OCHOBaHHaH 113 YAOBJIeTBOpeHHH OT npeonorrenna rrpOH3BOJlbHO npH):\YMaHHOH H ,lI,06POBOJlbHO npHH5ITOM TPY,[lHOCTH. A COlO3 mimicry 11 ilinx'a 01'xpsraaer ,[IHepH B nomrsnt, 6e30rJI5IAHbIH pasryn, KOTOPhlll B HaH60Jlce 4crKHX CBOHX cP0pMax npeztcraenaer C060ll npHMYIO npOTHBOnOJlO)l(HOCTb nrpr», TO ecri, a6COJllOTII)'lO McraMopc!J03Y acex ycnOBHll )I(l13HH:

BbI3bIBaeMoe npn 3TOM 6e3YMHe, JlHIIIeHHoe BC5IKHX MhlcnHMbIX opucnrnpos, rro CBoeM BJIaCTHOCTH, 3Ha4HMOCTH H HHTeHCHBHOCTH HaCTOJlbKO )l(e npeBOCXO[\HT peansmra MHP, HaCKOJlbKO caxr peanbHbIM Ml1p npeBOCXO,aHT c!JopManbHO-lOpH,lJ;H4eCKHe, H3Ha4anhHO orpasneaasre Bl1):\hI ,[Ie5lTeJlbHOCTH, KaKHMH .IIBJl5IIOTC5I nrpst, no,n:4HHeHHhIe aaaaxononoaH51IOIQHM npasanaw ag6n'a H alea H 4CTKO pa3Me4eHHhle. COI03 CHMYJl5IlI,Hl1 H rOJlOBOKp~eHH5I CTOJlb MOryq H He060pHM, 'ITO OH eCTeCTBeHHhIM 06pa30M npanannezcrr K crpepc CaKpaJIhHOrO H, noacanyn, oopasyer O,lJ;HY 113 rnasasrx npH4HH xaparcrepaoa AJI5! nee CMeCl1 crpaxa H 04apOBaHlliI.

OCTaeTCH paCCMOTpeTb 're crrysan, B KOTOPbIX KOHcTaTHpyeTc5I CyU'HOCTHoe C6J1ll)1(eHl1e Me)l(fl,y pa3HbIMH npl1HlI,HrraMH nrp. B 3TOM IlJIaHe rroKJ3aTeJlbHO crporo Cl1MMeTpH4Hoe COOTHOlIIeHHe Me)l(fl,y agon'oxr H alea: OHH rrapannern.asr 11 ,lJ;OnOJlH5IIOT npyr ztpyra. 06a OHI1 Tpe6Y1OT a6COJIIOTHO CnpaBeJI.JIHBbIX ycnOBHM, MaTeMarn4eCKH susepeunoro paHeHCTBa lIIaHCOB, rcoropoe MaKCHMaJIbHO np116J1H)I(anOCb 6hI K 6e3YKOp113HeHHOH T04HOCTH. 11 B TOM 11 B ztpyroxr cnysae - 6e3ynpe'"fHO crporHe npasana, TU,aTeJlbHbIe H3MepeHWl., TOHKHe pacsersr. O,lJ;HaKO cnocoo Bbl5lBJIeHIDl n06e,[lHTeJlH B 3THX ,n:Byx BH):\aX nrp npaao rrpOTHBOnonoaorsm: B OAHOM CJIy4ae, KaK MbI Bl1):\eJIlI, J1rpOK paCCLJHTbIBacr JlHIIIb HJ CBOH H03MO)I(HOCTl1, B zipyros; )l(e HaMepeHHO OTKa3hIBaeTC}I HX HCnonssoaars. Ho Me)l(fl,Y KpaMHl1MH npHMepaMH, xoropere npe,n:CTaBJI5lIOT c060u, CKJ)I(eM, IIIaXMaTbI H KOCTH, cPYT60Jl H norepes, pacxpsisaerca IIIHp04aUIIIHll cnexrp nrp, rrte 06e yCTaHoBKH KOM6HHl1pyroTC5I B paaHhIX nponopuuax TyT H xapro-msre nrpsr, He OCHOBaHHble na '"fHCTOM cnyqaH.HOCTH, H ,[IOMHHO, H ronsdi, H MHoro ,[Ipyr11X, me HrpOK nonyxaer

98

99

POJKe Ka"ifya. HrpbI H JUDAH

CWIa raxoro somneocraa npe,IJ,CTaBJUleTCH Herr06e,IJ,HMOH, H HH'IerO y,IJ,HBHTeJIbHOrO, 'ITO aa H36aBJIeHHe OT ee MHp:DKa 'IeJIOBeKY rroTpe60BaIIHCb TbICH'IeJIeTHH. TIpH 31'0M OH ,IJ,OCTHr TOrO, 'ITO 06bl'IHO aa- 3bIBalOT I.J;HBWIH3aI.J;HeH. 5l. C'IHTaIO npHXO,IJ, I.J;HBWIH3aI.J;HH CJIe,IJ,CTBHeM npaaepno O,IJ,HorO H Toro iKe napa, HO 3aKJIIO'laIIOCb OHO BCIOAY aa paaHbIX YCJIOBIDIX. Bo BTOpOH 'laCTH CBoeH pa60TbI H nocrapaiocs aaMeTHTb OCHOBHble 'IepTbl aroro pemaromero nepesopora A B KOHl~e, C,IJ,eJIaB HeCKOJIbKO HeOiKH,IJ,aHHbIti IIIar B CTOPOHY, H norrsrrarocs YCTaHoBHTb, KaKHM 06pa30M npOH30IIIJIO pa3,IJ,eJIeHHe, paapsrs, He3aMeTHO no,IJ,OpBaBIIIHe TaHHblti COlO3 raJIOB0J\.PYiKeHIDI H CHMYJIHU;HH, npn TOM 'ITO nO'ITH ace rOBOpWIO 0 ero HenOKOJIe6HMOM rrOCTOHHCTBe.

• • •

O,l1;HaKO npescre 'IeM npncryna'rs K paCCMOTpeHHIO KanHTaIIbHOH nepeMeHbl, 3aMeHHBllleH MHp MacKH YI 3KCTa3a MHpOM 3aCJIYf H y,IJ,a· .. m, MHe erne OCTaeTCH B 3THX rrpe,l1;BapHTelIbHbIX 3aMe'IaHIDIX KpaTKO ysaaars aa npyryio CHMMeTPHIO. KaK MbI TOJIbKO 'ITO BH,IJ,eJIH, a1ea npexpacuo co-reTaeTCH C agon'ou, a mimicry C ilinx'OM. Ho B TO iKe BpeMH xapaxrepno, 'ITO BHYTpH 31'01'0 COlO3a H B TOM H B ,IJ,pyrOM CJIY'Iae O,IJ,HH 3JIeMeHT BbIcrynaer KaK aKTHBHO-npO,lzyKTHBHbIH ¢aKTOp, a ,I1;pyrOH ~ KaK naCCHB-

HO- pa3pyrnHTeJIhHbIH ..

COCT5l3aHHe H CHMYAAI.J;IDI MOryT C03,11;aBaTh H ,IJ,eHCTBYlTeJIbHO

C03,11;a1OT ¢OpMbl KYJIbTYPbl, sa KOTOPblMH 06bI'-I.HO rrpH3HaeTCH lIH60 BOCI1HTaTeJIhHaH, lIH60 3CTeTH'IeCKaH u;eHHOCTb .. 113 HHX B03HHKaIOT YCTOH'IHBble, BJIWiTeJIbHble, "IaCTO BCTpe'IalOII\HeCH, nO"lTH HeH36eiKHble HHCTHTyThl. AeHCTBHTeJIbHO, COCTH3aHHe rro rrpasnnaa ~ 3TO He 'ITO HHoe, KaK cnopr, a CHMYlIHI.J;IDI, rrOHHMaeMaH KaK nrpa, ~ He 'ITO nnoe, KaK TeaTP. HanpOTHB TOro, DOHCK» y,l1;a'IH, noroas aa rOlIOBOKpYiKeHHeM aa pe,IJ,KHMH HCKJIlO'IeHIDIMH HH K 'IeMY He npHBO,IJ,HT, He C03,IJ,aIOT HH'Iero cnocoriaoro K pa3BHTHIO H npO'-l.HOMY YCTaHOBJIeHHIO .. l:.J.alQe 6hlBaeT, 'ITO rrOpO)K).l,aeMble HMH CTpaCTH OKa3bIBalOT napanaayromee, npepsrsaromee H pa3pyrnHTeJIbHOe ,IJ,eHCTBHe.

KopeHh 'raxoro HepaBeHCTBa, KaK Ka)l(eTOl, HcrPY,l1;HO otinapyiKHTb. B nepsoa o6ne,IJ,HHeHHH, rne maBeHCTBYeT MHp npasnn, ale a H agon supaxaror C060H AHaMeTpaIIbHO npOTHBOnOlIOiKHbIe BOlIeBbIe yCTaHoBKH .. Agon, CTpeMlIeHHe K nooene H yCHlIIDI ,IJ,JIH ee ,I1;OCTHiKeHIDI, npe,l1;nOlIaraeT, 'ITO COCTH3alOmHHC5r paCC'-I.HTbIBaeT aa CBOH C06CTBeHnsre pecypcsr. OH XO'leT BOCTopiKeCTBOBaTb, ,I1;OKa3aTb csoe npeBOCXO,l1;CTBO .. HeT HH'IerO nlIO,l1;OTBopHee TaKoro CTpeMJIeHIDI. HanpOTHB, alea npe,IJ,CTaBJUleT c060n H3Ha'laIIbHOe, 6e3YCJIOBHOe rrpIDITHe rrparosopa CY,l1;b6bl. TaKOH OTKa3 OT 60ph6bI osaasaer, "ITO HrpOK BCeI.J;eJIO nonaraeTCH ua TO, KaK nsmazryr KOCTH, 'ITO OH 6y,l1;eT TOJIbKO 6pocaTb HX H CMOTpers na pe3YlIbTaT. Era npasuno B TOM, '-I.T06hI B03,IJ,epiKHBaThCH OT ,IJ,enCTBHti, He HCKaJKaH peurenne CYAb6bI H He asrpsrsaa ero CHlIOH ..

100

1

,

YaCTb BTOpaH. VI. PaCllmpeHHaR Teopm! 1fT

KOHe'IHO, H TO H ,IJ,pyroe eyre ,I1;Ba CHMMeTPH'IHblX cnocooa ooecne-nrrs TO'IHOe pasnosecne, a6COJIIOTHOe pascacrso mancoa Me)K).l,y KOHKypeHTaMH.. Ho nepsoe npencraanaer c060n BOJIeBYJO 60Pb6y C BHeIIIHHMH rrpelliITCTBIDIMH, a sropoe ~ OTKa3 01' BOJIeH3'bHBJIeHIDI nepen JIHI.J;OM npennoaaraesurx 3HaMeHHn cssnne. TI03TOMY copeanosaHHe CJIyJKHT nOCTOHHHblM H 3cp¢eKTHBHbIM ynpaJKHeHHeM, TpeHHpOBKon '-I.eJIOBe'leCKHX cnocooaocrca, rorna KaK ¢aTaIIH3M B OCHOBe csoesi JIeHHB. O,ll,HO nacrpoenae Tpe6ycr pa3BHBaTb lII06bIe CBOH JIH'lHbIe rrpeHMYIIIeCTBa, ,1l,pyroe ~ HenO,l1;BHJKHO H HeM a ,IJ,OiKH,IJ,aTbCH Top)KeCTBa WIH Oty)K,IJ,eHHH, npHXO,IJ,HlQHX H3BHe.. B TaKOH caryanna HeY,IJ,HBHTellbHO, '"ITO noncnopsesr H B03Harp<OK,!J;eHHeM agon'a HBJIHIOTCH 3HaHHe H TexHHKa, 'rorna KaK HepelIlHTeJIbHOCTb alea nenpeueaao cOnpOBO)K,IJ,aeTC5l MarHen H cyesepnaan, H3yqeHHeM qy,IJ,ec H cosnaziemra! .

TaKYIO iKe ,ll,BynOAAPHOCTb MO)KHO KOHcTaTHpoBaTb H B xao'rnxeCKOM MHpe CHMYlIHI.J;HH H rOJIOBoKpyiKeHHH .. Mimicry 3aKJIIO'-lacrcH B HaMepeHHoM npe,IJ,CTaBJIeHHH KaKorO-TO nepconasca, 'ITO nerxo CTaHOBHTCH XY,IJ,OiKeCTBeHHbIM TBOp'-leCTBOM, ,I1;eJIOM pacsera H YMeJIOCTH .. AKTep ,I1;OJI)KeH nsrcrpaaaan, CBOIO pOJIb H C03,11;aBaTh ,1l,paMaTH'IecKYIO HJlJlIO- 3HIO. EMY npHXO,l1;HTCH 6bITb BHHMaTeJIbHbIM H nOCTOHHHO coxpana'rs npHcyTCTBHe nyxa - TO'"lHO TaK )Ke, KaK yqaCTHHKY COCTH3aHIDI. Ii Ha060- pOT, B i1inx'e, KOTOPbIH B aTOM OTHOIIIeHHH CXO,IJ,eH C alea, npoHCXO,l1;HT OTpe'IeHHe - npH'leM He TOJIbKO 01' BOJIH, HO H or C03HaHIDI. TIpe,l1;aIOlQHHCH TaKon nrpe yCTpeMlIHeTCH KY,ll,a KpHBaH BbIBe3eT, Hero nbHHHT 01' qyBCTBa, '-lTO 3Ta KpHBaH HanpaBJIHeTCH t.J.Y)K).l,bIMH eMY C.HJIaMH. t.{T06bI ,I1;OCTH'lb TaKOrO COCTOHHHH, ~O JIHlllh OT,1l,aTbCH na HX BOJIIO, ,IJ,JIH xero He 'rpeoyerca HHKaKOrO ocooemroro YMeHIDI.

B aaaprnstx nrpax onaCHOCTb 3aKJIIO'laeTCH B TOM, 'ITO HrpOK He MO)KeT OCTaHOBHTbCH, 3,11;eCb )Ke OHa B TOM, 'ITO OH He MO'lKeT nOJIO)KllTb KOHeI.J; ,I1;06POBOJIbHOMY paccrpoacray. H3 TaKHX HeraTHBHbIX nrp, xasaJIOCb 6bI, BCe)Ke MO)KeT BbIpaCTH 60JIee C.HJIbHaH cnocoonocrs rrpornBHTbCH TeM HJlH HHbIM xapass. Ho na ,IJ,CJIe Bee uaooopor. Bens 31'a cnoe06HOCTb npOHBJIHeTCH JIHIIIb npa HaBH3'lHBOn 06ceCCHH, a 3HalJHT, OHa see BpeMH BHOBb ncnsrrsrsaerca H KaK 6bI no npapone CBoen oopeseaa Ha nopaacenae. Ee He BOCnHTbIBalOT - ero PHCKYIOT ,11;0 'rex nop, noxa OHa He naner. Hrpsr CHMYJIHI.J;HH rrpHBO,IJ,HT K TeaTPaJIbHblM HCKYCCTBaM, BblpaJKalOll.I,HM H npOCJIaBJIHlOll.I,HM KYJIb"IYPY. A CTpeMlIeHHe K TpaHCY

1 Her H)')K.ll:bl nOSlCIDITh, 'ITO 3111 np0111BOnOJIO)KHble HaCTpoeHHS! peAJ(O scrpexaIOTCS! B '1HCTOM BH,lI,e. Y cnOpTCMeHOB 6blBalOT ¢'eTMIIIH (HO Bce-TaKH paCC'IHThI~ naior OHH na omy MblllIQ, JIOBKOCTh wm )1M), a aaaprmae arpoxa, npesoie '1eM caenars crasxy, 3aHl1MalOTCS! 1130I.ll,peHHbIMll, nO'lTH 6ecnOJIe3HblMH pacxeraaa (HO npH 3TOM OHI1, He '1HTaBIIIHe Ilyanxapc H Bopena, BCe:JKe "}'BCfB)'IOT, 'ITO

Y CJI)"laHHOCTIl Her HH cepana, HH naMRTH) .. l.JenoBeK He MO:JKer 6bITh sceneno

ira CTOpOHe ag6n'a HJIH na CTOpoHe alea BbI6llP<UI. ozran H3 3TIlX npHHQHnOB, OH O,1.l,HoBpeMeHHo npnaaaer B ,lI,pyroM KaKOH-TO CThl,lI,lIHBbIH npOTIlBOBeC nepeosry.

101

Ponce I0tiva. 11rphl H JUOIlH

11 my6mmoH namrxe nonaanaer B 4eJIOBeKe cnoc06HOCTb iKeJIaTh H P:l3- 1I114aTb. OHO nenaer cro lDIeHHHKOM ,lI,BYCMbICJIeHHO-BOCTOp)KeHIlbIX 3KCTa30B, B KOTOPblX OH 4}'BCTByeT ceos 60rOM H xoropue Be,ll,yr K ero yHH'lTO)KeHHIO.

I1TaK, BHyTPH KaJKl~oro H3 ,lI,Byx OCHODHblX 06'bC,[lHHeHHH lIHillb 0[1,aa xareropas nrp RBJIRcrOI. nO,l.\JIHHHO -rsop-recxori: mimicry - B co-reraHHH MaCKH C rOJIOBOKp)')KeHHeM H ag6n - B c04craHHH peryJIRpHOrO conepaasecraa C HCnbITaHHCM yp;a4H. ,QBe ,ll,pyrHe 6hIcrpO OKa3bIBaIQTCH pa3pYIIIHTeJIbHbIMH. B HHX supaacaerca HeKOC ncnoucpuoe, He4eJIOBC4ecxoe, HeHcQeJIHMOe HCKyIIIeHHe, KaKaII-TO ~CHa5I. H naryriaaa 'rara, 'IblO 3aBJIeKaTeJIbH}'lO cHJIY ll;l)l.(lIO HeHTpanH30BaTb. B -rex oomecrsax, rne napRT CHMYJIRlI,H5I. H rarmoa, BbIXO,ll, mrorzta OKa3bIBacrC5I. HaI1,IJ,eH B TOT MOMeHl', xorna cncicraxns 6epcr BCpX H;lA TpaHCOM, TO ecri, xorna MaCKa KOJI,lI,)'Ha CTaHOBHTCR TearpanbHOH MaCKoH. B 06IIl,eCTBax, OCHonaHHbIX na C04craHHH sacnyrn H y,ll,a'IH, TaKiKe cymecrsyer HenpecraHHoe, He scerna paBHO ycnenmoc crpesineaae yneJIH'IHBaTb ,1l;omo cnpaBC1VIHBOCTH aa c-rer CJIY4aHHOCTH. 31'0 crpesinemre Ha3bIBalOT rrporpeCCOM.

Terteps nopa paccxorpers ,lI,eHCTBHe 31'01'0 ,1l;BOHHOra COOTHomeHlliI (c O,ll;HOH croponsr, CHMyJIRlI,HH H ronoaoxpyacenaa, C ,lI,pyrOH - y,ll,a- 4H H 3aCJIyfH) B xone nepunerna pa3BHTH5I. 'IellOBe4eCTBa, KaKOHH rrpep;rrOJlaraIOTCH flaMH H pHcyIOTCH COBpeMeHHOH 3THorpaq:meH H HCTopHeH.

H306pcreHHe cyryrio aanannoe, B03,ll;YIIIHoro 3MeH, KOTOPbll"1:, nO-BH,lI,HMOMy, 6bIJI HeH3BeCTeH B Espone ,lI,o XVIII BCKa, - HO 41'0 iKe erne? Ocransaue Hrpbl. erne B naBHHe npeveaa B TOH llJIH HHOH <popMe pacnpoCTpaHllJIHCb no BceMY csery. GHH nOKa3bIBalOT TO, 41'0 4eJIOBe'IeCKJJI npnpona ncrony O,ll,HHJKOBa. AJ)Ke ecrm mrorna H vzaerca onpcnemrrs HX rrpOHCXOiK,ll;eHHC, npHXOp;HTO! OTKa3hIBaTbCH 01' norrsrrox 04CPTHTb ccpepy HX pacnpocrpanenan. KJiK,ll;a51. H3 HHX Be31~e rrorrynapaa: soneaHeBOJIeCI npHXOAffTC5I. rrpH3HJTb KaKfIO-TO y,ll,ffBHTCJIbHYIO yHHBepcanbHOCTb lIrpOBhIX rrpmnmrroa, 3aKOIIOB, npacnocooneana, npnexsoa.

A) B3Al1M03ABI1CI1MOCTb I1rp 11 KYJIb TYP

VII. Cl1MYJUIIJ;II5I

II rOJIOBOKp}')KeHIIe

YCTOH'IHBOCTb H ymmepcansnocrs B3aHMHO ,lI,onOJlH5I.!OT npyr ,lI,pyra. OmI oc06eHHO 3Ha'IHTeJIhHbl nOTOMy, 41'0 nrpsr B 60JIblllOH Mepe 3aHHCHT 01' xynsrypi«, B KOTOpOH OHH npaKTHKyIOTOI. B HHX CKa3bIBaIOTC5I. ee IIpel~n04TeIIH5I., B IIHX naxonsr npO,ll;OJl)KeHHe ee 06b14aH, B HHX orpa)l(aIOTC5I ee neponannx. B aHTH41I0CTH nrpa B ('KlIaCCHKH') 6bIJIa JIa6HPHfITOM, no KOTOPOMY rrO,ll,TaJIKHBaIOT KaMellleK - TO CCTb p;ymy - K Hhlxorty, C rrpl1XO,ll;OM xpffCTHaHCTBa PHCyHOK ('KlIaCCHKOB,) y,IJ,JI11HllJIO! 11 yrrPOCTHJIC.H. Teneps OHH BocnpOH3BO,ll;5l.T nnan 6a3HJIHKH: Tpe6YCTCH P;OBCCTH ,ll;YIIIy-KaMeIIIeK,ll;O He6a, P3.H, Benua llJIl1 CnaBhl, xoropsre COBnanaror C fJIaBHblM amapesr xpaaa, CxeMaTH4eCKH H306pJ)KeHHOrO noCJIe~OBaTeJIhHOCTblO KBa,n,paTI1KOB Ha 3eMJIe. B I1Hl\HH nrpana B uraxxraTbI C 4CTblpbMll KOPOlIRMH. Hrpa 6bIJIa ncpcnecena B cperurenexoayro Eaporry, Ilozi ,ll;BOHHbIM BJlH5I.HHeM KyJIbTOB Boronarepn 11 xypryasaon m06BH OIlHH H3 KOpOJIeH ttpespa'rnnca B KOpOJIeHY HJIH .D,aMY, H ona czrenanacs caMOH CI11IhHOH ¢HrypOH, 'rorna KaK KOPOll!O 6blJIa ornenena POJlh H~eanbHoro, HO naCC11BHoro npnaa, aa KOTOPbIll H,lI,CT 60Pb6a. 11 BCC)I(e rJIaHHOe COCTOHT B TOM, 41'0 3TH nepenems He 3aTpOHYJIH cymnocnryio nenpepsisaocrt, urpsr n «KJIaCCHKH" HJIH B maxaarsr.

MO)!(liO nOllTJ1 ,[lanbIIJe H 3aHBHTb, 41'0 cyntecrsyer B3aHMOCBH3b MC)K,ll;y 1I106hIM 06Ill,eCTBOM H nonynspasnen B HeM I1rpaMH: npaaana 3THX nrp CBH3aHbI C THnH4HblMH ~OCTOHHCTBaMH H ne,ll;OCTaTKaMH -oreHOB l\aHHOrO KOJIJIeKTHBa. B 3TH X JIlO6HMblX H unrpe ecero pacnpocrpaHCHHbIX Hrpax npOHBJIRIOTCH, C OI~HOH CTOPOIlbI, caMhle paCXO)KHC BKyCbl, cnocoosr paccyenars, a c ,1l;pyrOH CTOPOlIbl, OHH BocnHTbIBaIOT H TpeHHPYIOT arpaioruax, 3aKpeIIJIIDI B HHX 3TH nOCTOHHCTBa H H3bHHhI, He3aMerHO nOp;TBCpiK,ll;a5I. HX npHBbI4KH H npCAnOYTenH51.. TCM caMblM nrpa, KOTOPYfO rroxrrraer TOT HJlH HHOrI rrapozr, MO)KeT O;:J.HOBpCMeHHO CJIy)KHTb,IJ,JIH onpenenenna nexoropsrx ero MopanbHhIX HJlH HHTeJIJIeK- 1)'aJlbHblX 4CpT, ;:J.OKa3hIBaTb T04HOCTh orrHCaHH.I1 H nenars ero erne 60- nee HCTHHHbIM, nO~YCpKHHaH 3TH caMblC 4epThi y arparouurx.

