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Co'n s uUi ~'~8' Edit'~lr
sa t:p be'n 'W., Dh·e'c: hJIf"!, Ca r ri egru'e~, M en(11'~11 Un lversi l~ y
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AN'TENNAS AND RADIOWAVE
· PROPAGATlON
Networks and Systems
Communications and Informatiioml Theory Con t ro ~I Th eo I'}'
Elect ronics a rid Elect ron ic Circui ts Power and Energy
'E lee ~ to m a. g net i cs
'Corn ~lU l~er E'ngi neering Introductory and Survey
Radio, Television, Radar" and Antennas
Ron:il:ld M. Bracewell. Colin Cherry, James 'F" Gibbons, Wm~~i:s 'w. Harman, Hubert 1~le,a~u~r, Edward w. Herold John 'G. Lin'V'i'III'1 Simon Ramo, Ronald A. Rohrer. /\n'lh'nny E. Siegn~Hn~ Charles Susskind, Frederlck E. Terman, John 'G. Truxal, Ernst Webe Ir l' a r1J d ] oh l~'~l R, W'h inn e ry
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Cr)'n:S'I'dUng Editor
Sf~ph'em W ~ D~1fe'ct,or,~, Cr~rne'g~eM'~]!~on U:~~",ersi'ty
Col ~ i 11 ~ A ItJe''''~ u,a S 0 '11,(1' R a d i o w,a' ee Propaga tion C,oUin andJ 'Zu'c'kt"r~: A'1 te 11 ~1',a' Th,€'I(J'1'YF Par,' I' Colnn anti Zu,(':ker:: 1\,;Uel1n,Q' nfe',~')'ry" Part 11 K n)ll~ s: A n l,e'~11!£lS
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.AN·TEN'N AS AN'O R.ADJ[OW A VB Il'ROP'A'GA,l'"ION' IN·TE}l.NAT10·NAL STUDEN~r EDITI[ON
'CO'P]!'I' i 8 h [ [©' 19.R$
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~ s t 'P'r~ 11 ti ng 1: '985 .
Copyright ©, 1'985 by McOra'wJIUf,~ Inc'. ,AI~ dgJlts, reserved. P'lJ'ilfl'ted im the Uni~ed S tm t es or ,I\. U1[C rica e Except as pe rm i t ted under the Uni tie d S t a tes Copyr [gh! Act of 1'97(i! n o pa" t ,of this pul'l[Hc,li Hon may be reproduced or dis lri bu ted ~ nan y for rn 'Or by any mea 118" or st 0 red m n ,a data base or retri eva ~ system ~ wit hout the prior \Jtll'fi n ten pe I'm lsslon 0 r the p[u h 1 ~she r .
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I Comrnunication with Radio Waves
~ e '~ T }rptZ!';, [of 'Com[ m 'u n i ca [I: ~,o'n: Syst em S
I. 2 Antenn a Sys,'!:ems
~.3 Prop[3lg~~.I;on ,of' Electromagnetic 'W'aves
1.4, Frequeney Bands
1.5 Overview
Thi s, boo k W3J~ se f in Ti mes Rorn an.
The ed i tors 'w"e re Sa n jeev Rao and David It. 'D'3J m s t fa; The prod uet io n su pe IrYIS0!r W',iS P'h ~ I Ga lea "
Th e cove r 'w,as des lgned by Mal rk Wiebo I dt_
Th e d rawi ngs we re done by .IT &. R Se IrV ices" 1[1«.
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2 Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Radiation Antennas, and Antenna Impedance
2.2 2.J. 2.,4
Con ~ L1. Robe ITt E.
A In 'l'e n ~l as RfIIJd ra diowave propaga [I: lou.
(MeG fa '\1,1 J [i l~ I se rie 5 ~ 11 ~.'I ec i Ir ica I' e n gJ neer i [ng) Bjb~logra'lPhy': p,
I' m::~~ud es mild exes
I. Antennas (Elec1ro:rni,cs)[ 2. Radio wave propagation.
r. Tille. II. Series.
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2~9 2.10
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3j n gapore Nil t i on a ~ Prin ters (P'l[e) Ltd.
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10 Uil
Maxwell's E'qu:a,tl0~1IS, and Boundary CO!l1di! ions Bou [11 dar y of a Pie rf e et CQn d u (;'1 or
B,ou nda ry of an Im p<c r f ect CO~][ d 1lJ:C tor Bo[unda.ry be~we:ern Two Dieleetrle Medrua Vector and Scalar Poten rials
R ad II a~, lon If ro rn :i! Shor ~ Cu rre n t, Fllame ~ ~ Some Basic Antenlti1:9l Parameters Radi!,aUoi~1 'Pattern
Drun?;Clivi'ly and Gain
'R .ell'" 'R"
.' a't.,'1 ,a t:1 O~~l ... [1;:5,1'$,1: a nee
R adi lIt, on f rom a .s n1::B ~ i Cu r Ire n t loop
R adia ti on hom A rbl [ rary Cu; r re n t D 115;1 r1 bu tin ns Half  Wa,ve Dipole Antennas
Ant efill n:8 Irn IH~d a, n ee: Ex: pe rim en t a.~
An (eons Impedance: cThi'forei ical Considerations Method of Moments
N'I.!I:m'ellrh:;.aJ ][nt:e,gra tlon
13 14, 16 16 1.8 [9
20 25 2.$ 2!3,
21 28 31 ],2,
,3.5 38 46 ,5,2
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3.4 3.:; J.(i
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3.'9 ].1nl ~,II ~
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Dipnle t~nreda nee: 'N[umner!~,ca~ Solution
Asyrnptot ie f.leh arvilor or Solu tions to 'I h~U'en "s I n ~ egral Equ3J'l'om~1 Mu tual Impedance
Pro b!1 e m s
Dipoles.", Arrays, and LongWire Antennas Blcon ical A nhi~1111 as
Folded Di pole An tenn as
Short Dipole Antennas
M () n opo I! e I\:m t e m~ [ill] as
B~h.rnns
I n ~ reduction to Antenna Arra ys Pri neiple of Pa'I:'teull Mu~ltip'l ica t ion Uniform OneDirnensional Arrays Broads! de A rra y.~
End'  Jr tie A, rra ys
U 11 ru fo If m Two D ii ~'n e Ir~ ~d on a'i A Ii ra }Is Ar·r.a}' 'Panern SYri ~ tH~:::s~i's
Fourier Series Method'
B ~ nom i a ~ A rra ys
ll1le A rr a y P"o~ y !l1ln'm~ rn a ~ 'ell ebys hie v A rra ys
Su perdirective A rr,ays 'Chebyshev A.m·rays with ,d > t\ol2 'Feed Net\w()'rks :ror Arrays Butler rvfa]~dN.
Pa ra si ti C' A rra ys
t _,'ng  Pc:d od i C' A rra ys ()~h'CF Types or Arrays. r h ased A rr a y,~,
Ret rod i reel ive or SeH ~ Focus. ng Arntys, Adaptive 1\ ru~y~
Lon g W'i re ,I\, I~]i l' e n m[ as
R.adli·a~ruon rronl1 a l'tesom~al~l!lt Longwire Antenna n:~]ld~a'~'[~oJn :rrfun a V Antenna
Radia t ion from ,fl Long Wi re A.n[1 elll1llmla \v[i'l h ~rlr3We~~~1],g Wave Current
G'IfO 1I n d I fl [I' e Irf',e re n c e E~'~ ect s
PHlb1crus
A pertureType An termas
R.admaJ'~ :~Ofru (ron'l a Planar Apert U Fe: The Fou rier Transform
Melhod
R a d ia t ion f rom a I~ ec ta n g u hu~ A.rH!~ lU I~ ~I' fie R"ad~lam'mf)ln rflom! a CmrcU!~ar Aperture
Unirf o'F:In Ape rtu re Field wi ~ h a Linear P'h~~,e Var~~I~~,nn Tape red A PiC W~' Ul re f'~ e ~!d
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'E, lee {'r'tc a nd M,a,B,ne ~ h; Sources an d Fle ld .. Ei(~ u; va [e n ee Pri IflI ci p!1 es
Fiileld, .. Equ~vallence Prinelples .
A pp'~ ica t ion of f;,tdd Eq ui vale n ee P'l"l nelples to A" pert u re
R,adiation
O'pern \V'av'eguides and "lorn Antencas R.ectarnlula.f Waves,uides,
Cl rcul a;r W,a veguides
H P~,a ne H[OFlHj,
E, .. E'hulJ'e. Horns
PY'ra m idal 'Horn s
Ray Optics
Microwave Lens
Pa rabo 10 id a 1 R,ele'c:f.or An 'ten n as A'pe F I: b re Effici'erH::Y
Apert 1,1 re Dl recti v'i t.y
Apert UI re Radia ted Powe r: Ex a ct Eq UI :9;1 i on 5 Cross Pola:dza't'lon
R,ad i a t ruo III f'ro'm pia ra boil oidal Re ft,ee t 0 rs ~ I nd u eed Cu rre n t
M,ethnd
A pert u re Em ci en cy
F eeds wii th Low Cross P,o;1 arizaU on
Circular Wa.v'egtdde Feed whh TErum = Mode Exci:I:,al:h,'n COlt1:pd'rison of cE'xaclf Q,Md ,Appro,xiNl'ate Rod,iatio.1f Patten1S DualMode Co,ax~al Wav'eguide Feed
Corrugeted Conical Horn s
'ocr:ste;~ P'8rabolo~da~ Reflectors
R ad ~ a~: ion Field
NUi~l1edca~ Evaluation of the Radiated Field D ~ al  Ref ector A n h~ n I11i 3l Syst em s
Sha ped D'U.:a 1. .. R,e'Hiec t'o,r Sy'st em s
Radiation from s.~o~.~s,
R ectan g'll Iar Wa.ve,gll lde SI,()'t A rra ys
Reson an t A rra ys
N onreso nan t A rra ys Microstrip Antennas,
R.:adial.i:on {'rom iM~[C'rlo'rH~r~p A"n termas
Appendix: A·!S,ympto,th: Evaluation of ttiH~ Aperture Radiation Fieild
Problems
175 116
17'9 1.:82 1,82 '185,
1:87 189 t8,9
190 ~94 199 201 206 215 216
2,19 225 22.1 227 231. 236,
24.1 244· 250' 250 253, 26(1:
261 265, 266 268 213 282
2,84 286
Receiving Antennas
Reciprocity Theorem a~~d ERecth~'e Area fOIT A ntennas Polarize HOD Mism a I.clhl I',or Ant en p as
Friis Transmission Fonnula
Noi Sf. j n Com m u n ieat ions, Syst em's, Therm ~d 'Noise
N'01 se Fi.2tli:Je an d Noise Tern per a t u re of an Am ptine 1" s.ystem =a Noise Tempera ~:ure
Therml a1 Noise from a Lossy Tra nsnri ssion 'Lin e Noise lin Cascaded Systems
. 
293 29\4 300 303 312 312. 313 3,'1S 31[6 318,
505 An tennaNoise Temperatu re
5.6 Noi!';e :'V,BJua~tOn o,r COf!l1~nUJni'c,ar'ion Syste rns
5.7' Antenna In:lernctio'n with a. Scauerer
Scatterer Excued by 3]11 • xternal Fj'elldi
Probl e m s
:lI9' 125 3,29' 3,32. 3,3,.3
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·A PREFCE
'"1;,
fj Radio .. Wave Propagation
If').. t Antennas Located over a, Flat Earth
6.2 Antennas Located over a Spherical Earth Coverage I.· .. iagrams
Applications or Coverage Diagrams and In terference Form ulas ·6 ~3 1 he Fi·e rd in 'I h·e DI.j n ract to n Zone
339 34·1 349 ]52 .36$ 36:9 372 317 388 3R'8 3,90
39.5 400 401 402 ·401 40fl 409 4'10 41l~. ·411· 419' ,426·
427 433 4.34· 4·44· 444 448 4.51
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6.4.· Midpatht ". bsracle D~11l taction Loss
6.5 Surface Wave Propagation
Surface Wave Attenuation ror Horizontal Polarization
6 _lrJ· 10 nos ph e r le P rop ag 8, t i on
Dielectric [Constant of Ionized Gas
. . ff'ec'[ of the Ear~ h 's Magnetic Field F~u aday ROI'lalj'ol1
6 . ., M:I e ro W;[I'Y'C a ill d M!i [! II ~ met er .. W;[1 ve Pro p.ag,;} t ~'o'n .A.~ tenuation by [F.{ai;.,
A~. tie n u 8. t ion bY' Fog
A~ter~ua~ion iby Snow and 'Ice
Attenuation by Atmospheric Gases
6,J~ Scatteri ng by R.ail]
'Ea'e'r~ of 'Wa'Vle Pollarilation R,ist atic Scattering fro:ml r~ahl
(;;9 Tropospheric Scat ter Propagation Experjme ntal Results
6.1.0 Extremely Low to Very Low Frequency Propagation H :~.gtl e rOrde r M odes
61. J ~ Propagation in to Seawater NearZone f lelds
6,_ ~:2 .A~ rnospheric D"~.lC~:S aud Nonstandard Refraction Ray Trajectories i:n a Surface 'Duct
'nil hl
[('11'"0' . i~ems
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This book 1~ the outgrowth of class notes .• eveloped for a course on antennas 8JHJ Tad' owave propagation that has been oflered ,aIS, a 11 elect i ve ,tOIlJ I se fnr j~ji'nion;. B.nd seniors er Case Institute o,r Technology, Case Western Reserve U. iversity, (O'f ·8 number 'Or yeai s. The objective of the course ls 10, provide .fIll introduction to the lundamental principles of antennas and propagation for com munica tionsorien ted elect rical eng;j neers. The book diners from CUT re n tly available texts on arttennas 'in that there is more emphasis on the corn
~ ., 'F 'I 1t ~ 'I" i.. " ,. .'"
mun teat ions aspects, · or exarnp e. a wnore c napter on the recervi rig propert res
of antennas and communicationlink evaluations is, inctoded.
I n the text fu ndamen tal pri nciples are stressed. The treat ment in detail of specifie an ten na types, is based on the need to illust rate the application ·of basic principles and to introduce the properties of a. reasonable variety ol commonly used antennas. The text extends considerably beyond the needs (~r ·3 single,
. • li':: '"1""1" [I ~., f h · ~
speeruc, onesemester course. . 111. ere are two compe nng 'reasons ror t· is=tne
first being 'the need [or flexibility 'in the structure of n course which might be based on this text, the second being the desire ·to'r a degree of completeness that makes the text a useful reference for pralct'il1cing engineers 'who need occasionally 10' refer to basic equations in 'the course 'Of their work. The result is a text that should, in 'tllany ways 'fuBin the needs for an introdactory course on antennas alone, at either the senioryear or firstyeargradue .. e Ievel, for a course with a mixture of antenna and propagation topics, or evert 'for a short 'in t roductory course [on radiowa ve props galion.
The first chapter ls :9 brief introductlon 1.0 antennas and propagation, with a . number [of' HhJlstr.atiiolms 0" real antenna systems. The second chapter d'eve'l~ops
I b ~ · ,I, 1 d~ .', d .; d . 1 . t' .' h
the [(IlSIC pnnciptes 0" ra m3[tlion an· introduces ~yp ca antenna concepts sucn
as gain ~ dii rect iivi'm,y; and radia .• ion pat .erns. The last part of the second chapter
'" d '1 t. f 'I d" d ~ .. .. f" 11 ~ d OJ I , ... ~ • I
rntro uces the tneory 'or rmpec ance . eterrnmatron or ,cyl~n' r~·ca~ JUI]JrO~e
• •
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Appendixes
Usefu r Vector Relationships
II Summary or Transmlssjon Line Theory
'I{ [ Cylindrical 'Dmpole Antenna Models
[V Gecmerrical or Ray Optics
451 ·451' ,461
465 413
• 1
• .' I
Bibliography Indexes
Name Index Subject '1 ndex
4·'93, 497
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I
x. IPREFACE
an ten n as based on the Hallen in tegra ~ equation and the method [of moments, This subject has. been treated with more care than usual in. order to 'put into proper perspective the significance of various approxinratiorrs that are com, .. , mo n ty made in t he pract ical application of the theOi"Y .. The ·r act that the MSU aJ approximate integral equation that mla'll}' authors adopt does not have an exact 5.'01 u t ion is not ignored. An explanation is given f·or the reason approxhn a te so 1 u t ions of a nonsolva ble ·i n tegral equation yield usefu ~ results "for 'the an renna impedance.
The application [of transm issionline concepts to dipole and wl re an ten n as. provides a useful insigh] into how 'these antennas. function, Chapter 3 exploits these concepts in order to develop an u n derstanding of the bell avior 'Of short drupole an ten n as and of f()'I!ded dipoles, '(he use of Ioadi n g coils and or capacitive end loading, and the impedance properties of antennas .. Many or the topics, are classical and rnigltt be cousidered outdated in a modern text. However, h is the author's experience that these 'topies precisely treat those antenna configurations with which many students have become acquainted through their involve men t :i n am H ~eu r radio work a nd w'h ich spark a considera hle HJ'BlOU n ~ of interest on the part of 11Utny students. This chapter also develops the principles of array an ter~fl as and t rea ts several useful tech n iques ,8 nd concepts for array synthesis. The chapter concludes with a discussion of longwire antennas such as the rhom hie and vee a '11 [en "as.
Chapter 4 is devoted to' a treatment of aperturetype antennas among wh ich are open waveguides, horns, reflectors, and sinned wavegu ide arrays a nd microstrip antennas. The planar aperture theory is based on Fourier transform theory and IS also developed using fieklequivalence principles. The parabolic
reflect or ,3 n ~ en na is such a 'widely 'Used and practlca 1 an term a, par lieu larly in satellite comrnunications, that the theory and properties of' this type or antenna are developed in more deaail than that round ~n most texts, Aperture efficiency, crosspolarizat ion properties, offset paraboll lc reflectors, and cassegrai n ,al'l1d glregnrh::l.n systems are .tHl1IOI'1,g the topics treated, New material 011 feeds wirh lo_\JJ crosspolarization properties ~s included, The pr,ac~'i[cillg .ar~tenn·a engineer will Hn·d rln ost o~ ~ h~i:s 1111[3 [edn I ~l.~j<eru I, s~ rllce 1TI uch of rn'f ~is rno~ ,3vaHn h[~c in ItOrl ven ien t ~ex.'{boolk rorrn. 'llrue ~3~;.t part of Ch,ap~ 4 prnv~des. ·an iir~ troduC'1 ion to ~.lot ,antenrThH!';'j slot~ed waveguide arra.ys·., :fIj'lld n'icro~'il'i~p an·renn,ms.
~rhe rle·ce~vim1g p~'op[er~:i·e~ or an·lenn.as are tn~a{ed in. d,etaii1 in Chap .. 5+ The
~oncep[ s or ~Il ec~ iv[e a rea ~ poh~ ~'iZ8t ion 'nnisl11ah:;h, efFecti.'V·e cOfn]1[le~ lel1g~.h, ~rnped,ance n~jl$nla.tch, and an~h~;nnanoise f:elnper.atu·r[e are .a.U deve]oped fro~n 'rund,arnen'ta1 principl[es~ Th,e [eva~Matiion o'f C011l1'nunicat'io,n syslemsll la'king rnn~:o account antenna no~se, lossy transTlli.:ssion ... Hne noisle; .and rleele~ver noil'S[e,~ 'is (.a.rld·[ed (,ut .. 'VaJrious e:x,ampl[es, of link [e·~'alu.afions B.re incJuoed 'to ~·Il~u.stratle ~he ,a.pp~ j'[cation or ~ he Uleory '(0 I ine·of. ... sigh't m~clowa'Ve I iJn'ks~ 'radar .syste I'll s~ an(i satleJ1He eon~nrl'unieatlon 5Y'stenlS, This nll,a~eria'l! 'win be t1s·eful 'fen t:he com~ murnicaHons en,giru!;e'r \vhose rnnl.erests re~~de to sY'sl(e~T1i'5 ev~aluatrnon fUld p'lan
. 
Il~lng"
The Ilast ch[~p[ter j·s a mi,a~h.er long o'ne ~h~.t t'l"ea'rs a hload s·iJec·f:ru~n ()f topics
'related to radio .. wave propagation, TIlle primary objective ·O'f this chapter ms, ~:Ol iruroduce the communlcations engjneer io most of the propagation phenomena likely to be encountered In practice and to present lundamental principles so that an appreci ation ,of' 'the underlyi neg physical phenomena is. obtained, This chapter se If'VE,$· to in trcduce and orien t 'the reader 'to [thO!;I€; aspects of propagatlon that mu.s~~ be considered ~f1i the 'phJrnning and evahration 0'(' a. cornIn u n ication system of ,3. given tY'ple and ,frequency of opera tion.
Th e 1 i terature on radio .. wave propagation is 'Vast and h ighl Y specialized. I t: is not possible to .g.ive a detailed account ol the mnny varied phenomena that ,affect the propagation or radio waves in a .gleneraJ introductory text, Nevertheless an awareness, general overview, and understanding 'of propagation phenomena are necessary for communlcetlons engineers if they are '10 cornm u n icate ; III an eflective manner with the propagation specialist and be able to pursue specialized pape'rs and books with an informed perspective,
The fO'~tl·wlng topics are covered: interference effects 'for antennas located over a nat earth and ·3 sphericel earth, low and mediumfrequency surfacewa ve propagation, ioncspheric propagation phenomena, m icrowave :3J t ten ua~: i 'On and seat t e ri n g by at m os p b er i c con st i'( u e n t ttl ·n flO posph e rile sea t t e r per 0 pagatjon, very low [requency propagation in the earthionosphere waveguide, and" briefly, duct ilng and propagation in to seawa ter. A m .. rmber or examples i~lustra'tin,g the application or (he theory to the evaluation of communication
1 ill ks are inehrded m
The treatment of scattering frOID rain and tropospheric scattering is based on an application or the reciprocity principle. This method gives an expression rOI" the received opencircuit voltage [caused by the scattered field ill terms of the interaction of the anterma radiation field with the random currents induced in ~he scattering medium. The advantage of this method is that the polarizntjon properties or the scattered fi,eld are retained and the resultant polr~lril;al~on misrnatch at the recelving antenna 1S accounted for. Theories based on scalar scattering cross section pel unit volume do not account for the polarization p~'n(')lerl 'i·es of t he ~~,C;;1 ~.tered fie.l:cj ,.
Any g'en era~ 1 '"ex ~ d'1r3WS 'vel'Y he:av ~'I y on .~ he '\i\fOT~ of nl any e'l~gi n c(~r'S arid scient:ists.. I~ i'~ not POSsilblle to 1nc~'lJde refen~nces: tlo tb[e whol[e hndy of puhlb;llJcd w'nrk. j·n the fielld .. For the mos~ part on~y (hose books and pBp·ers that ~fere Iconsulted ;in t]l,e pr[ep:ar:ation of the manu~c~·ipt a.r[c r'ef[eref1lced, Hlong '\hrjth s.e~ec~ed r[e(erenc[es tha.t a.re appropriate for tIle re,ad:er to obtain 'more deta~l and breadth.,
Several o"f' tlue fluU1o,r's coUeagues ha~"e provided va1uable ·conllnen~s ,a.nd s,ugges,tions. 'f'or :i mpr·QVhl.g, the trleatmen t of V3'fl0u.s ·I:op;ics .. 'In parHeu ~ar,~. I ',\rou td nk·e ~o ac·kno,w·l·edge the crHh::al review of 'mlany pa'rts 0'£ the manuscript by' Gleorg Ka.'ra.w·as~ Subse[quen t di.scuss:iJons 'wit It him led: to :9. c1.e:arer pn!se m1 t it 1: iion 'of s,e v e'1J3 1 ~ ap i C~,.
Th"is boo'k is dedi[cated to m!y w'ire~ K,athlelen; [or; he'r '~ove,~, underst~Ul[[jm1,g,~ ,A nd 'pat iience. I te'; eT1iCOlJ r:agenl en ~ prov~ded the neces.S3'FY ~not1~vation [() en1l1·;. pleh~; the p~ro j'e1ct"
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[ am also most grateful to Susan 'F", S,av31 who 'typed the mtun.wscr'ipt: corrected my gramm,ar and speUhwg errors, and assisted me with the proofreadi n,g and 'thee prepare tion of the; noel. Her expertise, Iriendsh ip, and good sense 0" humor made the overall task (I, pleasant Om'U'!.
AN" T'ENN'~AS" AND" RAD"IO"''1~J!·'1E P'R'Op'hl'iG'..,IJlT"IO' 'N
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ANTENNAS
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Ccmruunicetion 'by electrical means began 'wi;I['h the introduction orr' telegraphy in 1.844, Iollowed by telephony in l878~ In these sys,li[ems electrical signals are sent over two ... wire transmlsslen lines that connect the sender and recipient. During the same time period that these systems were being developed the
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theoreticat oune auon tor ejectromegnetie rae iation was, , emg rare ny ,': .axwe ~I
and others, However, ;1: was, not untll 1897 that Marconi first patented a complete wireless telegraphy system based on 'U1.e use of electromagnetic radiation (radio waves] that had belen predicted theoretically by Maxwell 43 years earlier. The early transmitters were of the sparkgap variety and served the purpose of sending the onoff pulses characteristic of telegraphy The actual transmission or voice by means or electromagnetic radiation did not occur before the invention of the vacuum tube amplifier and oscillator in the period rm(l'[I'U '1'901t, to 1915. With these inventions :311 phases of communication began to develop at a much more rapid pace, ~ pace that seems to show no sign of slowing down.
The engineer 'who, wants to specialize ir~1 the communicauon field needs ~n
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have :a basic understanding or the roles of electromagnetic radiation, antennas,
and related propagation phenomena in modern comnumlcatlon systems, in addition to knowledge of communication systems ut~l;zing various Iorms of' transmission liners, such ;3S twisted pairs and coaxial cable. The objectlve ot this text is to provide this basic background. The in tent 'ils not to delve very deep] y into the in'(rii,cate det.ails of a great variety of antenna types, The objective is to develop lenOM:g'h of the basic concepts to givre ;3 reasonable understanding of antenna FundamentaJs. and 0'(' the basic limltations ,0'[ antennas, of" how antennas are c haracterized and of how' communication systems incorporating antennas
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~,rle ,ev,ahJa!e'~t and fi~anl\l' to intnol?'Uce the more common 'phenoniena affecUng the prepagafion of electromagnetic W,aJ.'VC'5 and the infhrence fhis effect has, on the performance or 3] communicetlon system
C0111 m u n ~ cs t ion Sf! rv ice '~nJ ch as sh i p t O~S h ore, bet wee n ai ref aft ,a1~d c~n t 1'()I'1 centers between mobile land veh ieles. amid jn satellite systems, trsnsm ission
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lines obviously cannot be used. In many other cases as weu _ tt ss nor eeonomtc
any teasibte to install transrnisslon Unes because of the hostile '1Ie'bra~n a.1'1J(:~ e n viro nm e n t .' A, n te mil n as are cl earl Y' esse n r ial com po n len ts i n ItO~ ~ U n ic at i on systems for m any a nd va ried re 3080n5, , Con sequen 1'1 y,~ . the co ~~~LM 'ilea ~; on en gineer should h ave ,an appreciation and understanding of :8'111'( nna Iundamentals and be able to evahiate the performance 'Of a, comruunicallon system ul:il~7:.lng this basic knowledge,
There are two broad categories 'of commuaication systems: those that u'li'(!~le transmission ~in,es in an inrerconnected network and those tl~l.at rely 'On electro
magnetic radiation with an antenna at both the transntit [rung and receiving si tes, In ci I ies where the popu ~alHon dern~,:i (y is 'hi i,gh and in system s where the required ~mgnaJ h,anldwid~h is small, as :in voice communication, 11 is economicaUy viable to interconnect the rnany users with simple, lowcost, twistedpair tra nsmission ~ i nes, SUCJl IhH~.S 'limn in trodcce ani H ttenuation or arOU111d 2 to J. dR/k~n a~ frequencies around to kHz. The twisted pair is not suitable for highfrequency use, so it is generally Hmi'~ed 'to the telephone service and ~nw'""dat3J~,rate digi ta'i t ransrnission ~L
In populated areas it is also rai~.'ly common to transmit television video signals over eoaxial tra nsmission lines, and the loss. is arou nd 4 to 5 cfBlk ~11. ,A [undamental characterist it of' ~ ransrn ission lin es is that 'the attenuation js, exponential in Us behavior. Thus a ~OS5 nf 5 dB/km becomes a 'loss of 100 dB, 'Over a 20 .. km path, If the path is doubled to 40kn~ an additional loss 0'£ 100 dB ls suffered. When it is recalled that ,3 :~OO .. dB, loss 1S, a reduction ~n received ~1gn aJ power by a factor or 10 ruo, His, readi ~y appreciated th a.~, the exponential attenuation ~aw ultimately places a severe restriction '()n the di~tancle over wh mch COnln'1UJ n icat inn can take place wi rhout the use of repeater arnplitiers,
]'n communication systems using electromagnetic radiation, the signal PO",.rCI" lis. radiated into a substantial angular region o'r space by the trsnsmitting antenna and only a small fraction of this radiated power is intercepted by the receiving antenna. There ~'S thus 8. 'very significant coupling loss, between the h·anS'111 ~it ~ i ng an d receivi ng an 'I: e nnas . IOn th e other III and , ~ h e loss i ncurred versus dmst,an'C'E ii5 atg'ehra:ic hl behavinr rather dU,Hl exponential. 'The rleason for 'r Ih ~ s i ~ as r (1 HI 0 W~ : For I1I1HUl Y' ,co rnll~n tH]JiI(:::' ~: i 0 11 ~ ink s the ~L~1: d htfed p tlYl.N!~" p,e run i'~ an::fl runck~,en~ on ~he rece~\"ing antenna decn:!,ases as mhe ~invers'e 5qu~u·e or U}e dis~~I:nce hetween t'h,c t~~ansl1l1rut~'ing :~nd n::.ce:ivirl,g an~er~lnas+ Eve'Fry d()ubl'ing ()l( the d,~s~,~nce d'elcrea~les th,e n!ceived pO\WeT by a 'factor oif 4, or fil dB, l'r i'n ,a pa~~trucu~ar sys(emn the 'Iota~ 1o~,s is tOO dB ror ,3, 20krJ1 p'ath~ a dnub~lng O'f' tbis, distance 'would add only an ,addi~i'on.rnI 61 dlJ (],f foss ins~'eHd of 'rhe ~nO",d'B loss Ut(rl occurs utith a h~ansm ~SSIOri ~hle ~ys{e~n as discussed aho'\I"e. 1'( ms ,app,af'e~lt ~hen that beyond a ce~~.lain di:stan(:,e the ~oss in a 'com In tlUl i,ca~io'tl sys.te~ 1.!s,ing, e~ectro'1'n,agnet ~c radiation w'i 11 b'ecom'e incre,asingly less ~h:{iI'l1l w'ith Ir,3Jns.m issi(,w lines. 'The re:l,a~'i've COIS~S or ',h,e ~wo systenls, dep,el1d ~n :3 c'O'n~plex way ,on tile n u mbe'r ()F users~ type olf s,efv~ice~, :3Jnd dis~:an'a)es mnvo'~ved,
"'rhe aUenlulHon and 'cost 'facno:rs are not the on~y ones ~ha~: di'ct,ft'te ,tbe choruc,e be'r\'i'N~.len 'tnl ns,nl iss,ion J in'es a nd 'e'f:e'c~rf:'Jna,gnet ic fad ruat man m In any mobile
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The com monly used "whip" an tennas on cars, 'i 'rabbit ears "~ on television receivers, singleturn 1:00'1' antennas for UHF {ultraJ~iigh 'ir,eqllJencyJ television recepdo~, m~f~olJl1tedl logperiodic TV antennas, and satellite paia.bot?i<.lalreflector reeeivtng antennas are so prevalent that, most readers ~rle clea rly aware of the need for antennas 1.11 (he support of om dilily COm~tlniCnliolli needs, These commonly ()ccu'rr~ng antennas represent only a smalt , .. egrnent o~ the antenna systems that have been developed. FOI" specialized land highperf ormance comrn U n ication I iin ks, 'radar syste:ms~, navigation al sy terns l' a nd scilelll'IUlc studies, h1,gh 1y complex antenn a systems are needed. I n or' ler to give an impression of the physical characteristics olf some of these eompl .• x antenna :Sy5h:~111S :3 number 0'1' photegraphs Ire lneluded in this section. "T~hfs,e Sh('H11d help the reader to appreciate the creativhy of the antenna 'engin'ee~ iin haviug developed the n'eCeSS,3JfY theory, deSl,grl methodology, and rna~iufRC~ltri!ng
techniques rne~dedi to put s~'ch comp'fe~ systems into use .. ' i,
Figure 1",1 shows a rmcrowave relay tower 'on which are rno nted ~wn
i nclined Ilatpl a te reflect ors. These refleetors di rect the incoming rae Ii arion to a groundbased amplifier which ,a~pHrl,es the _sigrn:a1 and rehranSltl.~lS i,: up "'. the second reflector. 'The latter redirects the signal on to the next rei, y station. F~gure l m2 s,how:s ,a nlwcrowave te1,ay '('o'w'er nn wh~c:h are InoMnt  d ~~evera~ P" n~ bo loi d al ~e n eel or ;fll~ t etl~3!> en cI ose d ill pi a!\ tic ra~lo me Ii ou Ii i +.g~. Rei ~y shllhons of ~ hts t ypc. :are In \vu1espre,ad ,'Us,e by 11'1'1;;; te~ephone conl pa,rlles, pu h he and p:dvate U It it ity 'comp,a n ies, and var~ous priv3t'e ,enrpo'rate 'CO'fnmlUi ITicnf :inn Hnks.,