HeT HHYCro a6cyp,ll;Horo B TOM, 41'061>1 CTaBHTb ,ll;HarH03 qeJIOH I~HBHJIH3aQIfH na oeHOBC 'rex nrp, KOTOPbIC B HeH ococeano npOIJ,BeTalOT. B caMOM nene, ecnn HrphI cyrs ¢aKTOpbI H 06pa3hI KyJIhTyphl, TO 01'-

I1rpbl 06JIJ,1l;aIOT HCKJIlO4HTellhHOH cTa6Hl1bHOCTblO. PymaTC5I. HMnepHH, HC4e3alOT couaam.asre HHCTHTyTbI, a HlpbI OCTa!OTCH - c TCMH xce rrpaBHJIaMH, nopoH C TeMH xce rrpHHa,IJ,JIe)KHOCT5I.MH. TIpH4HHJ 31'0ra npeac- 1I.C ncero B TOM, YTO OHM JIBJl$llOTCH 4eM-TO He3Ha"lHTCJIbHblM H HMeHHO n03ToMy nOCT05l:HHhI.M. 3,ll;CCb - nepsaa saraznca. Bens, 06JI;lAa5I. TaKOH nenpepsiaaocrsro, op;HOBpeMeHHO TeK)"lCH H yrrPHMOH, OHH BCC )Ke He nOXO)KH Ha ,lI,peBeCHble JIHCfhH, soropsre H3 rona H rozt )'MHpalOT H H3 rona B rOA OCTaIOTC.H TaKHMH )Ke, KaK npeaoie, npa BceM CHoeM nOCT0511fCTBC, OHH He yrrOP;06JIRlOTCH OKpaCKe )KHBOTHbIX, pacynxy na KPbIJIbHX 6a- 604eK, cnHpaJlhHOMY H3rH6y paKOBHH, KOTOPblC HeB03M)'1'HMO nepcztarorca 113 nOKOJIeHHH B nOKOJICI-me. Y nrp HCT TJKOH HaClIe,ll;CTBeHHOH H,lI,eHTH4HOCf'H. OHH 6eCYHCJleHHO MHOJKecTBeHHbl H nepCMeH'mBbI. OHH npHHI1MalOT TbICRYH ¢OpM, lIeO,ll;HH:lKOIlO pacnpocrpaneuHbIX, CJIOBHO BH,lI,bl paCTeHHM; HO OHH 6eCKOHe4HO vcnemnee HX aKKlIHMaTH3HpyIOTC5I.. nepeaemaiorca If npH)KHBaIOTC.H na HOBOM MeCTe C OIIIeJIOMHTeJIbHOH 6bICTPO'J'OH H JIerKOCTblO. Hesmoro HaH,n,eTCH TaKHX nrp, KOTOPbIC 6bl nonroe BpeM.H OCTaBanHCb HCKJII04HTClIbHblM P;OCTOHH11CM KaKorO-TO onpenenermoro apeana. MO)KHO Ha3BaTb BOINOK -

102

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'-!aC'l'b BTOPa.<!. VII. CHM)lIISll!HII Ii rOIlOBOKp}?KeHYle

ciozra cnenyer, "ITO B H3BeCTHOll Mepe Il,HBHJl1l3all,HH H -ra HJI11 HHaR anoxa B ee HCTOPHH MO)l(eT 6bITb onncana sepea CBOH llrpbl. OHH C He06xo,Il,HMOCTbIO asrpaxcarcr ee 0611Vn1 06JIHK H naror BaJKHble yKa3aHHH OTHOCHTeJlbHO rrpe,ll,n04TeHHll, CJla60CTeH H CHJIbHbIX CTOPOH nannoro 06rn;eCTBa B ,Il,aHHbIH MOMeHT ero 3BOJIIOll,HH. BbITb MO)l(eT, ,Il,lIH 6eCKOHe4Horo )'Ma, ,Il,JIH Bo06paJKaeMoro AeMOHa MaKCBeJIJIa 1 CY,ll,b6y Cnaprsr J)l(e MO)J(HO 6bIlIO npencxasars no BOHHCKOH cypOBOCTH nrp B nanecrpe, CYAb6y AqmH ~ no anopaasi C(xtmCToB, na,ll,eHHe PHMa ~ no 60HM rna,Il,HaTopOB, a ynanox BH3aHTHH ~ no CXBaTKaM aa armonpcne. Hrpbl ,Il,alOT JIIO,lI)lM npHBbI4Kll, 06pa3YIOT HX pe¢JIeKCbJ. OHH n03BOJIHIOT O)l(H,Il,aTb peaKIJ,Hll onpe,ll,eJIeHHOrO THna H, CJle,ll,OBaTeJIbHO, 3aCTaBJIHlOT C4HTaTb npOTHBOnOJlO)J(Hble peaKIJ,HH rpy6bIMH HJIH KOBapHblMH, Bbl3blBalOIn;HMH HJIH He4eCTHb1Mll. KOHe4HO, KOHTpaCT Me)J(,ll,y HrpaMH ,Il,Byx cocemmx naponee ~ He casroe Ha,Il,e)J(HOe 06bHCHeHHe npH4HH nCHXOJIOrH4eCKllX rpeHHll Me)J(}Jy HHMH, HO 3a,uHHM 4HOl0M 01-1. MO)l(eT CTaTb HX Bne4aTJIHIOIn;ell HlIlIIOCTpalJ,Hell.

pacnpOCIJJaHeHHOH, MO)J(HO CKa3aTb Hau.HOHaJIbHOH nrpsr OllHTb-TaKH C He06xo,ll,HMOCTbIO BbI3blBalOT, nOAAep)J(HBalOT HJIH BblPJ)J(aIOT onpeneJIeHHbie nCliXOJIOrH4eCKlie npHBb14KH, BJIllillOrn;He na OpHmHaJIbHhIH 06- JIHK nOBCe,D;HeBHOH )J(H3HH, a nopon H Ha xon oomecrsemnax ,Il,eJI: 3TO HCnOJIb30BaHHe XHTpO)'MHblX HaMeKoB, ocrpoe 4)'BCTBO COJIH,Il,apHOCTl1 MeJK,Il,)' naprnepaxm, CKJIOHHOCTb K 06MaHY - norryuryrnaaosry, norrycephe3HoM)', B nparnnrrre ,Il,OnyCTHMOMY H 6JIarOCKJIOHHO npHHHMaeMoMY, HO C rtpaaoxi orurpsnua; naxoneu, MHorope4HBOCTb, B nOTOKe KOTOpOH He TaK-TO npocro OTblCKaTb KJII04eBOe CJlOBO H KOTOPOll TaK)J(e 'rpemrpyerca COOTBeTCTBYIOrn;aH cnoc06HOCTb HX OTbICKl1BaTb.

K rrpuerepy, He6e3pa3JIH4eH TOT ¢aKT, "ITO fJIaBHhIll aHfJIOCaKCOHCKllH cnopr - 3TO roJIb¢, TO ecri, TaKaH arpa, rne Kl)J(,Il,bIH B JII060H MOMeHT HMeeT B03MO)J(HOCTb CKOJIbKO yronao H KaK yrozmo nrryrcsa'rs, HO KaK TOJIbKO B 3TOH nrpe Ha4HHalOT nnyroears, OHa ¥Tpa4HBaeT BCHKllH mrrepec. Huxero Y,Il,HBHTeJIbHOrO, "ITO B TeX)I(e crpaaax cyrn;eCTByeT KOPpeJIHu.HH Me)J(,Il,Y nOBeAeHIieM HaJIorOIIJlaTeJIbIIJ,HKa no OTHOIlleHHIO K ¢HCKaJIbHbIM opraaax H rpl)J(,ll,aHHHa no OTHOIlleHHIO K rOCY,ll,apCTBy.

He MeHee noYY:HTeJIbHbIH npassep ztaer apreHTHHCKaH KapT04HaH nrpa ('rpyKo""r,ll,e see crpOHTCH na XHTPOCTl1 H ,Il,l)J(e, ecrm yronao, nrryTOBCTBe - HO TOJlbKO IllIyTOBCTBe KO,ll,H¢HlI,HpOBaHHoM, pemaMeHTlIpOBaHHOM, 06H3aTeJIbHOM,Il,lIH scex B 3TOH nrpe, CXO,ll,HOH C noseposr H MaHHJlbeH, ,Il,lIH KaJK,Il,ora nrposa rnamtoe - C006III.HTb naprnepy, KaKHe xaprsr H KOM6HHalJ,liIi xapr Y Hero aa pyKax, Ii 4T06bl 06 3TOM ~He yJHaJIH npOTHBHHKll. ,lJ.Jrn 0603Ha'-leHliH xapr OH IlOJlh3yeTCH MIiMHKOIi. ECTb neJIhIH PM Cneu.IiaJIhHbIX MHH, rpaxac, flO,ll,MHrHBaHHH, KOTopble scerna, HeH3MeHHO COOTBeTCTBYIOT onpeAeJIeHHbiM crapunoa xaprax. 3TH 3HaKH, npegycMorpeHHhle IlpaBliJIaMH nrpst, ,Il,OJI)l(HbI ,Il,aTh CBe,Il,eHliH COI03HHKY, He Bbl,ll,aBaH liX sparv XOpOIllHH HrpOK )'MeeT 6hICTPO H He3aMeTHO BOCnOJIb30BaTbCH MaJIeHilleH HeBHHMaTeJIbHOCTbIO ,Il,pyrOH KOMaH,ll,bI: MfHOBeHHaH nrpa MliMHKll ~ H era naprnep npenyrrpeznen. qTO )l(e KaCaeTCH KapTO'-lHbIX KOM6IiHall,HH, TO OHH HMeIOT Ha3BaHliH, nanpuwep t(8en101C,' YMeHHe urpoxa 3aKJIIO'-laeTCH fl TOM, '-lT06bI HaMeKaTb aa 3TH Ha3BaHllil naprnepy, He npOIi3HOCH HX BCJIyx, nonsomrn- K HHM H3,1l,aJIe~, qT~6bI rrapTHep nOHHlI co06n~eHHe. CTOJIb He06bI4Hble 3J1eMeHThI aTOH KpaIiHe

1 CyIlI,eCTBO, rrpYf,[lyMaHHoe aHflIHHCKHM ¢ll3HKOM)J,;K K MJKCBeJIlIOM (1831 ~ 1879) wm HlIlIlOcrpa~HH ,Il,HHaMHl.JeCKOH TeopHH ra30B H cnocooaoe H3MepHTb CKOPOCTh ,Il,BIDKeHlli! KJ)K,Il.OH OTAeJIbHOH MOlIeK)'J1bl rasa. - Ilpuueu. nep.

KlfTaH~b1 C'mTaIOT llIaxMaTHYJO H tname-nryro Hrpy O,ll,HHM H3 -reTblpex BH,Il,OB ,Il,eHTeJIbHOCTH, B KOTOPbIX ,Il,OJI)J(eH ynPl)J(HHThCH oopaaoBaHHbIH 4eJlOBeK, - HapHAY C MyJhIKOH, KaJIJIHrpa¢HeH H )J(llBOIlHCblO. OHH nonararor, "ITO 3TH HrpbI paBHO npnysraror yM nonysars Y,Il,OBOJIbCTBHe OT MHOI'o06pa3HbIX pemenan, KOM6HHau.HH H JlOBYIlleK, xoropsre e)KeMHHyTHO B03HHKalOT B nOCTOHHHO 06HOBJIHIOIII.HXCH ctrryaunax. B HHX yCMHPHeTCH arpeCCHBHOCTb, a AYIIJa YY:HTCH 6e3MHTe)J(H0CTl1, rapMOHHH, pa,uOCTH OT cosepuaaaa B03MO)J(HbIX BapHaHTOB. 3TO, 6e3ycJIOBHO, cneu.H¢H4eCKaJI xepra onpenenennoa Il,llBHJlH3au.HH.

5ICHO, O,ll,HaKO, "ITO 'raxoro pozta nnarnosu 4pe3BbI"IaHHO Ol0)J(HbI.

L{J)J(e 're H3 HHX, "ITO K~CH CaMbIMH 04eBH,Il,HblMH, cnezryer crporo nposeprm, ApyrHMH ,Il,aHHblMH. Bo06~e, OHH H3Ha4aJIbHO TepHIOT BCHKOe 3Ha"leHHe H3-3a MHO)l(eCTBeHHOCTH nrp, O,ll,HOBpeMeHHO nOJIh3YID~liXCH npenno-rrennex B OAHOH Ii TOH )l(e xynsrype. Haxoaeu, 6blBaeT, "ITO nrpa AaeT 6e306H,1l,HYID KOMrreHcau.HIO, lllyTJIHBO-¢HKTllBHbIH BbIxozt AJIH npecrynnsrx CKlIOHHOCTeH, xoropue nopnuasorcs H ocyacaaroTCH 3aKOHOM H 06~eCTBeHHbIM MHeHHeM. B OTJlH4He OT MapHOHeTOK aa HHT04Kax, sraute BCerO ¢eepH'leCKH-rpaQH03HbIX, pysnsre KYKlIbII'HHhOJIH 06bI4HO H306pl)J(aIOT (3TO}?Ke ornexan XHpH) 1 nepCOHJ)J(eH rpynsrx Ii QHHH4HbIX, CKJIOHHbIX K rporecsy H aMopanbHOCTH, a TO Ii K KO~YHCTBy. Taxosa Tpa,n,HlJ,HOHHaH ncropna IIaH"Ia H ,1..I,)Ky,ll,H2. IIaH4 y6HBaeT )l(eHY H CbIHa, He naer MHlIOCTbIHH HHrn;eM)' 11: KOJIOTHT ero, COsepuraer BceB03MO)l(Hble npeCTYTIJIeHHH, y6HBaeT CMepTb H -repra, a B KOHlJ,e KOHU.OB semaer aa CBoeH )l(e BHCeJIHu.e nanasa, KOTOPhIH CO- 6HpanCH IlOBeCHTb ero, KOHeqHO xce, 6bIlIO 6bl OIllH6KOH YCMaTpHBaTb B TaKOM nOCJle,ll,OBaTeJIbHOM urapxce H,Il,eanbHbIH 06pa3 6pHTaHCKOH ny6J1H1rn, KOTOPaH anaozmpyer BceM 3THM Mpa'lHbIM nO,ll,BHraM. OHa BOsee He 0,ll,06PHeT HX, HO IllYMHaJI H 6e306H,1l,HaH panocrs naer eH paspanKY: BOCTOp)l(eHHbIMH KpHKaMli B 'leCTb CKaH,ll,aJIbHO-TOp)l(eCTBYID~ero naaua OHa ztemeao OTbIrpbIBacrCH aa MHO)l(eCTBO OrpaHH'leHHH H aanperos, xoropsre B peansaocrn HaBH3hJBaeT eH Mopanh.

1 H1RN Y. Les jeux d'enfants, (Trad. franc.) Paris, 1926. P. 165~ 174.

2 nepCOHJJKH aHI'IIHHCKOro napozmoro xyxonsrroro TeaTpa. - Ilpuueu. nep.

104

105

PO)!(C K;J.ilya. I1rphI H nIO/lH

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KOHe'-lHO, JII060Bh K COCI'H3aIlHIO, norona aa Yfla'-leH, YflOBOJIbCTBHe OT CMMyJIHlI,MH, THra K rOJIOBOKp~eHHIO macrynaror KaK rnaansre P:B~mne CHJIbl nrp, HO HX p:efiCTBHeM nertpexenao nponmcayra M BCH )Kll3Hb 06mecrnJ. IlOCKOJIbKy nrpsr HOCHT YHI1BepClflbHbIH xapaicrep, no npn 3TOM He sesne HrpaIOT B OP:HM H Te JKe arpu H OP:HHX H -rex JKe nponopunHX, - rne-ro 60JIhIlle nrpaior E 6eHc60Jl, a rAe-TO H IlIaXMaTbI, - TO cneztyer aanarsca BonpOCOM 0 TOM, He pacnpenenmorca JIH npanunrna nrp (ag6n, alea, mimicry, ilinx) H EO BHeHrpOBOH crpepe p:OCTaTO'-lHO HepJBHOMepHO MeJK,ll,Y pa3HhiMll 06W;CCTBaMH, TaK '-ITO 3JMe"f[Ible pa3JIH'-IHH B COOTHOIIIeHHH CTOJIb 06lnHX rrpWIHH BJIeKYT aa c060fi H HBHble KOH1'paCThI E KOJIJIeKTHBHOfi, a TO H HHCTHTYQHOHaJIbHOH )Kll3HH HapOAOB.

)I OTHIOP:h He rrbITJIOCb yTBepJK[\aTb, '-ITO KOJIJleKTHEHaH JKH3Hb napoAOE H HX pasnooepaanue HIICTI11)'TbI - 31'0 KJKHe-TO nrpi», TaK)Ke vrtpas)rneMble rrpHHQHrraMH Jg6n'J, a1ea, mimicry 11 ilinx'a. Hanporna, 51 rrOJIarJIO, '-ITO B KOHe'-lHOM C'-IeTe 06JIacTb nrp oopasyer JIHIlIh Y3KHH OCTPOBOK, HCxyccrsenuo OTEep:eHHbIH iJ,JlH paCC'-IHTJHHOrO COCT5I3JHHH, orpamr-rennoro pncxa, 6e306I1!J,HOrO npHTBOpCTEa H 6e3EpeAHoH naHHKH. Ho EMeCTe C TeM H nOA03peBJIO, '-ITO npmII~HnbI nrp, 3TH CTOHKHe H umpoxo pacnpocrpanennsre AE~~He CHJIhl '-IeJIOBe'-leCKOH p:eHTeJIbHOCTH, - TaKHe CTOHKHe H pacnpocrpanenuue, '-ITO rrpeACTaEJIHIOTCH nOCT05lHHbIMH H YHHBepCaJIbHbIMH, - ,Il,OJDKHbI OTMe'-laTb C060H paamrnnre THnbI oouiecrsa. )I ,Il,J)Ke nonoapesato. '-ITO OHH CaMI1 MOI)'T ~Tb !J,JlH HX KlIaCCl1cpHKall.HH, KOJIh CKOpO COQllaJlbHble HOPMbI p;aIOT OP:HOMY 113 HllX nO'-lTH ncKlIIO'-IHTCJlbHOe rrpeMMYIll,ecrno Hap: p:pyn1Mll. CTOllT lIH p:06JBJIHTb: pe'-lb He o TOM, '-IT06bI rrOKa3JTb, '-ITO E KJ)K,lJ,OM 06Ill,eCTBe ecrs '-IeCTOJlI0611,bI, rparalIHCfhI, JIl06HTCJIll nparsopcrsa 11 HeHCToBcrna H '-ITO KaJK[\oe 06W;CCTBO p:aeT HM nepasnsre IlIaHCbI na vertex 11 yr\OBJICTBopeIIHe; 31'0 113EeCflIO 11 TaK 3ap:aQa B TOM, '-IT06bI onpe,'l,eJIllTh, KaKoe MeCTO y,'l,eJrnIOT ::rfll pJ3JIH'-IHble 06w;eCTBa COCf5l3aIIlllO, CJIY'-laHIIOCTI1, MHMHKe HJIII T[YJ.HCY.

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106

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3TH OCHOBHbIe ,l1.BIDKy:lll,He CHJIbI HeI136e)KtIO OKa3hlHaIOTC5I crorrs nenpepbIBHblMH no npnponc H l\ei:fcTBlllO, '-ITO, nOK33aB HX BJI1l5lHlle, MhI rrpaxTH'-IeCKH HJ1l·Iero ne rrpH6aHllM K TIll,aTeJIhtIOMY onHcaHHIO CTPYKTYPhI H3yqaeMhlx 06Il~eCTB. Caxroe 60JIbIIIee - MbI rrpe!J,JlO)KllM ,T.\JIH H3y"-leHH5I 3TH X C1'pYKTYP HOEhlH nJ60p 3THKeTOK H PO[l,OBhlX HaHMeHOBaHllH. OztHJKO, KOlIh CKOPO npuuaraa 3p:eCb tIOMeHKlIa'typa COOTBeTC1'HyeT BJ)KHeHIlII1M Orrrr03HlI,HHM, ona B CHJIY sroro CTpeMl11'CH C03,l1.aTb CTOlIb )Ke rJIY60KyID r\HX01'OMHIO ,T.\JIJI KlIJCCHcpHKal~HH 06ll1,eCI'E, KaK H TJ, '-ITO pas,l1.eJIHeT, CKJ)KeM, 1':lHH06pa'-lHhle H 51BH06pa'-lllbIC pacreana HlIH n03HOHO'-lHbIX H 6ecn03BOHO'-lHblX )KllBOTI-IhIX.

Mezory 06u~eCTBaMM, 06bl'-lHO Ha3blBaeMhIMll nepB06bI1'IIb1MH, 11 TeMH, '-ITO npeztcraror B BH[\e cnO)KHhIX H pasmrrsrx rOCY,l1.apCTB, MMeIOTC5I O'-leBll.ll:Hhle KOHrpaC1'bI. OHH He ncsepnsraarorca pa3BHTHeM E 06- mecrsax sroporo pona HayKll, TeXHllKH H rrpOMhIIIIJIeHHOCTH, POJIhlO, KOTOPYlO B HMX urpaicr ap:MHHHCTpaQH5I, ropacnpyncauaa ana apxHBhl, TCOPeTH'-ICCKa5l, npl1Kl1ap:HaH H npaKTH'-IeCKaH MaTeMaTHKa, PJ3H006- pa3HblMH nocnep:CTBH5IMH roponcxoro 06pa3J )Kll3HH II 06pa30HaHH5I 06IllHpHbIX HMnepHH H BCHKHMH HIIbIMH pa3JIH'-IH5IMH, '-lhH pe3ylIbTJThI nopon He Menee BeCOMbI H CJI0)KHhI. Bee rOBopHT 0 TOM, '-lTO MeJK[\y 3THMH p:ByMH TllnaMH KOJIJleKTHBHOH )Kll3Hll HMecrCJI OCHOBOrrOJIaralOmHH aHTarOHH3M HHoro porta, KOTOPhIH, 6hITh MOJKeT, 11 51BJI5IeTCH xopner« scex OCTaJIhnbIX, B6HpaeT HX B ce65I, rnrraer H 06'b5lCIDI.eT.

CaM 51 6y.ll:Y OrrHChIEJTh 3TOT arrraronaaxr cner\YlOIll,IlM 06pa30M: ncpaoosmrsre oranecraa, xoropue H 6y,a,y Ha3bIBaTb xaOmUtteCKUMU [societes a tohu-bohu], 6YP:h TO B ABCTpaJIHl1, AMepllKe HlIll AcppllKe, - 31'0 TJKHe 06- uiecrsa, rzte E paaaon Mepe uapar MaCKa H op:ePJKHMOCfh, TO ecn, mimicry H ilinx; H H3060pOT, HHKH, aCCHpHHll.bI, Kl1TaHI.I,bl HlIH pHMJIHHe 5!BJIlIIOT co- 60H yrropanovennsre 06Ill,eCTEa, rne ecrs ap:MHHHCTpaTHBHble opranu, orrpenenemnae )Kll3HeHHhle nonpmua, KO,'l,eKChI H Ta6JIHQhl pe3yJIbTJTOH, xonrpornrpyesoae H HepapXH'-IeCKH COOTHeceHHhle npHBHJICrHH, rne mJBHhlMH H npmon B3allMop:orrOJIIDfIOIll,lIMll 3JleMeHT3MH COIJ,HaJIbHOrO MexaHH3Ma BbICfyrraIOT ag6n H alea, TO ecn, B p:aHHOM CJIY'-lae aacnyra H rrpoHCXOJKp:eHlle. B OTJIll'-llle 01' 06Ill,eCTB nepsoro 'rnna, 3'1'0 06Ill,eCTHa 6yxzall1nepocue [societes a cornptabilite]. B oomecrsax nepsoro pozta CllMYJI5IIJ,H5I H ronoaoxpyacenue, HlIH, ecnn yrO,l1.HO, naHTOMHMa H 3KCTa3, KJK 6bI 06eCrre'-lHBJIOT HHTeHCHBHOCTh H TeM caMblM CnJIO'-leHHOCTh KOJI)leKTHBHOH JKH3tIH, TOI',[Ia KaK E 0611\eCTBaX sroporo pozra, HJnpOTllB, 06Ill,CCTBeHHblH ztoronop npep:CI'JBJIHeT C060H KOMrrpOMHcc 11 HMIIlIHll.HTHhIH pacser Me)K,lzy nacneocmeeuuocmuo, TO ecrs neKOTopOH CJIyqJHtlOCI'blO, H cnoCo61-tOCmblO, npennonararouren cpanaenne H COCT5I3aHlle.

B) MACKAl1TPAHC

Oznra H3 rnanusrx saranox arnorparpan, O'-leHI1!J,HO, 3JKJIIO"4acrC5I B noBCeMeCTtIOM HcrrOlIb30BJHHH MaCOK B nepsoosrraux oomecrsax 3THM

107

PO)Ke KaHya, Hrpbl H JUDAH

cpencreav MeTaMOP<Po3hl BCIO.n.y npnnaerca 'lpe3Bbl'laH:HaR, 6JIaroroBeH:HaR 3Ha'l11MOCTb. OHH n05lBlliIIOTCll B xone rtpaarnrecraa - 3TOrO MeiK,!l;~apCTBllil, xorna 6aJI npasa'r rOJIOBOKpy;KeHHe, BOJIHeHHe H 1'eK)"iaR noztsaaorocrs, xoraa BCHKaR ynopH,1J;O'leHHOCTb MHpa BpeMeHHO OTMeHHeTCH, 'lT06bl 1'eM CaMblM 06peCTH HOB)'IO )KM3Hb. MaCKH acerna H3rOTOBlliIIOT BTaHHe, a nOCJIe HCnOJIb30BaHllil HX )'HH'lTOIKaI01' HJIH nps-ryr; OH11. npeapanratcr yqacTHllKoB oopsna B Boros, ,[l,YXOB, 3BepeH-TIpapo,lI,HTeJIeH:, BO BceB03MOIKHble caepxuecrecraennsre CHJIbI, ycrpauraioume H IIJIO,ll,01'BOpmIJ;He.

Cpenn npa3,l1,HH'lHOrO lll)'Ma H raMa, scropiae 6ecnpe,ll,eJlbHbl, IIl1.TaIOTCH caMH c060H: H 06peTaI01' 3Ha'lHMOCTb B caMoH csoen nenonepHOCTH, ssrcrynneaae MaCOK, KaK C'lIlTaIOT, I\OJDKHO )'KpeIIJIHTb, OMOJIa:lI<HBaTb, socxpeura'rs o.n.HOBpeMeHHO H npupony H 06~eCTBO. BTopIKeHHe 3THX npH3paKOB - 31'0 BTop)KeHHe CHJI, KOTOPbIX 'leJIOBeK onacaercs 11 Ha.n. KOTOPbIMH, KaK OH qyBCTBYeT, Y Hero HeT BJIaCTH. 11 1'0- rna OH caM BpeMeHHO BOIIJIOrn;aeT B ce6e 3TH rryraromae CHJIbI, HMHTHpyer HX, OTO)K)J,eCTBJUleT ce6}1 C HHMH, H acxope, 06e3YMeB, B CBoeM 6pe.n.y H Bnp}1Mb c-nrraer cetis 60roM, KOTOPbIM no Tex nop JIHllIb nbITaJIC}1 npl1TBOpHTbCH C nOMOrn;bIO Trn;aTeJIbHoro H y60roro MacKapa.n.a. Crrrya~llil BhIBOpa':lHBaeTCH HaH3HaHKy: OH caM rryraer .n.pyrHX, OH cax CTaJI rpoaaon H He'leJIOBe'leCKOH CHJIOH:. EMY .n.OCTaTO'lHO ,lVUI aroro aaaers ce6e na JIH~O 11M )fCe H3rOTOBJIeHH)'IO MacKy, 06JIa':lHTbC}1 B KOCTIOM, HM IKe CllII1TbIH: no npenrronaraeraosry 06pa3Y 'lTHMOrO HM cymecrsa H CBOero crpaxa nepen HHM; .n.oCTaTO'lHO npoaaeomrrs HeBIDITHOe ryl\eHHe C nOMOrn;bIO CnpHTal-lHOH 1pern;OTKH - HHcTpYMeHTa, 0 KOTOpOM OH TOJIbKO C MOMeHTa csoen HHH~Ha~HH yJHaJI, 'ITO OH cymecrsyer, KaK ssrrnanar, KaKlI,lVUI xero npHMeHHeTC}1. Teneps nna nero 31'0 6e306H,Il,HaR, cyryoo "leJIOBe'leCKaH 0611XOI\HaR neurs - HO JIllllIb nOCTOJIhKy, noCKOJIbKy OH caM .n.ePJKH1' ero B PYKax H rrOJIb3yeTC5111M, 'lT06bl ycrpaiuars npyrnx. TOpIKeCTBO npnrsopcraa: CllMY.IllI~llil rrpnsozurr K Ol\ep)KMMOC1'H, KOTOPaJI y;t<e RBJUleTCH rrenprrrsopnoa. nOCJIe BbI3BaHHoro eio 6pena H HellClOBCTBa llH~e.n.eH BHOBb npnxoznrr B C03HaHlle, no.n.aBJIeHHhlH:

H H3HypeHHbIH:, COXpaH}1}1 JIHllIb CMyrHo-HeHCHoe BocnOMHHaHHe o TOM, 'ITO npoucxozmno B HeM caMOM 6e3 ero OC03HaHHOfO yqacTllH.