'The l1ext s!er:j'es, of ~i've 'rlgun,'!s show's Slevef~d flll'i'enn,a s.ysten~ and reed sy5te~ns ~h:at ,ar'e ~yp~ca~ o't n~05,e uSlcd fer saleUlte co'mrnun;c,stions .. F gure '~_~l ,S' :3n ,aII'I ~St'8 rendiitilon of a s,atetH~e and s'ho'ws t.he lalF,ge OUUyi'r1g slohl,r [lIn e~s n nd lwo dua'lreniecto'lT an~~enna sys,tems with 'mlldtihof~l f,e,ed S]I's,tem~,. F'i' ,ure '~,4, ;s :on artist '5, rend] t:iOm1 of a cass,e,gr,ain ~lud~renelc~or :an'ten n a us,ed! f',·. r _ sate1 ~'i ~e ~dg'l1:at recepUon. In Fig,. 1,,,5 :8, du:a1!'_"(J11Iode; eonical ho'rn is Hhmst:rated., This horn was desiglled t? be \Ised .In all array ~f many l~orl1s (F~g. ~.6).wilh J~ rel1eclor s,ystemn to P1f'O\fU1e ~'~trunklng'J bearns In a. sateUne COtmlnU'~~ucatton :sysll,em. Th,e
next two 'Photo,graphs; F~gs~ tm6 ,ar~d 1.7~, show 'muUibea'm a,n~enna [(~B'A) 'feted
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used bUI also on a varietv ot phenomena that affect the p .•. ropagation QI'(
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ground ... based vertical towers are generally used for the transmitting antennas, The reason 'fo·(, this is that an antenna cannot be much shorter than a. quarter
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attenuation there is a, high level of' atmospheric noise in the AM broadcast band ,as well as humaninduced electrical interference that is picked up by the receiving antenna, T~h'IJs.) in, practice, large transmitter ~)OWeID~ must be used in ord .. er to provide an adequate signaltonoise ratio, Transmitter plowers of ,50 'k,W are quite common, and SORlie stations operate with powers as large es ,500 't'W., The usefu] coverage distance is t:yp'i,caJlliy only a fe'\\~ hundred miles because of 'the large attenuation and high noise ~eve~~
The attenuation of' the surface wave increases rapidly wrut'h an increase hill frequency SIQ that, above 20 Mllz,~, connnunieafion is genertil~y 'Rot by' means of the surface wave, Fortunetely above 10 M:Hz or so the wavelength is on~y 30 m or less, and it becomes practical to build larger antenna arrays with higher gain and to mount these on towers above the surface of the ground, Communication t~U~Y~ takes 'pla.,e,e by means of' direct line .. ofeight propagation pilus radiation reflected from the grou~d m'wd:w1'I,y between the transmitting and receiving sites. In comrnunieation links 0'[ this type the antenna heigh ts m1J.S~, be chosen with
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some c are rn order t hat tne direct tn eo , .. sign t propaga ted !u lIE [(~ W ~ W ac ,I, in
phase with the wave reflected from the ground, Whenever ... there are two or more paths that waves can propagate along to reach the recejving antenna,
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8, ANTENN.AS
F1i.Iure :1 .. ,;8 An aer~:al:1 view '0:( 1:t1e 3:n.~en 111UiS used 'fOif radi .. o/rad.ar ~s;t:ro~omjy am4 3it:mQsph~'ric research at
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steerable .~ "';i]l~:f'~ a.·n ten iIi"i; GI ~'ik O'!i;'. :,.::i'~'""il:'" ~ ~ its paraboloid 0'!i;'1 '''~ a' .~  to u,'~;t.'i..' i'!i G; 'f[;Ci~~' . :" ~I W' . ·t· 'i"C In '''''''1;0 j.'>.ci' ~ +L!i;' _ . .;Ii[~,"""""f d. _ .. _ .~. Lt'll}~. _l~, '!I;II, ,,!!,,,,",,. 11.1.g, ~,!U.iLI.!l. r ""'ll.~~ ns ~.>il!' .. UiJ.; 1!.!JIu .. u I.. .0.:;!iU __ pe _v ~ ~. II!] ul .iI;I .. ""W mJ ,~,tme .. ,e,l, ;0", ,1, , ~ li!li'!;w> "",,,,,,n. .. ,,,,,r
are a fi xed 220 .. ft dish and :BJ steerable ~,50~n dish tha~: are used ~'or prob:i.l:iig, the atmosphere and the ionosehere at 440,M:H2;" The smaller antenna 'near the ri,o'li:u:hand ton, is au S4~:ft: dish used 'for
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delep"'~sp~l~e probing at :L band by the Lincoln Laboratory, The smaller radome houses a fad ~~t:y' :rOt y,ery
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tOong nase me mterterometry. \.r:r;JIO'_Q ~)1 pe'm.[1~810,r1 OJ " :U1CGLn, . ,a,~oraliory,!_::__,,,.;., I' ,.J
interference effects occur, If the propagation path. IS not a stable one" fading will occur, and tbis manifests itself in large variations in. signal power taking place over t ime i ntervals typic aJ I,y me asured in secon ds or' m in u tes ~ The instability in the propagation pa,t:h is caused by variations in. the index ()f refraction of the atmosphere which in 'turn are caused by temperature and humidity fluctuations, Variations in the index. 0,1 refraction cause the phase angle [of the signal arriving ,3.'t the receiving site to vary in a, random 'Vl3Y., Thus signals arriving along diflerent paths combine with more or less random ph as es [and, 8:[ times tend to cancel one another 'which results in fading, ill'n CO':FU' 'IOU nicatloo s ystems designed for v[e;:ry b igh reliability some form of diversity is generally incorporated to overcome the effects of fading, A. typical system coo I d. consi st of several spaced receivin g an ten n es with the sign als combi ned ln suc:h ,3 fashion that a useful signal is received with high probability at .a:II. times. With spaced antennas 'it 'is, unlikely that deep fades will occur at all sites simultaneously, and hence system :r[c'l.:iab'il.:it:y is improved 'by the 'Use of space diversity,
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In the frequency range from a Iew megahertz up to 30 to 40 M'Hz,,~, it is possible to achieve very long distance communication by ionospheric refraction 0" the radio wave back toward the ground, The resulting skip distance can be severa 1 thousand 'k,'i lometers, The i nterna lion al shortwave broadcast service utilizes, this mode of communication. The refractive properties of the ionosphere [H, re depen den t on the electron den si t~' ~.as prod'll,c~d by solar radia tio~ ,. Elect ron de n si ty vari es on a dan y basi s as well as th rou g ho;u:( th e year and 1.'11 acco~:~c~;ith gen~r~1 ~I~r~~ti\lily,i.e., s~~spot;:Th~ refractive properties are~l~ofr~~~"nc~.depe~d~~ts~ . ~h~t generally above 40 MHz the radiated wa ve will pen et ra tie through the ion osphere and not be refracted back to earth at all, There is considerable fading associated witb file jonospheric propagation path" so ag .. ain some form of diversity, such as several spaced aotennes or broadeas t i,n,g, on several frequencies simultaneously ~ 'is uti lized in b ighrel] .. abl I:i t:y ~j nks,
At frequencies above 40 M'H~l,~, communication 'IS, essentially limited to' 'I ine .. ofsigh t :P'8 ths, A, typical :1 ine .. of .. sight l:i il. k is tb at U sed tor television
CO'MMUN'ICATION wrrn RADIO WA'VES I ~
broadcastlng .. Another example is, the lineotsight microwave link. used ill the
telephone service, .
'In order for an antenna to radiate int.o :3 small arsgular region and thereby provide ·8" higher concentration of power at the receiving site it [l1.USt be physicall Y' large in terms air wavelength, '1 n the microwave band where the 'wavelength is in the range of 31 to ,30 em, large reflector .31l1t·enmwa$ 'with gains as large as 40 to 50 dB are quhe common. With the Iarge available antenna gain, the transmitter power clan be reduced accordiogly. It is, not unusual to use transmitter powers of a few' watts or even as low as a fle'w hundred milliwatts in the m icrcwave band. There is. also rn ueh less atmospheric noise at the higher frequencies S'D smaller s.ignal levels can 'be used,
As one moves up ~11 to 'the 111 iUi meter wavelength region, atmospheric attenuation as weU as at ten uation 'by rain becomes :3 serious ~h1l11 ling f'8J,c!lor ,in the separation between the transmitting and receiving antennas, This attenna .. tlon is exponential in character and ~s· in addition to the inverse square of the distance atte rUJ,8Ho'11 e 'As such ~t can severely Um it the useful propagation
distance a,
The diseussion above has briefly touched on itt f'c'w of the factors that affect
wave propagation at diflerent frequenci·es~ It 'points out the necessity '('0 consider propagation phenomena in the design of a. eornrmmicetion link, Propagation eflects are generally analyzed by assuming average typical values fOlr those physical parameters that characterize the propagation path, The fiI,~.8UU5 of the analysis serve to describe the effeets that O(~C1Jf'. 'However" ~in. the real physical situation H must be remem bered t h at ·th e relevant physical parameters len ange with ~ime ~n a genera Uy u npredictab lie manner so that the design of a communication link s'ho~ild be carried OU~ on ~. statistical basis. The level of reliahility required, i.e. the percentage 0'1 time ~ha.t a slgnal of' sufficient strength will be received, \vn~ be dependent 'On the type of service
involved.
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Te le ph Ollll·e" telegraph .. aruJ f:!it·c.s~ m i ~e'~ 'shor I: w:a jj,f·e
hl ~ elll"lp a ~ iion al broadeas t ~in II ~ 3m~tewr radh',~ C'il~~.7:eln~s, . h an d; ~h:i r}~ ~ o coast alWid 'sh i IP~:
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IO~ 3.! rc ra r ~ Com'IM'U n icat ~on ~
1~e~:e'visJon" B!! bilj'Q,~dcll~t I
a'l r ~ raJll]lc cent r,n'l ~ pot.:ice.
'I. i;ndc ab mobite r ~dmo~
, ,
Very hrl.gh freqlilJeney (Vt~F)1
U U nIh ~il~ beq'U'e I1C), (UH'F)
I~ a.v. {t~.~ :10 n al a i ds Te~ievt~ionl satellite com~n1:1 ~1 ~IC:~I~ irm i UI d i ():;'V(lnde .• ~'U Ir\"e'~'II:lI nee r~d ~ r ,.
~ n a \Ii i ga~ ,,(1 n am a i ds
3~JnOOMHz
130 G~f:z
SQ pe rh ~gh !r't,~,qu en'cJ (S'HF)
Ai IIl'bOtfflile radar. rnic rOw ave
tin ks, com n~I(Jn ~ c:~I~IiI"~e'f 1 alil'id .
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E~tr'~mle'ly high be" q u ene, (EI~] F)
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In Tah li,e 1., I,ve su m marize the f requency b~Uld d·es·iign at ions, th a.~. are in COlt1 nl on 'USIC, alon g with ~hc ~yp;C.fru~ se rvices prov id·ed 01'11 each hand,
TIH~: microwave an.d millirneter frequency bands cover the range from 500 MII1. fa 40 GHz and up. Thls range ,of frequencies is broken down into several bands designated by letters. In Table 1.2 the band desigrrations are ~ isted. Not e ~h,at {h·e old letter designations do ~~O~ coincide with the new' letteri ng. The older d,esi:.gn,rrfion was est ab lished during the midnineteen forties :8Jnd is still in C()I'mrnon uSle~
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chapters CO veri n:g rad ~a~ ion [unrlameru als, simple an ~'en 1'1 as, basic anten n a charactcrist ics, an ~ en n a arrays, Ilon.g~\lVi·re ttl n t en n as, ,aper~ uretype ill t11 t en n ns such as. horns and paraboloids, and nnall'y the propertles or (In antenna when used to receive electromagnetic radiation. Chapter 5 0'1'11 receiving antennas also deals with '(be evaluation of comnaunication links, including the effects or antenna :and receiver noise.
Plar~ II 0" the text provides an introduction to plr'op'aga~il~H~1 phenomena, .A Irrllorng the topics covered are lowf requen,cy surfacewave propagation, iint·cr .. · fe'r:,ence e~l'ects in ~; rne~o'f·'""sil~;h·t com rfl: UIiI icatiolm lin kSt ·co'y·erag.e di:a.g,fll,ms, ~.h e ~n nuence of' the 1onosphere ·on slu)t'I'w'av,e lbroadc3.s:ti'ng j:n U1e t  fo .30 .. M liz fr·e,qu,ency ra:n,glet at"mos;phef'iJ'c a~cHi r:arin aUel1u~atruon :in ~he micro~v'ave and rnllllimeler .h.ands,~, 5can,erilmg by' .atmo~,"p·hleric cons~j!uents~ and .an :iintroductiorn ~ ~I t r~'~'o'~'P 11 e'~i C. SiC a "t t let com. ml u n j c:a't i 0111 sys:r lem:5, " P ro p3~ g~ t ~o n 'ph e n oml e n a ms ,3 d ~verse and ex'teng:l've subject th a.'t c~ann'ot be coverled in gl'eat depth in ar~
, .
l'
II
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This t,ex.t is d'~'Vruded :irnto two major part~L Part ~ d~slcuss!es, :aJnten'l1aS, and ·r:ad1.aHon.~, a.nd Part It Icovers ·pll'op'ag.:afiori p'belllom,efi a" P.art I cons~sts· 0:£ ftlU'~
'r~
_. __ .. _ . _ _. ____L_~~_ ....... ""'liiiiIIiiIIIIiiiiiilliiiilliiiiiiliiiiiiiiilllllllliiii"" """_~~ __
~ ,1 ANTENNAS,
T 'I~ 1 ]~ "'I M"I f'rle1quemcy band deslg
a ~, e ,~,,£ ICr(l'\V,D,,,e
"aU,on.
Frc'q uen cy 'O'id New
SOOlOOO M ~ Iz V 1'1 F C
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4.6,01 l c IG
tlR Gl~~ C I' {
,R'I n Gli',~ x I[
m nL... 'I 2.4 alb; x 1
~ 2A= ~:8 Glf.l Ku J
~ R20 GI~7; K J
2\~'1= 2,'fl. 5 IG lfl K K
2~,.54,O (] 1: 'b; K~ K introductory text. Thus 'woe are limiting the discussion to those aspects (hat are broadly applicable 'to communication systems operating at freqUlen(:ies~ or ,3 megah ertz O~· tess up th rough the m ierowave band with frequencies aSI h i,gh aSI .30 'Gllz or more. The prob Iem of stat istical evalnation 'of comm IJ nilc,frt~on H~ Its illnd ,fading phenomena is not dealt with,
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, CH'APT'ER
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F'UNDArvl£NTALSI OIF . ·LE'CTR'OMAGNETIC RADIATION", ANTENNAS, ANDI A'NTENNA IMPE,DIANCE
An antenna ks a structure, ustlaUy made from a good conducting mater ial, that has been designed to have 8, ~h8,p,e and size such that U will radiate electromagnetic power in an efficient manner. It is a wellestablished [aell th,at 11 '1I1le",varyin,g 'eurre nts, win radiate electromagn etie waves, Thus an an ten n a is 8
It h'" h .. ' 'P be exel d .' 'Ii, I ~ 'I 1~
struc ... ure on 'Yl. ~C_I tune .. varyu~g currents can ~e ,eXC'I~e . ~~rlltrl a r;e~a'{rvely : arge
amplitude when the antenna is connected '1'0 a suitable source, .. usually by means o'r ,0, transmisslon line or waveguide. There 'j:s an almost endless variety 0" st ruct ural sh apes that can be used r~:)r an anten rna. However, from ,3 pract ical point of view those structures thalt are simple and economical to fa,bricate are the ones most commonly used. In order to radiate efficiently, '{hoe minimum size of the antenna must be comparable 10 the wavelength. A v,ery common an ~ enn a ii~ ~ he h a.lf .. wavelength dipole an tenn (IJ, which consists of' two eorrducting rods, Each or the rods, are onequarter wavelength '~ong and are placed end to end with a small spacing at the center at which point a transmissinn HrH:~ is, connected. The properties of this antenna are discussed in it later section 'OF fhi,s chapter.
,
If the current dens,ity J excited on the antenna structure 'is known, there is
no great di:fficulty in calculating the radiated Fh~~d" The d~fficuU problem is; the one: of de'ier'min'ing the 'current dens~ty ilIon the antenna such fh,at: ~,'~e '~I~s.uttan't fie~d win ~sl:a{isJy the required boundary condhlons on the antenna. Fortunately h iis often possible to estimate the actual current distribu t ion wi th sUlffici,en~:
.. . d
accuracy to obtain ern excellen t approximation to the radiated riel: ,. However,
run order to calculate the i m pedance properties of' the ,3 Il1 ten Ifl a i1i,e cU rren If
13
,
FUN'O'A.ME!NTALS OF FJ .. ECTROM.AONE1'~C 'RADlAl"JQN 15
14 ANTENNAS
distribution must g;ener.a.l~y be 'k Flown with greater accuracy w 'The bOlJjt~d:l.ry..,· value 'probh~~n th at must be solved is qui te complex. ~ . _.