Co06rn;HHKaM11. sroro npnnaznca caameaasrx KOHBYllbCHll annaeTCSl BCSI: rpynna. Bo BpeMR npaanaecraa IIJIHCKa, uepeuomtan n MllMllKa cyrs llHllIb scrynneuae, 3Ta npernozma npeztsentaer MaCCOBoe B036y;t<.n.eHHe, xoropoe nenpepsmao napacraer, CHMYJIHlI,WI CMetU1eTC}1 rOlIOBOKpy;t<eHHeM. KaK CKa3aHO B Ka66aJIe, nrpaa B npnapaxa, MOIKHO 11M CTaTb. )KemUllHaM H .n.eTHM nOI\ crpaxosr cMepTll aanpeniaercs npacyrCTBOBaTb npH 113rOTOBlIeHHH MaCoK, prrryarn.nsrx KOClIOMOB H paanoro pozta npHcnoco6neHHH, xoropsre 3aTeM HcnolIb3)'IOTC}1 ,lVUI HX ycrpallIeHHR. Ho KaK IKe OHll MOryr He 3HaTb, 'ITO nepen HHMH npocro MaCKapan H HCKyCCTBeHHaR qiarrracaaropaa, rne CKphlBaIOTCH llX IKe C06CT-

108

aeansre COpOI\H"lH? O)J,HaKO OHH nO)JJJ,aIOTC}1 HJllII03HH, H60 COll,HaJIbnsre npaanrra 1pe6)'IOT ell nOMaBaTbC}1. Kposse Toro, OHH nO)JJJ,alOTCH ell HCKpeHHe, H60 B006paJKaIOT - KaK, anposren, H caMH yqaCTHHKH 06PHzta, - 'ITO 3TH nOCJIe,ll;HHe caMH npeaparnmrcr, BO BCeJIHBIIIHeC}1 B HHX CBepXbeCTeCTBeHHble CHlIbI, Ol\ep)KMMbI 11MH. l.J.T06bI OT,lJ,aBaTbCH cyrn;eCTB)'IOrn;HM llHIIIb B HX c06CTBeHHbIX seposanaax .n.yxaM, ':IT06bI BHe- 3anHO onrymars Ha ce6e HX rpy6)'lO XBaTKy, HcnOlIHHTeJIll ,lI,OJIlKHbl npaasrea'rs, npHTHfHBaTb HX, CaMU ce6R rrozrramcma'n, K nOlIHOMY pacCTPOHCTBY qyBCTB, xoropoe H C)J,eJIaeT B03MOIKHOH C1'paHH)'IO HJllII03HIO. C 3TOll U,eJIhlO OHli IIOJIh3)'lOTCH MHOIKeCTBOM YJIOBOK, Hll OI\H;l H3 KOTOpsix He KaJKeTCH HM "leM-TO nOI\03pHTeJIbHbIM: 3)J,eCb H nOCTbI, H HapKOTHKll, H rHnH03, H MOHOTOHHaJI HJIH npOH3HTelIbHaJI MyJbIKa, H rpOMKHH IIIYM, napOKCH3MbI KpHKOB H cyersr, OIlbHHeHHe, nonmr H npbIIKKH npoH3BOMT O,ll;HO ofintee B03,1l;eHCTBHe,

TIpa3,1l;HeCTBO, pac'rosteune aanacos, c06paHHbIX B Te'IeHHe MHTeJIbHOrO nepnona, 6eC'IHHCTBO, CTaBIIIee npaBHJIOM, nepesopor scex HOpM 6JIarol\ap}1 3apa3HTeJIbHOMY npHcyfCTBHIO pHIKeHhIX - see 31'0 nenaer KOJIlIeKTUBHOe rOllOBOKpy;KeHHe BepUIHHHOH TO'IKOii 06~eCTBeHHOH IKH3HH. OHO npencraanaer C060H rny6HHH)'IO OCHOBY, 06bep;umlIOIIJ;yIO Bo06rn;e-TO He oxem, npo-moe 06rn;eCTBO. OHa yxpennaer CO~UaJIbH)'lO CIIJIO'IeHHOCTb, KOTOPaR CJIa6a H nenpo-raa H C Tpy,ll,OM nO)JJJ,ep)l(HBaJIaCb 6bI 6e3 TaKHx nepllOI\H'IeCKHX B3pbIBOB, xoropsre C6JIHlKaIOT, c06IIpaIOT BMeCTe H nenaer conpaaacrnsma HH,lJ,HBlI,[IOB, B OCTaJIbHOe BpeMH nO'ITH CIIJIOllib nornomemrsrx 1\0MaIlIHHMH 3a60TaMU H cyryoo ':IaCTHhlMH .n.enaMH. 3TH 06blJ\eHHble 3a60TbI O'IeHb CJIa60 BJIllilIOT Ha HX nepsoosrrnoe co06Il~eCTBo, rrte nO'ITH HeBe,ll;OMO paanelleHue TpYl\a H KaiK,!l;aR CeMb}1 npIIBbIKlIa 06eCneQIIBaTb cnoe npQ)KHTHe B YCJIOBlliIX npaxnrseoor nOlIHOH aBTOHOMHH. MacKH - 31'0 H ecrs naCTOHIgHe COlI,HaJIhHbIe )'3bl.

BTopIKeHHe 3THX npH3paKOB, UCXO,ll,}1rn;He 01' HHX TpaHC H HeHCTOBCTBO, onsauemre nepe)KMBaeMblM HJIH BHYIIIaeMbIM ,lI,pyr npyrosry CTpaXOM HaXOJl_!lT MOMeHT ssrcurero BblpaJKeHllil B npa3)J,HeCTBe, HO npHcyTCTBYIOT H B 06bI'lHOii 1Kll3HH. HepEJIKo nOllHTH'leCKHe HJIH penarnoansre HHCTHTyrbI OCHOBbIBalOTCH HMeHHO aa -rapax, nOpO)K)J,aeMbIX 3TOH OllielIOMHTelIbHOH ¢aHTaCMaropHeH. Ilocaamaesnae B HHX crpa,Il;aIOT 01' CYPOBbIX lIHIlleHHH, BbIHOCHT THIKKlle MY<IeHllil, npOXOJl_!lT IKecTO'Iaiiume ncnsrraaaa, JlHillb 6bl ,l'\06HThCH BI1,!l,eHI1H, raJilllOlI,11.Hau,HH H cna3MOB, B KOTOPbIX HM OTKPOeTCH zryx-noxpomrrern; OHH nascerna OCTaIOTCH ocenensr UM II BepHT OTHbIHe, 'ITO MOryr nonararscs aa ero nOKpOBHTeJIbCTBO, xoropoe OHH C'IHTaIOT - sepuee, C':IUTaKlT oxpy)KaJO~He HX - HenorpeIIIHMO-CBepXbeCTeCTBeHHbIM, HaMeKaIOrn;HM HeIIc~elIHMbIH napamrr Ha 'roro, lITO OCMellHTCH na KOIIJ;)'HCI'BO.

KOHe'IHO, no CBOHM 3lleMeHTaM 3TH aepoaanna 6eCKOHC"lHO pasHo06pa3HbI. 11x KOHCTaTHpYIOT 6eC'IHCJIeHHO, HeBo06pa3HMO MHoro. O,ll;HaKO nO':lTH BO scex, rne 601IbIIIe rne MeHbIIIe, 'leTKO npOHBlliIeTC}1 01\-

109

POlKe KaHya. HrphJ 11 )]]0811

HO H TO )l(e C0061ll,HHY:eCTllO Me;KJJ;y cHMymU .. V1eJ1 H rOJIOBOKp)')I(eHHeM, TaK 'ITO O,ll,HO BJIe'-leT aa C060H ztpyroe. 3a pa3Ho06pa3HeM MHCPOB H 06- PH/~OB, nerenn H PHTYaJlOll, HeCOMHeHHO, cxpsrsaerca OT\Ha H Ta)l(e ,ll,BHJK)llll,aH CI1Jla. CTOHT npncaorperscs, H BO BceM 3TOM C HeyroMHMoH MOHOTOHHOCTblO npOHBJIHeTCH. B3aHMOCBH3b ,ll,Byx cpaxropon.

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HBJI5IeTC5I TOJIbKO BO BpeM5I IIIaMaHCKMx ,ll,eHCTB H 06H3aTCJlbHO B HHX npncyrcraver.

Bo BpeM5I HHHI~HaQHH LJ:yXH paC'meHHIOT TeJIO IIIaMaHa, a 3aTeM COCTaBJIHIOT ero 3aHOBO, BCTaBJI5I5I B Hero HOBbIe KOCTH H )I(HJlbI. 3T0 cpaayxe ll.acr eM)' B03MO)I(HOCTh crpancrsonan, no 3arp06HOM)' MHpy. B TO BpeMH KaK ero TeJIO JIe)I(HT 6e3):1bIxaHHbIM, caM OIl nocemaer He6eCHbIH H IlOA- 3eMHbIH MHphI. OH BCrpe4aeTCH C 60raMH H ,ll,eMOHaMH. OT 06Ill,eHHH C HHMH OH rrorrysaer CBOIO MarHy:ecKyIO CMJIY H HCHOBH,ll,CHHe. Bo BpeM5I CBOliX fleHCTB OH COBepIIIacr TaKHe rryreurecrsas BHOBb. B nnane ilinx'a nepesnBaeMbIH HM TPaHC uepenxo ,n:OXO,n:HT,n:O nOJIHOH K:lTaJlcnCHH. Hro ace K:lCaeTCH mimicry, To OHa nposnnaerca B rraHTOMHMe, KOTOPOH rrpeztaercs O):lep)I(HMbIH.. OH nonpazcaer KpHKY H nOBe,neHHIO CBepX'beCTeCTBCHHbIX )l(HBOTHbIX, rrepeaonnomaaci, B HHX: nonsaer K:lK 3Me5I, per-nrr H 6eraeT Ha xeraeperrsxax KaK THrp, nonpazcaer HbIpHHblO yrox HJIH MallleT PYKaMH, ClIOBHO rrrnua KPbIJIhHMH. Ero npeoopaacenne 0603Ha'iaeTCH KOcrroMOM:

OH CpaBIIHTeJIhHO peztxo rrOJIb3YeTCH 3BepmlbIMH MaCKaMH, HO yKpaIIIaC1' ce6H rrepbHMH HJIH roJIOBaMH OPJIa HJIH COBbI, xcropsre n03BOJIHIOT eM)' MarHY:CCKH B3JIeTaTb K He60CBO.ny .. Torna, HeCMOTpH na TH)I(eJIOe 06JIaY:eHHe, xoropoe BeCHT no IIHTHa,n,QaTH KWIorpaMMOB H3-3a nannrrsrx na Hero )l(eJIe3HbIX yKpaIIIeHHH, OH nozmpsn-nsaer nsepx, noxaauaaa, 'ITO BhICOKO B3JleTaeT. OH KPH'IHT, 'ITO BH,ll,HT orpoxnn-re npocrpancrsa 3eMJIH. OH paCCKa3bIBaeT H H306pJ)l(JeT npHKJIlOy:eHHH, npOHCXOMIll,He C HHM B MHpe HHOM. OH )l(eCTaMH npencrasnser CBOIO 60Pb6y CO 3JlblMH .n:yxaMH. Ilon 3eMJIeH, B QapCTBe TbMhl, esry TaK XOJIO,[lHO, 'ITO OH ,n:PO)I(HT H e)I(HTCH. OH npOCHT ce6e TenJIYIO o,n:e;KJJ;y y LJ:yxa cBoeH MaTepH; O,[lHH H3 npncyrcrayromnx naxaasraaer Ha Hero o,n:eiK/l.Y. LJ:pyme 3pHTeJIH BbICCKaIOT HCKpbI KpeMHeBhIM orHHBOM. 3TH HCKPhI npOH3BOMT - nepnee, OHH caMH cyms - MOJIHHH, xoropsre YKa3blBalOT rryrs Marn4eCKOM)' crpaHHHKY CKB03b TbM)' rrOA3eMHbl-X 06JIaCTeH ..

Ilortoonoe COTpy,n:HHlJeCTBO lllaMaHa H 3pHTeJIeH nOCTOHHHO OTMelJacrcH B IIIaMaHH3Me. Ho OHO He cnCQHcpHY:HO ,n:JIH Hero. Ero MO)I(HO 06HaPYiKHTb TaK)l(e B KYJIbTe sony H sooomc rrOlJTH BO scex 3KCTaTHY:CCKHX neacreax C06cTBeHHo, OHO npaicrasecxa He06xo,[lHMO. 1160 H)')I(HO aaunnna-n, 3pHTeJleH OT B03MO)I(HOro HaCHJIHH co CTOPOHbl 06e3yMCBllIero IIIaMaHa, 33Ill,HIuaTb Hero castoro OT ero 6eCC03HaTeJIbHOJ'0 HeHCTOBCTB3, OT nOCJIe,nCTllHH HeJIOBKoro )l(eCTa, HaKOHeQ, novora'n, eMY npaBHJIbHO nrpara POJIb. OY:eHb HHTepeCHblH B 3TOM OTHOIIIeHHH BH,n: llIaMaHH3Ma cymecrsyer y QeilJIoHcKoro aapona Be.n:J:IOB.lIIaMaH sec BpeM5I B npe,[l06MOpOlJHOM COCTOHHHH, y nero TOlllHOTa H rOJIOBOKPY)l(eHHe. 3eMJI5I ClIOBHO YXO,[lHT Y Hero H3-rro,n: HOI'. OH rrO,lJ,L\Cp)I(HBaeT Il ce6e COCTOHHHe 060cTpeHHoH 1l0CnpHHMY:HBOCTH. KaK OTMe4aIOT K r. H Bpenna CeJIHJ'Man, <'3TO 3aCTallJIHeT ero rrOY:TH aBTOMaTH4eCKM H, 6e3YClIoBHO, 6e3 'ruiarensnoro pa3,n:YMb5I BblnOJIHHTb Tpa,n,HQHOHHble y:aCTH IlJIHCKH B HX nOCJIe,ll,OBaTeJIbHOM nOPMKe. Kpoxe roro, B npa-

1 ITpH OIIl1CJHl·m maMaHH3Ma l! DOllh30BaJICl! KHHrOH; ELlADE M. Le chamanisme et les techniques archaiques de l'extase. Paris, 1951, - rne MO)KHO HJHTH 3aMe9JTCJlbHOC DO CBOCH DOllHOTe J13110IKeHHe cpJKTOB, 01'HOCHllI,llXCl! K pa3Jll1'-IHhlM CTpaHaM Mllpa.

20 CBOHCTBaX sroro rpnoa Agaricus Muscarius, ocofienao 0 MaKporrcHll: {·CSOll~ Mll pacuntpennsna 3pJ9KaMH 9tJlOBeK BH,1.I,HT Bee npC,11,l,l!BJrnCMbIC CMY rrpenjaeThl <r)'t\OBHW;HO ysem19CHHbIMI1 .... Hcborn-nroe 01'SepCTI1C KJ)J(eTOI eMY crparnliOH nporracrhlo, 1l0IKKa BOt\bl - 03epOM', - CM.: tEWIN L. Les Paradis artificicls .. (Trad. franc.) Paris, 1928. P. 150-155.0 CXOt\HbIX 3cpcpeKTaX neHOTJUI 11 0 ero npl1MeHeHHI1 na rrpa3T\III1KaX 11 S peJlHrH03HbIX KyJIbTaX llH,fleHI.I,CB xyH90JlOB, xopa, Temtxyalu, -rapayvapa H KaHosa A MeKcl1KC H COC.1I.llHCHHbIX Illrarax IIO~ neausre cse.ueHl1JI MO)KHO no-reprnryn, 113 KJIaCCIl'feCI<HX pa60T Kapna lIYM60llb- 1.1,3 (6116JIHOrpacpl1lo eM. A KUHre; Ro i.u i e n A Le Peyotl. Paris, 1927).

110

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1..beTh BTOpall, VII. CliMYJUIL\IDI 11 ronOBOK!?}'?KeHl1e

BHJIbHOM HCnOJIHeHHH 3THX CJIO)KHbIX q:lHryp MOryr rrpHHHMaTb B;l)KHeHIllee yxacrue npHcyrcrBYJOIll,He, xoropsre CJIeWIT aa K;vK,l.l,bIM ABIDKeHHeM -ranuopa C03HaTeJIbHO llJIH 6eCC03HaTeJIbHO rrOACKa3bIBaIOT eM)'

, I

H rOTOBbI YAepIKaTb ero, eCJIH OH CTaHeT nanars- .

Bce 3Aecb CIIJIOIllHOe npe,lJ,craBJIeHlfe. Bee 3AeCb TaKlKe H CnJIOIllHoe rOJIOBOKpYlKeHHe, 3Kcra3, TpaHC, CYAoporH, a Y rJIaBHOrO HCrrOJIHHTeJIH erne H qmHaJIbHa5I. noreps C03HaHHH H naMHTH, H60 eMY He CJIe,l1,yer 3HaTb, '-ITO c HHM CJIy<IHJIOCb H '-ITO OH BblKPHKHBaJI BO BpeMa npncryna, B CH6HpH nraaaacsoe AeHCTBO 06bI'-IHO CJIyJKHT AJUI HCIJ,eJIeHHH 60JIbHoro. lllaMaH OTrrpaBJIHeTCH aa rrOHCKH era iJ.YIllH, xoropas 6JIyJK.1l.aeT rAe-TO, nOXHIll,eHH<U! HJIH YAepIKHBaeMaH B IIJIeHY HeKHM jJ,eMOHOM. OH paccxaasrsaer H paasrrpsraaer nepanermt 3Toro B03BpaIIl,eHHR IKH3HeHHOro Ha'-IaJIa BJIaAeJIbu,y. ,l1,pyrOH npnexs COCTOHT B TOM, qTO- 6bl BbIcaCbIBaTb nezryr H3 TeJIa rraIJ,lleHTa. lllaMaH rrpH6JIHJKaeTGI K HeMY H, B COCTOHHHH -rpanca, npHKaCaeTOI ry6aMH K TOM)' MecTY, xoropoe rzyXH YKa3aJIH eMY KaK BMeCTllJIMIll,e sapaasr. Qepe3 KaKOe-TO BpeMH OH 113- BJIeKaeT ee, HeOJKHjJ,aHHO rrOKa3bIB<U! rrpHcyrCTBYJOIll,HM KaMeIlleK, -repBR, nacexoaoe, nepo, KYCOqeK 6eJIOH HJIH '-IepHOH HMTKH, npOKJIMHaeT HX BbITaJIKHBaeT HorOH npoxs llJIM IKe sapsrsaer B HMKe, I1HorAa npn~CTBYJOIll,Me snonue rrOHMMaIOT, "ITO IllaMaH npocro cnpsrran Y ce6H BO PTY rrpeA'bRBJDl.eMbIH HM npe,lJ,MeT nepen IJ,eJIHTeJIbHOH IJ,epeMOHHeH, a reneps AeJIaeT BHiJ., 6YATO H3BJIeK ero H3 oprauaasra 60JIbHoro. Ho OHH COrJIaIllaIOTCH C 3THM, rosops, "ITO rrpeAMeTbl 3TH cnyxar JIHIllb JIOByntKOH llJIH OCHOBOH, aa KOTOPYJO JIOBHT M 3aKpeIlJIHIOT H,lJ" B03MO)KH0, naIKe BepOHTHO, '-ITO H caM BOJIIlle6HMK pa3,l1,eJIHeT raxoe BepOBaHMe.

Bo BCH~OM crrysae, 3AeCb, KaK H B ,o,pyrHX cnyq<U!x, CHMYJIHIJ,HH H AOBepQMBOCTb OKa3bIBaIOTCH CTpaHHo conpHIKeHHbIMM Me)J(,[l,)' C060H. Hexo-ropsre 3CKHMOCCKHe IllaMaHbI 1pe6yIOT, '"IT06bI HX npHBH3bIBaJIll sepeaKOH, Aa6bI CTpaHCTBoBaTb monsxo cryX(lM, a HHa'le, no HX CJIOBaM, TeJIO HX TO)Ke B03HeCeTCH B He60 H 6e3Bo3Bparno HCQe3HeT. BepHT JIM OHH B 3TO caMM HJIH )Ke 3TO npocro npnei« ,l1,JlH -roro, '-IT06bI llM sePllJIH jJ,pyrHe? Bo BCHKOM cnyqae, no OKOH'-IaHHH CBoero MarHqeCKoro nOJIeTa OHH MrHO-

BeHHO H 6e3 BCHKOH rrOMOIll,H H36aBJIHIOTCH OT CBOHX IIyT - CTOJIb JKe 'raHHCI"BeHHbIM o6pa30M, KaK 6paTbH ,l1,3BeHnopT B CBoeM uncarpy'. 3TOT ¢aKT y,o,oCTOBepeH CTOJlb OnbITHbIM 3THOfpa¢oM, KaK <DpaHI.], 50ac2. CXOAHbIM 06pa30M Boropaa 3anHCaJI aa rponorparp ~OTAeJIHIOIll,HeCH OT 'rena» ronoca IllaMaHOB-qyK'-IeH: OHH BHe3anHO YMOJlKaIOT, a soxpyr, CJIOBHO H3 scex yrJIOB qyMa HJIH OTKYAa-To H3,n:aJIeKa, CJIbIllJaTCH '-IbM-TO He'leJlOBeqeCKHe ronoca. O,o,HOBpeMeHHO npoHCXOjI,HT H pa3JIH'-IHble cPeHOMeHbi JIeBHTaIJ,HH HJIH aa 3eMJIIO CbIIlJIIOTCH KaMeIllKH HJIH ,o,epeBHllJKH3.

TaKHe HBJIeHllR -rpesoaeruaaaa H HJIJII03HOHH3Ma HepeAKH B 06- JIaCTH, rzte onaoepexteaao npOHBJIHeTOI H TeHAeHIJ,HR, CBR3aHHaH C nCHxonaronoraen H C ¢OKYCHH'leCTBoM: qenOBeK He 60HTCR orna (AepJKHT BO pry ropRIIJ,He yroJIbR, 6epcr PYKaMH paCKaJIeHHOe iKene30); nOAHHMaeTCH 60CHKOM no JleCTHHIJ,e C OCTpblMH CTYDeHbKaMH; KOJIeT ceoa HOJKOM, HaHOCH pansr, H3 KOTOPbIX He Te'-IeT KPOBb HJIH xoropste 1)'1')I(e caMH C060H 3aTRfHBaIOTCH, O'leHb 'laCTO B TaKHX crrysaax He,n:aJIeKO AO 06hltIHOfO ¢OKYCHHqeCTBa4.

I SELIGMANN C. G., SELlGMANN B. The Veddas. Cambridge, 1911. P. 134.l1,HT. no:

OESTERREICH T. K Les Possedes. (Trad. franc) Paris. 1927. p. 310. B 3T0» nocnenHett KHHre c06paHbI O"leHb HH1'epecHble H opHnu-raIIbHble OIIHCaHHR COBMecrHbIX npm!B1IeHHi1 mimicry-ilinx. B p,aIIbHei1IIleM, roaops 0 KyJIbTe 60pH, II 6ypy OIIHpaTbOl na onHCaHHR TpHMepHa. K HYIM cnezryer IIpH6aBHTb KaK MHHHM)'M pa60TbI )])K. vopnexa 0 6aTaIClX C ocrpoaa CYMaTpa, Y. Y. CKMTa 0 MaJIai1u,ax

C nonyocrpoea Ma.IIaKKa, Y. Mapnnepa 0 TOHra, KOP,pHHITOHa 0 MeJIaHe3Hi1u,ax, )])K. A )])KeKo6ceHa 06 HH).l,ei1u,ax KBaKHYfJIb 113 CeBepo-3anaiJ,Hoi1 AMep11KH.

B paccsasax Ha6mop,aTeJlei1, KOTOPble T. K OCTeppai1x npaBWIbHO peumn BOCIIPOH3BO,l1;HTb in extenso (IIOJIHOCTbIO (nam.). - Ilpuueu. nep.), cO,l1;ep)KaTOI "Ipe3Bbl"l.a»Ho y6eP,HTeJlbHhle auanorna.

I Ha 31'01' C"IeT OY.CHb noy-nrrenena KHHra: ROB E R THo 1..: DIN. Magic et Physique arnusante, Paris, 1877. P. 205-264, naiomaa 06'hll:CHCHHe 3TOro .y'yp,a~ H peaxmnr aa Hero aprrrenen H npeccsr, B HeK01'ophIX cnyxaax, OTnpaBJUUlCh B sraorparpa'lecKYJO 3KCnep,Hll,HIO, norreano 6hUlO 6bI npHKOMaH).l,HpOBh!BaTb K )"ieHhIM M)')K;lM npO¢,eCCHOHaIIbHOrO ¢,OKyCHHKa, H60 HX p,OBepy.HBOC1'b, }'Bbl, 6e3rpaHH"l.aa H K TOM)' )Ke «opucmua, O'IapOBaHa.

2 BOA S F. The Central Eskimo / / VIth annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology: 1884-1885. Washington, 1888. P. 598 sq.l1,HT. no: ELlADE M. Op. cit P. 265.

3 CM. ELIADE M. Op. cit. P. 231; a 1'alOKe: TCHOlJBINOY G, Beitrage zum psychologischen Verstandniss des siberischen Zaubers. Halle, 1914. P. 59-60: .3B}'KH HCXO,lI;HT O1'Ky,l1;a-TO csepxy, n01'OM nocrenenao npH6JIIDKaIOTClI, yparaaosi sropraIOTOI CKB03b crensr H, naxorreu HCy.e3alOT B rny6HHe 3eMJIYI. (U,HTHpyeTCl! H KOMMeHTHpYeTOI B KH.: OESTERREICH T. K Op. cit. P. 380).

4 C03HaTeJlbHbII1 YI opraHYl30BaHHb!11 IDIJII03HOHH3M O1'Mc'{aeTCH ,l1;a.lKe y TaKHX aapoztos, rae ero MeHbllle acero MOJKHO 6bUlO oxotaars, nanpnsrep y a¢PHKaHCKHX qepHOKO)KHX. B xacrnocru, B Harepe uezrsre KOMaH).l,bI TaKHX cneunanaeros COCTH3alO1'CI! B ncxyccree na OC06bIX 1)'pHYlpaX BO BpeMJJ uepeaouaa YlHYlll,Hall,HYI: CKa.lKeM, orpyoaior H npaxnenaaxrr na MeCTO '"IblO-HH6yp,h rOJIOBY (CM.: VERGIAT AM. Les rites secrets des primitifs de l'Oubangui. Paris, 1936. P. 153). CXO).\HblM 06pa30M 3MOPH T3JI601' (TALBOT A. Life in Southern Nigeria London, 1928. P 72) npHBO,l1;YlT JII060nblTHbU1 ¢'OKyC, B K01'OPOM r. :>KaHMep OTMeTH.Il CXOp,crBO C MH¢OM 0 3arpcc-,lJ,Hotmce: (·B HaIllCM rrOCClleHHH ecn, BCJIHKHC BO]]IIle6H1-1KYI, - rOBOpHJl BO)K,!J,h A6acI1 H3 BAmbI, - a HalIIH H3rOTOBHTCJIH ¢eTYIuiea uacronsxo cBep;ynl,H B Ta»HhIX aayxax, '"ITO OHH cnocoeau Ha raxoe neno: 6epyr y MaTepH peoeaxa, 6pocalO1' ero B CTYIIY H TOJIK}'T necross, aa rJIa3aX

y ecex npespamas ero B KalllY. O).\H)' TOJIbKO MaTh O1'BO,ll;H1' B crOpOlly, '"IT06bI He MelIIaJIa ll,epCMOHl-U1 CBOHMH BorurnMH. f10TOM Bhl6HpalOT 'rpex qCJlOBeK H aenar HM nonoarn K cryne, Op,HOMY p,alOT HCMHoro conepacororo, ztpyrossy no60JIh-

112

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POJKe Kai1ya. Hrpbl 11 1110811

3TO, o,qHaKO, HCBaJKHO: rnasaoe HC onpc,qcnHTb COOTHOIIIeHHC - BcpoaTHO, o-iem- pa3J1H'lHOe - MC)f(,IJy C03HaTCl1bHbIM npHTBOpCTBOM H peanbHbIM BOCToprOM, a YCTaHOBHTb recaoe H npaKTH'leCKH HeH36eiKHoe B3aHMo,qeHCTBHe r0110BOKp)'1KeHHa H MHMHKH, 3KCTa3a H CHMYAAlI,HH. C06CTBeHHO, TaKoe B3aHMo,qeHCTBHe - OTHID,qb He HCKJ1ID'lHTenbHoe ,qOCTOHHHC rnaMaHH3Ma. Ero MOiKHO 06Hap)'1KHTb, HanpHMcp, B HBJIeHWIX o,qepiKHMOCTH, 6epymHx csoe naxano B AcppHKe H pacnpoCTpaHeHHbIX B opa3HJ1HH H aa AHTHllbCKHX OCTpOBax non Ha3BaHHe,,!" B0.L\Y. 3,qeCb TaIOKC ):\l1a ,qOCTHiKeHHa 3KCTJ3a HCn0l1h3yroT pHTMll'leCKHH 6apJ6aHHbIH 60ll H 3apa3I1TenbHOe ,qBHiKeIille. ITpbIJKKaMH H CKaqKaMH 0603HaqaeTCH OTpbIB .L\YlIIH OT -rena, 3a H3MeHeHHeM rmua II ronoc:, rroTeHlleM, yTpaTOH paBHOBeCHa, crra3MaMH, 06MOPOKOM H MepTBOH Herro,qBHiKHOCThlO cnenyer HacroHIll,M HJ111 CHMYllHPyeMM yrpaTJ rraM5fTH.