Maxwell's equatlons are nne:tn',~ 'So U the radiation from 3. short ~Iament~ of
currentssay I d/~is, known, then the principle of superposition 'may 'be '~sed to find ~he radiated 'field from an arbitrary diS'~ribuUo," 0'£ current by superrmpos .. ~ng the fie~d produced by each differential element of ,~Cl1rf,ent, .,Th~~ is the approach that is, generally used to determine the radiated fi,e:IJ.d from an
antenna,
In ~h1S chapter, Maxwell's equations are reviewed, and the vector and
scalar potentials, which form a convenient mathematjcal toot for solving Maxwen~s, equations for a given set of sou rces l' ,91n! ·inu·'odueed. 111lC radiation fronl ~1 short en rren t~ fi ~:amnent is then Iound .. ·
M.tUl;)' ol the r!l.Ulld:a~nentaJ characterjstics of an :a.n't'enl1~·i such 3S the 'tad i arion pattern ~ beam width, directivity, and rrtd~at lon resilslanc1e, 'carl be i:n'.rodWlced in cennection with the radiation [r,om ·8 short fil,~lment 'of current. lienee, this 'is :3 basic problem lha~ serves very' w'en to introduce the subject ()f
antennas and is exploited in this chapter.
The last part ·of the chapter looks 2i"t the radiation from :3 small loop of wire with a current 1 now·tn.s in U and ~ he radiation from a half wave dipole antenna. The latter problem ~nus.tlfa~.es the use of superpesirion :8iS applied h) the calculation o~. radiation fietds. The chapter concludes 'wUh a discussion of
an ten n 3 impedance.
The four field quantitles 10" interest are the electric 'field E(~),~ file magnetic intensi ty H(r), the electric displacement field D(r), and the magnetic flux fie~d B(r)~ These fi,e~ds~ aJong with the source tenns=current density J(r) and charge density p(r)a.re related by Maxwell's equations as (oUO'V!),::
'9)(E=~iw'l
VI )(: '1'1 == jUJD + J' V~D=.p' V~.D,=O
(.·F:ar.a.d,ay·i's 'I:aw)
(general iiz,ed Ampere's ~aw)1 (Gauss' '~[n1il)
(Icondnuity of m agnetic
nux.)
(contimrit y 'hlW)
(2.,3a) (2m3.b) (2w3c)
(2.3d) (2,J·,e)
D= EaE D ~ p.'@o·U
(2.4a) ·(2.4b)
Throughout this 'book we win deal primarily w~lth. sinusoidal tjrnev,~rY'ing nl~tds", Thus we follow the usual phasor type of analysis and generally W\U not show' exp'i'~~Hy the timedependent factor ei~{j. The currents and 'f1eJds are expressed as' vector hJ·nct~·ons of the spatial coordinates" and each cornponent is, 'in general, a complex lunction wi tb a real and imagi nary part. For exam ple, the
el lee t ric f e I d 1 So e x pressed i n the f 0 rrn
E{r) == E'x'(I~):3;r + E}Jr)ay + B:f(r)a.~, (20 t)
~n. rectangu lar coordjnates. Each componen ~, such :3,S E'~, is ,3 complex "'uncfiot~ of the 'form e; + jJ:7Slfi where; E;u is, the real part and e; i,~ t~,'e im~g.inary '~a,~t: If' the real phy'srucaJ electric 'field is required, i!t m:ay be obtained bY' multiplying [(rr) by ·e·/~' and taking the real part, that ls,
i(r~ t·) ~ R1e E(r]€,lwt
where ,Eo = 109/3617 farad pier meter is the permlttivlty of free space and P:fiJ = 4" X (07 hen ry per meter is tile permeability of free space, fn a ios.sy dl el ec I r ic med ru Ui m w U~ h pie rrn H ~ i vit y e and co 11 d ue riv iJ ty (t.,. a. C(H;'uJi uc fi 0 rru ,C M rr e n t J'f: given by ,J~ = aE 'w'HI How, and D == eE; If we include J't' 111 addition to the impressed current J., the relation (2.30) w'11~ become
V:)( H ~ U,w~ + u)E~,'
= j~(E + ~.) .. E+ J'
'. }'·O)
(2.5)
~ .
1(2~2a)1
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Thus E + oi]» may be viewed as ,9 complex permittivity. In genera], a dielectric material exhibits polarlzatlon darnplng lOSSICS in addition to a possible finite conductlvity, so even though o may be zero, ,~ is still complex and 0'[ the form f';  je". When it is nlece~ss.arY' to deal with a ~OS$y dielectric medium we 'win simply use a complex perm rut ~iviity and include ,~ny conduction '10$5 as par~ of the imaginary componen ~ if: I",
It is on en necessary to find solu {ions, to Maxwejl 's equ ations in non ... homogeneous regions, that is, In regions where there are boundaries, separating media with diflerent constitutive parameters. The following aituations are of p:a'[t'h:u·~a .. r :j 1m terest to us': '(hie boundary' at ·3. perfect conductor" tbe boundary at an irnperfect conductor, and the boundary between two diff'erent dielectric media. W'e wi.n present the appropriate boundary conditions 'to apply for each of these sltuetions with.OlU going through the detailed derivations w'hicl:l ~bay be Io u n d ; n m ost '('C'X ts cover i '11 SI e 1! ec ~ ro 1n:8 gne t ic t h eo ry .. t
, ~ ~ . , ,
t TIlle deri'\i'a:~'ion '0'(' lhe bO~jf1!ld~iIIry 1C::,orndffitiof!IJs: Riven her·s ln~y ~M~ ~ound I!'n it. E. C,oUtn ..
Fo,.ft."I,d,Q.,tt,o.ru for MitCTC;JlVd':u\!' E·n:.g;neerin.8 ~ M'cOr:a.w fl'ii11 Book Com rm I1'Y, New VO'T'k'l ! "86, .
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Boundlary of' a. P'erfecf Conductor"
F;,gure 2. [ shows, H" perfect conductor (u == (0) with a unit normal n at '(hie su rface. In the conductor the ·e·h~·ctrom:agneU'c field ls zero. At the s·~rr.ace the tangen~"·i8.'[ component of ~"h~ electrie 'field is continuous ,O.C·'I"OSS the boundary
and hence equals zero (Why?); thus ~
n 'X E ~ 0 (2.6,Q)
Likewise, the normal component ol 11 must be zero, since no magnetic Hux penetrates lnto the conductor; hence
n'··'fl=O
.J == III x II'
~
The ItU rrent density equal'S the tangential 'magnetic f1leld in magn itude but '~s oriented a ft 'right an gles to ,'t, The su rlace charge density ,P''! on the conductor ~s.
given by
The nux lines of DI terminate on the charge since there iiS no field within the conductor .
Boundary 0"1' 3:1il Irrnp'erfec'i Conduetor
A perfectly conducting metal does not exist, so h is, on'ly an approximation, and us,uaU~1' a very good O11:e~ to treat ·8. metal as a perfect conductor .. I'n an. actual conduetot, the electromagn .: eric fleld wi n penetrate, but ruts arnpf nude I'ans lo;ft
• II ~ d ,;, • t 'Ie. 1~~' ~  ~fFJ. h    ~ "!r ~ c:' '1.1" iiDl di ~ ill "3: nee ; n 'n 0 the
exponenttauy ~aocor fl1g ItO 'I~e Ire ih'llon Ie I',~ W' .er", ..;;. III",,' ~~'~ ..... ' 1J'~IIl~ .. _. I 'I .
conductor, as shown in Fig. 2.2" and IOf. is the sk.:iJn depth given b:y'
(.. 2 )"_ III
SS '"' t;,l'oU'
[(2,.7)
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H FJ'B,1IIln!' 1,1 B,~)undi3lf'r or~n ~mp~fr,e'ct 'COil dllllc~olli' :s,h[oiw~n R t be e)t penen m i~~' drec,~y 1~9 w . Th e Sill d,lce 'tesisu!J",~\e lelq'U ~ ~s t be ,dc' Ire S~1i I: anee of a $Q UJ.~Ul~ olr fiir"e f ~ I: Ol~ t h i ek nles~, 8;1.
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F'Of copper' '~H.h o ~ .5J.~, X t01' S/m, the S:ki[f~ depth equals only 6JJ x 103 ern at l MHz and is extremely SI113JI at 1000 MHz, where it equals 2.1 x 10·J em. FO'1i "lost practical purposes, the neh:J 'Can be considered as not penetrating into a good conductor S.tH:~lI as meta],
The ract that a metal has a !filn:i te conduct] vity impl ies 'rh at there will be sO_fne dissipation or ohmic loss in the metal. When 'it 15 necessary no account for this loss, the following approximate procedure, which is wkh~~y used to fi'nd the attenuation of lra.nsll:n ission lines, waveguides, etc .. ; may be appl ;e,~t First th e e lle~tr~~ agnetic nleid is fou nd assu n1l'i rig perf eel ,cOl'l'u:h.l.'ctivity ~ From the m rng.~ netic ,fi'elld II. thl~ surface current density .J'". is, then fO'ILI'nd using Eq. (2~6c)u. The ,3J:UJ,aJ e~~cl:r1:IC .. field t.angem1 t to ~he surface is rel ated to this current densit y bY' the relationship:
(2",8)
'where Z~, the sur·rac,e; impedance of ~he conductor, is given by .. ' i + i 
Z~ ~  _,' ohms per square
atJ'~
{2.9)
'The resistive part [/u6& ls the equivalent static 'or de resistance 'of a square sheet of metal of a thickness equal 'to the skln dlepmh ,8:& and with conductivity 1(" as shown in Fig." 2~2,. There is an equal inductive component due to the 111 agnetic field penet ration ~
'The power ~OS'S that occurs pe'lr unit aree rns given by the real part of the complex Poyn ~i ng vector r1 ux n ormal to the surface .8 nd is.
P, ~ R E II"'"' , '_ ~ i en'·· ..•. )If. ""~ ""
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EJUlJn1lp]e Z~l AC OOmptd~UI~'Cle 01 a. w'ire Find the ac hnpedanee per uni'i length for a copper wi re of d i a met er 0.4· em at] M Hz, as :SM own in F'i g.,. 2.~ 31•
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18 AN1rENN AS
The m i m1I U S 5 i gn a t 1'" e b e8J n n t11 g is du e to th e n orm 81.1 n bel 11 g directed outwards .. The asterisk denotes the complexcon] ugate vahre.
As cr ~ ends to in fi n i 't y" the ski n depth, su rf ace ; mped a nee, and power ]OtSS v an ish", A rue asure of how' SDl:aU 'the surface i mped ance IS· can be obtain ed b:y compa ri fl,g i~ wi th ~h e intri ns ic Im peda nee Z;o = (P,~lE(Jl~n. = 311 n 'of free space, For copper at 1 MHzr Z~ = 2.6 x 10~'~'(1 + i) n~ The small reletive value (llf' Z, means ,that copper is, 'very nearly ,fA short circutt or zeroimpedance surface at ] MHz; and at other frequencies as, well.
The above relations may be applied to any good conductor, t .. e., metal, as long, :3lS the radius of' curvature at the surface is several skin depths 'Or more .. For a very t~in wire of diameter only one or two skin depths. in va~ue or less" the results do n01 ,a.pply.

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Boundary between Two D~ele£triIC' Media
Figure 2.4 shows the boundary between two dielectric media with permijtjvities If 1 and 'El~ A't this boundary the tangen tiaJ fi'eld compenents are equal on adjacent sides SIO that
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By taking U1e curl or Eq" f2 . .3la).j using Eq .. (~t1b) and the constltutlve relations (2~'4), i'~: wi ~I be Iou rid] that
(2.12)
Filll..!llf'f 1.3" A. round cenductor 'wmthl aim] ~pp[;i'ed elect ric 'fh:drd ~
where KltJil ~ W(p.,oIEI~)ln is· the freespace wave number. This i.s the equation that must be solved to fi:nd the electric field directly in terms of (be specified cu rren t source J. In practice a simpler equation to' solve is obtained by lnrroducing tbe vector potential A and scalar potential 'ttl.
Since the divergence of B is iden'tica~ly zero, B can be expressed as
The diameter is more th:EU1661 skin depths 5,0 the wire can be described by ,3, surface impedance Z:!1~ The current density on the wire 'wi]~ be
E
J == ~
s Z_
s
B=VXA
because V .. V x A =. O. A is called the vector I,otentiat By using Eq. (2.1.3) in F,q. (2~3.a)" wee obtain
where E is the axi al electric 'field along the wire. The total curren t iSI I =::: 2'1faJj and '{hie voltage drop per unlt length along the wire equals E' ;n vahre .. Hence, the ac impedance 'per unit ~ength is Ell or Zif.JZ'1r,a. Numerically,
Z = 2J»( mO~(l ~t) = 0.0207(1 + H !lIm •
2ff x 2 x 10
v x (E + iw'A) = 0
An y fU11lctrnon w'i th zero ell rl can be expressed as, the gradien t~ of a scalar Iunct ion ~ thus we ca n assu me th at
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E + jWIA ~  V'cfJI In order (ha~ Eq. (2.3b) will hold, we reouire
'V X 1t@IH = V x V x A
= jMlLlrJ~ oE + p. oj
..,;", J'·iJlJin. if' It J"w ,A _. V'(()l) +u . '1
. ,r""'O I' ' ' rO'"~
(2.14)
nX E~ = 'OX ~ n x HI == n x ll2
1(2.1. 'tall (2.] 1b)
t
f
We can 110W. US~ the expansion V x V x .4 = V'V'" A  V1A to obn~.ln;, ;a.her a rearrangement of' terms,
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So far on ~y t he curl (;( ,A is ftxed by the relation f2.,13).. Thus, we are still free tQ specify the di'vetl'efiilce of A. In order to silnp~ify the equation for ,J\. we choose
V ,t A =: ~.ifJJ'lL.otd.lrlb (2.,15)
\I~ih ich is k nown as the Lorentz ,C(",~d,il:·io·n. Our eq u ation (lor. A now become s dl'~ runhomogeneous. Helmholtz equation;
FUNDAMENTALS· OF EL'ECTROMA,GN~TIC R,Ao[AT10N 11
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V1A + k~A" = ~p..wI'
[f Eqs, (2.1.4) and (2.15) are used in Eq, (2, .. 3c)~ satisfies a sin' ilar equation, n amely,
(2~ 16) i't w'iU be tound that.
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. VV~A
E =  JfiJ' ,A + ,. ___..JWp..,@,~O
However, the charge is not an independent source term (0'1" tjmevarying fields, since ;,t is related to time curren t by (hoe continulty equetion [(2~3e), and I't is. no,t neCeSS3J"'y to solve for the scalar poteTll'ti:al,tI_)" By u:dng, the Lorentz condition 1[J Eq. (2..14), we 'can find the eleetric field in terms of the vector potential A :alo'ne
by means of the rel arion:
(2.20)
'The simplification obtained bY' introduchrg the vector potential A may be el'ppFl~;'Cia:ted by considering the case of a. zdireeted current source ,J = J~"a,ft' in which case A = Az8z :a.nd A1, is a solution of the scalar equation
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TtH~; equation satisfied by the electric field is a vector equation even when the cu rren t h ~S' only ,3 single cornponen t
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'~/("~, r) =. C1 e /AO"+jwf
Now k  wlc where . . t.... )~Jl.' th ~I
. . (DI  , ' '.,~ : ' .' .' Ie = \f""~IE'D' m s. II . 'e s p,eelll o'f ~ i,g'h ~ ; 'n 'f rete sp,a,ce", so
,t/I(r" t) ;:;: C1 €joo(~rlt) [(2.22)
Thisis_ a ~ave solution corresponding to an outward propagating wave, since the ph,~,se ts ~e~?rded "by .~be factor kf)r _ and the corresponding time dle'~ay is rlc. .. The o.th~rsoluuon ~Ith (he constant C1 corresponds to an inward propagating spherical wave .an~ 'IS not present :3S, p,a.rt 'Of the solutlon for radiatlon frorn a leu rren t elernen t located af r == O. Our solu tion for A~ 'is, 'hOW seeh I 'ld b~' o'r the
f orrn· . . J~ ~. . j'
I  ~iI! ~ • l J ~
I . ~
~ , :
..
+
Figure 2,5 shows a short, thin filament of current located at the origin and oriented along the z 2XJS. For (his source the vector potential has only' a 1;
com po ne'1111 t and m's :3 S,O~1J tion of Eq. (2.19}~ that is, 1_
(VI + k~)A% ~ 1L'~li
where .II: = IrdS and dS is the crosssectional area 0'( the eurrent fUifUtilent 0" lengfh ,d[ The volume dV' ~ dS [d' occupied by the current is, of infinjtes.tmal size 5,0' ~ h e so u ree ~ e rrn ca n be cons ide red as loca t ed at a 'pO'i n t. Th ere is spherical symmetry in the SO'W1rc:e distribution, so Ar wjl] be ,;j, fU,nel,jon only '0'( the radial distance r ,a,w',ay from the source, At will not be a fu(u:'Ho'n 10'1: t'~,~ polar angle (J or the azimuth an,g'~,e ~ shown ;n Fig. 2,S~ For value's of r nO'1
,1
fI ... . v,
. n
':~i
_" I i
i~~ 
to'
t, L :,
· '
.' .
.
· .