Ho csons 6bI pe3KHM HH 6bIl1 TaKOH npnnaztox, on BCell,eJ10 pasBepTbIBaeTCH, KaK H npncryn llIaMaHH3Ma, B crporo PllTY::nhHOM rr~PMxe H B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3apaHee H3BeCTHOH MHcponorHCH. Bce ,qeHCTBO BblrAA):\HT KaK ,qpaMaTH'leCKOe rrpc,qCTJBJIeHHC, o,qepiKHMble OKa3bIBaIDTO! pHiKeHbIMH. OHH HOCHT na ce6e aTpH6yTbI BceAAIDIll,HXCH B HHX 60- rOB H nonpascuor HX xapaKTCpHbIM nOcryIIKaM. TOT, KTO BorrnoIll,aeT KPCCTbHHCKOro 60ra 3aKY, Ha):IeBaeT C0110MCHHyID urnsrry, CYMKY QCPC3 rrl1C'-IO H KYPHT Tpy6KY-HOcorpCHKY; ,qpyrOH, xoroporo «o~ccMan'> MOpCKOH 60r Arys, MJrneT BecnOM; TOT, xoro nOCeTHll 3MeHHbm 60r ,[l,aM6annax, nOJI3aeT rro 3eMJIe, cnOBHO npeCMhIKaIDI~eeCH. TJKOBO 06Ill,ee npaBHllO y ,qpyrHX Hapo,qOB OTMC'leHHOe erne qeT'-le. O,qHHM H3 nyqllIHX ,qo~eHTOB 00 3TOMY sonpocy OCTaIDTCH KOMMeHTapHH H cp~OTorpacpHH TpllMepHa 1, CBH3aHHhle C KYnbTOM 60pH B MYcynbMaHCKOH ACPPH,~ xe pacrrpOCTpaHCHHOM OT TpHnOl1HTaHllll no HHrepHH; 3TOT norryuer P~THHCKHH rrOl1yucnaMcKHH KYJIbT no-rru no BCCM rryHKTaM TeCHO c6JIHiKaeT~ C BO.L\Y, eCllH He B MHcpOJIOrHll, TO B 06PMOBOH rrpaKTllK~. )J,yx ManaM arts- Xa,[\iKH HBJIHeTCH yqeHhIM rranOMHllKOM. O,qepiKHMbm, B KOToporo OH BCCAAeTCH, nprrrsopserca ,qpO)K~Ill,HM :rapll,eM. OH ureBeJ1llT naJIbll,aMH, KaK 6y,qTO ncpe6HpaeT npasoa pyxon qeTKH. OH qllTaCT Boo6paiKleMyro KHHry, ,qcp)Ka CC B JIeBOM pyKe. OH rop6HTca, rrOKJlll:

IIHBJeT aa BM COBceM XHl1hIH. OH TIPHCyTCTByeT na CBa):Ib6ax, o,qeTblH B 6eJ10~. I1cnOJIHHTenb o,qepiKHMoro MaKa):IOH XO[\HT ronbIM, TIpHKphIBa-

we, a TpeTHH .1l0JDKeH npO[JlOTHTb sees Ocr3TOK. Korrra see CbeAHT, OHH BblC'I)'naIOT JlHl.I,OM K ny6JIHKe - TOT, KTO csen 60JIhille scex, MCJK,!l,Y AByx APyrHX. TIOTOM na'lHH3eTOI TaHeI~, BO BpeW! xoroporo cpeAHHH TaHIJ;Op BAPyr OCT3H3BJJ11BaeTOI, BblTJlr11B3eT np3ByK'J nory 11 pe3KO YAapHeT no HeH. 11 tyr IKe BbITaCKMsaer Y ce6J1 113 6e.1lP3 BOCKpeClllero pe6eHKa 11 nOKa3blBaeT np11CyTCTByK'JlllI1M,

'1To6hl OHH Mornl1 ero OCMOTpeTb*. .

I TREMEARNF.. Hausa Superstitions and Cus[Qms. London, 1913. E 534-:540; IDEM.

The Ban of the Bod. London, 1919. CM.: OESTERREICH T. K Op. CIt. P. 321-323.

114

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I P!11y3JJhHbIH npaen MlI H3rliaHWI ;ZYX3.

2 MIlTRAUX A La Comedic rituelJe dans la Possession /1 Diogene, NQ 11.juilJet 1955. P 26-49.

115

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ryny HHCTHHKTOB, BTOpJKeHHID onacnstx H HeO,ll.OJIHMhIX CHJl. Bnaxanc HOCHTeJIb, BepoHTHO, He 06MaHbIBaeTCH HM, HO 3aTeM nOMaeTCH OXBaThIBaIDIlI,eM)' ero onhHHeHHID. C 3aBOpOJKeHHhlM C03HaHHeM OH BCell,eJIO OT,UaeTCH paccrporicrsv, BhI3hIBaeMOM}' B HeM ero JKe C06CTBeHHOH. MHMHqeCKOH. HrpOH. no CJlOBaM )i{opJKa BIDPO, <'HH,Il.HBH,Il. 60JIhille He OC03HaeT ceon, H3 rJIOTKH Y Hero ssrpsrsaercs y:y,UOBHl~HhIH BOIlJIh, KpHK 3BepH HJlH 60ra, HeqeJIOBeqeCKHH. B03rJIaC, qHCTaH 3MaHaqHH 60eBOH. canst, nepso- 6blTHOH crpacrn, 6ecnpe,UenhHhIX MarHqeCKHX cnocooaocren, xoropue, KaK esry K(l)KeTCH, BCeJIHIDTCH B Hero B 3TOT MHP 1. OH JKe ynosmuaer 0 TOM, KaK B036~eHHO OJKH)J,aIDT pHJKeHhIX B He,Il.OJIrHX acppHKaHCKHX C)'MepKaX, KaK rHrrHOTH'-l:eCKH 3B)"IHT TaMTaM, a nOTOM HpOCfHO BpblBaIDTCH npnapaan, cosepinato'r rHraHTCKHe rrphlJKKH na XOP;YJIHX, Bhl6eraIDT H3 3apocnea BhICOKOH rpaBbl B ycrpanraiome» CMellleHHH paaaooopasnsrx 3ByKOB - CBHCTa, xpnna H ry,ll,eHHH pHTyaJIbHhIX norpesryure«

3,UeCh HaJIHqeCTBYeT He TOJIbKO rOJIOBOKpYJKeHHe, nopoacnaeaoe cnensrx, nccrynnemrstst H 6eClI,eJIhHhIM npasacruea K MHpOBhlM saeprHHM, He TOJlbKO oopaaaoe HBJIeHHe 3BepHHhlX 60JKeCTB, xoropsre noTOM B03BpaIll,aIDTCH B CBOID ThM)'. 3,1l.eCb erne H npocro ynoenue OT Toro, qTO ceeun, BOKPyr crpax H TpeBory. A rJIaBHOe, ::ITH HBJIeHHH npnapaxoa H3 aarpoonoro MHpa ,UenCTBYJOT KaK nepBMqHhIH MexaHH3M ynpauneHHH: MaCKa HOCHT HHCTHTylI,HOHaJIhHhIH xapaxrep, Y noronos, aanpnMep, 6hma orne-rena HaCTOHIlI,aH xynsrypa MacOK, KOTOPOH. npornrraaa BCH ny6JIHqHaH JKH3Hh KOJIJleKTHBa. Bo06Il1,e, na 3TOM anesrenrapuoja yponne KOJIJleKTHBHOH. JKH3HH cnerryer HCKaTb noxa eute 3hI6KHe aaxarKH nOJIMTHqeCKOH. BJlaCTH B MYJKCKHX HHHlI,HaTHqeCKHX 06Il1,eCTBax C OTJIHqHTeJIbtIbIMH MaCKaMH. Macxa - ::ITO opynne TaHHhlx 6paTcTB. OHa CJIYJKHT )J.JIH ycrpamenna HenOCBHrn;eHHhIX H O,ll.HOBpeMeHHO Will COKPhlTHH JmqHOCTH copaTHHKOB.

HHHlI,Hall,lliI - 06PMhI nepexo,Ua K MYJKeCTBY - qaCTO 3aKJlIDqaeTCH B TOM, '-lTO HOBHqKaM paCKpbIBaIDT cyrvoo '-leJIOBe'-lecKYID npnpozry Macox. C TaKoH TO'-lKH 3peHHH HHHlI,Hall,HH - 3TO aTeHCTH'-leCKOe, arnoCTH'-leCKOe, aerarnsuoe BOCnHTaHHe. OHO pacxpsmaer 06MaH H 3aCTaBJIHeT COTpYAHli1.laTh C HHM. ,lip CHX nop nO,ll.pOCTKH TIyraJIHCb nOHBJIeHlliI MaCOK. H BOT onaa H3 HHX rOHHeTOI: aa HHMH C KH)'TOM. n06yJK,ll.aeMble pyKOBO,ll.HTeneM HHHQHall,HH, OHH XBaTaIDT ee, CKp)"IHBaIDT, OTHHMaIDT KHyT, pa3,1l.HpaIDT KOCTIDM, cpbIBaIOT MacKY - H yJHaIDT O,UHOro H3 crapI1IHX npencraerrrenea IlJIeMeHH. OTHhIHe OHM H caMH nepexonsr B APYron nareps-. Teneps OHH caMH BHYlliaIDT crpax, BhIMa3aBllIHCh 6eJIoI1 fJIHHOH H caMH nanes MaCKH, OHH rryraior HenOCBHIlI,eHHbIX, BOIlJIOll~aH

1 BUR A U D G. Les Masques. Paris, 1948. P. 101-102.

2 dTOT MexaH»3M oopameans 3aMeQaTeJIbHO orracan AHp» )KaHMepoM O£ANMAIRE H. Couroi et Couretes, Lille, 1939. P. 172-223). B )J,OKYMeHTaI..Uu'[, c. 196-198, BOCnp0I13BoJ],llTCli OAHO H3 ero onacaana - CJIy'uil: nneveua 60- 60 ll3 Bepxnen BOJlbTbL

zryxon yMepllil-J:x; OHH MY'ciaKJT H 06HpaIOT 'rex, xoro nOHMaIOT HJIH JKe COqTyT B '-IeM-TO BHHOBHbIMH. Hacro OHH TaK H OCTaIOTCH q]]eHaMH noJIYceKpeTHoro 6paTCTBa HJlH JKe npoxonsr BTOPYIO HHHQHaQHKJ, qTo6bI BCTyITHTh B Hero. KaK H nepaaa HHHQHaQlliI, OHa corrpOBO)K,lJ;aeTCH JKecTOKOCTHMH, 60JIe3HeHHhIMH HcnhITaHlliIMH, nnorzra HaCTOHIlI,eH HJIH npHTBopHoI1 KaTaJIenCHeH., cHMymIQHeI1 CMepTH H BOCKpeceHHH. KaK H nepsas MHMQHall,HH, OHa Hayq:aeT rrOCBHIlI,aeMhlX, qTO TaK Ha3hIBaeMhre )J.yXH - ncero JlHIIIh nepeoztersre JIIO,UH, a HX 3aMOrHJIbHble ronoca C03- ,n;aKJTCH oc060 MOrn;HbIMH Tpern;OTKaMH. HaKOHeQ, KaK H rrepnaa HHHQHall,IDI, OHa naer HM rrpHBHJIernKJ '-lHHHTh BCHqeCKHe yrecnenaa B OTHOllIeHHH HenOCBHrn;eHHoro 60JIbIIlHHCTBa. KaJK,n,oe TaHHoe o6w,eCTBO HMeeT CBOH. OTJIHqHTeJIbHbIH <peTHIII H MaCKY-nOKpOBHTeJIH. Ka)K,lJ;hIH q]]eH ,ll.<VKe HH3II1erO no paary 6paTCTBa BepHT, '-ITO MaCKa-nOKpOBHTeJIb BhICIIIero 6paTcrsa - CBepX'beCTecTBeHHoe cyntecrso, B TO BpeMH KaK OH XOPOIIlO 3HaeT, 'ITO rtpencraanaer C060H MaCKa, 3aIIl,Hw,aKJIII,aH ero c06CTBeHHoe 6paTCTB01 Y Hapo,nOB 6eqyaHa TaKoro pona rpynna Ha3hIBaeTCH .uonamo, HJlH TaI1Ha, no Ha3BaHHIO XIDKHHbl, me nponcxomrr HHHlI,Hall,IDI. B nee BXO,D;HT 6yitHaH MOJIo,Ue)Kb, CB060,D;HaH OT 06blqHhlX BepoBaHHH H pa3,UeJIHeMblX BceMH crpaxos, CBOHMH YCTpaIIlaKJIIl,HMH HJKeCTOKHMM ,D;eHCTBIDIMH ee q]]eHbI crpeMHTCH YCHJIHBaTh cyeBepHblH YJKa~c 06MaHbIBaeMhlx HMH JIKJ,neH. TaKHM 06pa30M, rOJIOBoKPYJKHTeJIhHblH COKJ3 CHM}'JIHQHH H rpanca nopon 060paqHBaeTCH BnOJIHe C03HaTeJIhHOll CMeCbKJ 06MaHa H 3arryrHBaHHH. ¥IMeHHo B 3TOT MOMeHT H3 Hero H B03HHKaeT ocoooro pozta nOJIHTHqeCKaH BJIaCTb2.

Pa3)'MeeTCH, cy,n;h6a 3'nIX acconaanaa pa3JIHqHa. BhIBaeT, 'ITO OHH Cnell,HaJIH3HP}'IOTCH B OTIIpaBJIeHHH KaKoro-JIH60 MarH'-IeCKOro 06pMa TaHQa HJlH MHCTepHH, HO 6hIBaeT TalOKe, '-ITO OHH HaKa3bIBaIDT 3a cyrrPY~

~ CM.: HIMMELH EBER ~ Brousse. Leopoldville, 1939. NQ 3. P. 17-31.

CM.: FROBENll,S 1. DIe Geheirnbunde u. Masken Afrikas 1/ Abhandl. d. k, Leop.

Carol. Akad d Naturforscher. T. 74. Halle, 1898; WEBSTER H. Primitive secret SOCieties. New York, 1908; SCHWARTl. H. Alterclassen und MannerbI1nde. Berlin, 1902. HecoMHeH~o, B npmnume CJIe,lI;Ycr pa3JIHQ3Tb BH)iTpHIIJIeMeHH)'ro llHllQHa1lHro iouotuen " 06P5!,!J,bI BcryroreHlffi B TallHble 06rn;eCTBa, xoropsre qaCTO HCOIT M~IlJIeMeHHOll xapaxrep, Ho xorna 1'0 WIH nnoe 6paTCTBo .lIOCTIITacr CHJIbI, OHO B611pacr B ce6H IlOqTH scex B3POCJIbiX AaHHoll 06rn;llHbI, TaK qTO zma 06p5!,!J,a llHll1lHa1lHI1 B KOH1Ie KOH1I0B CJIHsaro1'CH B OAI1H 0 EANMAIRE H. Op. cit. P. 207 - 209). 3TOT iKe as'rop onacsrsaer (P. 169-171), BCJIt,1\ sa ¢p06eHll)'coM ;K B HapoAe Pbl60JIOBOB H 3eMJIeJJ,eJIb1lCB 60cco 113 Hnrepa, K roro-sarrazry OT'

OM6YJcry, BblCllJ}'IO BJIaCTb - 6e~OCTH)'IO, 1'3llH)'IO II HHCTll-ryu,»OHaJIb-

HyIo - OTlIpaB.lU!eT MaCKHpOBaHHoe 06ll1,CCTBO .KYMaHf*. r -H )KaHMep c6.mDKae-r fJIaBJIYlO uepexoamo 3Toro 06rn;CCTsa C CYAOM, KOTOpOM)' Y Jtnarona notwepraJIH ztpyr ztpyra J],eCHTb lIapell A1'JIaHTH.l(bl «.KpHTHll~, 120 B) nOCJIe npaaccenas B )KePTBY 6b1Ka, IlpllBll3aHliOro K 0PHXaJIKOBOMY CTOJI6y. }I ~OCnpOll3BOiK)' ::ITO OITHcaHlle B )J,oKyMeHT311I1ll, c. 198-199.

116

117

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LI,ocraTO'-IHO JIll sroro, '-IT06hl yrsepzsnars, -rro nepexon K lJ,HBllJIll- 3aU;llll KaK TaKoBoH 1'pe6ycr nocrerreHHoro ycrpaHeHllH sroro nepsencrsa corrpIDKeHHblX BMecre ilinx'a H mimicry II 3aMeHbI ero rrpe06J1a).l,aHlleM B COlJ,llaJIbHblX OTHOillemlliX napsr agon-alea, cocr5l3aHll5I H y).l,aqll? KaK 6bI TO Hll 6bUlO, HO BCHKH11. paa, xorna na nepBOHaqaJIbHOrO xaoca y,l1,acrc5I B03HllKH)'Th B'blCOKOH xymrrype, KaK npaxaaa Will )J(e CJIeACrBlie sroro OTMe'-IaeTCH 3aMeTHOe coxpauieaae nnacrn rOJIOBoKpyJKeHllH II CllMYJl5IlJ,Hll. TIpH 3TOM OHll JIllIIlaIOTCH csoero 6blJIOrO npesocxoncraa, BbITeCHHIOTCH na rrepnrpeputo 06mecrneHHOH. iKH3Hll, BblH)')KAeHbI arpars see 60- nee H 60JIee CKPOMli)'lO, HerrocroHHHYIO llJIll ,Il,aJKe TallH)'lO Ii rpexomryto porns, WIll iKe OHllll BOBce 3aMblKalOTC5I B OrpaHll'leHHo-perylUlpHo11. cepepe nrpu H BbIMbIClIa, rne ,I1,aIOT JlIOMM TO iKe ll3BCQHOe y).l,OBJIeTBOpeI-llle, TOJIbKO yJKe 06Y3,1J,aHHoe 11 rrOMOraIOIII,lle J1llillb pa3BC5ITb CKyKY llJIll 01').l,oxHyTb 01' Tpy,l1,OB, yJKe 6e3 BCHKOru 6pe,II,a II 6e3YMllH.

B xaOTll"leCKllX 06liIecrnax nomenae MaCOK noasonaer J1IOIViM BOIIJIOmaTb (ll qyscrnoBaTb ce6H BOIIJIOILI,aIOIII;llMH) HeKHe CllJIhl1l3Hepl'll1l, ,I1,yXOB H 60roB. OHO xapaxrepno ).l,JI5I ocoooro THna KyJIbrypbl, OCHoBaHHoro, KaK MbI Bll,I1,eJIH, Ha MorymecrBeHHoM COI03e rrJHTOMHMbl 11 3Kcra3a.

1 -Tlopo- Y napona TeMMe - CM.: J E A N MAl R E H. Op. cit. P. 219.

118

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B TH6eTe, B KHTae onsrru IIIaMaHOB OCTaBHJIH MHO)KeCTBO CJIe,11;OB. TH6eTcKHe JIaMbI paCnOpIDKaJIHCb nOrO,11;OH, B03HOCHJIHCb aa He60, HcnOJIH5!JIH MafH'lecKHe TaHQbI B 06JIa'leHHH H3 ~ceMH KOCTHHbIX y60- pOB», nOJIb30BaJIHCb 3aYMHbIM, 3BYKonO,11;paJKaTeJIbHbIM H3hlKOM. KHTaMCKHe ,11;aOCbI H aJIXHMllKH JIIO AHb H JIll l.{)jQO-KyHb JIeTaJIH no soaztyxy, ,l.l,pyrne ,11;OCTHfaJIll He6eCHbIX spar, paCTaJIKHBaJIH B nOJIeTe KOMeTbI H B36llPaJIHCb no pazryre. Ho Bce 3T0 onacnoe HaCJIe,11;He He MeIIIaJIO paaBHrnIO xpuraxecsoro MblIIIJIeHllH. BaH l.{YH pa306JIa'laJI JIJKHBOCTb pe'leM, xoropsre HK06bI npOH3HOC5IT MepTBhle yCTaMH JKHBbIX JIIO,11;eM, ana,11;aIOIll,HX B TpaHC, HJIH )Ke KOJI,ll;yHOB, xoropsre npH3blBaIOT HX zryx, «HrpaH Ha CBOllX 'lepHbIX CTPYHax~. Y)Ke B )..I,peBHOCTllKHHfa <'[0 !OM» paccxaasrsana, KaK uaps l.{)IQo (515-488 ,11;0 H. 3.) cnpaIIIHBaJI csoero MHHHCTpa: «f1HcbMeHa ,11;HHaCTHH l.{)KOYYTBepJK,ll;aIOT, 'ITO l.fJKYH-JIll 6bIJI nOCJIaH 8eCTHHKOM B nenocryrurue 06JIacrn He6a H 3eMJIH. KaK 'raxoe 6bIJIO B03MOiKHO? B03MOiKHO JIll )..I,JIH JIIO,ll;eH nO,11;HHMaTbCH na He60'>? H MHHHCTp 06b5lClUIJI eMY, 'ITO TaKHe H8JIeHHH HOCHT TOJIbKO ,ll;yXOBHbIM xapaxrep. TIpaBe,11;HblM 'IeJIOBeK, YMeIOIll,HM cOCpe,ll;OTO'lHTbCH, ,11;OCTHraeT nsrcmero n03HaHHH. OH nonaztaer B BblClime c¢epbI H crrycxaercs B ccpepsr no.q3eMHble, 'lT06bI y3HaTb TaM, «KaK BeCTH ce651, KaKHe nena nepnnrrs-. B TOM )Ke TeKCTe fOBOPHTC5I, 'ITO OH, nO,ll;06HO 'lHH08HHKY, ,11;OJDKeH npa 3TOM CJIe,11;HTb, 'lT06bI 60raM OTBO)..l,HJIOCb ,11;OCTOMHOe HX MeCTO rrpHHOCHJIHCb )KePTBbI, HcnOJIb30BaJIHCb npmtannexorocra H ue-

, 1

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A) TIEPEXO)l;

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MeJK,l..l,y 3THMH ,ll;ByMH aCneKTaMH BJIaCTH - a,n;MHHllCTpaTHBHbIM H MOJIHHeHOCHbIM - nO-BH.qHMOMY, ,11;OnfOe BpeMH IIIJIa KOHKYPeHQHH, He scerna C O,11;HHMH H TeMH )Ke rrepnneneum. Harrpmiep, y repxanoorx naPO,11;OB ,11;OJIroe BpeMH COxpalUIJI npeBOCXO,11;CTBO 60f roJIOBOKp)?KeHHH. Bor O,11;HH, 'lhe HMH, cornacao MJMY EpeMeHCKOMY, paBH03Ha'lHO <,6eIlIeHCTBy->, B mJBHhlX MH¢ax npeztcraaneu HaCTOHmHM lIIaMaHOM. Y Hero ecrs BOCbMHHornM KOHb, KOTOPbHi ,ll;aJKe B CH6HPH 3aCBH,lJ;eTeJIbCTBOBaH HMeHHO KaK JKHBOTHOe, HJ KOTOPOM esznrr IlIJMaH. OH rrpespamaerca BJII06bIX asepea, MfHOBeHHO nepeHOCHTCH B lII060e MeCTO, y:3Hacr 060 BceM OT ztsyx ceepxsecrecrseaasrx BOPOHOB, Xyrmra II MYHHHa. OH ,11;eBRTh ,ll;HeM II HO'leH BHCHT aa ztepene, 'lT06bI nony-nrn, OT Hero 3HaHHe TaMHOro H3bIKa PYH, 06JIa,n;aIOIll,erO npHHy,11;llTeJIbHOM CMJIoH. OH OCHOBaJI HeKpOMaHrnIO, sonponras M)TMll¢llUHpOBaHHyIO roJIOBY MY,11;peu;a MHMHpa. EOJIee 'roro, OH npaKTHKYeT (no KpaHHeH Mepe, ero B 3TOM yrr_ peKaIOT) seidhr, TO ecn, aacromnee U1aMaHCKoe ,11;eHCTBO, rae ecrs H ranJIIOQHHaTOpHaH M)'3bIKa, H prrryansuoe otinaseaae (CHHHM IIJIaIll" xepnaa HfHH'lbH mamca, 6eJIble KOIIIa'lbH IIIKYPbI, nocox, nO)1,)'IIIKJ H3 KYPHHbIX nepses), H crpaHCTBHH B HHOM MHP, H xop YCJI)l)KlIllBbIX nOMOIll,HHKOB, H TpaHCbI, 3KCTa3 H npopauauae. C MaCO'lHbIMH oourecrsaxra npHMO CBH3aHbI H BOHHhl-6epcepKH, rrpespamaioutaecn B ,11;HKHX asepea I.

HanpOTHB, B ,l.l,peBHeH [peQHH, XOTH orrrpasaaa TO'IKa 6bIJIa TOH )Ke caMOM, 6JIarO,11;apH OTHOCHTeJIbHOMY 06HJIllIO ,11;OKYMeHTOB O'leHb XOPOUIO BHj.\HO, CKOJIb 6blcrpo H OT'IeTJlHBO IIIna 3BOJIIOQHH, CKOJIb U1HPOKO II CTpeMHTeJIbHO 6bIJI ,11;OCTHfHyT ycnex, KOTOPhlH H3-3a 3TOfO na-

ECJIll )J,JIH HH,D,HH, Hpana H KHTaH Y Hac HMeIOTCH JIHUlb pa3p03HeHHbIe npH3HaKH, nOKa3bIBaIOIll,He, KaK TeXHHKH rOJIOBOKpYJKeHHH 3BOJIIOUHOHHpOBaJIH B CTOPOHY MeTo.qH'IeCKoro KOHTPOJIH, TO B ztpyrax KYJIbTYPax ecrs H 60JIee MHOrO'lHCJIeHHble H 60JIee 3KCIIJIHQHTHhle ,ll;OKYMeHTbI, n03BOAAIOmHe rrO,11;p06HO npOCJIe,D;HTb pasnsre aransi 3TOH KanHTaJIbHOM MeTaMOP<Po3bL TaK, B HH,D,OeBpOneHCKOM pernone npOTHBOnOJIO)K-

I CM. :'ITl1l'eKCThlll KHHfe: EUADE M. Le Chamanisme et Jes techniques archa'iques de J'extase. P. 359, 368, 396- 397, rne OHI1 rrcnoru.syro'rca B npOTIIllOnOllO)KHOM CMblCJIe - II IIOATRepJK,lJ.eHl1e ll,eHHOCTI1 WaMaHHQeCKMX OlIbITOll.