· i
= J: V A.% .. , a, 'I;' sin 61 die d,t/J r5
11 A MlJ"EN N AS
In order to relate the constant ,Ct to the SOlU"'Cle strength, we integrate both slides or Eq. (2. 19) over a small spherlcal volume of radius rtl. We note th:a.t ·V2.A;r ~ V w VA~., so upon using the djvergence theorem we ObUJJ1n
and eonsequ ent'ly
~  kjl J' Al; ·dV  it 01 J s, d'V
~'V '\1'
We now U5'f; Eq, (2~ 1.3) tOI obtain
1 V" , .~ I dl sin, 6 (iklo, [.)"  rl~ ~
H:::::!:~" )(,A~ .==+~ lie' ~Iil;ra.,
/LIDI 4'1f' r ,2 " ,j
and use Eq, (2.,lB) it) obtain
Now dV = ,2 sin fJ dlfJ d,r; dr ,and A:: varies as l/r'; consequently, if we choose ,ra van;s,hingty small 'ttHt volume integral of AI" whlch is proportional to r:~.~, vanishes. The volume integral of J~ gives J~ cdS dl = 1 dl, which is. the ~ortaJ source strength. A115,O
VV'~A E= jMA+ ~ .. ~~
JIWp..'ml~I~'
i~J dl " (iko. 1 )" _,~ , .
~ ~ ~ ,I~ ICOS ")1 . = i + J' e .1""'0' B"
21TK~ , r '.
"71~ dl ~'. "2 'ok 1
 J; 'k'_ sin til ( KO + J1.0 + _ ~) __ ' e ~~'a,
, "1T"Q '"r,., "
~ ErR, + B~ae
Urn l' f' (I + jklfJrOI)C, e,jk'~fd sin e d(rdt/J = ~41T'Cl = ~ lLoI dl
~LOI
~ When r is large relative to the wavelength ,A'I~l~ tbe 'only' hnportarrrt terms an: those 'that vary as 1/,. These terms, make up tJ)C f:ar zone, or radiation field, and are
,
~.
o 0
Ou r (, n al sohnion r or 'thee vector potent ~a~ is, eji1w
A ~ ~n/,dl a~
4nr
(2,.24)
!
L
!
I
I
(2.29b)
. . . .
We note 'thai ,in the far zone the radiation field 'has transverse components only; that is, both E and II are perpendicular to the radius vector as well as perpendicular to each other .. The ratio 'Of E~. to ~. equals the hl'tr~nsic impedance Zgl ~ {p.ot€fj)lrnn. ,o,f free space, This, is a general fe.ature of the radi a no n fi ,e'~ d f rom ,8, n Y' an te n 1m·3., ] n v fOC t or form, 01t1 e al W';9 ys ft nds th:a t the
radiation fi,eld jn the. farzone region satlsftes the relations '
The vector potential is an outward propagating spherical wave wHh an amplitude that .decreases ~nverge~y wi~h d~stanc,e+ The surfaces or constan] phase or constant tinle delay are spheres of fI,x,ed radius r centered ~:'Hl the source. The phase velocity of the W8JJle is the speed 'Of light c, or 3 x lOS 't.~1./s .. T"lJ1e distance ~h3~ corresponds to a phase change of 2'W is the wavelength Ale] and may 'be fnund lrorn the relat ionship kloAo ~ 211; thus
211
AIIl~ =
,kfll ,wl2n f
From our solution for the vector p'otent~a.~ we can readily' hind the electromagnetic Held by using Eqs. (2. t3) and (2.t8}. This evaluation is best done in sp II~ e ri cal coo rd il nat es, 'so 'we f rs t ex p res'S A ii n t er ml S '0 [. co m po n e 1m fts 'i n sph e r jilt i I
coordinates by noting that (slee F:ig., 2,5) or" •
c
E = =.,. Z~I.. )( II
'IJ 11" e
H' = V..J!i1 )C. E, ... J'rr ,~
(2.,)O,a) 1(2,.31061')
4 ;;;: a cos (I  :a~ sin (J
P.:!: ,, __ • 'I;!'
where Yo, ~ Z;1., This spaUa'l relationship is 'inu~~rtr,al,ed in Flg .. , ~Ji _, . I. _
We also note l1l8.1 both Be and H. vary as sin 9. Thus the radiafM ~eld is not OJ spher'~cally symmetric outwardpropagating wave as w·os fO'und (or the vector pot en U al, Th i s is a.i SIO a genera i f e a tu fie of an rad i a_ tion ft'cidS='1 he electro magnetic Fad i at'ion field can never :h ave complete spherical symm,e try ~
H·
(2.31 )
Fi,glllrll"~ lJi S p,jjl~'i al lIfe~,al i o'f!l:~.h i~ p fer t h,e e h;:£~if;C' and n~ agn e~ ie !Ii e Ids. rnll the r 3Jdi~t i OIl" Z'Il)'ne.
fj'el.d db~,1tributii·ons from a short current filan1en~ and an electric dipole" respectively,
A~thoMg'h '(hie '1'1Iear~:ZO'f1e ne~ds, do not con tribute ~:O' the radiated power, they do represent a storage of' electric and magnetic ener,g:~' ~n Ulle space lmmedjately 811 rrounding the an tenn a and a·ceoun'( for the reactive part o( the impedance seen ~oo'kif1g, into the antenna terminals. Thus, except Ior ii~l1" pedance calculations, the nearzone fields are not of great interest.
We could obtain the complete complex Poynting vector ~E)( U· by using the complete expressions 'for ~he fields, Jf this is donee; ; I: wi I~ he discovered that the real part ,(heparl that will give rise to radiated power. involves only the rad ia 't i om 'Ii e lid :9. I!1i d' is, gi ven by our ea rl Ie r ex pressi on [Eq ~ (2.31)].
.., 4 SOME DASJ'C AN'TE'~NN'A' 'p~ AR .l.M·ETERS:·
~ ~ . •... ~ . :1  '. .:. . ~ ,_ ..•.... .~'. '. .~ n " .~ t: . '
R ad~a tion f rain a short eurren t fi lam ent is common I y called .d ipo,lle radiatio«. Since a short [current filament may be viewed as an elementary antenna, it has associated w~lr h it a nu mber ocr basic ch a racterjst lcs described by parameters used to characterlze antennas i1n general. In this section we w'iM introduce these parameters and U~u.stra~e them using, the short current fi;~amle",l as an example.
Radia'(ion Patl~ern
The relative distribution of radiated power as ,8 f~ncHon or direction ~n space is 't hie radi arion pat tern or the an ten n am For the eleriren tary dirnpole the radiated powe r v 3 r ies acco rd i n g to s·ii n I tJ,~, as Eq ~ 1(2.3, m), sh O'\\,S ~ 1 'h e rca d i a I i 0 11 pat '(ICrU ~ s simllar '1.0 the rigure ,8 revolved about an axis." as shown in Fig. 2,,,,70;., It is co m morn pr ae I: i ce to s h ow pI a. n car sect ions olf' ! h e rad ~ at ion pat tern ; til stead of' the COtl1 p~eu!; threedi mensional surf aee, TIle two Ul05/l inn port ant views are Ul os e
•
of' the principal E ... ·plane and llp~ane patterns, The E'''r~tane pattern is, a view
or 'file rad:i,a.Hon pattern obtained from a section containing the meximum value of the radiated field and in which ,[ he electric neld lies in the plane of th e chosen sectional vlew, Similarly, the H·"p1lane pattern is, a sectional view 111 whh:Jm the H 'field lies in the ptane or the section, 'and again the section is chosen to Con lain the ma:dmum direction of radiation. TIlIE~ Eo and IIp,lane patterns (0'(" file dipole an tenn a are shown in ~Fi,gm 2~ Tb ,3 nd 2m 71c~
The halfpower beam wid!h is usually given for both tile prlnclpal E ... and cl/·plane patterns and ·is. the ang,u~ar width between points at which the. radiated power per un i ~ area is oneh aJf of tile m ax iJ~m urn. For the dipo lie '[ hie B'p1 ane halfpower beam width is 90", while the Ii plane does 1101 show a halfpower beam width, si I1Jce the p,II'n tern is a coristam circular pattern 'in the H plane e
1(2.3lb)
~ In, , • 1j"
An antenna does nol: radiale li'n~form'ly in an djrecfions. The variation of the 'iin tensi·ty ·w'; ~h direction i I'~ space is described by the directivity funetjon D( fJI, ~I)
%,.
1'1 is rrow round ~hat by using, EqSL ,(2.33) and 1(2,,314} D(fJ, ,,) ~ 1.5 s,in?' 6
(2.36)
J
1
~ I l :
I
The maximum direcUv~'ty is t.5 and occurs in the 8 = .,,/2 plane.
The Jf1,Ql:,rnlUlfl ,d,ir€CI'iv,ity, which etten is referred to simply as the direc,'ivUy~ is, a measure of the' ability of an antenna to concentrate the radiated power in a ,B~v,en direction. For the same amount oil radiated power, the dipole produces 1 ,$ thnes the power de~lsi~y in the (jl = wJ2 direction that an isotropic rad i ,8 to r would prod tI ee, An; sotropi,c ,adi'at,or or IQ n.,',e'ntl,Q: ms :0 Ii ct i t i ou s an tenrta that radiates unitormly in ,all directions and is: commonly used ;11,9 ,Ol, reference.
The gain 'oF an antenna is defined in a manner similar to that for the directivity, except tha 1 the total 'iinpu~ power "to the antenna rather than the ~o'ral r3Jdim,h~~d power is used as fh,e reference, The difference 1~ a measure or the em'c;i,cncy oJ the an tenna: tha.t is,
Ft'Rure :J~ 1 (a) Po~',e If f"ad~.~non IM1t tern "'or sho'rt cu f1rem t fillme'n 1:. (b) fri~,dple Ii plane ,,..at ~ern ~ (c') Pri n'cipaJ 11. p;1 ~ pre pattern,
l
,
where J7 is the efficiency, Pin is t he total input power, and P, is the ~ot nl rad ~ated power. Mos,t antennas have an ·emc~encY' close to uni ny iu The ,ga.'in ,()F an an teu n a m 3,Y be stated as fo·MoW5':
(J"(6, ,.,1..)1 ~ 417" POWI!!;' _f_.adhlted pe~ u;ni'l so,Ud ,a,ngl'e
." ~ ~ . ~
mput power
,dP./dfl _
;;: 411 r = ~nDt6 _~.)
pi "' \, ¥'.o
in]
(2.38)
(2~1 3'3)·
••..•. , •• ' t. '.::'
ror the power radiated per unit solid angle. The deli n ition 'Of the d·irlec'fivhy function D'(9, fJ) h;,
... ._] I. pow'er fadbll.te~ per unit ·scUd a.ng~le. ~ _=
D(6, 4» "" a\lerag~ power radiated per unit solid angle
,I I It,
1
~
, ,
The maximum gain, or sinIply gain, of an antenna is a more s~gnif1c'an~ parameter in practice than the d'i rectivity, even though 'I he ~ wo are closely related,
The gain or an anten na is often incorporated into a pa rameter 'ca,Uled the eRe',eli've isotropic r(J,diQ,t€d' pOlw',e',r~ or E1J~;]PI' which is the product (~If the ;inpuf power and the maxi mu rn gain. [Is sign ruficance 15 ~haft an an ~ en n 8, with a gain of 10 and I ·W of mnplu~ power is. just as effective as R,11 antenna whh a gain o·f' 2 and an input power 01£ 5 W., Both have the same UJ W of ,eR"ective isotroplc radiated
power + Thus mnplU power C8,n be reduced by using an an tenna with a ·h igher gamn. 1111 later chapters we win find that the ,gai:n of an antenna is proportional ~() ruts crosssectional area measured in wavelengths squared. Thus, very high gamn antennas are usuaJly found only' ~n the microwave band, where :a wavelength is ,3 ~1f!'V' een timeters or less,
1
j j
, 4
~ :
! I
II• s: (~'Ir,.. d,\;2
'_,I . >l®'~O·iJ
P, ~ 12: ..
.... 1'1'
• •
J
Radia.ltion R eslS·r,9111 ce
The r;adi.alion resistance or an antenna is. that equivalent resistance \,ihmch wOl'l~·ld dissipate the SIHle amount of" power as the antenna radiates when the cu rrent in that resistanee equ als the input current at t hie antenna rermlnals. For the dipole an tenna the radiet ion resistanee R,~ ~s fOI·M nd f rom U!111! relation
Ml~l R, = P; When we use Eq. (2.315) for' P" we And that
~ '1. Zo(ko d,f)'i. .... 2(dl)1
R = = 8011 ~
. ~ 61T . Afj'
upon using ZI) '" 120v,.ko = 2,"/Ao. As an example, consider dl "" 1 III and Ao ... 300 m, corres.ponding 10 a frequency of t MHz. Toe l"adia.Uonresistance equals 0.00840, which is very small, Althougb the dipole is not a practical antenna, the above example does iUUSltll\te the general result that the radiation resist ance of an antenna that is a small fraction of a wavelength long is very small, Such antennas usuallv also exhjbit :8. v,ery hi:gh reactance and a 'v'ery poor efficiency, which in turn means v,ery tow gain. In small antennas most ,of the input power is dissipated in ohmic losses instead of being radiated. An efficient antenna must be co~npar,able to '9. wavelength in size. It is Ior thls reason that antennas at low Irequencies are o'r necessity simple structures such 8:5 t'ne very high towers used in tile radio broadcast band 500 to 1500 kHz, where the
wavelengtb rartges from 1600 down hJI 200 m.
(2.39)
.18 A N'fEMNAS
(2.4fl)
Figure 2.S shows a small current loop of radius 'il" area 1T'~,. and with a current l. The axis of the loop is, oriented in the z drur,ec'Ho'n~ For r~ ~ ,Ao the loop m1ay be treated as a poilnt source, A smatl loop of current. is called a. ~1uJ,gn,eti'c ,dipo,l,f?,
and irs magnetic dip!l)l'e moment equals the product of the area 'with the
current ,. tbus
• r ~
~~h~'is. ,'iinte,s.r~'1 is d'iiffi:~II'1 .t~ evaluate unless, we make certain spproxlmations in the expression for R. We are prlmarily in~ere~rf.'ed in the farzone radiation rieldr so ""Ie Ic~an ,a~:~!l1It1ne ~h;all, r ~ ,~o. 'We. have already assumed 'I.hat to 4: AI··' so lO'n! ~ .. ! .. B~ Imposll1~g dl~above condirions we' can replace R by r in n the ,~.~phtude ~ 3ICh.JIl" I/.,R.: ~lth reference ~o a,. spherical coordinate system x ~
r sm If] cos ,J.. 'iJ = r SUl fl '~Ul..1,. , d :z  1 L 1 + 1 h ..
.. .. '. tp,! _ ' ~ ..  I.;J '''P'~' ,B.n r  X ~r Y' z. so t e expression lo'r R can
be rewntten m the 'form
R ~ (12 + r~ ~ 2"01 sin r(J(cos tfJ cos ~I + sin ,c/J' sin ,t/JI''))In
W,e now drop r~1 relative 10 ,'1. and use '{hie bino:l11ia1 expansion (l~ U)Hl = ~ + ,u/2 for [Ilui 4 1 to obtain
. ..: 1'1 ~
L •
(2,.40)
R =r ~ r 0 sin fJl(C:OS, ¢ C()S ttP ~ + sin ~IJ sin ,tP ')
I 11 th~ exponential [tID ~ction e itilliR' we w~U have it term in VO~V1 ng k'MlrO when we subst u~ tc o,ur' approximate expression r 01" R,. 'BUll klll,r 0 e I" 8,0 we can use th e approxtmauon e" ~ ~ + U' for lu] ,~ ]1 'to obtain the f'o1~o'wirng s:imlp~if1'ed torrn:
eJ~o:R ~ ej~Iit}'[l + J~k .,~ a(· . .J. A..~'. ~.. '··1 '. . 'O'®l sm v 'cos ~l eose + sin 'P' sm qJ' t)]
'By using these approximations the integral [Eq .. (2 .. 41») for A becomes
. 1 , .
. : ,
 II' '
'!' i
The only terms that do rJo't integrate to zero are the cos' t!J' and sin1 f/Jj' terms both of which give a ra·t~or of tr. Hence the 'firult expression for ~the vector
FilUfile ,1,.8 A SW!l11:aU I~'!J nerti ioolp iii.
~he xy p18!me. . ~ ~ ,
. ~ .
frequencies atmospheric noise is o'ften the ~imitinl. factor, so ,a. more emCie~T~ antenna does not necessarily give better receotion. OJf course. a s·m:a.n loop antenna would not be used. for transmi'IUn,g purposes unlless very' short dis .. tanees were involved and '(hie poor ,gain could be tolerated. Tille I,a;~n of a small loop an te nna is very 'low because the oh mie resistance 101 the wlt,e is ,gem erall y much greater 'ths'll the radlatien reslstanee ..
I . ~
'J
, ;
: i
1 i
, !
, ~
, ~
j k1nPili( "r~/) i ,0  jk~i'
A = . srn ~. Ie' .a,~
41T,f
where 'we have also put. ~;a~ STml ,..; + 8.y COiS I~ == R.~. _ _ . . _. • ~
\Ve. 'C~Ull 'find the magnetic intensity " by' using Eq .. (2+ 13)~ w'lnch g,~ves
] _ 1 a , . .
H ~ ~ V)(: A ==  ~~ (rA<JJa,~
p.'fJ p..,al' iJr
(2 A]2) l ... ~q." :.
,
, ,
_
.
. f
,
i
I
I '
In thils section we win present some useful formtdas for calculating the f':!!iI r  zone ra dis,! i on fi el d f rom an arb i f: r:a r)~ d'is't rib u t lon of ell. rre n t ~ ICO~1 side r a volume V w".th a. current dlstributlon ,J{["')l as shown in Fig, 2,.91• Thlc current element ,J(r·I') dV' w~n contribute an amount
,u,ol( r~) Itl V'I' __ ;k .. :R
If' ~' 'Il'
41TRI to the tOI'ra! vector potential \lihlere R = 1111"  rJ~ .. 1 n the r arzone region I'rl: ~ ~[Jrj'1 for a.1~ rr~ in v.. Thus an rays Irorn the various eurreut elements to the Iarzone tiel d point can be eonsidered '10 be p ara I 1. If; 1 to. each other, as shown ;n Fl g, 2.9. Thus ~a useful approximation 'for R' 1:5
We can replace R by r ilm the amplitude term fOlf the vector potentlal, since this has, a negligible leO'lf;ct 0111 the :ampJi'l'lJd'e of each elementary contribotlon when r ~ r' .. Hence in the far lome we obtain
~'I: e' ~ J.J.:·IFjJJT' J
A (r] == rO l_c .J('r'), e,/"ipc~+r' d"Vj'
, ·4m·. v'"
Mk;1 S;ln (J ji~. ('2~'4J).
::::  _ e a~ "
4"r
where M'; V"" I and 'is 'the dipole moment of the small current 1,?lop '. In the radiation zone ~hle electric fi'e'~d is related to " by the simple ex .. pression (2.,30,a)~
'W h ich g.m v es
MZ:: k'l , .: ,. ,n ./ 0 . Ill· SUl til' _  1:, r
E:::::  ,Z®;ar 'x II = 4 e , (il a,j
'·W'
(2 .. 44)
These expressions show that the role o'f 'the ,e~e,c~'ri.c and _ m,:o:g.n,eth::. nell~s f"~r magnetic dipole radiation have been interchanged from then" role Ul electric dipole radi ation, However, the radi ation pattern and directivity have not
changed. . ,
The total radiated power is given by
' ';
'.
H
, L
~,
'!12n
The fud'i ~.~ :inrru resist ance of t he ~oop m a y he [ou Il!lJ hy eq u a t 1r'rug j~ I r~ I{~ to P; A fter si rn plification 'we find 'Ih at
_.
!!
 ,
.,j~. ,D'iii 
'!:if  r  i!'~ !!!.( .. ~!!!III"
R'~"'8,~r
9CCOUId the r,dalive phase angle or .)al.h~l,ei'lglh phase delay of 'each conI ribu lion, Since the current elements do not, in general, contribuleill phase, illl.erference elTect!! are producedlhat may be explolted to control the shape oE the radia.tion paUem. In the I'H!X\ chapter we will examine the use of such in terf erence en ects to produce high ... gain dtrective radiation beams.
We can find the flelds E and II [rom Eq. (2.48) by using the relations (2.13)
and (2.18). When onlv the terms varying as IIr are retained. it is found lhal
'k, ., , e ji:(lf
E() J oZo f [ '1' (,. ~')'''' )' ( ,11),.] , ~I:.O'I\I".l',. _.J v
r I := a ~ r 131 ~, I r e,'\A « '
. '. ,~ 1ft 'V' r '~. '.' ,!".' .
[ ,
I I
(2 . .49a)
1(2.49,b)
Tb e 'F 0 rm of 'I h e 111 t e g ra nd 1M t hils ex pressi on show'S t h at 111 a ,g iven di rec t i on "~, as specified by the unH vector a" It is only the current pefpendi,eularlo ft. that contributes 1.0 the radiallon field. The reason for this is that tile radiation field
along ~he axis of a current element is zero]"
When the current is, ,8 line current l' along a contour C~ the'lil Eq. (2,.4,9a.)
can be 'f. x press ed 'i n '~, h e [o 1"'111
, (). jkraZ'r; e  fkm! I ( )' '~I' ( .. ,i')' ",~: ....... "iJI". d~.t
El:r ~ . _', ,:ill, ,~ III a, ~ :a.ll ,( ... e,''' v~ ,r.
4wr c
(2.5,0)
where a is a uni t vector along [C' in the dn rection of t l~e; curren ~.
From Eqs. (2.49a) and (2.50) we see that the electric l1eld has the [ann
'"kZc e,lleu!"
E(' r)l = J ij Q 1«(1 ~)" ('.2,.51)',
.' 41rr' . tp .
wl1erel(O, (f,). which is given hy the integral. describes the radiatlon amplitude paner" or the angular depencilence or tile radiation distrihution in space. The o~ her r actor e  Ii or l41f,r is the ou t*iv,~rdpropti:gating spheril1cal 'wave f'u'I1,ction ..
One of the simplest pnlcticallintenn3S i1l the h.df·w<lve dipole antenua shown in Fig. 2. m. It is usually fed hom a twowiretrallsmissiol1 line. Each arm of tile antenna is very nearly onequail"lcr wavelength long. It has been round both theoretically and experimentallyl.hat the current dis.trlbutioll on a. thin halfwave dipole antenna is doselyapproximated by II sinusoidal standing wave 01
the f'onrn
1 ...
! I
~
:'
• .
i
The current is, 01 necessity. zero at the ends where z = ±Ao/4 We can lind the farzone ndiated field from the hallwave dipole antenna by using Eq. (2.50).
g; v e n ~i n ,t he previo us seeti on . 1~ ~'~ ~
fU N DAMENT ALS Of E.lECTROMA'ON lETl C R.AID'I A TION ~~';..'
'.' z
. ~
, ' '!
r
"WUh reference to Fig. 2.10, it is seen that the unit vector a :: a"t" r' = 2 'a '~,
and II.  8l "" cos O. Hence Eq, (2.5,0) gives •
"k' 1 7' l' A[tI~
 J l~l "o~, 'lit '
E ~. ,. e'J@"('!!iI, .... [05·J]I)··""nis· k' ~,'' eJ'~l'~ is dz ,
47rr ' };,m/4 . ~iI" lb·.· V' iA:z: r ........ , ',. 0& , .....
_ #oZo . it~. cos(i COS 0 )
. 'e ' " ,ad
2 »r si n .(}'
The fTll8,gtlefic rie1ld ls given by Eq. (2+49b) and 15,
. cos ('" cos (l ),.
II  fl·  jI 0 j~o. 2
~ e '4'B,r$ ~ 21;f,r e ~s'~i~n~(j"'~~ a,dt
The power flu,lIt 'per un:it area is. given by
~ 'Re~ Ex: 0* ~ Vir == ;E,I~:
(2.54)
(2.55)
The total radiated power is obtained by ~ntegrann,G this expression over the surface of D, sphere of Tlldius r; thus
,gain is, also very nearly equal to 1.,164" I'~ also tlJJTnS OU~ '(h at when the dipole 'is a h a Ii f ... wa v e ~ ~ 'I1i gth 'to 1m g (act u al I Y' a [lew pe r ce ~ t Iess) t Ii e i IltpU t re at: t ance 1'$ zero, S'O the in pu t i mpedance ls essent iiaUy equal to the radi ation resistaace.
2~8 ANTEN'NA IM'PED,ANCE: lEXP'ERIMlE,NTAL
The impedance seen looking into the terminals lor an antenna is, :3'11 hnportant parameter that needs to be known ~n order to d'es'ig;n a network ther win provide a conjugate impedance match to the transmission line, The latter is tilecessary in order to obtain m,~,ximum plower transfer from the source generator to the antenna, Id,e,aUy the input impedance should be a constant resistance equal ~o the j':adia'tion resistance, in which case the antenna can be connected directly to a, transmission '~ine with a characteristic lrnpedance Z equal to rhe radiation _ resistance. Th is idleaJ condi I:ion is essen ti,a,r~}~ ach i~ved for ~ h e reson an ~ h alfwave di pole anten n a. over a band width or a. fe'w percent ..
_ Let the anten na ~mpedanc,e be Z:ti and ~et the antenna be coupled 'to a 5,1 ,g n a r so u rce by mea n s o,f a t ra nsrn i ssio n li ne 'W i 'I h c h a ra c t er ru st 'icc ~ rnpeda Ii ce Z ~ '~s, shown '~n 'Fig,. 2. [2. A~ the antenna terminals a reflection coefficient r ghJ'C;l by
(2,.57)
When '\VIe equate fil'is, expression to ~~lO~l R~v we find 'lh:at the radiation resistance of the haltwave dipole is 2 x ,36.,56; 'Or 13.,13 R,,, TIle tr:a,n~H1i1iss,ioln line th.~u feeds the half .. wave dipole should have a characteristic irnpedsnee of 1'3,,140 for
m,3X]'[nUIn powler transfer.
'T~'H! directivity functlon (or the halfwave dlpl~,)1e is obtained by using Eq.
(2&5.$) multiplied by "j; and Eq. (,2.,57) in the defining, relation (2,.3,4) and is
D'(8~ 'rfJ):= t.'64[COs(w~2COS 6)]2 (l.SS)
, 'sIn 19 ~
The maximum directivity 'is, 1.64" which is, onlY' a modest increase over the valne 'of '1 ~5 for the short current fi ~ament. The radiat ion pattern in the B plane is shown in Fig. 2.11., TIle halfpower beam w'idth is 1,8°, wbieh is only' a small amount less than the 9100 for the short current fi]ament,,, The "lost inl'port,an't diiff erence between the short electric dipole and the 11 ali'w'ave dipole an ten n ,H. is that the Iaeter has 11 radiation resistance of' 73,.13· (1, 'which is much larger than the ehrnlc resistance wou ld be for most practical ~um ten n a structures .. Thus, the
r Zit  Z;
:::::: .
z,iJ + .Zc:
is produced. This mism ateh resu Us, in ,3. part ma~ standing W,3'Ve on mission line, with a voltage standing wave ratio (VS\VR) given by
VSWR "" • + If!
'n Irl
1 I
I I
, I
! '
I
10
I
F11111 re 1,,11 Prirnlc'iJ)aJ E plane radi ~uion ',attern ('or a 'a'lfw'lveh,=~nlnl di,po'h~. ari1ltenn.i.~
..
• 1
.
f See J. A. ~Ulfa~toni' Elr«t.ro~~~tl:gl~eltk '1Jur'o,",'t M,c(h~8iw~Hm Book .Cornp1iJl1l)l''I! N'ew YOirk~ 1.94'1, I Sec. ,~:.1~
~ E. ].Ihnke ,aflld 'F'~ Em.dlel T"abl.'ej of F.~~~c;l1·o\J'Ll_J" Dover pubnca~;I~nlSlo Ne'~ York, 19'45,
FliUU' 2 ... 11 At half'W!lrlle difl'ole ;aml~emWilltt ~o!JpI16d to a ~If:ansm[~s..~,io,~ Uml'e.
J'fi' ANTENN AS
The 'impedilnce match is, us,uaUy considered ~Icceptabt,'e ,;,if ~h~ ,"VS:,~ i_s, l~s~, '~h~nl 1 +5 .. A 'VSW'R of ].5 corresponds to a reflection coefficient ,~1 I ,~)f 0.2 Of a power
reflection coefficient 10'( OJJ4, or 4 percent, which is acceptable. a,
The calculation o,r: antenna impedance is difficult because it requires
accurate expressions for the current eXlcitl~d on the antenna :3Jnd ;~he re~uhant nearzone lTe31CUVIe fh;dds," The radiation resistance can be [ound qurte easily and is no'! a sensitive (unction ,of '(he current distribu tion ~ 'However, an accu'rat7 evaluation of the reactive component does require an accurate lex:p'~,e8s1Ion for the current distrlbutlon. In 'the next section the theoretical evaluation of the
antenna impedance is outlined,
The antenna impedance is related to the radiated plo'w'e'r, dissipated power,
and stored reactive energy in the 'foUowi~1,g w:a,y:t
.' PI' + Pd + 2jw(Wm ~ W~)
Z" = . ;lw1 ~
where P, 15 the radiated power, Pd is. the power dissipated if~ ohmic lo'sse~" Wm 'i 5 fh e a verage m ,a.g n e tlc en e rgy 'I' ~!!' is the avera lie e I ect rille e nergy stored :i n t he nearzone reactive field, and .10 is tbe iinpnt current at the antenna terminals .. When the stored magnetic and electric energy are equal, :3 condition of resonance exists, an.d the reactive part of Z~, vanishes For a Udn dipole antenna this occu I'S when the an ten na length is close 'to :8. mul ~ iple of :3. 'ha'if
wavelength, '
We '(~an calculate the oh mic resistance ~y finding the 'power dissipated in
the skin .. eflect resistance using the results given in Sec, 2.J~ Consider a ha If ... w a ve d ~ pole m a d e 0'£' ,3 copper rod YJ' i th r adi us '0. T~iH~~ to to ~ cu rre n t 00 (Ii the antenna ls 1~ cos koz, so the surface current density is, (lwi2fl7:~) cos "oz., The power d i 50S m pa t eel ~ s ,g ive n by (we :81 ssume t h at {rrJ ; s re ~d)
1 :2'lI'I" f A~/~ ( 110 ) 2 'cos1 k ot'
p~, ~ £ I ~nl dr/>, [,' dz
~ ~ ~~ 2,11'r: u3
, Inl '  ItIj9Jdi ~, I@ .'f
s l'
. Aa (~ IOI). 1 11
"" 2 ITr 0 "8 2 'lTr I)' d8~;;;;;:::il ijR
"
R ~ A,o _ (2.,62)
:81frnUI~
'IJ .:s:
As an example, '1Ie~ '0: (1.,5 em and let Au ~ 3 m (100 MHz). The skin depth. 10 copper at 100 MHz is ItS;f, = 6.,6 x toIi'm., We. th,e'f~ find tbat R' = 0,,062 fl" which, is negligible relative to the radiatjon resistance of' 13. '13 n. m'i the current on the antenna were u!rn~fOf'm, the ohmic resistance would be U(21T.rom5f)::= '\oI("hJ7itfTS~), according to Example 2.1. The reason Eq .. (2.62) is a factor ~f i
1
·
!
• t
•
less, is due 'to the ICOSii1IIlSI0~daJ current vartetion, The average value 0'1 cos' kfJz 'reduces, the diss'ipation by this [.ac'lor of ~ and hence makes the effeetive ohmic res lis ~ ance a ~ SIC)' ~ e:5S by t'h is sa m e ,3, mo u nt.
The general behavior o( the input impedance of a dipole antenna (d total length I made 'from a cylindrical rod of diameter d is shown in. Figs, 2.13 and :2, I 4 ~ Tl~ lese CUI rves are based on ac t u a'l m e asu re m e n ts c B. rr i ed out by B row n ani d Woodward, t
It is, seen that when ,f/Ao = O~,4a the reactance is, zero, 'T~is, ,is the rJrst
reson an { length and is the [ength at which R,Q' ~ 1'31 (1.. A,t 'resonance there an! equal amounts o'f reactjve [energy storied in the nearzone eleetrle and magneti,t(o; n e Ids, ~ t h ,8 t ~ 5" W(, = W~ ~ An 0'1, It e r resonan ce OCCU rs a't ,ll A 0 in t 11 e t. ange n '. 8 to
, 
(t9.. At 'I hi s po i n t the rad iatl on res i sta 11 ce is la r,l,e h ec a!!J se t he CUi r fen 'l ,a t the
Ieed point is very small, since 'the current stalt~d'ing 'wave on the antenna now' haa a minimum instead 0'£ a maximum at the input terminals, If ihe antenna is
'_
I
I
~ :
, I
I
• ~
_ ~
,(
1100 "
, I i I
, I
: I i I
'1000
, I
e; I
800
H
.(J
I
I c4,OO
, i' i
c, I
I : I
, .
: j
I •
~ ,
iJ
r 1
· I
•
0.25
t G. H. g,rown, ~illl'id O. M', 'W'ood'i!,\J::llrd;, Jr., ,uExped~:ne":(.!lUy Determined h~poo;~:!1ce Charae~ e~ms,t i es Oil' CyU ndri'ca II A. mtlen ri as,' ~ ~oc~ lR iii vol, 3J't 't94,5;~ pp. L251262.
lOO
_ I
_;,IIhiffl'l"ii I .... 1 "!::.r 'U'!.lJI
 ~OOO
I. 2S,
.1' 9 '.1'0
E'~.:T~~
..,.,._,....

·F;gu Ire 2" ~ 4 ~ n put re act alr'll'il:e 'of d if':nle ~ nte no 3 ..
n1.31de th id" ne r ~ this second reson ance point movies c10SIer to lIllo ~ 1, and the radi arion resist ance can reach values .of several thnusaru1 ohms. FOI' a ~hh:ker it 11 ten ns th e react ance and re5is~:ance a .. ~e raore nearly un iform ~ \wid, ch anges in ''''0' a feature which is desirable if the antenna IS to be operated over a band of frequencies. Additional resonances occur with each increase in I by >"012. Note :a~so that an antenna with II AO mlH.:Il ~e:ss, Ulan ~ h,a5 a very smal] radiatmon resistance :3 nd a large capacitive reactance. The an ten n a, lean be t uned t~o resonance w ~t1i1 an 1 nductor 3.~' the r·eed point, but the additional ohmic ~O~5 in ~ he ·i nductor reduces ~ he leffi'ci.enC'y. Th e oam1dw~dt~, is. :a150 reduced whenever t he an ten n a has a ~l:arglc. 1 nput fie act ance ~ hall m ust be tuned out
l~ should be kept i·n mind lha~ the input ~ntped~ru::'e iI's i·n"l1ueru.)ed in a
Tilolilnegligibleway by the capacitance associated with the physical junction where the transrnission Hn'e IS cO"l]]'ne'cted to the antenua. The structure used '~.O support the antenna, if all)" wilt!IJlso illftuencenhe input impedal1ce. Conseq !lently. tile curves given in Figs. 2. n3 and 2.1 4 should be viewed as
represen t at ive of .~ yp~ca~ behavior only.