1 DUM sz I L G. Mitra- Varuna (Essai sur deux representations indo-europeennes de Ja Souverainere. 2e ed., Paris, 1948, ocoeenno rnaaa II, p. 38-54; CXO.1lHble csezteHHlf lIBCTHy10T H 113 KHl1f: Aspects de la Fonction guerriere chez les IndoEuropeens. Paris, 1956; WIKANDER S. Der arische Mannerbund. Lund, 1938; ELIADE M. Op. cit. P 338, 342, 348; 0 HOBOM n05lllJIeHHH 'raxoa anacrn xapaaxa'I'HQeCKoro 'rrma B XX aexe (A,li;ollh¢ Ttrrnep) CM.: CAll.LOIS R Instincts et societe. Paris, 1964. Ch. VII. P 152-180.

120

121

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Bo BpeM51 KPHnTHH - CB5I3aHHOH HJlH HeT C OXOTOH aa HJlOTOB2, OHll HeCOMHeHHO BeJIH 060c06JIeHHyID "lKH3Hb, yCTpaHBa5I aacaasr H JIOsyunca, 11M HeJIh3H 6bll1o ,!.IaTb ceoa ysanen, HJIH 3aCTHrHYTh BpaCITJIOx. Peqb I"I,D;cr OTHIO,1J,b He 0 BoeHHOH nO,ll,rQTOBKe - TaKa51 TPeHHpOBKa COaepurenno He cornacyerca C 60eBbIMH npHeMaMll rOITJIHTOB. 3gecb IOHOura "lKHBcr nO-BOJIqbH H nananaer nO-BOJIqbH - B O,ll,HHOqKY, BHe3anHO Ha6paCbIBa5ICb ,ll,HKllM aeepess. OH 6e3HaKa3aHHO xpaner H y6HBacr, eCJIH TOJIbKO "lKep1'BaM He y,n,acrcH ero noHMaTh. Taxoe ncnsrraaae monosaer B ce6H onaCHOCTH H npenayuiecrsa HHHU;HalIHH. Heodnrr aasoeausaer B03MO"lKHOcrb H npaso BeCTH ce651. nO-BOJIqbH; ero noacapaer BOJIK, H OH caM socxpecaer BOJIKOM; OH PHCKYeT 6b1Tb paCTep3aHHbIM BOJIKaMH H npOXO,ll,HT ncnsrraaae, qT06bl caMOMY repsars lIIO,!.IeH.

B 6paTCTBe JIHKaHTponOB ua 11HKeHCKOH rope B APKa,ll,HH, qbHM nOKpOBHTeJIeM 6bill 3eBC, BOJIKOM CTaHOBHJICH TOT, KTO noecr M51ca pe- 6eHKa, CMelllaHHoro C ,ll,pyrHMH BH,ll,aMH M51ca, HJIH "lKe nOCBHIIl,aeMblH nepenJIbIBaJI npyn H na ,lJ,eB51Tb JIeT CTaHOBHJlCH BOJIKOM B TOM MeCTe, rne BbIH,zJ,eT aa 6eiJer. APKa,ll,CKHH JIHKYPr, qbe HM5I. 3HaqHT «H306pa"lKalOIIl,HH BOJIKa,>, npecnenosan IOHoro)J,HoHHca. OH yrpoxcan eMY KaKHM-TO TaHHCTBeHHblM npacnocorinenne«. OH HCnyCKaJI crpannroe pu-raane H 6HJI, no CJIOBaM CTpa60Ha, B <'nO,ll,3eMHblH 6apa6aH, H3,lJ,alOIIl,HH T5I."lKKO rryralOIIl,HH. rposr-, HcrPY,lJ,HO Y3HaTb B 3TOM ycrpanraiouma rpoxor arppnKaHcKoH TpeIIl,OTKH - YHHBepCaJIhHoro opynns MaCOK.

HeT nenocrarsa B gOBO,lJ,aX, n03BOJI5IlOmHX CBH3aTb apxancxoro JIHKYPra C JIHKYProM cnapranctora; Me"lK,ll,y VI H IV BeKaMH no H. 3. CBepXbeCTeCTBeHHoe BH,1J,eHHe, BbI3bIBaBIIlee rraHHKY, npenpauraerca B senaxoro aaxonoztarena, KOJIAYH, 3anpaBJl5l.BIIlHH HHHUHaU;HeH, CTaHOBHTC5I. nenaroross. ToqHO TaK"lKe JIIO,1J,H-BOJlKH H3 Jlaxenesrona nepecra-

101' 6blTb gHKHMH 3Bep5l.MH, ogep"lKHMblMH 60rOM H Be.n.yr.u,HMH B CBOH 01'poaecxne ronsi Heq:eJIOBeqecKYIO, 3BepcKYIO "lKH3Hb. Teneps OHH oopa- 3yIDT csoero pona nOllHTH'IecKYIO rrOJIHlIHIO, aa KOTOPyID soaaaraercs 0651.3aHHOCTb YCTpaHBaTb xaparensaue 3KCrre,ll,HUHH H ztepacari, B crpaxe H rro.n;qHHeHHH noxopenasrc aapozua,

To, 'ITO pansrne 6bUIO 3KCTaTHqeCKHM rrpHna,ll,KOM, 'renepr, xnaziHOKPOBHO HCrrOJIb3YeTC5I. B uenax rro.n;aBJIeHH5I. H YCTpaIIleHH5I.. MeTaMOpCP03bl H TpaHC ocraIOTCH JIHIIlb B BocrrOMHHaHH5I.X. KOHeqHO, KpHnTH5I. no-npC"lKHeMy llepIIlHTCH B TaHHe, HO 'reneps ona CJI)0KHT O,lJ;HHM H3 pervnapnsrx MexaHH3MOB BOHHCKOH pecny6JIHKH, qbH "lKecrKHe yCTaHoBJIeHH5I. HCKYCHO coseraior B ce6e .n;eMOKpaTHIO H ,lJ;ecrrOTH3M. MeHhIIlHHCTBO 3aBOeeaTeJIeH, ,IJ;Jl5I. ce651. caMHX YiKe rrpHH5I.BIIIee coaceu llHble 3aKOHbl, npononzcaer nOJIb30BaTbCH crapsunr peuerrrasm rro OTHOIIleHHIO K rropa60IIl,eHHOH xacce.

3Ta 3BOJIIOI~H5I. nopasnrensaa H nOJIHa CMblClIa. OHa HJIJIIOCTpHpyeT CO- 60H JIHmb O,ll,llH qaCTHblH uryqaH. B TO "lKe cavoe BpeMH rroxrn no seen Ipeuna OTrrpaBJI5IJIHCb oprnacrnsecmre KYJIhTbl, HCrrOJlb3yIDIlIHe TaHeu, pHTM, onsaneune, .n;a6bl BhI3b1BaTb y anerrros 3KCTa3, HeqYBCTBHTeJIbHOCTb H 60"lKeCTBeHHyID o.n;ep"lKHMOCTb. Ho see 3TH KYJlbTbl rOJlOBOKPY"lKeHH5I. H CHMYJl5l.lIHH 6bUIH rr06e"lK.D;eHbI. OHH 60JlbIIle HHKOHM 06pa30M He 06pa30BbIBaJIH rnasnsre lIeHHOCTH 0611]ecTBa. B HHX JIHIIlb npozton"lKaJIaCb .n;peBHH5I. Tpa.n;HlIWr. 0 COIIleCTBH5I.X B an H rryremecreasx aa He- 6eca, OCYlIJ,eCTBJl5I.eMbIX gyxOM, B TO BpeM51. KaK 6eCqyBCTBeHHoe TeJIO CTpaHHHKa JIe"lKHT aa nOCTeJIII, OCTaJIOCb JIHIIlh BocrrOMIIHaHHe. TaK, .n;yma ApHCTe51 ITpoKoHHe3CKoro 6bUIa -cxsaxeaa- 60rOM ArrOJIJIOHOM H JIeTaJIa scnezt 3a HHM B 06m:!Ke sopona, fepMOTHM H3 KnJ30MeHa Mor aa uensre rona rrOKH,1l,JTb csoe TeJIO, OTnpaBJI5l.5l.Cb .n;06hlBaTb 3HaHHe o 6y.n.yr.u,eM. BJIarO,lJ;apH rrocry H 3KCTa3y 3rrIIMeHI"I,D; KPHTCKHH nOJIyqIIJI B 60"lKeCTBeHHOH neinepe na l1.n;CKOH rope aanac CBOHX Marll':leCKHX cnoc06HOCTeii ITpOpOK II uennrens A6apHC JIeTaJI no He6y aepxon aa 30JIOTOH C1'peJIe. Ho II B casrsrx CTOHKllX, casrsrx paaarrrsrx ll3 3THX pacCKa30B YiKe rrp05l.BJI5I.lIaCb HOBaH opnenranan, 06pJTHa5I nepaoaaxansHOMY CMbIClIy. Opcpen 60JlbWe He BbIBO,ll,HT H3 noztsesiaoro MHpa YMCPuryro cynpyry, sa KOTOPOH OH 'ry.n;a CnyCTIIJIC5I.. B03HllKaeT rrOHHMaHHe 'roro, 'ITO csiepn, He 3HaeT nomansr II 'ITO HHKaKa51 MarHH He MO}f(eT ee O.n;OJIeTb. Y ITJIaTOHa 3KCTaTllqeCKOe nyremecrsae 3pa ITaMcpIIJIbCKOro - 3TO yw:e He IIlaMaHCKaH 0,lJ;HCCe5l, 11306HJIyIDIIl,aH ,1J,paMaTHqeCKHMH nepanerassm, HO aJIJIeropH51., K KOTOPOH npnoeraer CPHJIOCOCP ,1J,Jl5I. H3- 1I0"lKeHHH 3aKOHOB Kocaoca H Cy,1J,b6bJ.

I AHPI1 )KaHMep a EAN MAIRE H. Couroi et Couretes, Lille, 1939) coopan na 3'1'OT cxer BOe'laTJUlIOI.I.\He ,rr,aUHble, OTKY,rr,a H 11 xepnato I1PI1Bo,rr,HMble HillKe ¢aKTbL

B 3TOil: KHl1re na c. 540-568 MO)KHO Hal1TH BaJKHei1IllHe TeKCTbI OIU1KaHTPOIlI1I1 B Cnapre, a na c. 569-588 - a JhlKYPre 11 apKJp,CKI1X KY·nhTax.

z Kpl1IlTHlI - I1Hl1l..\HaTH'l.eCKOe ncusrrauae Y cnaprannea, B xone KOTOPOI"O,

B 'l.aCTHOCTI1, I1CIIbl'I)'eMbIe IOI!OIllI1 'l.HHHJIH HaCWIHlI np0'I'I1B pa60B-.I1JlOTOB. - Ilpuueu. nep.

• • *

I1ct.Je3HoBeHHe MaCKH - C O,1J,HOH CTOPOHbl, KaK cpencrsa MeTJMOpcpO- 3bl, rrpHHO,1J,Hmeil. B 3KCTa3, a C npyroa CTOPOHbI, KaK opvnaa rrOJIHTHqe-

122

123

PO)Ke KaHya. Hrphl H J1i08H

'-IaCTb BTOPall.. VlII. COCT1I3:1HI1C H CJI}"Ial1

CKOD: BJIaCTH, - npencrasnaer c060D: Me,ll)leHHbIfi, nepomrsra, TPY,11,HbIfi npouecc. MaCKa 6bIJIa BbICIIIHM 3HaKOM npeBOCXO,11,CTBa. B MaCO'IHbIX 06m,eCTBaX rJIaBHbIfi BOnpOC B TOM, HOCHilib JIH TbI MaCK}' H rryraeurs ,11,pyrHX HJIH He HOCHilib ee H rrvraenrscs caM. I1pH 60JIee CJIO)l(Hofi 06II1,eCTBeHHofi oprannaauaa pests H,11,eT y%e 0 TOM, 'ITO 'IeJIOBeK ,11,OJI)l(eH 60- HTbCH O,11,HHX H MO)l(eT rryrars ,11,pyrHx, B 3aBHcHMocru OT crerrean llOCvBHII1,eHlliI. I1epefiTH aa 60JIee BbICOr<yIO crynem- - 3Ha'IHT n03HaTb TaHHY HOBOfi, 60JIee TafiHoH MaCKH. 3TO 3Ha'IHT Y3HaTb, "ITO ycrpaIIIaIOII1,ee CBepxbecTecrBeHHoe HBJIeHHe - BOBce He cBepXbecreCTBeHHoe, a npoCTO nepeonersra 'IeJIOBeK, nO,11,06HO TO My KaK TbI caM aanesaems Macr<y, qT06bI ycrpamars npocpaaos HJIH nOCBHIIl,eHHbIX HH311Iero ypOBIDI.

Be3yCJIOBHO, cyIII,eCTByer np06JIeMa ynaznca MaCOK KaK H noxeav JIIO,11,HM npHIIIJIOCb OTKa3aTbCH OT HHX? 3THM BonpOCOM KaK-TO MaJIO 3a,n,aBaJIHCb srnorparpsr, Me)l(,1J,y TeM OH HCKJIIOqHTeJIbHO Ba)I(eH. Donpo- 6yro BbI,11,BHHfI'b CJIe,n,yroIIJ,yIO ranoreay. OHa HHKOHM 06pa30M He HCKJIIOxaer - HanpOTHB, -rpeoyer - MHO)l(eCTBeHHbIX, pa3HbIX, HeconocraBH~ MhIX Me)l(,1J,y C060H rryren, cooTBeTcTByroII1,HX Ka)I(,1J,OD: KOHKperHoH K}'JIbT)'Pe H CH1yaU;HH. Ho OHa npezinaraer Her<yIO 06IIJ,yIO,1J,JlH HHX ,11,B~IIJ,yIO cHJIY. Cncrena MaCKH H HHuU;HaU;HH ¢lyHKu;HoHHpyer JIHilib B TOM orysae, KOr,11,a eCTb TOqHOe H rrocroaunoe COOTBeTCTBHe Me)I(,1J,y pacxpsrTHeM cexpera MaCKH H npascoa caMOMY HCnOJIb30BaTb ero ,1J,JlH )J,ocrH)l(eHlliI 60rono,11,06HOrO -rpanca H YCTPaIIIeHlliI HOBH'lKOB. 3HaHHe H npaneHeHHe TaK%e TeCHO CBH3aHbI Me)l(,1J,y c060fi. TOJIbKO TOT, KTO anaer HCTHHHyIO npapony MaCKH H paxetroro, MO)l(er caM pH,11,HThCH S KaKOeJIH60 crpanmoe 06JIH'ihe. Be,11,b HeJIb3H HcnbITbIBuaTb na ce6e ero BJIlliIHue, HJIH no KpafiHefi Mepe HCnbITbIBaTb ero B TOH)I(e creneHH,uC TeM)I(e qyncrBOM CBHrll;eHHOH naHHKH, eCJIH 3HaeUIb, "ITO nepen T060H npocro pIDKeHbIfi. Me)I(,1J,y TeM He 3HaTb 31'0ro npaKTH"leCKH HeB03MO)I(H0 - no KpafiHeH Mepe, HeB03MO)I(HO He 3HaTb 31'oro )J,OJIro. OTCIO,11,a nocroaanaa TpeIII;HHa B cacreue, KOTOPyro npHXO,11,HTCH 3an:HII1,aTb OT JII060nbITCTBa rrpoqianos U;eJIbIM PH,11,OM aanperos H HaKa3aHHH, npH'leM BnO!IHe peansHbIX. ¢aKTHqeCKH TOJIbKO cneprs CJIY%HT e,1J,HHcrseHHo ,11,eHCTBeHHbIM Cpe,11,CTBOM npOTHB pa306JIaqeHlliI cexperoa. OTCIO,Il,a CJIe,11,yeT, "ITO HeCMOTpa Ha HHTHMHOe nO,11,TBeplK,11,eHHe, rrorry-raessoe OT sxcraaa H O,11,ep)I(HMOCTH, sees 3TOT MexaHH3M OCTaeTCH HeycrOHqHBbIM. Ero npHXO,ll,HTCH BCeqaCHO npe,11,OXpaIDITb OT eJIY"laHHbIX pa306JIaqeHHfi, OT HeCKpOMHbIX sonpoCOB, OT KOIIzyHCTBeHHbIX npe,unOJIO)l(eHHfi H 06bHCHeHHH. HeH36e)I(Ho nacrynaer MOMeHT, xorna H3rOTOBJIeHHe H HOUIeHue MaCOK HJIH MaCKaPa)J,HbIX HapH,11,OB, He yTPaqHBaH csoero CaKpaJIbHOrO xapaxrepa, nepecraior 6bITb 3aIII,HIll,eHbI aanperasra, rp03HIll,HMH CMep1bIO HapYUIHTeJIIO. 11 TOr,11,a, sepea pH,11, HeqyBCTBHTeJIbHbIX npeBpaIII,eHHH, OHH craHoBHTCH PHTYaJIbHbIMU yKpameHlliIMH, npHHa,Il)le)I(HocrbIO ~Op)l(eCTBeHHbIX uepeMOHHfi, TaHU;eB HJIH reaTPaJIbHbIX npe,1J,eraBJIeHHH.

B03MO)I(H0, nOCJIe,ll,HeD: nornrncon nOJIUTH'-IeCKoro rocnO,ll,CTBa C nOMOIll,bIO MaCKH 6bIJIO npaBJIeHHe XaKHMa aJIb-MoKaHHbI, I1oTaeHHO-

ro Ilpopoxa H3 Xopacana, KOTOPbIH B VIII sexe B 'rexenae HeCKOJIbKHX JIeT, C 160 no 163 ron XH)J,)KpbI, no6e)l(,1J,aJI BoficKa xanmpa, OH HOCHJI aa JIHU;e 3eJIeHOe nOKpblBaJIO HJIH, no ,11,pyrHM CBe,11,eHlliIM, 3aBeJI ce6e 30JIOTYIO MacK}' H HHKOr,11,a ee He CHHMaJI. OH 06bHBJIHJI ceoa BorOM H CKPbIBaJI csoe JIHU;O HK06bI nOTOMY, "ITO HH O,11,HH CMepTHbIfi He MOJKeT Y3PeTb ero, He OCJIenH)'B. O,11,HaKO see ,11,eJIO B TOM, "ITO ero nprrraaaana pe3KO OCnapHBaJIHCb npOTHBHHKaMH. JIeTOnHCL~bI - npaana, ace OHH 6bLJIH HCTOpHKaMH XaJIH¢la - nHCaJIH, 'ITO OH ,11,eJIaJI TaK nOTOMY, "fTO 6bLJI J1bIC, 0,11,HOrna3 H OTBpaTHTeJIbHO 6e306pa3eH. YqeHHKH crann Tpe60BaTb OT Hero ,11,OKa3aTeJIbCTB, '-ITO OH rOBopHT npasrry, H nOJKeJIaJIH BH,11,eTb ero J1HQO. OH nOKa3aJI ero HM. Hexoropsre ,11,efiCTBHTeJIbHO 060JKrJIHCb, a OCTaJIbHbIX 31'0 y6e,11,HJIo. O,ll,HaKO O¢lHl~HaJIbHaH HCTOPMH 06bHCHHeT 3TO 'lY,11,0, OTKpbIBaH (HJIH nPHAYMbIBaH) npHMeHeHHyro B HeM XHTPOcrb. BOT KaK paCCKa3bIBaerCH 3TOT 3nH30,11, B O,11,HOM H3 ,11,peBHeHLLIHX HcrOqHHKOB - -Tonorpadnoreceosr H HCTOpH"feCKOM ornrcaana Byxapsr- A6yBarca Moxasoraaa H6H )l,JKa¢lapa HapLLIaXH, 3aKOHqeHHOM B 332 rony':

«I1HTb,11,eCHT TbICHq BOHHOB MOKaHHbI C06PaJIHCb Y BOPOT 3aMKa H C nOKJIOHaMH Ha"faJIH npOCHTb, qT06bI OH BbJIIIeJI K HHM. Ho OHH He nOJIyqHJIH HHKaKoro OTBeTa. OHH CTaJIH nacraasa'n, H )'MOJIHTb, rosopa, "ITO He C,11,BHnyTCH C MeCTa, noxa He YSH,11,HT J1HI~a csoero Bora. Y MOKaHHbI 6bLJI crryra no HMeHH Xa)J,)I(e6. OH CKa3aJI eMy: "CryrraH H CKa%H MOHM C03,11,aHlliIM: MOHceH npocan MeHH norcaaars eMY Moe JIHU;O; HO H He corJ1aCHJICH HBHTbCH eMY, H60 OH He cxtor 6bI ssraecra Moero BH,11,a, - H eCJIH KTO MeHH Y3pHT, OH TyT iKe YMPeT". O,11,HaKO BOHHbI CHOBa CTaJIH YMOJIHTb. Torna MOKaHHa CKa3aJI HM: "TIpHXO,11,HTe JKe B raxoa-ro ,11,eHb, H H nOKa%Y BaM J1HU;O csoe".

Mezcry TeM )l(eHIIl,HHaM, xoropste HaXO,11,HJIHCb C HHM B 3aMKe (6bLJIO HX "fHCJ10M ero, B 60JIbIIIHHCTBe KpecTbHHcKHX no-repea H3 Corna, KeLLIa H HaKLLIa6a, H OH )J,epJKaJI HX y ce651 B 3aMKe, H PH,11,OM C HHM TaM He 6bLJIO mrxoro, KpOMe 3T!1X era iKeHIIl,HH H ocoooro CJIyrH no HMeHH Xa)J,)Ke6), OH senen R3HTb Ka)I(,1J,ofi 3epKaJIO H BbIHTH aa KpbIWY 3aMKa. [OH HayqHJI HX, KaK) nepacars 3epKaJIO, CTOH J1HQOM ,11,pyr K ,11,pyry H '-ITO- 6bI aepxana 6bLJIH TO)l(e otipameasr ,11,pyr K ,11,pyry - H see 3TO B MOMeHT, KOr,11,a COJ1HeqHble JIyqH 6bIOT [oc06eHHO HpKO) ... 11 BOT BOHHbI coopaJ1HCb. Korzta COJ1HQe OTpa3HJIOCb B 3epKaJIaX, TO B pe3YJ1bTaTe sroro OTpasceans see OKpeCTHOCTH 'roro Meera OKa3aJIHCb aaronneasr CBeTOM. H 'rorna OH CKa3aJI crryre. "CKaiKH MOHM C03)J,aHHHM - BOT Bor BaIII HBJIHeTCH BaM. B3HpaHTe aa Hero! B3HpaHTe aa Hero!" BH,11,H, KaK see BOKPyr aaronneno CBeTOM, JIIO,11,H ncnyramrcs. 11 OHH nOKJIOHHJIHCb eMY».

1 51. ll;HTHPYIO 6)'KBaJIbHhIH nepenozt llIo6e:lHO G\e.naHHbIH,1VUI MeIDl f-HOM ArneHa C coxpauteanoro rrepcaacxoro nepesona KHHfH Hapmaxn (nsmonuenaoro

B 574 rozry XH,1I,)KPhl). eM. AHCCepTall;H10: SAD!GH! G. H. Les Mouvements religtcux iraniens au no et me siecle de I'Hegire. Paris, 1938, - rne rrpHBop;HTOI HClJ:cpnblsaiomee KpHTWIecKoe onHC3HHe HCTO'IHI1KOB, KaCalO~HXOl XaKHMa (C 163-186).

124

125

POlKe KaHya. I1rpbl Ii JIIOIlIi

'-laCTb HTOPaJI. VIII. COCT1I3aHHe Ii CJIY'-Iai1

Korna XaKHM 6bIJI n06C)K)J,eH, OH, nOlJ,06HO 3MnelJ,OKTlY, XOTeJI HC'-iC3HYTb 6eCCJIelJ,HO, '-iT06bI nyMam-i, 6YlJ,TO OH B03Hecc~ aa He60. OH 01'paBHJI CBOHX CTO )KCHIIJ,HH, oTpy611JI rOJIOBY C~C H 6POCHlIOI HarHillOM B ~MY C aeraurenon H3BeCTbIO (HJIH B KOTeJI C pryrsro, HJII1 B '-iaH C cepHOH KHCJIOTOH, I1JIH B nexe, rne TIJIaBHJIaCb Me,[lb, HJIH CMOJIa, HJIH caxap). 3lJ,eCb JIeTOnHC~bI TaK)Ke pa306JIaqaIOT ero XHTpOCTb. UapCTBo MaCKH XOTb H OCTaeTC~ ,[IeHCTBeHHbIM (CTOpOHHHKH XaKHMa nOBepHJIH, qTO 011 He )'Mep, a rrpesparnnca B 60)KeCTBO, H B Xopacau erne ,[IOJIro He B03Bparn;JJICH MHp), HO BCe)KC OKa3bIBaeTC~ TCIICPb ~apCTBOM 06MaHa H ¢OKyCHI1'-ieCTBa. OHO )')KC n06e)K)J,CHO.

•••

TOP)KCCTBCHHbtX IIpO~CCCHH, YCTaHaBJII1BJJIa B ,ll;eJIb¢HHCKOM xpaue CTporHH rropMOK,[IJ)KC ~ npoposecxoro 6pelJ,a, ~ OHa npanasana HHCTH~HOHJJIbHyro 3Ha'-iHMOCTb copeBHOBaHHIO no npaBHJIaM H lJ,J)KC p03blrpbIIIIY no )KPC6I1IO. HHa'-Ie rosopa, 6JIarOlJ,ap~ opraanaauaa aenaKHX nrp (OJII1MIII1HCKI1X, HCTMI1HCKHX, TIH¢HHCKHX H HeMeHCKHX), a nopoa H 6J1aro,[lap~ cnocooy, KaKHM Bbl6HPaJIHCb rOpO,[lCKHC MarHCTparts, ag6n H BMeCTC C HHM alea nony-raror B )KH3HH 06rn;CCTBa TO npnBHJIerHpOBaHHoe Mecro, KOTOpOC B oomecrnax XaOTHqeCKIIX 3aHHMaeT napa mimicry-ilinx.