_400
: I ,
~ ...
.....
j .~
~~ ....
iZ
j
~'i ,
2.9 ANTENNA IMPEDAN'CE: THEORETICA.L CONSIDERATIONS,
T11e theore tical calculation of antenna impled:a,nl~)e has been s.tudied by many authors, and a large number or specialized papers and several books deal
. . Jl J"O .' IknR.
A:z[(x~ )', X) ;; ~ ! 1,('" ")" d' ~
4" R' Z. '·2 (2£'1)
. _ _ _/;, . ~ .. .0., .
where R = 1,2 + ItZ. ~ :1')?]1,/2 .' ~ ','1 '. . ~.' "
1"1. . _. _ _ \ _ and , IS the cylll'ld ,,1' . ··.d'· .] .C'. . '
ne z component 0'£ the elect r ; .,' c· eld ~ ~. rrca ra I,a,. coordinate [(x2 +, J,l)JlIl
~ . ~ ..... !J., Iii: !'l'e '. 'IS grven by' ..
B ;;:;;; ~J"wA + ,1 ".'2 A.z 1 ( a'~ .'
,t ': :. ~ ~ ,.;;;;;;;.. ~, k:2 I ).
J'1(Y(J.o/L[ITJ iJZ2 l~wE"u" [0 ~. ~. , A~, (2.,64)'"
~ ~ ,[il!i".,..fl![ ,r}Z ' '.
The 'in tegral equal lo Iit'IiI ('0' r 1(::· Ii')' ~. . "b' ,.
_ d i ,~iI! II. . II< .' I Z IS 0 [t ;in n ed b ' ~
,(111 ItnposiJng the boundare co .~··d:. ,"~,,: . . ,'~ ".~ Y uSIng Eq, r(2Ji3)·. in Eq (·.'2··.·[ ~.o\t)··
~ glJ J ~. n I;,[l[ons [on Ecz; thus, ,~ ~. .U~
[(k~ + iP_)". J" I("z")' ej1coR d.' ., _;'  jru'f.IEg
OZe:2. .... , '~ l ~.
~ _,~ 41fR
[[ r~ b
[.1 ~ < ~zl < I ,
. . ,2 ~
\Vher~ R Is set equal to [0:" + [z  2')2J1I1 0 '.'  ..  .. '. _. . .' _
equat~oll was. firSI derived b Pocklin n th~ surface 'Of the rod. This integral
eou at I ... V ~' ~ .y C I rliglon I rI 1897 A ' . 'd"fi  ~ .'" .~
. '"11" ~vll1 wa.5. ~n t reduced b' "y~[.' l~ai'l[ ii" .. ,~ 19' .. 3 'C _ '., ".',. ~no ~ 1catl[on ot t h is
,~ ~ elm ~ n [8 and ~ ~ 1[ ...;"1i
nunle'dcatcolnlpU'(atio~l p 0;"'( .~' 'r ~ ~ H·· .. · ".. .' ts ssrnp er to de·a.1 with from a
i: _ . • [' . '.. O. \l1'I1:W alIel'l'S' I . I· • . ..[
1[1 rst solvurnd' :t he d' ~n'Qf;Qi'iIi'IiI ~." _ 'I[ '. __ " ~ ~ . ~ 'Ul e,gr.a,li eq·. U3[t ~o'n is d' ~ erived b '
to . _ .11 ... ,,, ... 19.: equatl()n.' .. _" .... " ... u .y
~ .
, ':1
,.'
3;
I j I
,
I
~I
',1
~ I
....
; ; !
, :1.
(
,
•
j 4
t
I ~ L
;\ III centered circular band of length b along the antenna axis. The radius a is assumed to be very small relative to the wavelength A," and the length tg• Under these conduions the nearzone field, and in particular tile field at the surface of the rod, call be found with suffident accuracy by replacing the cin:::umfereirdiaUy uniform cuuent on the rod by a line 'current of equal total strength located~t the center of the rod. There are, howev,e.r, himd:alt1entall limitations associatoo with this 3ssump,tion, a.ilidl1hese lire discussed later 011. The current js 311 unknown quantity and is to be found such that tbel'esu~tantl.ulgentia:l electric field cancels the applied Held over the band of length b and equals zero along the rest or the surface of lheperfecUy conduetil1g rod. 'TIle general nature of this model R1ilY be understood by cons.idering the syslem shown in Pig. 2.15b.
The system shown Itl Fig. 2..15bcollsislS of a thin, nal, ped,ectlyc:ol1duc:ling
I . h"" 1 '. a. • .' 'h~ ~ ....I Z~ , d A · f
I,!late to w rcn an e .eemc CIlClnt Wit· tmp'e",aJ'ice < IS connecte tun orrn
electric field E,a. IS applied to the plate. This will eause a charge displacement along the plate and a eurrent 10 to Row . The charge disp~acement and. current will produce an induced electric field (scattered field) that will C3r1Cel the applied field on thesmface (If the plate, since the total tangential electric 11.e1d must be zero. The voltage adingacros5 Z equalslmZ and is a1so given by~be line integral of the applied field taken from the bottom to the top (If the ptate, that js, by E,b "" V,. The circuit impedance equals Villi' The action of the assumed applied fidd acting on the dipo~e antenna is similar, Even though this
s ' '. 'I . h' .. ,' L,~ Iul d1[
IS not a pracllca. way 10 excite t_ e antenna, tt ts, nevertllelt!:ss, :II use 0,1 1110 e.
for impedance calculatious. The length b 1)1 the band over which Ule applied field acts is not critical as long as itis short felath!e to the antenna length. Later 011 ill the analysis it will be convenient to make the bandlengthb v~mlshillgly small. The capacitive ellecl5 associated with the transmisStOiI lincdipolcjunc;.. tion in it real antenna system is not dealt with when usililgthe above model. This means that the t he ore tic all val IJI es (;oflllpu~ed for the antenna in'lpedance will not neeessartly agree 'wlth men S 11.1 red values. 111 practic,c it is found that the mathemalklll model leads to impedance values that are surprisingly close to typical measured values. The mathematical model gives the impedance of the dit'lole fmh::nnailocU, while measured values include the effects of the input
'11 Ii ...
reg'I~)n crrcui ~.
A somewlull difiercnt model for the dipole antenna excitation is shown in
Fig. 1.15c. Il1lhis model the antenna is driven by 11 small "I'nagm::~ic:" current loop eubcr 1.11 the Iorrn of a band of length b or a disk of radiu~b. ln either case the impressed electric ~eld is hig~1ly peaked near the loop bUI does extend to some extent along tne I!Intenn3. However, this has a rather small eRect on the compul.ed value or IInpedance. so we will discuss only the sllflpler model.
The steps involved in calculating the input impedance are as foUows: _
~IJ' .' ~ ~
[
: I
[
,I [
: :
, , , ,
[
,I
[
: I
, 1
1
.[

~
.[
_ ., [ • . .;JI
L Assume all unknown 'cllrrenl distribution l(z'), with 1(0) being tlle value 'of I(z') at z' = 0, that is, at the input. and wilh l{z') equal to zero at z = +11).'
2. Find tthe z component of the vector potential and electric fi,eldinl.erms of
I (:t' ~).
·'1 "
[F'UNDAMENTAL~ Olt E.IlECl: ~.' .' "~ " ...
. _ ItOMAGNETIC ItAI[)IATTON "I
I m prose t 'h e bou '1''iIl d .. ,g. r 11 "'0 nd '. 'Il>... .
I!l,lI .~ 'UI ,.1 '!!;;;. [ ·'Uh.~ons
E. ==E
,~ :I'
r = a
r = a
011 file electric Held and '.' ~
~~lkllowncuHent .T(z'} . so ve Ihe resultant integral equation for the
.. fhle applied voltage t haj exci tes if .. I'll ~
1 d[" ~ ~ ~ Ull ~ an terma ii:" 'V ,I:'L
mpedance IS given by ... , = ell} and the inpul
Z' = /?,b ~' 1'(0)
. ~ 'The for~n;a" solution for tile vector t ,. .,
a ~~p'elpo~ltiol1 of the contribution p~ .enttaIA:(l',y, z) m~y b~ found hom
l(z )dz uSing Eq. (2.24). and is rom each currelltfilam.elJ~ element
b b
~~<z<
2 " 2
( dl . ~J~W€ ,;, C'
. " .~, . . " •. [O"""'m![C,
I~f. "~.' ~
d. 2 " ko)A:. = J'QJtE uE. !
Z 2, ~~~.~ 1
o
(2.[66)
j'l : I
I I'
I I·
: I
I,
, I
, I
· I'
; I : I
When b ifJ, very small, .and ~n pa.rt.ilclId~r. a.'S) b tends, to ze'f~, .. W'If: ~an~ lex~r,es~ ~.~~ a piP I led le'l ec't ric fi eld as :8. vol tage pu lse across a, ba n d of 1 uf n ~ teslmal le III lh ,t
thus tell
lim ie, = \~r
, ... ,.
E~ = V 8[(%)1 (2~61b)
, !..
where ,8(z) is the Dirac delta. function, W'h1i(:'h 'has U1e properties th:at
a:f%) = 0 z ~ 0 (2~[68a)
· . :
, I
"
. ~.
J . 8(z') d2~= 1 (1.6811)
_~
, I
The delta function used 'here is, the Binnie as th~t used in elrcuit theory, except
the argument is z Instead of the time t. .
With the above ldealizatien to a. band [of in'l1nitleslmnl'l length the vector
. .~ ~
'pot't,enlhd A;if is a solution of' the homogeneous equatton
I .
(2 £n.~)
... ",llJl:J·a .
,!
z~o
. d1
I(~+ k~)"' ,A% =: ~j6Jif:O~OV",8(z)
dz ;
the potential A, must be continuous, and the fi,"1 derivative of. A~, namely, dA''I}d:,z~ should have a step c'han,lle of am?unt ~ J,tljlEIOPI(J V, 8:t %,~_O,~, SOl, th~~ tbe second derivative 'w'in ha ve :0 n ,I rnpu lse of the sam e stren gt h, The bleh avior of
Aci 'in the vleinlty 0;[ Z '= 0 is shown in Fig,. 2, t6.
The general solution to the homogeneous equation over the in'ter'\"a~
L
I
· I
· 
•
,
I
d'~A", dz:1 I
d'AI' ! ,d'~'
.
I r .
. r
~ t
, .
!t
1=0
, .,' ."  '  ~ A!;lh :"1 ".". ~ ~ 1"v ,Alf the h~'nD t 1i\~'iJl,oin o!' dUi:
nR,'glrt 3 .. 116 'Beh:31v~or ,of th If!; vector 'po~lCn ~lill fun'~~.~IOfli ",' ,II! Llnl Ie v I ~Ul!";} W', "' t" ~ 0
antenn a.
z ·<0
= lel 'C'OS kr;;% + C41 sin k'fiJIZ Z >·0
where lei 'through C, are constants, In order 'lha~ AJ! win be continuous at Z ;;;;;: 0 we r[elq~ ire dl at IC'I::= Ie]" The derivative of' ,A,~. evaluated tNeh~l'eeh z =:' 0"," and Z" = O_ Uj
Since th e an tenn a is symmetrlcal about z =:;; Ol' both A~. and 15., \vili be even fu riel ions, of' t: ~ hence Cot =  C2 and then we find that
c, == jlJJp:0E'o 'V == i 1': . V
1 2k~1 I :2 (i1J..~ g
upon us~ing, wP.lllrfo  ko Yo,u.o· The 8;0"1 u tion for A~, along the a nten n a 8U lir ace rns U1U5·
•
A~ "" ~ ~ YolLo V,sin kolzl + C[ cos koz
(2.10)
where C'~ ms st n I ,an unknown constan ~.
llan~~'s integral equation is, now obtained by expressing A,i ~n terms or the cu rren t 1 (z ')1 and is
I' I~ e jk~R' .
41r I_to I{z') R . dz' = ~ ~ Yo v, sin kolzl + C Cos ki)z
~her~ R === [a2 + (2  zlf)il)mn and C ~ C'dlL'rJ' The solution to Eq, (2.71) may be fOlund n umericall Y' MS'i ng the method 'Of momen ts, for whllc'h there are seve ral variations .. t The constant C f.nus~ be determined so dHH I(z) \v'f.~ equal zero ~t t he lends 'of t hie 8Jl tenn ~ fc~,~·g,t :1" ~ _ ,'!JI't "'!< = + I
""u, I!J.l"'Di ;"'l' m..c;.  (11+
The rela tionsh ip between 'Pock ~'i ngton 's and Hallen '5 eq M ations may be estahfished ~n ,8 more d1,efirnl~'(;ve way, We can express Eq. (2.65) in the rO'r1n11
(tc: + 0:21) Q(z) = jWf.oE. (2,12)
where
t See R. f. r~'ard;nl~on, Field Can;. p"U',h) ,''iOtl: by MO'fJ1:~,UU ~tle,f.lru>Js') aya~b~llb~e Ir~'onlli Kri·el.t~r Plijlb:lj.slhiins C()lmliPa~il". I·ne. ~ Mle1bo'Unle~ Fl3J.
+
(2 .. 73)
,! ~ 1
r ~ •
1
, !
. . c 2. . l~·k.'· ~ 8("  z'] In v~ew of these pro'perHe'S \'lIe
l~h's '\''YiU make a2a/at behave ~.e I r z'., ,
choose (other forms are possible; see Frob. 2., ll)
G ~ IC1s:jlrl kl~~z ~ z'~

I
· '
,.
'W'e now requite
· '1
, I
~ .
• I
.'
~ I.
, I
~ ~ •

• I
. I
When we apply the boundary condition Elf':"  V.8(z) we find,frolJ1l Ell. 1(2," 14), m h at
1(2.76) Th is is, Hallen's in tegral equation and shows that the constant C which occu rs in Eq, {2.7l) is given by
where OIJ means sots«. ·When the dipole antenna ls ,AJ2 long, k'ollo == 71'/2 and C depends only 011 Q~(loJ,· For an antenna A'@l long, Ie depends only on lOtIo). When the applied fie~d acts over a ffinite length b the Iflrst term 'On the ri g h t ha OJ d SI ide ol Eq, (2co 16) b eeomes
'" Yo Vs ( _  b _ ') .' Y®,V, ,(b1 2)
J k'9b 1 ~ cos k02 'cos k&7: I"'" 1 2ki kt 4" + .7:
~., YOI 'V,I. .sin k fJ(.b/2) , ." ,F.. 'I .1
1 s,~nAI'lZ Iz1>,b
. 2 k~(bl2) \JI ~
and 'come s 'frio mn fh e in t egration of '( he product of the appl led Herd wit h th e
Green's function. rL
H,anen ' sin tegral equat i on as given abev e a ctuall y ,g~ \I'e:;1 the vector poten til a~ on the su rf ace r = a due to a filamen l 0'£ current on the z axis, and extendi ng (rlom ~ 10 to l@~ The electric fi,eld d·e'rived from this potential win be continueus
e [. of' I ~ I
wit'h~ cominuous derivatives and zero divergence everywhere on  the surface
r == ,a. We 'therefore cannot 'make Uds radiated rield cancel an arbitrary im ...
pressed Ih~ld on the surface r "" a .. An the ends of the antenna where z "" +IQ' r ==It, the field from the line source win be finite. However, it is a wenknown ~.3et that ~he eleetric [;eld nOfma~ to the surface "lust become illdlnite at the edge. A.s a result of these required edge conditions, it [ollows that the
ap'proxim.a'te i rI tegral equation can not have an exact solu tion,
The exact ~ntegr~d equa.tinn has the same fortn as the a·pp1roxhll.ale lntegral
equation does, except that the integration over the current distribution is taken over the actual surface of the antenna (see Prob. 1. B). For the exact integral equation the antenna input current will increase logarithm.ically if the applied field is. approximaled hy a della function. If the applied field extends over a
f1 n H·e band the 1 nput curren t rem ain s l~:ni'te~
In spite of these limitations it turns out that approximate solutions (0 the
approximate integral equ3tiongive results that an: in dose i!i!!;reement with measured dala.lne reasons for this somewhat I!IIH.lSlIalsitl.la.tion 81'e explainec:i more fuMy in Sec, 2.12. 'In that section i.~ w~n be shown that Ior ~hilll antennas with ,1Ja great,er fhan 50 the approxim.ale integral equation will yield good results, provided the current can be adequately approx:ilTl3ted by a 'Illite Fourier series of no more than 25 to 30 terms, Fortunately this huns out to be adequate. for thick antennas with lola less than about 10, Ihe approltimate sotutioas ~o the .appfoxi.matle integral equation become unsatisfactory, but there is 3" W;DlY to correct these solutions, 3$ explained in Sec, 2.12.