Ha CTJ,[IHOHHbIX nrpax 6billO H306pCTeHO H npe,1J,lIO)KeHO (KaK npHMep.IVJJJ nO,[lpJ)KJH~) COnepIU-i'-IeCTBO OrpaHHqeHHOC, cnCLlJlaJIH3Hpoaannoe H ynoPMO'-ICHHOe npaBIIJIaMH. OqHU~eHHoe OT BCHKHx qyBCTB J1H'-iHOH HCHaBHCTH H 06H,[1bI, 31'0 COCT~3aHHC noaoro 'rnrra craHOBHTC~ IIIKOJIOH '-ieCTHOCTH H 6JIarapO,[lCTBa. Ol1.HOBpeMCHHO OHO pacnpocrpa~eT npHBbI'-iKy K ap6HTp~ 11 YBJ)KCHHe K HeMY. Era ~BIIJIH3yroIIJ,~ pOJIb nO,Ll;'-IepIQ1BaJIaCb )')KC He paa ,ll;CllCTBHTCJIbHO, TOp)KeCTBeHHbIC nrpsr B03HHKaIOT nO'-ITH BO scex BeJlHKIIX ~HBHJII13a~l1HX. Y a~TeKOB I1rpbl B MH'-I 6billH pHTyaJIbHbIMI1 npa3l1,HeCTBaMH, aa KOTOPbIX npHcyrCTBOBaJI naps co BCeMI1 npH,[lBOpHbIMM. B Krrrae KOHKYPCbl no CTpClIb6e H3 JI)'Ka ,[IaBaJIH 11 nOlJ,TBep)K,[laJIH apHCTOKpaTHqeCKOe ,[IOCTOHHCTBO ~ ,[IJ)Ke He CTOJIbKO no PC3YJIbTaTaM CTpeJIb6bI, CKOJIbKO no )'MeHI1IO npaBHJIbHO BbInyCTHTb CTpeJIy I1JIH rrOlJ,60,[lpHTb Hey,[la'-IJIHBOrO rrpOTHBHHKa. Ty )Ke ¢YH~HIO HcnOJUuVIH psmapcxae TYPHHpbl na xpHCTHanCKOM 3anane:

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qHCJIO 11 Mepa, pacnpocrpanaescsnt HMll .r\YX TOqHOCTH HCCOBMeCTllMbl co cna3MaMH H napoKcH3MaMH 3KCTa3a H MacKapa,n,a, 3aTO ,[IeJIaIOT B03MO)KHbIM nO,[lbCM agon'a H alea KaK npasnn COQHaJIbHOll I1rpsr. B TO )Ke caMOC spexa, xorna Fperms OTXO,lJ,HJIa 01' MaCO'lHbIX 06- meers, 3aMCHHlIa HCHCTOBCTBO ,[IpeBHHX npa.3.D:HeCTB cnOKOllCTBHCM

I BR£IIIER E. HL<;toire de 13 Philosophic. T. I. Fasc. 1. 5e ed, Paris, 1948. P. 52-54.

126

127

Poxce KaI1ya. l1rpbI M Jl108H

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•• *

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~ 2 E

JIH'lHOH suerte. 10 onpe,1l.CJIeH xapaxrep KJ)f(,ll,oro, ero TaJIaHTbI, cJIa60-

CTH, 06~CCTHcHHoe nOJIO)l(CHHe, npOcPcccHH, naxoaen, y,ll,a'-lJIHBOCTb, TO ecn, npe,ll,Ha3Ha'-IeHHOCTb K ycnexy HJIH neycnexy, cnoc06HOCTb nOJIb- 30BaTbCR CJIy'-laeM. TIPH 3TOM HeB03MO)f(HbI HlfKaKHe '-IeCTOJlI06lfSbJC CTpeMJrCHHH, HeMbICJIHMa HHKaKaR KOHKypeHQH.H. Bce pO)f(,1l.aIOTCR H CTaHOBHTCH TaKHMH, KaK npe,ll,nHcaHo cy,nb60J1:3. Ag6n - )f(eJIaHlfC TOp~

1 MA !iSS M. Une categone de l'esprir humain. la notion de personne, celle de moi II Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Vol. LXVIII. Juil. +dec 1938. p. 263-281.

2 CYAh60l1 (ucn.), - Ilpuuen. nep.

~ MEN]) E LS 0 N M. Le Roi, Ie Trairre et La Croix II Diogene. NQ 21. Hiver 1938. p. 6.

128

129

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1 CM.: FRIEDMANN G. OU va Ja travail humain. Paris, 1950. P. 147-151. B COCp;HHCHHblX Illrarax rrapH 3aKJIlOllJJOT ]'naBHbIM 06pa30M Ha ~HOMcpa*, TO CCTh -ita TpH rrOCJIC,!l,HHC ll,l:l~PbI o61l.1cfi CYMMbl JKll,Hfi, rrpOAaBacMblx KaJI\ll.blH ,uCHb aa YOJIJl-C1'pHn. 113 sroro ssipacraicr p.9KCT H 3HallHTClIbHbiC COCTOllHHH, paCCMaTpHBaCMblC KaK,uCHbrl1 COMHI1TeJlbllOrO npOI1CXO)K,ll,CHWI. CM.: Ibid. P. 149. NQ 1; Le travail cn rniettes. Paris, 1956. P. 183~ 185.

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I 0 cnoc06ax, pacIlpocrpaHeHHocrl1 I1I1HTeHCI1BHOCTH l'aKolt CaM?l1,lIeHTHqmKaql1H CM. npeBOCXO,!lH)'IO rnasy B KHHrc: MORIN E. Les Stars. Pans, 1957. .

P. 69-145, ~ oco6eHHo OTBe1'bl na cOll,110JIOrH'leCKHC OIlPOCbl B Be;lJiIK06pvl1aHI1I1I1 COCl\I1HCHHbiX urrarax 0 cpe1'HTllH3MC, KOTOPblM oKp)')KeHbl KI1H03Be3}J,hL Y HBJIcnWI COIlepC)Kl1BaHIDI CCTb }J,BC Il03MO)KHOCTH: nOKJIOHCHHC 3BC3}J,e }J,pyroro nOJIa 11 l1,lIeHTHcpHKaU;ID1 co 3Be3,llol'i onnoro IlOJIa YI sospacra. nOClle,t\HJfH cpopMa BCTpC'lacrcH -rauie scero - B 65% cnv-raen, ~o['JIaCiiO c:aTHCTI1'leCKllM }J,aHlIblM Motion Picture Research Bureau (MORIN E. Op. crt, P. 93),

1 CM . .D:OK)'MCHTall,HIO, c. 199~200.

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11 BOT napon outymaer Hco6xO,!l;HMOCTb B CBoeM Bo06pJ)KeHHH MaKCHMaJIbHO npH6JIM3HTb K 06Il1,CMy yzterry )KH3Hb 'roro, KTO OT[l,CJICH 01' nero HcnpeO[l,OJIHMOH ,!l;HCTaHUHci1, XO'-lCTClI BH[l,CTb ero npOCTbIM, sryaCTBHTCJIbHbIM, a rJIaBHOe, CTpa[l.aIOIlI,HM 01' TOp)KeCTHeHHOCTM H noxecTCH, Ha KOTOPbIC OH oope-ren, Y.T06bI ne TaK eM}' 3aBH,ll,OHaTb, eMY Ha'-lHHalOT COqyBCTBOBaTb. C'-IHTaIOT O'leBH[l,HbIM, QTO eMY aaxaaansr casrsre npoc'rsre Pa,[\OCTll, HaCTOH'-IHBO TBep,ll,}I.T, '-ITO OH HC csoooncn B JII06ml, CKOBaH [l,OJIrOM nepen KOPOHOH, 3THKCTOM, 06li3JHHOCTHMH csoero IlOJIO)KCHH.H. TaK BbICillaH BJIaCTb OKpy:lKaCTCH CTpaHHOH CMeChIO 3aBllCTH H COCTpa[l,aHlIH, nplIBJICKaH K KOpOJIeBCKHM npOIJ,CCCHHM TOJInbl napona, KOTOPbIH CBOHMH npHBCTcTHCHHblMH B03rJlaCaMH crapaercs y6C[l,liTb caM ceoa, 'ITO KOPOJIH H KOpOJIeBbI C03[l,aHbI TaK )!(C, KaK Ii OH, H '-ITO KOPOJICBCKHH CKHnCTp npHHOCHT He CTOJlbKO CqaCTbC H BJIaCTb, CKOJIbKO cKYKY, yrOMJlCHHC H HCCB060[l,Y

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•••

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142

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B TO )Ke BpeMH ZQ1WBotepyJICekUe, JlHllIeHHOe CBoeH 6bmOH anaCTli,OKa3bIBaeT nOCTOHHHoe H MOmHOC B03}J,CHcrBHC JlHIiIb B CHllY COOTBeTCTBYIOmero eMY HCKJ)KeHHH, TO ecrs CHJlOH onbHHeHHH, BbI3blBaeMOro aJIKOrOJleM HllH HapKOTHKaMH. flo}J,06HO MaCKaM H MaCKapJAaM, OHO 06pa3YeT Tenepb scero JlHIllb Hrpy B coocrseaaon CMblClle CJIOBa, TO ecrs nearensnocrs ynopanoaeauyio, 060c06JleHHYIO, OT}J,eJleHHYIO 01' peaJIbHOH )I(ll3HH. TaKI1e 3rrM30}J,M'-ICCKHe POJlM, KOHe"lHO, }J,aJIeKO He HClJ.epnblBaIOT C060H scea orracaon MOmM OTHbIHe YCMMpeHHblx CHJI CHM)'AAll,Mll 11 TpaHca. fl03TOM)' OHM B03HHKalOT BHOBb B Jlll11,eMepHO-H3- upamemn.rx ¢opMax, nocpenn Mupa, oropacuaaioutero MX ira neparpepmo 11, KaK npasano, He npaauaiomero aa HHMU HHKaKI1X npaa

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144

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nO}J,06HbIC sxcnecca, HJIH iKC npncrynu, 60JIbIllC HC MOIy'T HH CTaTh npaeaaoss, HH Ka3aTbCH BpeMcHeM Ii 3HaKOM OC060ll MHJIOcrH O)KH}J,aCMbIM H rrOlJ.I1TaeMbIM B3PbIBOM 60iKecrncHHoH CHJIbI. HbIHC o}J,ep~ JKHMOCfb 11 nO}J,pJ)KaHHC npHBo,W1T JIHllib K lIeo6'bHCHHMOMY nosryraeHHIO paccyrnca - npexonamesry H yJKacaIOIl~eMY, KaK BOHHa, xoropyio MHe yJKe }J,OBO}J,HJlOCb onHCbIBaTb KaK 3KBHBaJICHT nepsoosrnroro rrpaaziHeCTBa. EYHHonoMellIaHHoro 60JlbiliC HC ClJ.HTaIOT CMHTCHHbIM ssrpaaa-

1 d',Ae o61I~ecTBo) TaM H npaso- (nam.). - Ilpuste«. nep.

2 Pcnarna ranuen c npHBH)J,eHlliIMH (a1tVl.). - Ilpusur« nep.

3 HenOJIHaH, HO Bee paSHO Bne9aTJIHlOllI,a1! P;0KYMeHTalJ,llil na cea C'-ICT coopaaa S KHHre: FELl CE PH. DE Foules en delirc, extases collectives. Paris, 1947.

4 eM. crarr.ro (Bocnp0I13BCp;eHHyJO B )J,OKyMeHTaqHH, c. 200-202): FREDEN E. / / Le Monde. 4 janvier 1957. Becsxa BCpOilTIlO, 'iTO 3TH npoannenna ClIe;zyer COOTHOCHTb C ycnexoja TaKHX aMCpHKaHCKM.X ¢HJIhMOIl, KaK <)lHKapb» H .(:>yt1TOBllI,HK 6C3 npH'iHHbI').

145

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Topoe ecru He '"ITO nnoe, KaK nyrs ~I1BI1JIH3a~I1H. ~

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146

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1 CM . .n,OKyMeHTalV"no. c. 202-204.

147

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KapHaBaJI no CBOCMY nponcxossnenmo rrpe,ll,CTaBJIHCT C060ll sspsm BOJIbHOCTH, KOTOPblH erne 60JIbiliC 6aJIa-MaCKapJJ.l,a Tpc6ycr nepeO,[lCBaHHH M 3~crCH aa rrpOH3BO.l1.HMOH MM cB060.l1.c. OrpOMHbIC, HCnensre, rpyoo pacspameuaue KaPToHHbIC MaCKH ~ 3TO TO )KC caMOC B HapO,ll,HOM 6bITy, '"ITO 6aJIbHbiC nonyMacKH B 6bITy CBcrCKOM. 3.l.l,CCb pe-n, M,[\eT HC 0 raJIaHTHbIX npHKJIlO'"ICHlUl:X, He 06 mrrparax, 3aBH3bIBaIOrn;MXCH H pa3BH3bIBaIOIll,liXCH rro TIll,aTeJIbHO pa3pa6OTaHHbIM npaBHJIaM CJIOBeCHOro noennmca, rne naprnepsr nooxepeznro aTaKyIOT HJIM YKJIOHHIOTCH OT aTaKH. 3,l1,eCb uapsr rpyosre IJIYTKli, TOJIKOTHH, BbI3blBaIOIll,MH. XOXOT, pacxpMcTaHHoCTb, myrOBCKHc BbIXO,ll,KH, rrOCTOHHHbIe npn- 3bIBbI K llI)'MY M raery, K 06)KOPCTBY, K aevssepeaaocra B pesax, xpnxe, ,lI,BM)KeHHM. MacKH HCHa,[IOJIro 6epYT pesaam Ha,[I 6JIarorrpMcToHHOH C,I1,ep)KJHHOCTblO, KOTOPyIO npMXO,1l.MTCH C06JIlO,lI,aTb OCTaJIbHOe BpeMH rona. OHM noncrynaior K npOXO)Kl1M, rrpHTBOpHO rryraa HX. Te, BCTYIIaH B nrpv, nprrrsopno nyraiorcs WIll )Ke, Ha060pOT, npHTBopHIOTCH HeyCTpaIIlHMbIMH. ECJIM OHll Ha'"lHHaIOT cepznrrsca, 3TO ,[IMCKBaJIll<PH~MpyeT MX ~ OHM OTKa3bIBaIOTCH nrpa'rs, He nOHHMaH, 'ITO ceauac CO~MaJIbHble KOHBeH~MM 3aMeHeHbI ,[IPyrMMH, HanpaBJIeHHbIMM MMeHHO Ha nocpastJIeHMC crapux. B pasixax onpeaeneauoro BpeMeHM M npocrpancraa KapHaBaJI naer BbIXO,[l HeYMepeHHOCTH, 6yI1:CTBY, ll,HHH3MY H MHCTHHKTMBHOH )Ka,Tl,HOCTM. Ho O,[lHOBpeMeHHo OH HanpaBJIHCT liX aa rryri, 6ecll,eJIbHOll, rrycron H JIHKyIOrn;eH cyeria, OH npennaraer MM BeCTH ucymoecK")J1O nrpy, no TO'"lHOMY BblpJ)KeHHlO )I( ElOpO, XOTH TOT H He MMeJl B BliJl.Y uzpu. OH He OIIIH6aeTcH. 3Ta npenensno yna,11,O'"lHaII <popMa caxpansaca mimicry ecrs He '"ITO MHoe, lOK arpa. C06CTBeHHO, B Hell CO,lI,ep)Kl1TCH 60JIbIIlllHCTBO rrpH3HaKOB nrpst, npOCTO OHa HaXO.l1.MTCH 6JIH)Ke K paidia, '"IeM K ludus'y, c6JIM)KacrcH C anapxaaecxoa MMrrpoBIl3a~Mell, xaOCOM H )KeCTMKyJIHll,liell, C '"IMCTOll TpaToll anepraa.

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OHH npOCTO aanpemaior HOCMTb CC B rex crryxanx, xorna oomee HeHCTOBCTBO, KaK II PHO-,[Ie-)f(aHeHpo, rp03HT ua .n;BCHJJ.l,~aTb .n;HeH. noapxn np11HHTb MaCIllTa6bI, aoofitne HC COBMeCTHMbIe C HOPMaJIbHOll ,[ICHTeJIbHOCTbIO rOCY,[lapCTBeHHbIX CTPYKTYp.

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148

149

BCCB03MO)l(HbIMH AeKopaqIDIMH, xoropsre BHAHbI H3AaJICKa H 0603Ha4~- 101' C060H rpaHHUY ocoooro, ocsameanoro ~mpa. B caMOM ACJIe, n:pCH- 11,}1 rpaHHUY, nonaaaeun, B He06bIKHOBeHHbIH MHP, 60JICe nJIOTHbIH, 4eM MHp 06bI4HOH )l(H3HH: 31~CCb C06HpaeTCJl1l036yJK,/.\eUHO-ruyMHM 1'OJma, pOCKOUIHO CBepKalOT xpacxn 11 ornu, uaprrr nenpepsrsnaa, 113Hypll- 1'eJIbHO-nb5IH}1Il~M cyera, rne Ka)K,ll;bIH aanpocro OKJIHKaeT Apyrllx HIIll nsrraerca npnane-n, K cc6e BHllMa~me; BCJl 3Ta cywaroxa pacnOJIar~e1', K Hcnp"H)0KAcHHOCT", naH1l6pa1'CTBY, rOBOpJIHBOCTll, A06pOAYUIHOH aamOCTH. Bce 31'0 rrpnnaer cBoc06pa3HbIH KJIHMa1' 06mCMY OIKHBlleHHIO. Kpone roro, UHKJIHqCCKHH xapaxrep JlpMapOqHbIX npasmrecra npu- 6aBJI}leT K paspsmy B npocrpancrse erne H "IJIeHeHHe BpeMeHH, Kama MHr napOKCH3Ma npOTllBOnOCTaBJIJleTCJl MOHOTOHHOMy XOAY nOBCC,L\HeBHOH :lKH3HH.

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npHMJIHIOTCH, H nacca)JmpbI, npHCTen-rYTbIe K VIX CI~eHbHM, caMH CJlOBHO naaaror BMecre C HHMH. B npyrosr - 4eJlOHeKa 33nHpalOT B TeCHOH KJIcrKC H paCKaqHB3IOT B nea, rrO}J,HHMaH rOJIOBol1 B~IH3 HbICOKO H3}J, rry6- JIHKOI1. B 'rpersea - ero B qellHoKe KaTarryJIbTHp}'IOT B}J,OJIb AOPO)I(I(H MOIll,HbIMH np}')KHHaMH, rr01'OM OH MCAJIeHHo B03BpaUl,aeTGI Ha33}J" H MexaHH3M BbITaJIKl1BaeT ero CHOBa. Bee paCCqHT3Ho TaK, 4T06bI BbI3bIBaTb yrpotinsre OIlJ,yIlI,eHHH, CPH3HOJIOfHqeCKHH crpax H namucy. TyT H CKOPOCTb, H n3}J,cHHe, H COTpHceHw1, H crpeMHTeJIbHOe BpaIll,eHHe B COqeraHHH C qepep,yromHMHcH rrOp,'beMaMH H crrycrcava. B OAHOM HOBel1rneM H306pcreHHH HCrrOJIb3YeTCH ueHTp06e)l(HM CHJla. ITOll orposrnoro QHJIHH}J,pa YXOp,HT H3-rro}J, nor, OrryCKMCb na HeCKOJIbKO McrpOB, H HI1 na "ITO }')Ke He onHpalOIlI,HeCH TeJIa JIIO.n;eH ueHTpo6C)I(HOH CHIIOH nplDKHMaeT K CTeHKaM B caMblX CTpaHHbIX nosax, B O,ll;HHaKOBOM orneJIOMJIeHHH. KaK rOBopHTCH B peKJIaMe 3TOro aTTpaKIJ.HOHa, OHH -npronrnaror KaK MYXH'>.

K 3TOMY CPH3110JIOrHqeCKOMY lllrypMY rrpH6aBJIHcrcH MHO)KecrBo npyrax, BcrrOMOraTeJIbHblX B03AeIk1'BHI1, cnoc06HbIX C6HBaTb qeJIOBeKa C TOJIr<y, BbI3bIBaTb B HeM paCTepHHHOCTb, CM)'IIl,eHHe, .rpenorv, 'ronnrorv, KaKOI1-TO MfHOBeHHbIH pKac, KOl'OPbIH 6bICTPO pa3pernaeTCH CMeXOM, rrOP,06HO~ TOMY K3K npn BbIXop,e H3 3}J,CKHX MexaHH3MOB cpH3HqeCKOe paccrpoHCTBO BHe3arrHO CMCHHeTCH HeBbIpa3HMbIM 06JIerqeHHeM. TaKyIO pOJIb HrpaIOT 3epKaJIbHbre JI36HPHHTbI; npC}J,CTaBJIeHHe qy}J,OBHIlJ, H fH6pllAOB - I'HraHTOB H K3PJIHKOB, CHPCH, MaJIbqHKOB-06e3bHH )KeHIlJ,HH-crrpyroB, lllO}J,cil C llHTHHcrOH, KaK y JIeOrrap}J,OB, KO)KCH.,ll.mI ~IlJ,ero yacaca nOCeTHTeJllO rrpe,l.VJaraIOT no HHX }J,OrpOHyThCH. HarrpOTHB npe)l,JIaraIOTcH Cl'OJIb)Ke }J,BYCMbICJIeHHbIC C06JIa3HbI - rrOe3p,J-npH3paKlf, 33MKH C npHBl1,lI,CHHHMH, C MHO)KccrBOM TeMHbIX KOPH,ll;OPOB, a H HHX npH3?aKI1, CKeJIerbI, IIHrrHyrIl,M K rnrtry rtayrnna, rrpOJIeTalOIlJ,He Hap, roJIOBOH JIeTy<IHC MbIUIH, JIIOKH B norry, qbH-To pesrcre ,1.I,yHOBeHHH, HeqeJloBeqeCKHC BOrrJIH VI MHO)KeCTBO zrpyrnx He MeHee pe6HqeCKI1X Cpe,L\CTB _ HaHBHbII1 apcenan 3a6aBHbIX )')KaCOB, cnoc06HbIX JIHllIb IlI,eKOTaTb ~C HaTHH)'TbIC aepesr, HeH3}J,Ollro BbI3bIBaTb MypaUIKH ira KO)Ke.

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150

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1..1T06bI npa'raaars na 31Y BbICIIIyIO 1I0BKOCTb, npHXOll.HTCR BeCTH aCKeTll<JecKYID iKH3Hb - anecs H crpornn pe:lKllM JIHIIIeHllll. H B03,11,ep)KaHUH, H nenpepusnsre f'HMHaCTH'-IeCKlle ynpazoremor, H perynapnoe norrropenne OP;HHX H 'rex )!.(e ll.Bll:lKeHHH, II Bblpa60TKa 6e3YKOp1l3HeHHbIX pe¢JIeKCOB H 6C30IIIll60'-IHOro aBTOMaTll3Ma. ITpbJ)KKH rrpOH3BO,ll;HTCH B COCTOHHHH nozrynmuosa. I1x He06xo)l,HMbIM ycnoBHeM HBlIHIOTCH f1l6- KOCTb II cnna MbIIIIU" HCB03Myrn_Moe caMo06JIa,D;aHllC, KOHe'-IHO, axpo- 6aT p;OJI)KeH paCC'IHTblBaTb CHJ1Y npscsxa, BpeMR H paCCTOHHHe, rpaes-

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152

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TIpOp;CJIOK KJIOYHOB TaK MHoro, '-ITO M HC ncpe'-lCCTb. Onu 3aBI1CH.T 01' np11XOTH H HaHTl15:l Toro I1JIH nnoro KJIoYHa. O,l.(HaKO cpCAll HHX ecrs onna OC06CHHO yC1'OH'-IHBaH KaTCrOpHH., KOTOPaH, KaK K.a)KeTCH, CBI1l~eTCJIbcrsyer M 06 OAHOH O'-lCHb ApeBHeH H :lKH3HenHO BJ)KIiOH 3a60Tc JIIOp:eH _ CKJIOHHOC1'H AY6J1MpOBaTb BCHKYlO TOP;KCCTBCHHyro MHMHK)' ee rpoTccKHOH BCPCHCii, HcnOJIHHeMOH CMeIlIHbIM nepCOHaJKeM. B ~HpKe TaKYlO pOJ1b nrpaer ABryCT. Ero 3aJIaTaHHaH, HeCKJIa,rJ;HaH, ClIllIIIKOM npoCTOPHaH I1JIH CJIHIIlKOM TCCHaH OAc~a, ero BCKJIOKO'-lCHHbIH Pb[;KHH napMK KOHTpacTllpyroT C CHHIO~llMH 6J1eCTKaMH p;pyrllx KJIOYHOB H C 6cJ1bIMH KOJ1rraKaMH y HHX HJ rOJIOBe. 01'01' 6cp;HHra HeHcnpaBHM:

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Mc~v TeM TaKoH KJIoyH - TO JIH 31'0 CJIY'-laHHoe CXOACTBO, TO J1H p;aJIbHeC POP;C1'BO - '-laCTO BcrpC'-laeTc» B MH<p0JIOfHll. B HeH OH H306pa~ lKaCT HC3ap;a'-llIHIlorO, TO npoKa3JIHBOrO, TO rrrvnoro repox, KOTOPbIll npn COTBopeHHH MHpa HCYAa'-lHO nonpazcaer il,eHC'TBHHM p;eMHYPJ'OB, HCKa;KaH I1X TBOPCHI1C, a nopoa 11 BHOCH. B Hero saponsnn CMepm.

1-"hil.\cHl.\bI naaaxo B urr are HhIO-MeKCl1.KO OTMC'-IaI01' npasznrmc 60ra E6H'-Iall, p;0611BaHCb l1.3JIe4eHWI 60JIbHhiX 11 6JIarOCJ10BeHWI nrreMCHHblX P;YXOB. [J1aBlIbIMH ero yqacflIHKJMH HIlJIHroTCH TaHuopbI

69 Hll(K Y Op. cit. p. 213-216: LE Rotrx H. Les ieux du Cirque et la vie foraine. Paris, 1890. p. 170-173.

154

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1 B onacaaua oepsnos rraaaxo H cyHbH It cneAOllaJI KHHre: C A ZEN AVE J. Les Dieux dansent a Cibola. Paris, 1957. P. 73-75, 119, 168-173, 196-200.

156

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1 mo C 04eBH,l(HOCTbIO lIBCTHycr 113 npl1T'I11 Xopxc JIyuca Bopxcca ,·BaBl1ll0HCKaJI. JIOTepelI·' (B xmrre BORGES]' L Fictions. Paris, 1951. P. 82-93).

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1 ~h~RO~I£R~ S., L~C G Une forme peu connu; de l'Expression artlstique africaine: l1\.bbu II Etudes camerounaises. NQ 49-50. Sept-dec. 1955. P. 3-52. CxO,n;HbIM o6pa30M B Cynaxe, B xpato C'onpan, KOCl'HMH H onnonpexreano ,n;eHbraMH CJly)KaT Me.lIlllie paK)1wKl1 cauris; KVK,lI;bIH HrpoK 6pocaer '-I.erblpe TaKl1X paKyllIKl1 H, eC.IIH OHH IIa,IIaIOT O,n;HOH crOPOHOH, noavsaer 2500. Hrpator na 60nbm~e CyMMhl nexer, na 3eMJlIO, aa )l(eH. CM.: PROST A jeux et Iouets II I.e Monde noir, NQ 8-9 de Presence africaine. P. 245.

2 Te ace CHMBonbI BCTpe'-l.aIQTCll: B KapTO'-l.HOH xonone, npHMeHHeMOll B MeKcHKe IIpH nrpax na ,n;eHbrH, IlPHHU;HIl KOTOPblX C6JIIDKaerCH c npnnuanoa noro,

160

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I RoellE R La Policia y sus Misterios en Cuba. La Habana, 1914. P 287-293.

162

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TIpoHCXO)K,[l,eHHe ee CB~3blBaKlT C 06bl'.J:aeM 6apoHa,ll,paMMOH,[l,a Ka)!(,[I,yIO HeAeJIKl BhIBellIHBaTb Y BXOAa B 300JIOrH'IeCKHH can H306p;l)KeHHe KaKOro-HH6YAh seeps. TIy6JIl.iKe npennaranocs yranars, KaKOH saeps 6y,n,er Bbl6paH B CJIeAY1OIW1H pas, TaK 3apOAHJIC~ TOTaJIH3aTOP, KOTOPbIH OKa- 3aJIC~ nonrosexaee CBoeH rrepaonpa-orusr H 6JIarOAap~ KOTOPOMY ¢Hrypsr :lKIIBOTHbIX Ha a¢HllIax CTaJIH YCTm1"tJHBO CBR3bIBaTbOI C '1HCJIOBbIM PR,ll,OM. Bcxope arpa npesparanacs B TOTaJIH3aTOp Ha OCHOBe HOMepOB, BbIHrpaBllIHX B HaQHOHaJIbHOH JIOTepee, HanOA06He quiniela B coceaHHX crpanax CTO nepssrx '1HCeJI 6billH pa3AeJIeHbI Ha rpynnsr no "tJerbIpe H COOTHeceHbI C ,lI,Ba,lI,QaTbKl mrrsro )K].fBOTHbIMH, pa3MeIQeHHbIMH IIpHMepHO B aJI¢aBIITHOM nopaztxe, HaqHH~ C opna [aigle] (novepa 01' 01 AO 04) H KOH'I~ 1COpOBOU [vache] (noxsepa 01' 97 AO 00). C Tex nop nrpa )')Ke He nperepneaana 3HaQHTeJIbHhIX H3MeHeHHit

KOM6HHaIJ,HH 6ec"tJHCJIeHHOe KOJIH"tJeCTBO: MO)I(HO nrpars Ha e,ll,HHHQY, na AeC~OK, aa COTHKl HJIH na TbIC~qy, TO ccrs Ha OAHy, nae, TPH HJIIi xersrpe nOOIeAHHX IJ,H¢pbl HOMepa, KOTOPbIH B 3TOT AeHb BbfHrpaer B JIOTepelO. (C 'rex nop KaK ¢eAepaJIbHaR JIOTepe~ H3 e)KeAHeBHOH CTaJIa e)KeHeAeJIbHOH, no ocransnsns A~M paasrrpusaror YCJIOBHYlO, qHCTO reoperrrsecxyio JIOTepelO 6e3 6HJIeTOB II ssntrpsnuen, KOTOPaR CJI)')KHT TOJIbKO ,lI,JIR orrpeneneaaa n06e,n,IlTeJIeH B Bicho.) Kposte 'roro, MO)KBO CTaBHTb OAHOBpeMeHHO aa HeCKOJIbKO ssepea, TO ecrs Ha HeCKOJIbKO rpyrm H3 qeThIpex '111CeJI, 11 crasirrs na Ka)K,[I,yIO KOM6HHaQHIO c nepeeopomou, TO ecre He TOJIbKO Ha '-IHOIO KaK TaKOBoe, HO H na JIIO- 60e '-IHCJIO, COCTaBJIeHHOe H3 'rex )Ke QH¢p. Hanpnxep, nrpars Ha 327 c nepeeopomo« oaaaxaer, "tJTO TbI nsrarpsrsaems TaIOKe na 372 273 237,723 H 732. MO)I(HO ce6e npeACTaBIITb, KaKllM HeJIerKHM AeJIO~ oKa~ ssrsaerca pacxer TaKHX nsmrpsnnea nponOPQHOHaJIhHO CTaBKaM. DJIaronapa 3TOMY B napozte pacnpocrpaaanact, yr.ny6JIeHHbIe nosnaaas B apH¢MerHKe: KaKOH-HH6YAh nO'-lTH HerpaMoTHblH "tJeJIOBeK YMeeT nopa3IITeJIhHO 6blCTPO H ysepemro penrars sana-nr, xoropue nOTpe60BaJIll 6bI cyry60H BHHMaTeJIbHOCTH 01' HeAOCTaTOqHO aarpenaposaaaoro B nonotiasrx onepauaax MaTeMaTIIKa.

O,llHaKO Jogo do Bicho 6JIaronpHR1'CTBYeT He TOJIbKO apH¢MeTH"tJeCKllM pacseraa. 3Ta nrpa 6JIaronpllilTCTByer TaK)Ke cyesepnaa. B caMO~ nene, OHa cBH3aHa c QeJIOH CIICTeMOH TOJIKOBaHlliI CHOB, rzte ecrs CBOH KOA, CBOH KJIaCCHKll H CBOH KBaJIll¢HUHpOBaHHble TOJIKOBaTeJIH. Kaxoro 3BepH BbI6HpaTh, arpoxy YKa3bIBaKlT CHbI. OAHaKO He sceraa peKOMeHAYerCH craears llMeHHO Ha TO )J(IlBOTHoe, '-ITO npHBM,lI,eJIOCh BO CHe. OCMOTpllTeJIbHee 6YAeT cnepsa nOJIHCTaTh cneUHaJIhHYlO KH~, ocoooro pozta COHHHK, 03amaBJIeHHbIH 06blqHO -Interpretacro dos sonh?s para 0 jogo do Bicho- (TOJIKOBaHHe CHOBM,lI,eHHH ,lI,JIR jogo do Bichoj, H3 nee MO)KHO Y3HaTh Ha,lI,e)I(Hhle coorsercreaa. TOT, KOMy npn-

AeHhraMH, 'ITO Y HIiX ecrs, II npOHrpbIB~, KaK rnuner O,llHH aBTOp, cpenCTBa na npoIIHTaHHe csoen ceMhH. OHH nOHeBOJIe He )J,eJIaKlT 60JIbllIHX CTaBOK, 3aTO nrparor 6ecnpephIBHO, H60 ~3BepH seuraror- no qeTblpeIlIeCTh pas aa AeHb. B TaKOH Hrpe OTHOCHTeJIhHO JIerKO CIIJIYTO~aTb: noCKOJIbKY 6aHKoMery H3BeCTeH cnHCOK 3aKJ!a,lI,OB, npu HeKOTopOH JIOBKOCTII PYK eMy HHqTO He MellIaeT B MOMeHT paCKphITlliI nOAMeHHTh CHMBOJI, aa KOTOPOM CKonHJIOCb onaCHO MHoro CTaBOK, ApyrllM, Ha KO-

TOPblH He CTaBHJI no-rm HHKTO!.

B JIl060M CJI)":lae C"tJHTaIOT, qTO 6aHKOMe1'bI, "tJeCTHhle HJIH HeT, 6hI-

CTPo 060ramaKlTC~. B npOllIJIOM CTOJIeTHli ona, KaK rOBopRT, 3apa6aThIBaJIH AO copoxa ThICRq neco B l\eHbj OAHH 113 HHX BepHYJIOI K ce6e na poAHHY C KanliTaJIOM B ABeCTH ThIOIq 30JIOTbiX neco. HhlHe, KaK nonararor, B faBaHe HMeeTOI IDlTh KpynHhIX opraHH3all,Hl1 Illapa,nhl H 60JIee )J,BeHa; AuaTH MeJIKHX. B HHX pa3bIrpbIBaeTOI 60llee CTa ThIOI'! AOllJlaP?B B OeHb .3

Ha coceAHeM ocrpose TI)'3pTO- PIiKO B 1957 rOAY Planning Board oueHHJIa CYMMbI, BKJ!a,lI,hIBaeMble B paaaoro pona nrpsi, B CTO MHllJIHOHOB AOllJlapOB e)KerOAHO, 'ITO COCTaBlllleT IIOJIOBHHY 61O,ll,)KeTa OCTpOBa; H3 HHX ceMb)J,eOIT IDlTh MHllJIHOHOB p,OJIJIapOB COCTaBJIRJIH neraJIhHhIe nrpsr (roCYAapCTBeHHaH JIOTepeH, neryIIIHHhIe 60n, CKa'lKll, pyJIeTKa H T. A.). B AOKlla,ll,e npRMO 3~BlllIeTCR: -Korna nrpa AOCTliraeT -:aKHX Macnrrafioa, OHa, BHe BOIKHX COMHeHHH, CTaHOBHTC~ cepseaaon COQHaJIbHOM np06JIeMoH ... OHa paspvmaer "tJaCTHble c6epe:lKeHHR, napam-I3Y~ 6H3Hec H n06)?KAaeT HaCeJIeHHe CB$l3hIBaTh CBOH Ha,lI,e)K,[l,hI co CJI)":laHHbIMH BhIHrpbIlliaMH, a He C npOH3BOAllTeJIhHhIM TpyAOM'>. Y"tJHTbIB~ 3TH BblBOAbI, ry6epHaTOp JIYHC MYHhOC Mapna npHHRll pellIeHI1e f){(eCTO"tJHTb 3aK,OHhI 06 llrpax, C TeM qT06bI B TeqeHHe .D.eCHTIi nocneAYKlmHX JIeT cOKpaTHTh HX.D.O pa3MepoB MeHee pa30pHTeJIbHhIX AJUI HaU;IlO-

HaJIbHOH 9KOHOMHKll4.

B Bpa3HJIHH TeMH )Ke npH3HaKaMll, '-ITO H KHTaHCKaR nrapana na Ky6e, 06- nanaer Jogo do Bicho, nrpa B saepea, - 3)J,eCb H no.rrynoAnollhH~ JIOTepe~ C MHOrO'-IHOIeHHhIMH CO'leTaHlliIMH CHMBOllOB, H OrpOMHaH oprannaaQlliI, H e:lKeAHeBHo AeJIaeMhle CTaBKH, norllomalOmlie 3Ha"tJHTeJIbHYlO xacrs CKPOMHbIX cpeACTB, KOrophIMH pacnoJIaraIOT HH3IlIHe OIOH naceneHIDI. KpoMe Taro, 6pa3HJIbCKaR nrpa 06JIa,lI,aeT eme II reM npellMY1UeCTBOM, '-ITO npeBOcxOAHO nOKa3bIBaeT OTHOIlIeHlliI Me)K,[I,y alea H cyesepaex. C ApyroH CTOPOHbl, OHa BJIeqeT 3a C060H HaCTOJIhKO 3HaqHTeJIhHble 3KO-

\ ROCHE R Op. cit. P. 293.

2 H3 coo6ru;eHillI AJIexo KapIleHTbepa H Ita OCHoBe npe1\ocraBJIeHHblX HM IWKY-

MeHTOB.

3 KOMJ-ICCillI TIO IIJIalU-JpOBaHHIO (aHZl/..). - ttpuue« nep.

4 New York Times. 6 oct. 1957.

164

165

PO)Ke KaQva. HrphI 11 JlI08I1

CHHlIaCb .neraroutaa KOpOBa, ,L\OJDKeH CTaBI1Tb He Ha Kopoay, a aa Oprra; TOT, KOMY npHCHHJ10Cb, KaK KOIIlKa nanaer C xpsuuu, ,L\OJDKeH CTaBHTb aa Baoovxy (nOTOM)' 'ITO naCT05lIIJ;dJI. xounca He nazraer C KpbIIIlH); TOT, KOMy npHCHHJ1aCb nanxa, ,L\OJDKeH CTaBHTb aa K06py (KOTOPdJI. nO,L\Hl1Macr- 01 CJ10BHO I1aJIKa); TOT, KOMY npl1CHHJ1Cf! 6ellIeHbIll nee, 1l,0JDKeH CTaBI1Tb na JIbBa (KOTOpbIH TaK iKe csien), H T.,L\. Hnorna COOTHOllIeHl1e OCTaCTCf! HerrOH51THbIM: TOT, KOMY npHCHHJ101 nOKOllHI1K, J~OJDKeH CTaBHTb IIa Cnona, Bsmaer, 'ITO COOTHOllIeHHe 3aHMCTBYe1'Cf! H3 CaTHpl1'leCKOrO rporn.xnopa. TOT, KOM)' rrpacnnnca nopryraneu, ,L\OJDKcn CTaBHTb na Ocna, Caxrsre aKKYPaTHbIe HrpOKH He AOBOllbCTByroTCH MeXaHI1'leCKHMH COOTBeTCTBlUIMH - OHI1 oopauiarorca K rJ,L\aTeAAM H rJ,L\aJIKaM, KOTOPbIC npunararor CBOH 3HaHHf! H TaJIaHTbI K ,L\aHHOMY KOHKpcrHOM)' cJIY'lalO 11 YMeJIO 113B}IeKaIOT H3 nero nenpenccsnsre opaxyrus.

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166

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. 1964 Chap V L'Usagc des richesses.

1 CAlL L O! S R Instincts et societe. Pans, . .' .

p.130-151.

168

•••

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169

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, ' ar ne en URSS jjl'Epargne du Monde,

I eM.: F KA N ZEN G. Les Banques et I Ep g aao B Svensk Sparbankstidskrift.

Amsterdam, 1956. NQ 5. p. 193 -197, nepeneqaT .

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MbICJIb 0 cB060)J,c, 6ecu,eJIbHOCTH trrpst 6b1J1a BHOBb 3aRBJICHa KapJIOM fpOOCOM B paoore -Die Spiele der Tiere»> (I1cHa, 1896). As'rop npcaote scero BbI)J,CJI51eT B nrpe Pa,lJ,OCTb OT Toro, 'ITO Tbl51BJIRCIllbOI ~ OC'raetnscs CC npH'lHHoH. OH 06'hHCIDIeT ee B03MO:lKHOCTbJO B JU060H MOMCHT CB060)J,HO npexparars naxaryio nrpy. HaKOHeLl" OH onpe)J,CAACT CC KaK qHCl)'IO npC)J,npHHMqHBOCTb 6C3 nponinoro H 6YAYIIJ,cro, HcrrO)J,IlJIacrnyro )J,aBJICHHIO )J,eHCTByroll.l,MX B MHpC CTCCHCHMH. I1rpa - 31'0 TBOP: qCCTBO, H HrpOK ocraercs II HCH X03HMHOM. OTPCIIICHHaR OT CYPOBOH PCaJIbHOCTM, OHa npencraer KaK caMou,CJIbHbn1 yaMBepCYM, cyinecrsyiorn;MH JIHIllb nOCTOJlbKy, nOCKOJIbKy OH )J,06POBOJlbHO rrpMIDIT. Oll.HaKO, nOCKOJIbKy cnasana K. Ipooc H3yqaJI nrpsr :lKMBOTHbIX (rrycTb pKe H MMe51 B BH)l,y qCJIOBeKa), TO, 06paTHHIIIMCb HeCKOJIbKO JICT CrryCTH K'leJIOBe'lCCKHM arpaa (,Dic Spiele der Menschen-", I1eHa, 1889), OH 6bm

1 Briefe uber asthetische Erziehung des Menschen, (Trad, franc.) II SCHILLER FR. VON. CEuvres. T. VIII. Estherique. Paris, 1862. [Ill H Jl Jl E P <D. Coopauae CO'iHHeHI1H: B 7 T. 1'.6. M.: rOCJlHTl13,lI;aT, 1957. c. 302. - Ilpuue«. nep.] eM. TaJOKe miCbMa 14,16,20,261127. 2 IilHJJJlEP <D. Co6p. COq.: B 71'. T. 6. C. 354. - Ilpuueu. nep.

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1 Die SpieJe der Tiere. (Trad, franc) Les jeux des Animaux. Paris, 1902, p. V, 62-69.

174

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TIpOqHTaB 'rpynsr Kapna Ipooca, MO)f(HO H nansme OCTaBaTbCH B rrOJIHOM HJIH rrOqTII rrOJIHOM HCBC,ll,eHHH 0 TOM, 'ITO arpa qaCTO, TO CCTb 3aKOHOMCPHO, BKJIJOqaCT B CC6H npasuna, npHqCM npasrora OC060H npaponsr. npOH3BOJIbHbIC, HMncpaTHBHbIC, ).l,CHCTB)'IOll.I,He B 3apaHCC orrpC,I.I,enCHHOM BpCMeHH H npOCTpaHCTBC. KaK Mbi nOMHHM, nonxepxanaHHe HMCHHO sroro rrOCJIC).l,HCfO npasnaxa H ).l,CMOHCTpa~HH ero HCKJlJOqHTCJIbHOH nJIO,ll,OTBOPHOCTH ,lVIH pa3BHTHH KYJIbTYPbI HBHJIHCb aacnyroa ft XeH3HHrH. EllIC no Hero r. )KaH TIH3)f(C B nsyx CBOHX JIC~HHX B )KCHCBCKOM I1HCTH'Iyrc :>KaH-)KaKa PyCCO pe3KO norraepxnaan paaJIHqHC, KOTOpOC HMCJOT).l,.IUI pc6CHKa Hrphl B006p3)KCHlUI" H HrpbI C npaBIDIaMH. C npyroa CTOPOHbI, H3BCCTHO, KaKYIO B3)KHOCTb OH BnOJIHC crrpaBC,lVIHBO npaaanan C06JIIOACHHIO HrpOBbIX rrpaBHJI).l,.IUI HpaBCTBeH-

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1 CHA.TEAU J. Le Reel et l'Imaginaire dans le]eu de l'Enfant. 2" ed, Pa~, 1955; Le [eu de l'Enfant, Introduction a Ia Pedagogic, Nouvelle edition augmentee. Pans, 1955.

2 Oto)I(Hble I1rpbl B3POCJlblX TaKlKe rrpaanexana K ce6e BHI1MaHHe rrCI1XOJlOfOB. B xacmocra, ecrs HeMaJIO pa60T rro rrCI1XOJlOfHH llIaXMJTHCTOB. B OTHOllIeHHI1 cpyr60Jla cnezryer Ha3BaTb HCCJlellOBaHlliI,ll)R. T. Y. Ilarpnxa (1903), M.,lI,K Xaprrenfiyma (1926), P. Y. fll1Kcpop,ll,a (1940), M. Mepno-Ilorrra (B KHHre ~CTpYKTYPa noseneaaa-, 1942). BbIBO,ll,bI113 HI1X 06C)'JK.ll:aIOTol B -rpYAe: Bl:YTEN DIJ K F. J. J.

Le Football. Paris, 1952. 3TI1 pa60TbI, KaK 11 Te, '-ITO rrOCIDUIl,eHbI rrCHXOJIOrHl1 uraxnaracroa (11 06'h.HCflHlOT, nanpaxep, 'ITO Te BOCrrpHHI1MaJOT CJlOHa 11 J13,ll,blO He KaK ABe onpeneneaaue cpHrypbl, a KaK KOCytO H rrpaxryio cansr), ,1I;alOT He~o'ropsre CBC,l.IeHlliI 0 rrOBep;eHHI1 nrposa, nOCKOJlbKY OHO onpenenaercs nrpoa, HO He 0 npnpone caMOH urpu, C 3TOH TO'-lKH apeana ropa3).\~ 60JIee ~OY"'I1TeJIbHa coaepxarensaas crarsa. DEN N EY R, R 1 E 5 M A.N D. Football In Amenca (~paHI.zy3- cKllH nepeaon B iK)'pHaJIe Profiles. NQ 13. Automne 1955. P. 5-32). B Hen, B :acrHOCI11, rrOKa3aHO, KaK n3 HJPymeHHlI rrpaBI1J1, npncnocooneanoro K HOBOI1 no-rpe6HOCfH HJII1 K HOBOH cpene, MO)l(eT nOJI)"iI1TbOI (H jl,aiKe C He06xOllHMOCTblO nonysaercn 8 KOHe4HOM C'-IEre) HOBoe rtpasnno, TO eCTb HOBaH arpa

I POfaTKH He ynOMI1HJIOTCll. B KHHre r. illaTo, KOTOpbII1, B03MOIKHO, OTlIl1MaJI HX y nerca, BMecro roro '-IT06bl Ha6JIlOlIaTb rrCHXOJlOfl11O HX HCrrOJlb30saHlliI. Hsy'-IaeMble 11M ,Il;eTl1 I re 8e,n;a1OT TJIOKe KpOKeTa 11 1l03,l1}'llIHOfO 3Mell _ HfP, /1lIH KOTOPblX H)')KIIO OTKpbl1De rrpOCTpaHCTBo H Cne~HaJIbHble rrpHHa;.vIelKHoCTH; OHH He HOCliT MaCOK VI MaCKap3,ll,HbIX KOCTIOM08. Enie paa nOSTopHM _ 3"T0 rrOTOMY, 'ITO HJ6JIlOlIaJIH 3a HHMH TOJIbKO B llIKOJle.

2 Le jeu de l'Enfant. p. 18-22.

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fai d s Hommes· Etudes sur Ie jeu et le langage chez les lBRACr-;EI\APouren arrc e,. Co ) ~75

enfants inadaptcs sociaux. Pan.s: S.AB.RJ., 19'56. I. 15 '

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HblX KOCT5IllleK. - I1pUMe'i. nep. 0 Th of Games and Economic Behavior.

2 NEUMANN J. VOl', MORGENSTER:-I • eory . ..

> 1944' SL·Re E C Theorie des ieux alternaufs. Pans, 1952.

Pnnceton, ,c'·

3 SER(;E C. Op. cit,

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B aMCpHKaHCKHX Mara3HHax B nepnon pacnpoztaxc 6blBaCT, 'ITO B nepssni .lI,eHb yu,CHCHHbIe TOBapbJ nponaior CO CKH,lI,KOH 20% 01' 060- 3Ha'IeHHOH l.I,CHbI, aa BTOpOH ,lI,CHb - co CKH).!,KOH 30%, a ira TpeTHH ,lI,CHh co CKH,lI,KOH 50%. Y:eM ,lI,OJlbrnC BbI)KH,ll,aTb, TeM asrronnee 060H,ll,CTCH rroK}'IIKa. Ho O,ll,HOBPCMCHHO coxpamaerca B03MO)J(HOcrb Bhl60pa, H nonXO,ll,HlI1,aH BClI1,b MO)KCT 6bITb r<yI1JIeHHOH KCM-TO ApyrHM. B npmnmne, eCJ1H CYMeTb orpaaa-nrrt, xpyr npHHHMaeMblx B paC'ICT ,lI,aHHbIX, MO)J(HO BbIqHCJ1HTb, B KaKoH .lI.eHb rry-ture scero If,lJ;Tl1 noxynari, TOT HJIH HHOH 1'0- nap, B 3aBHCHMOCTH 01' 'roro, HaCKOJ1bKEl BbICOKHM npezmonaraerca cnpoc Ha nero. Onnaxo BeCbMa npasnononocno, 'ITO KaJK,lI,blH noxynaTeJIh HCX0.ll.HT H3 csoero xapaxrepa - ,lI,eJ1aCT noxynxy JIH60 cpasy, CCJ1H .lI,lrn Hero rJ1aBHOe OCTaBHTb sa C060H )KCllaHHYIO BeIII,b, JII160 B nocnezt:tmH MOMeHT, ecnn OH CTPCMHTCH nOTpaTHTb KaK MO)J(HO MCHbllIe.

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182

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I PROST A jeux dans Ie Monde nair / / Le Monde noir. NQ 8-9 de Presence africaine, P 241- 248.

106

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I CliENOT L. La genese des especes animaLes. Paris, 1911. p. 470 et 473,

2 Vortrage tiber Descendenztheorie. T. 1. P. 78-79. B03H"KJeT

OJl,HT aBTOMaTH"IeCKH. ..

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nvraHa caM .' 6 fIJIeHl1e (.MyparneK no

, _. P' 1908 P 139) 'rOYHO TaK )l{e 0 'b:lICH5!eT 51

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I STANDF1;SS Cr. Beispiel von Schutz und Trutzfarbung /1 Mitt. Schweitz, Entomol. Ges. XI (1906), P. 155-157; VIGNON P. Introduction a la biologie experimentale. Paris, 1930 (Encycl. BioI, T. VIII). P. 356.

2 MURAT 1. Les Merveilles du monde animal. 1914. P. 37-38. 3 CU£NOT L. Op. cit. P. 453.

4 Ibid. Fig. 114.

5 LEFEIlVRF. A In: Ann. de La Soc. entorn, de France, T. IV; BINET L. La vie de la rnanre rcligieuse. Paris, 1931; V I G NON P. Op. cit. P. 374 sq.

6WALLACE. La selection naturclle, (Trad. franc.) P.62.

186

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1 C. Ele'ments de biologte generate. 2e ed, Paris, 1928. p. 412. Fig. 54.

RABAliD f.

2 VIGNON P. Op. cit.

3 Ibid. 'ories de 1 'evolution. Paris, 1909. Fig. 1. P. 74.

4 DELAGE, GOLDSMITH. Les The M. om 2003. C 87-90. ne-

S KAtlY A P. Mmp H 'leJ]OBeK. Y:eJlOBeK H caKpaJIbHoe... ,

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1 ROMANES G.J Intelligence des animaux, Paris: F. Alcan, T. n. P 240, 241.

188

189

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B CBOe SpeMR H H3JIO)KlUI CTaTbIO r, Cnrana, He 06cy;KJJ;aH ce, O,[lHaKO .II ,L\yMan: H 06 3TOM. B caMOM AeIIe, MHe K~CH, "ITO 60JIbIllHHCI'B0 rrOJIb30- Ba'l'VIeH HrpOBbIX aBTOMaTOB Mano nOXO,LIHT na r. Cnrana H, B qaCIHOCTH, BOBce He HCnblTbIBaIOT TaKoro )Ke MCTHTeIIbHOrO B036yiK,1:1eHHH, xorna rrpHBOMT S ,[IBH)KeHHe rrp)OKHH)' armapara. B ero npH3HaHHHX, rroJKaJIYI1, 60JIbIlIe Boo6pa)KCHHH, qeM na6JIKJAeHHH - KaK 6Y,[ITO paCCKa3qHK npHYKpaumsaer rrpHBblqKY, KOTOPOH caM, sePOHTHO, CTbI,[\HTCH, H ycepnno npnHCKHBaeT eH SCHKHC nCHXOJIOrHqeCKHe rny6HHbI, cnocoonue C,[\eIIaTb ee npHBlIeKaTeIIbHOH H KaK 6bI pecnexraoensaoa lUIH )Ke rHI_:HeHHqeCKH noJle3HoH. HrpoBOH aBTOMaT C TPY,[IOM MO)KeT HBJIHTb C060H 06pa3 rr06ClK,[IeHHOro H nOBHHYlOw.eroCH MHpa MexaHHKH; OH OTHIO,[Ib He CJJYIlIaeTCH H ycrtoxauaaer, a paanpazcaer CSOCH HenpeKJIOHHOCTbKJ. 06blqHO HrpOK He ClDJIbKO TOp)KeCTSYeT, CKOJIbKO nepsnuxaer. OH yxozurr 01' MallIHHbI HH C qeM, B HpOCTH OT TOro, qTO 6e3pe3)'JIbTaTHO HC1'paTHJI ,[IeHbfH, 03JI06JleHHbIH na HH B qeM He nOBHHHbIH annapar, pe6HqeCKH 06SHHHH ero S TOM, "ITO OH pa3JIa)KeH H aenpaswn.ao paooraer, O,[lHHM CJ10S0M, "ITO OH ,[IOBeII ero no npoarpsnua B ,[IeHCTBHTeJlbHOCTH OH qyBCTBYeT ceoa 06MaH)'TbIM. YXOM OT MallIHHbl, OH qysCTHYeT He npasmpenae C C060H, a rope-rs H 3JIOCTb aa ceoa Harmcanmae na CBeTOBOM Ta6110 MWlJIHOHbI HCqe3JIH, H OH 3HaeT "ITO cran enie nexaoro 6e,[lHee, qeM 6bID. TIoA03peSaKJ, "ITO B crryuae r. Cnrana TeparreBTHqeCKHM MOMeHTOM, KOTOPbIH OH TaK nozixepxnsaer, HBHJIaCb He casra arpa, a paccyenenas no ee nOBO,IJ,y.

).1,mI qeIIOBeKa, y6OK,U,eHHoro B KYlIb1)'pHOH nponyenssaocra nrp H ,[Ia)Ke BMMw.ero B HHX O,[lHH H3 rnasasix cpaKTopoB IJ,HBlUIH3all,HH, cymecrBOBaHHe H nonyJIHPHOCTb nrposux aBTOMaTOB HeH36C)KH0 YKa3bIBalOT aa np06eII B ero Cl1CTeMe. OTIibIHe eMY rrpHAeTCH npHHHMaTb HX B pac-rer. OH ~e onperierran, "ITO l1rphl He B paBHOH Mepe llJIO,[lOTBOPHb!, "ITO OARH H3 HHX 60J1bIIIe ,[IpyTIlX cnocoocrsyror CqaCl'JIHBOMY pa3BHTHIO HCKYCCI'B, HayKH H MopanH, rrOCKOJIbKY B 60JIbilieH CI'CneHH 06H3bIBaIOT K c06JIKJ,[IeHHIO npaBHJI, K ,lI,06pOCOBeCIHOCTH, caMoo6JI~aHliKJ, 6eCKOpb!CTHIO HJIl1 )Ke 1'pC6yIOT 60JIbIlle paCqeTJIHBOCTH, Boo6pa)KeHHH, 'repnenaa, JIOBKOCTH lUIH CHJIbL Ho BOT 'reneps nepen HHM KaKHe-TO rrycrue, Hl1qTO)KHbie nrpsr, He TPe6yIOIIl,He 01' nrpoxa an-tero H npCACTaBJIHKJIl.l,He C060H npocro 6ecllJIO,[lHOe nposenenae ztocyra TaKHe nrpsr 6yKBanbHO y6HBalOT BpeMR, He zterran era llJIOp,OTBOPHbIM, TOr,[la KaK aacroanme nrpsr n~,[I06Hbi nocesy, KOTOPbHi npnnecer YPO)[QH eme HeCKOpo, no-rm ozyqaHHO, DO SCHKOM cny-rae 6e3 aapanee ycranonncnaon UeIIH H KaK 6b! npaxarascs K Y,[IOBOJIbCI'BHIO. HanpOTHB, 3TH nceanourpu, B KOTOPbIX H~ero He pa3bIrpbIBac:CH JIHIlIh 3aMeHHKJT CKYKY 3aMaCKHpOBaHHOH rrozt paaanesenae PYTHHOH.

, YpOK IirpOBbIX aBTOMaTOB, a or-sacra Ii rraCbHHCOB, B ~M, "ITO napa-

,L\y C TaKHMH HrpaMH, xoropsre scerna npencraenaior C060H aK111BHOCTb, M06w1l13aLl,HlO Toro lUIH nnoro pecypca HlIH copesaosaaae B XJIWIOKpoBHH, 6blBalOT erne If 3a6aSbI-1I0BYlITKH, xoropue nOMO.dIOT 3arrOJIHHTb rrycroe BpeMH H BHelITHe nOxo,[IHT na urpsr. OHH ycanasaror TeH,[l,eHI\HIO K rraCCHBHOCTH H 0'fKa3)' 01' ce6JL TIpH 3TOM OHH H He rr06~aKJT YM K llJIO-

,[IOTBOPHbIM 6n~aHHHM - rorna OHH C6mDKaJIHCh 6bI C P,PyrOH CPOPMOH nrpsr, KOTOPaH '-IaC1'o 06JIa,[IaeT cneqHcpHqeCKIfM na3HaHHeM B BOcrOqHbIX H3bIKaX H Y KOTOpOH ecrs ocofiaa 3¢<PeKTHBHOCl'b B I1JlaHe MeqTaHHH H 6JI)')KP.aHHH MbICJ1H. ,lJ,aHHhle )Ke pa3RJIeQeHHH, Ha3bIBaeMblc TaK no 01lIH6Ke, HanpOTHB, 3aMop~BaIOT H BbI3hlBaKJT onenenemre eooopaxeHID!. OHH npHKOBhIBal(Yl' BHHMaHHC K onaCHOH MOHOTOHHOCI11, KOTOPaH BapbHpYeTCH POBHO HaC1'OJIbKO, qT06hl He HaCKY'lHTb, HO rrpa 3TOM nocraTOqHO nocrosnna, qT06hl yChIllJIHTb H 3aBOpaJKYlBaTb.

HH MOPaJIHCTY, HH COqHOJIOry HeB03MO)KH0 3aMeTHTb B TaKoro pona JIOBynIKe 6JIarOrrpHHTHbIH 3HaK npOUBeTaHHH. B03MO)J(HO, 31'0 nee- 1'0 JIHIIIb pacnnara aa HeYMepeHHbu1 Tpy~, KOTOPbIH 60JIbIlle He rr03BOnaer IfH,[lHBl1/I.Y npOHBJIHTb ,[IOCTaTOqHO HHHUHaTHBbl H HerrpHli)i)K,l:\eHHOCTII, qT06bI rronyqaeMa.!! HM pa3PMKa OKa3bIBaJIaCb He 06MOPOqHhIM oueneHeHHeM scex crroc06HOCTeH, a BOJIbHO pa3BOpaqHBalOIIl,eHCH HHTeHCHBHOH p,eHTeIIbHocrblO - rrycrs B ,[IaHHhIH MOMeHT If HenpOH3BO~HTeIIbHOH, 3aTO llJIO,[lOTBOPHOH B MHTeIIhHOif nepCrreKTHBe, B HHOM nzrane, He)KeJIH TPY,[lOBhIe 06513aHHOCTI1.

K rJIABE IV. I1CKA)J{EHI1E I1rp

C. 79. A3apmllbte U2pbt, 20p0C1COnbt U cyeeepun. BOT P.JIH npastepa pexoMeH,[l,aUHH MHTyHbI B CJ1yqaHHo BbI6paHHOM HOMepe npOH3BOJIhHO B3Hroro e)J(eHe,[leJIbHHKa i'VDI )KeHll.l,HH (<Mo,[l,[l1O )K)'p>>, 5 HHBapH 1956):

(,Kor,[la 51 COBeTylO BaM (CO BceMH oroecpxaxu, Tpe6yeMhlMH 06hIKHOBeHHOH JIOrHKOH) npep,noqHTaTh no B03MO)KHOCTH TaKyIO-TO, a He HHYJO UHCPPY, TO pe-n, li,[IeT He TOJIbKO 0 nOCJ1ep,HeH Ulicppe B qHCrtax, KaK 31'0 ~eJIaKJT 06blqHO ... 51l1MelO B BHAY H TY UHCPPY, KOTOPa.!! nonyqacrcH npn rrpl1BC,LIeHHH qHCJ1a K e~HHHue. HanpHMep, 66410 npa npHBep,eHHH K ep,HHHqe zraer 6+6+4+1=17=1+7=8. XOTH B 3TOM qHCJ1e H He CO,[lep)KHTCH UHCPPbI 8, ero MOryT H36HpaTb 're H3 sac, KOMyH npenCKa3hIBaK> 6JIarOrrpHHTHoCTb socsxepica. HY;KHO npHBO~HTb qHCJ1a K e,[lHHl1qe - xpojae qHCeJI 10 H 11, xoropsre npn nanren npoue,zzype CJIC,IJ,yeT 6paTb B HeH3MeHHOM Bli,[Ie. A 'rerteps H He rOBOplO BaM "yp,a~H". Ho eCJ1H (B,l(pyr) BaM rrpHAeT ycnex, 6Y,[lbTe TaKJIKJ6e3HhI C006IIl,HTb MHe STY npHJITHYJO BOBOCTh H YKa3aTh BaIIIY ,[IaTY. MOH rrysnrae nO)KeJIaHHH ... TeM He MeHee, H 01' scero cepnua-.

06paTHM BHHMaHHe aa OroBOPKH -asropa. 31'OH py6pHKH. TeM He MCHee, yqHTbmaH pa3Ho06pa3He npHeMOB, MHOrOqHCJIeHHOCTb KJIHeHTOK H He60JIbllIOe qHCJIO l1MeIOIlJ;HXCH qHCPP, eH scerna 06eCneqeH COJIli,[IHbIH K03¢cpHUHeHT HeH36e)KHbIX Y,[Iaq; pa3YMeeTCJI, TOJIhKO HX 11 3anOMHHT Te, KOMY OHH ,[IOCTanHCb.

BepllIHHOH B 3TOH 06JIaCfH MHe npeP,CTaBJ1HeTCH nOCTOHHHbIH ropOCKorr B e)KeHep,eJIhHHKe «I1HTHMHOCTh (,[IOMallIHero oxaraj-, KaK 11 B npyrux, B HeM ,[IaK>TCH COBeTbI na TeKyliJylO He~eJIlO i'VDI PO~HBllIIiXClI nop, pa3HbIMl13HaKaMH 30p,IfaKa. Ho nOCKOJIhKy 3TOT )f()'pHaJI npenna-

194

195

POlKe Kaqya. HrphJ 11 mom

Jl0IS}'MeHTlgilll. K rnane VII. CHMVlUIQHJI Ii roJIOBOKfry?KeHl1e

K rJIABE VII. CHMYJ15IIJJ1.H H rOJIOBOKPY)KEHHE

KJIaCca, xorna OHH craHOB.RTOI 6o.n.hIIIHMH H HM Ha,n;Oe~aIOT npeCJIe~OBaHH.R H npHTeCHeHH.R co CTOPOHhI MacoK; rorna OHH npoorr nOCIillTHTh H3 B TaHHhI ~o". Crre~y.R coseran ~epeBeHCKHX CTapHKOB H nOCJIe rreperoaopos C npe~O~TeJUlMH crapIIIHX soapacrusrx KJIaCCOB, OHH ~06HBaIOTOl npHH.RTH.R CBOHX Tpe60BaHHH, C yCJIOBHeM npenaaprrrem.ao YCTPOHTh nap ~.R crapurnx, TaKHM 06pa30M, oopereane ,Jl.O", TO ecrs OTKpbfTHe cexpera MaCOK, nrpaer Ty iKe pOJIh, KaKYIO B npyrnx MeCTaX HrpaIOT ~epeMOHHH ny6ePTaTHoro soapacra. ECTeCTBeHHO, 3TH 06bl'laH BapbHpyJClTC.R B pa3HhIX ceneHH.RX. 113 HeCKOJIhKO rryransrx, HO iKHBonHCHbIX H 'lpe3Bbl'laHHO iKHBhIX paCCKa30B, coodmenasrx HH<PopMaHTaMH a-pa Kpessepa, Mbl B03bMeM JlHillb ztae cxesnr ~epeMoHHH.

ComaCHO O~HOH H3 HHX, KOTOPyro nerxo BbIBeCTH H3 corrracyto~HXOI MeiK,lly C060H CB~eTe.rrbCTB ~Byx HH<PoPMaHTOB, u;epeMOHH.R OTKpbITH.R MaCOK CBO~HTOI K CHMBOJlHKe, KOTOPaH, HeCMOTpH Ha CBOH xpaane orpy6JIeHHblH xapaxrep, He JlHilleHa H nexoroporo BeJIH'lH.R. EcJlH B nepeneacxon KBapTaJIe HMeeTOI MHoro MaJIb'lHKOB onaoro soapacra H pOCTa, TO CTapHKH 06blIBJl.RIOT, 'lTO HaCTaJIa nopa BhIXO~HTb MaCKaM. rrpe~BO~HTeJIb ,Jl.0" coorimaer )')Ke nOCBHlQeHHbIM IOHOIIIaM, 'lTO OHH ~OJIiKHhl H3rOTOBHTb H H2,ll,eTb KOCTIOMhl H3 JIHCTbeB, 'lTO H HCnOJIH.Rcrc.R B pHryaJIhHOM nOPMKe. K ztezry npacrynaror C casioro yrpa B KOHLW ~H.R pazcensre rrycxatorca B rryrs H YCaiKHBaIOTC.R y ~epeBeHCKOH OKOJIH~bI, O~aH nacrynnenaa TeMHOTbI; HX OKpyiK.J1OT CTapUIHe. C nacrynneaaeM TeMHOTbI iKpeu; ,Jl.0" npaasraaer K ce6e pO~CTBeHHHKoB H Heoq>HTOB, xoropsre sapanee sanacnacs TP2,ll,HU;HOHHhIMH 110~HOIIIeHH.RMH H KYPaMH ~ iKepTBOnpHHOIIIeHH.R. Korna MaJIb'lHKH cooepyrca BMeCTe, BbIXO~HT iKpeu; C ronopoxi B PYKe, KOTOPhlM OH HeCKOJIbKO paa y~apHeT 0 3eMmo, 'IT06bI C03BaTb pIDKeHblx. MaJIb'lHKOB 3aCTaBJI.RIOT JIe'lb H yxpsrsaror HM fOJIOBy. Ilonoeraer O,n;HH H3 pHiKeHbIx, naxaaaer CKaKaTb BOKPyr MaJIbqHKOB, rryraa HX 3Byr<aMH CBHCTKa, KOToPbU1" Ha3bIBaeTOI MaJIeHbKOti: MacKoti:". rtocxe sero crapnx npmcaasrsaer MaJIhqHKa~ BCTaTh H 110HMaTb pIDKeHoro, KOTOPbIH rrycsaerca nayrex OHH npeOleAYJOT H B KOH~e KOHU;OB JIOB.RT era. CTapHK 06paIIl,aeTOI K HHM: aaaere, xaxoe cymecrso cxpsrsaerca 110~ 3THMH JlHCTh.RMH? QT06hl OHH 3TO 3HaJIH PH)KeHoMY oTKpbIBa1OT JIHU;O, H MaJIb'lHKH cpasy }'3HaIOT ero. Ho HX rYr iKe npezrynpeacaaror, 'lTO OTKpbITb cexper He 3HalO~HM ero - ana-nrr aaBJIe'lb aa ce6.R cssepn; flo COC~CTBy KaK pas supsrra .RMa. OHa paasepaHeTCH nepen HHMH, ecna OHH napymar 06eT, H oznroapexearro 3TO noB~HM<:,MY, MorHJIa, r,n;e XOpOHHT OCTaBJI.ReMyJCl HMH zrercxyio JlH'lH~CTh. Ka1K,I:J;hlH MaJIb'lHK ~OJIiKeH CHMBOJIHQeCKH 6pOCHTb B HMY HeCKOJIbKO JIHCTbeB, oropnannsrx OT KocT~Ma paacenoro. Korna liMy 3ap01OT, OH aanc'l3TbIBaeT ee, xnornrya no HeH JI2,ll,OHhlO. ITPH 06PMax Bblxo~a H3 MeCTa rrOCBHlQeHH.R, KOTOPbIMH aaxmosaerca BOI u;epeMOHH.R nocne iKepTBOnpHHOIlIeHWI, prrryam.noe OMOBeHHe CBO,n;HTC.R K MHHHMYMY: ~bIH MaJIb'IHK na xozry norpyzcaer PYKY BCOCY~ C BO~OH. Hayrpo IOHOIlIH ynoMT HOBOnOCH.s:tlQeHHbIX B 'lauzy H yqaT HX IlJIeCTH H aaneears KOCTIOM.

saaxen M.R CeJIbCKOH MeCTHOCTH H ~OCTaBKa no nosrre HJIH 6pO,l.lH4HMH ToprOBu;aMH MOiKeT TaM OKa3aTbCH MeMeHHOH, TO HU 20jJO(Xon, HU HO-

uep JlC)!PHaJIO. He Oamup06aHbl.

C. 84. 1l106o6b 1C «Hap1ComU1Ca.M~ Y Mypa8be6. Ha6JIIO,o;eHH.R KHpKaJI~H H ~eK06coHa, U;HTHpyroTC.R no Y. MopToHY vanepv (Op. cit. P. 310):

<,PacnOJIOlKHBIIlHCb PMOM C BepeHHQeH xypaases. HJ.IYIII,HX na 110- HCKH nmna, _ pacnpocrpaHeHHhIX B I1H)J,HH MYPaBbeB Hypoclynea ~i(Uberculata, _ HaceKOMoe nO,!VKHAaeT, xorna KTO-HH6YAb H3 HHX noaoaner n06JIIDKe, H Tor~a npHno~HHMaeT nep~HlOIO qaCTb TyJIOBHIII,a, OTKPhlBaH CBOH YpHXOMbI. I1x sartax npHBJIeKaeT MypaBb.R H n06~aeT JI1l3aTb H nOKYchlBaTb HX. flOCTeneHHO rrrnnonepa orryCKaeTC.R, npocro CKJIaAbI- BaH nepeAHlie JIanKH HaA raJIOBOH M)'PaBbH, KaK 6ywo HaBepmKa 3aBJIanesaa ~06bIqeH. Hepenxo MYPaBe:i1 TaK ~HO xycaer YpHXOMbI CBOllMH lKBaJIaMH, '-ITO see TeJIO nYHJIOU;ephl Yp.RCeTOi csepxy ~0H1)3y. Ho BhmeJIeHHe :::lTOH iKeJIe3hl 06JI2,ll,acr TOKCH"IeCKHM ~eHCTBHeM, napaJI1l3YlOIQllM MYPaBb.R. KaK TOJlhKO 6e,o;H.Rra CKJI2,ll,blBaeT Jlal1KH H XOqeT cecrs, IITHJIOuepa XBaTaeT ero nep~HHMH JIanlOMli H npOCOBblBaeT X060TOK CKB03b O,ll,HH H3 ero rpy~Hb[X IIIBOB llJIH, euie rryame, B TO'IKY npHcoe,o;HHeHH.R ycnxa, H na-nnraer BbIcaChlBaTb BH)l'l'PeHHOCTh rena. ITapaJIH'I Buhl3BaH HMeHHO BeIIl,eCTBOM, BcocaHHhlM MYPaBbeM H3 iKene3bI, a He paHOH, npoH3BO,ll,HMOH X060TKOM I1THl10U;epbI; cornacno ~eK06coHY, 91'0 ,Jl.OKa3bI- aaerca TeM ¢aKTOM, qTO xorna cpasy MHorHe MYPaBbH lOKoe-TO BpeMH JIIDK)'T BbmeJIeHHe 113 YpHXOM, OHli OTnOJI3alOT aa HeKOTopoe paccrosHHe OT rrranonepu Ho OqeHb CKOPO HX nop:vKaeT napaJIH"I, ~aiKe ecrra HX BOBce He KaCaJICH X060TOK nTI1JIOu;epbI. TaKHM 06pa30M OKa3bIBaeTOI y6HTO KY,o;a 60JIblIle MYPaBbeB, qeM HCnOJIb3yeTOI B IIllUZY nTHJlO~epaMll.:

H ocraercs JIHIIIb H3YMJl.RTbC.R rmO~OBHTOCTH MYPaBbeB, n03BOJI.R101QeH

6 "

nTI1JIOU;epe B3HMaTb CTOJIb TWIG<yIO ~aHh C MYPaBhllHoro coo III,eCTBa »,

C. 116. Mexastuss: UHu4uatl,Uu. 113 KHHlli: JEAN MAIRE H. Op. cit. p. 221-222.

«Y IlJIeMeHH 6060 (BepxHH.R Bom/ra) llMeeTCH erne 60nee npOCTaH CHCfeMa penHrn03HbIX HHCTHTyTOB, BO MHorOM CXO,n:HaH C cHcreMoH, npnH.RTOH Y 6aM6apa. 06III,HM HMeHeM ,,,n:o" B 91'0M peruone 0603HaqaIOT pennraosaue 06III,eCTBa, qneHbI KOTOPblX MacKHpyroTCH y60paMH H3 JIHCTbeS H paCTHTeJIbHbIX HOnOKOH H ,n:epeMHHbIMH MaCKaMH, H306pJiKJIOJWiMH 3Beprorue MOp~bI, a TaIOKe 60iKeCTBo, B qeCTh KOTOPOfO cOBepIIIaIOTC.R ,n;aHHble u;epeMoHHH H KOTOPOMY BO MHorrrx nepesaax If)IH 'laCTHX i'1.epeBeHb nOCB.RlQeHO AepeBo no Coce.o;CTBY C KOJlO~u;eM, KaKOBOH TaIOKe nocaamen eM)'. MacKH (Koro, MH. q.Kora; Simho, MH. n.Simboa) H3roTOBJl.RIOT H HOCHT IOHOIlIH uon- pe~eJIeHHOrO sospacra, B onpe~eJleHHblH MOMeHT npaso 3HaTb HX TaHHY, HOCHTb HX H 06J12,ll,aTb onpe,n:eJIeHHbIM~1 npHBllJIerH.RMH no OTHOIlIeHlllO K HenocMlQeHHbIM npe,n:ocraBJI.ReTC.R MaJIbqHKaM CJIe,n;yIOIII,ero B03paCTHoro

196

197

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,l.lOKVMeHTa'IHR. K 1"JI3Be VIII. CocTR3aHHe 11 c.rry'lai1

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BbIM; }.l,pyrOH )ICe, He 3HaIOIll,H11 3TOro, He~HBO~').. .

Materiaux d'Ethnographie et dc Lmguisuquc soudanalscs. 1927.

T. IV (rro ,LIoKyMeHTaM, c06paHHhIM 1~-pOM )K. KpcMcpoM H orry6nHKO-

BaHHbIM A JIa6ypc).

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<,COUHMbHa5I BJlaCTb HaxolJ,HnaCb 3}.l,ecb lie CTonbKO y" Hacn~}.l,CTBeHHbIX }.l,CpeBeHcKHX BO)l(}.l,eii, CKonbKO y rrpC}.l,Bo}.l,l-:lTCnCH "l'aHHbIX 06mecTB" _ opy}.l,HH B PYKax CTaPIlIHX. TaiiHoc o6Ill,eCTBo B rmCMClIH KYMaHr (rro-BH/1,HMOMY, anMOrH'"lHOC "KOMO" Y 6aM6apa), HblHC npnruenmee B ynanox, ocrasano no ce6e nI060nbiTHytO nereH}.l,apHylO riaM5lTb 0 cOBepmaBllIHxCH B HeM KpOBaBbIX 06PM3X; 3TH 06p51}.l,bI orrrpasml.nHCb Ka)l(,LlbIe ceMb ncr; ua HHX }.l,onycKMHCb -ronsxo CrapllIHe, }.l,OCTHrlIIMC BbIClIIeH CTenCHH B 06Ill,CCTBC, H MCCTO, rne npOHCXO}.l,HlIO npa3IJ,HeCTBO, 6bIJIO 3arrperHbIM }.l,R5l )lCCHIll,HH, MaJlb'IHKOB M IJ,J)I(C lOHOmcH. CTapHKH, }.l,onymCHHble K yqacTHIO B l~epeMOHMH, }.l,OJDKHbI 6bInM lJ,OCTaBHTb ~ nee HC TonbKO rrMBO, HO H 'IepHOrO 6bIKa, rrpCIJ,Ha3HaQeHnoro ua 3aKJ1aHHe. BblK3 YMCPIll,BJUUIH, rrOJl.HHMaJIH M rrO/1,BClllHBMH

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60 B KPY'Y CTapUIHX'). '

(flo KJIHI'C: FRO BEN I lJ S K. Atlantis / / volksmarchen und Volksdichtungen Afrikas. T. VII. Damonen des Suden, 1924. P. 89 sq.)

K fJIABE VIII. COCT5I3AH11E 11 CJIYQAH

C. 141. Hnmencueuocms cauoomoscoecmeneuun C 1CU1-I03Se30ou. ttpuseep: 1i.JmbmJ(JlCeti..Mcall.ulla.

B 1926 rozty aa ceieprsro 3KTCpa Pyztorrsdic BaneHTHHO nocnenoaano MHolKecrno caMoy6HHCTH. B npC/l,MCCTb.llX Byanoc-Anpeca B 1939 rom, QepC3 HCCKOJIbKO nCT nocne CMCPTH nenna 'ranro Kapnoca Fapnena, C1'Opemuero B asaaxaracrpocpe, /1,BC cecrpsi aaseprryrmce B HaMO'-ICHHbiC 6CH3HHOM npoCTbIHH H nO,L\O)Kf]]M MX, '"lT06bl )lMcpeTh KaK 01-1. AMcpMKaIlCKHe T(CB04KH-nO/l,pOCfKH, 'l'1'06bI COBMeCTEO nO.KJ]OH51.TbCH noapaansmeM)'OI HM nesrry, C06MPaJIHCb B lllYMHbIC Kny6bI non TaKHMH, nanpasrep, Ha3BaHH5l.MH: «fl3}.l,aIOII.l,MC B 06MOPOK npn BHJI.C CI>p3HKa CMHaTpbP. HbIHC KOMnaIl~ -Vopnep 6pa3cpc,>, rae pa60TaJI ,Il)KCHMC LJ.MH, 6e3HpcMeHHo ynreznnna H3 )KH3HH B 1956 rom B caMOM ua-rane oxpvacnomero ero KYJlbra, rtorrysaer 01' cro 6c3yrCllIHbIX nOfOIOHHHlJ, 01(0]]0 TbIC5I'IH miccM B/l,CHh. BO)lblIIHHCfBO 3THX rrHCCM Ila4HllaCTCH 'rare «MHnhrH ,I.l)KHMMH H 3HalO, 'ITO RhI HC YMCPJlH ... '> {.:l'ro6bI HCCTH 31)' crpamryro nocaepn IV10 nepernrcxy, C03}J;aH CnelJ,HanbHbIH ornerr. TIaM5ITM axrepa lJ,CJIHKOM irOCH.lIllJ,eHbI -rersrpe )K)'lXlana. O/l,HE M3 HHX H33bIBacrcH (,,Il)KCHMC LJ.MH B03Bpantaerca-. Xozsrr CJIYXH 0 TOM, 'ITO HC 6bInO orryfirnnconano HH O,llIiOH ¢o'rorpa¢HM ero rroxopoi I; yraepactator, 'ITO 3KTCp 6hIn H3ypOtJ,OBaH U BbIHy)K,ll,CH YAanMThCH 01' CBeTa. flOl(OHHHK3 nsrasrsaior aa MHOlKeCTBC cnUpHTH'-ICCKHX ccaHCOB - HCKOCH npozrasnmue H3 cynepnapxera rro ~MCHH Jl)Koan KonnHH3 OH rrponmcronan CBOIO MMHH)'lO 6Horpa¢mo,

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198

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1 GA.XOTTE P. D'Hercule a James Dean II Figaro. Cauo c060I1 pa3YMeeTCH, 'ITO )KeHCKJ1e ClKelleAeJlhHHKH BOBCIO rtexararor ~oTopenOpTJ)KH 06 3TOM repoe

11 0 6e3YMHoM o6olKaHlll1, xoropsra OH OKpYIKeH nOCMepn1O. eM. raxace aHaJIH3 sroro ~eHOMeHa B y?Ke JJ;H'rnpOBaHHOI1 ssnne Klmre: MORIN E. Les Stars. Paris, 1957. P. 119-131: -ie cas]ames Dean·).

201

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