As a preliminary step to obtaining an approximate numerical solution of
Hall~n's equation we will present some relevant material pertaining to the
me t hod .. of mo men ts flee hn iqu e
46 ANTENNA$.
A Iypical integral equation thaI occurs in l;1faclice (a Fredholm equation of the first kind) and that may be solved numerically by the method of moments is
(2.17)
where G(Ii, uP) is ill known kernel, or Green's function, I(u) is II. known function, and J(u) is the unknown (unction to be determined. The fint step is 10 choose a set or basis functions ill which toeltpand I(u'). These may be, for example, the Fourier series sine and cosine hJlflct ions, the unit heighlpu lse hmctions shown in Fig. 2. l Ta, or the overlapping triangular functions shown in Fig. 2.18a, We will let .,,(11) denote the ~~th basis function and apptotlnult~
• .r I
t Elfl)' worl< on Ille 111;,11100: 01 moments was carried OPJlI by 'N. M. Krylov in Ihe peri08J 1925197.(,. See LV. KIm !orov:ich lIlftd V.I. Krylov. A ppmxi.mIII! Medulds of Hig'rer Alia {"Sil.
~lIJ1~eln"~d,e'nce ·P\l!!lbli~hers., Ine., Ne~ Y·cif'·k .• n'95:S·, ~
~
I (u) hy the expa~,sion
N
I (u J) :; 2: I" <I>,~( u')
~dl
where I" are iili'llmowl'l amplitude con5bllills to be determined. When the 1(1). are the pulse Functions shown in Fig, 2. na the appwximaliol1 to 1(<<) is a slahrc;lise appro x i mill! ion, 3S shown in Fig. 2. .17 b. II the tr ian gula r basis fun ell on s are used, the approximation is a linear interpolation or, (u) between sample points represented by the coefficients I". as shown in Fig. 2.1Bb. The latter gives a smoollier approximation, and for a given n«medeaJ accuracy fewer terms are needed using triangu.lar basis (unctions: lhanif rectallguhu pulse (\lndions lire used. Many other sets of basis functions that are useful in practice 11150 exist. t The number of terms used hi the expansion 01 l(u) is dictated by the numerical, accuracy required and the desire to keep the 'cost of computing as low as
possible.
When the expansion for I (u) is slJostiluned into the irntegral equation we
obtain
11 t
L I" 1 O(u" u'~,,(r~') du' ={{u)
":cl'1 il!il
N
= ~ I ,0 lu),
ok, ~ ~l\'
tII:c~
(2,.1:8)
~
Gn(ll) == t G(M. U')<I>.{u') au'
The tatter integral can be viewed as the moment of G(u, u') wilb respect to 4'".
The inlegrale'qua,tlon (Eq. (2 ".77)) has beell!lppmximated by a. new equation [£q, (2,78)]" and for a filihe N. the lefthand side of Eq, (2.78) C911 equal feu) only In an approximale sense. Ollie objective now is 10 choose the coefficients l"slJIch that Eq. (1..78) wUI be satisfied as elosely as possible. There are N unknown constants I". so a system o( N e(~1J3tlOI'lS must be obtained that win allow these unknown constants to be d,etermined. One procedure is to equate both sides of Eq. (2.78) 811 N different va~ues of u, usu.ally equaily spaced by increlflenisof h "" lI(N  I). This poinlmatching procedure gives the
sys'lenl oif equ:ations below:
I ~,
!
m := 0, I. 2, . .. N  1 (i.j9)
N N'
L Gm.nIM ~ L 'imG~I(n1h) = f(m:h) = /~
,"'0::'1 Ii!! 1
 ' ,."
t When tile baSIS and ie5litlJg. fll1l.clion!l are powers o( II, the iiltegrlls life the clas!iical Cheby!lhev
momen~s. This I'Iflpe:!l's 10 be the origii\l For the nllme rnetltoo of III1i11nt,jIS. . :. )"'"
fUND'AMENTAtS ot IELECTR .. ' , ,,: . , .
. . OMAGNETrC RADlATrON 49
whei  0
~ ere = G (m ~)I I_(  · f
iPfI'II~ n"' TJ., '" nIna rl"" [nrm w.e·· .  "
" .~. V ,.' ~ ca~lI write
and
, . _ [1 .. ] = [G .... rl(ffii] .. _ ..
where I( 0' J ~I "', he 'c'.' • (2,80b)
,.. . .' ... ~ IS ~ e inverse malnx. There . , " " .. ' . _. .
that will solve 11 r ... ,_.'. _. . are standard computer I /" .• .
,'.' mear system, So the 501I.1t" ..r,. ..,' . .,' programs
readily carried mit. 1011 ot Eq. (2.80b) (or the In Can he
1111 'the general metho dt ,t_   ... .  
'. ..  .. Ol momen ts proeedi  
In~ functions, say, ",,,,{u), m ::::: 1. 2 .. , . ' ... , , nrc a set of N_ testing or weigl'll.
plied by . these~n turn and in le~r~ted 'f ~r:r~ cl'lOsel1a~ld. EQ ... (2.78) is mul Ii· system of equations: 10 I. This proced ure gives the
U is equivalent to finding the projection of I. he vector I onto all N dimensional ,: rb     I c· Id b  I'~ .~ N"' f'  ''jI"O'I '. (  . Or 9[' ~ I" c.)' l~ (Iii.if)· MIIII  11 2' N'·'
SUI s,pa.ce span ne y ILlle u nc",l. ns I umu, V!O;.CllI,orS ' ~y~:tA!l,. j! l!'n  Ji ~ .a , . '0 ~; ',~
'The method 0 f mornents can now' be seen to co rrespond to 'An dri ng the
I'l"Ojections of the vector f(u) and the vectors I .. G .. (u) 0l1t031 finite N danensional subspace lind adjusting the lel1lgthsof the 1.,G",(j;I) vectors, i.e., choosing the 1" so tlutt the projeded compolilents are equal. When the testing functions are arbitrarily chosen, the 'Solution does not have any p:arficu'ti:lu· optimum properties in generaL If a bad choice is made for the N testing functions (vectors), it may very well turn out Ihat both l:~~l I"G,,(u) and f(u) have large and very different components that are perpendicular 10 the subspace on which the projeclioll is made, In order to ge~1I good approxima tlon, the 1/1 ... must be chosen so that the N ~m win give ~ good repn~s,ent3tion of both l(u) and I;~gll .. G,,(tt). The optimum choice is flOt always easy no determine a priori.
The foillowing vector problem win ml.lstrate many ot the concepts discussed
above .. W'e 'w'ru 1 ~l aS5l1 me '~hat we have a problem o~' the rOei'm
and thereby made to correspond to 'lIOit basis vectors. W'n[en the ~Im are :a[n orthogonal set ocr Iuractions, th at 'irs;
l
f ~ 1ft (.E'i ) r/l n (u) d,u == n 11 ~. 111
[~
they correspond to a set of orthogonal Of m I.IJ U all yperpel1diclJl1ar un it vectors ... In order III represent f(u) exactly we must find aU of itseolnponents, which generaUy requires an ill Ii 11 ite number of the 1/1", fIJI nctlons (a complete set], When a fi m1 ilte number of thee .b'~ are used such that !([f..,) is, approxhna~ed by
N
f(U) ~ 2: frn'~m{U)
nl ='~
Ll = f == (2  j)sx  fl + j)Sy + {4 + 3j).a:!,
(2J~2)
L~ ~ k. = (1 + J~')'8., + (:2  J~)a
L I " J: " J'
, I
~ I
, I
where L is a known o[per~tor ~ I is, the unknown, and the expression on the (a,r lIigllt is the complex vector representing [. The unknown I is expanded as 1 = '1([:11 II. Ill):I_ and the result or the application of the operator L upon <il,i:lnd
't1.)2 is assumed ~o give
L~2 ~ 'k2 == a, ia., ~~ (3, + 2j)az
[QUI' al)pnJx,ilm.a f.e equation [corn:;.sponding to Eq. [(2.:82) 1S 1!k1 + '1kl = 'f
Tnt': equation can hold in an approximale sense only, since we did not 1!15e •. a. complete set ofluuclions (basis vectors) 10 expand the unknown l. We no~ . project both sides onto a Iwodimensional space and match projections in Jhi'. space. We can use the space spanned by 9 .. ,., or II,. a~ or Or a, or some other pair or Iloncollinear vectors. A priori we do 110t kl'lOw wbich pai_r wm be the
(0.1826  0.3366/)a)"· (.6922  0 1018j)a;. with a magnitude of 0.855. Cleady the error vector is smaller than it was in the previous case. In the minimization procedure we work in the complete vector space instead of in a subspace and adjust the lengths 11 and 12 of kl and k2 to get a vector that is as close to being
equal to f as possible.
When the above minimization is applied 10 the ll1e~hodof. .. moments ,equ.·a
tion (2.78) the optimum test functions are found 10 be O:,(u). 11 we test Eq.
1(2.78) with ~ hese we fi rrd th at
FUN D.AM EN ~ ALS OF E lEcrR.OMA(iNE~IC RADIA n'ON 53
51 ANTeNNAS·
..
N
"[0 Lv=].
.L.J . mil II 1m:
iii' = 1
· ~
· [
• <
·
"
JI.
, • ,
where now'
· [
and
~
G,,(U) "" I G(u, u')4>.(u') du'
, 0
The In de~.erm:ined this way minimizes the expression
1 N 2
{ I ~I InG.(u) l(u)l· du
which corresponds 10 matching the two sides of Eq, (2,78) so as to obtain a minlmurn mean square error. TIU! method 15 often called the rn[eth,o.d ollieast[
sqU(2res..
..
1
, . . .
~i
 ....
11
A.
,~ ""
\
I _)
. 1'~;4· .\,~
". ~ ,.
,. ".J
" .: I·'"
, , ,
N U Ille rlca I Integration
Many of the integrals that occur in the equations to which the method of moments is a.pp,1iled cannot 'be done analyti·caUy, ],t is then necessary to] compute thee integrals numerically. One wenknown numerical integration algorithm is Simpson's rule .... 'onsider a function g{u) and divide the interval of integration o < iU S I into an even number of subdivisions of 'e'l1gth h, as in Fig, 2. t 9a. Over each subdivision of lenglh 2h we approximate 8(u) by a quadratic (unction; thus over 0 <: II S 2/1 let g(u) be approximated by AI"_ BtU + C1Ul. We now match the two functions at u "" 0, It, and 2h. If we let 80 = g(O)1
81 "" g(h) g2"" g(2h). etc., we find that .'.:"'0.
1(.6)
Vi I.U["·~ 2.191 ((j'), 1 II hJlIS t f3 Uon. f or S~mpSJon 's rule, (b) Th e
(2 R,6)
t !
 L .' t
, ~

~ '1
,
~ ~ .
, ,
,..:: 1 "
j
j ~ . ...
,
, ,.
• r~~.:'\..:1 • • • fr· '."1
~.~ ['
e.
 !
r
!~ ANTENNAS
~ ~ ,.... ~, ,  d ,. , f, _' the rle'ma~niwg sections and sum the results
'When 'we repeat this pru·ce. ure ' or 
we obtain Simpson's rule ~
Co(2h) + ~Ct(2h)2 "'" ~Cl(2h 'I + lC](2h)1 ..
Slmpson's rule ,g:~'vles eX31ctly the same result, as may readily be shown by using
~ ~ (2~1 01(.)" 'L~  . , .' oly
c [' CiU a. ~ , , __ I e .'~ _
q.~. · .. ' _,' ..... " · .: '_ f corresponds to Jhe use ofagrang P,
~equad~aflc a~proxl:::i~O:unctions,t The oddnumbered basis Iunctlons nomials of order 2 for t.~e ~  _ ~ . _ , :"~. ,~.11 21 .. ~ while the evennumbered
'     [,  .' .. h .. 1( th:at sp:a.n ,an Inl"erv o;~ ..... ~~ ~ ~ _, ,
are parabolas 0, unit, esg 1 " 'J'" ." .' .ents that span lUI interval of lellgth 4h,
ones correspond to two perabo tc s_egm _ r: ' '._' . 11:1
:35 shown in Fig .. 2. 19b'. The expansion of g(.u) IS ,g1Y1eny
It N
L· ;oilh. ( .. )
~ , . , . .'. '",' Iw, iU ]
g(u) ~ :r aJII ()n(u) = g~ ~,I /
... ,Il!il
~" ~.,. ". IW
i!'!I,U'
 i ~  ~ , .L, I a the nth basis functlon is 1Illon:lero and equal to
since ~il'~ each point u ~ nn. on.y. ~. _ . . ~ '.'
a.  d ,t'~~ ~ makes a equal to g(,nh) ~ ,g~~ d" _'"d the
uruty an· . ~~ U,.1il I:~ ~ .. ;;_ '~ jit: '" ,_ ... , ' ,~,: 11 ' .~.' ~.:'~ 1 :~ p_ "p_ 'r' oximations. If Wle_lV\ .: Ie, ~
 ~ .. I 'oher""deo're'e po~ynoR1ul, ~ _ _".
We call al$~ use lll_~ ......._ "' ..... ,.' neth h such that the total ~nte",al consists
interv~1 0 to I into subinter ... ~[~~f I~~glth 3hthat is, Nh is divisible by 3:' of an integer Humber of sectlons_ 0_ eng .," ."_ . ',. c ttl):] b. A.+ B« + Cu1 +
h 1Il,:c  c, I fl] 'to 3h we can approximate g, y . _'II
then over l eo Ult,erV311 U ~ , ~. ' • ,_ chi ,cc, ,. 'I ,U ~ ~l ,fI"" 2.h, and Jh~ tne
'!I, h ~  '\' . c' 'fo'i!" 'iI.I,' ~ censtan ts bv mate Uti a _ ,
D .:J W' en 'w'e so' ye ~ I!J, I ,..... "",,". I. ~ '" g.~ ! ~ .J
,W m   • i ~ ~ ~ d ' . 'I;... ';v IAn b,},'
. [Ij  ,. .~ '. i,'. l 'lJjiH ~l ~
  ,. d· iDI,'iI!" !the B cub' 1~ ,eM rye ]s (tNJn., to e g ~
a rea un I""'I!I l~ '!;,.r. ,......  '1!.iJo
 31!!
3h t'_' . + 3"g + ~g + g: ~')" ~ f g(u:) du
 I g ,I~, J "I __ .'JJ . • ,
 n '. iIJ ".;il, .~
ou 0
'0
FUNDAMIENTAlS IOF ELEcrR;OMA(Hk~'eTIC RA.OIA'FION 55
i I1IS tead of (It/55) C~(3 h r for the htlst term. Howeve r, til is is 11 orm id Iy a sm a II error. For the Interval 0 to 1 NeWlon's J{8 rule approximates the integral .of g (u) by the f'oUowin,g. series:
where now' the weigh ts ,S~, are I, 3, 3~ 2". 3, 3j, 2, ~ ; .. '~ 3, 31, 1 ..
The number of subdivisions that must be used depends on how rapidly the functlen g(lI) varies. For sTowly varying [unctions; only a rew !ll!lbdlvisions nrc needed to Obt:D1 tl t'h reeIigure accu racy ~
· !
· ,
~ !
I I ~ I : i
• I I 1
I ~
,
· ' • I
· ;
: ! · I • J
. ~ I
• j
il
~ 1
. i j
~ I I I
I ' · I
: 1 L H
H
~ I
. j
I ,
I I
~ 1
~ I
~ :
WI€! 'win now ap'ply the ~ea$l .. square's m',e~:hodor ... moments procedure to l~':anen~s in~egraleql!allOill. along with numerical integration using Simpson's quadratic rule, in order 10 find the input current and hence the impedance Of. a dipole a ru en na. The i:n tegra l' equation to be solved is gjven by Eq, (2~;' '() and is repeated below
where R "" [(z ~ z'Y+ a2)1f.!. We will simplify this equatton by introducing the fnUowiin,g normal ized variables:
The integral from ~ 10 to Ois also converted loan integral from 0 (0 Ii] hy changing z' 1,0  z' in dUll pari Df the integral and using the symmet ry property 1( z '] = ,/{z') ror the unknown current, The resultant integral equation is
= ~ j21f Yo V, sin ,(JIll + 4'111C ICOS tJ'U' (2,89)
where R, = ((II  ,u'f + alllJ1 and R;l;;;;;; [(u + U')2 Ia2fll. The function (sin (JR1)/R, equals (sin ea )/« "",(J when u = u', but (cos ORt)1R I equals (cos Oa )1 (}f , which is a large number, when t!. = u'. Thus file (cos tJR,)/R, are highly peaked Ifunctions when Ii = U or 1.1. These rapidly varying, functions would require divid~ng the jriierval 11 10 1 into marly subin tervals of sni:Ullength I~ in order to carry lout an accurate riumerieal int'egraHon~ In order ~o avoid such a fine division we can integrate Ulle singular terms by writing tile integral
I .
• ~ I
~
4
in terval lengt h ,I r.!. we obtain
.N . HI}' _ _ _ _ H' _~~ .
L t, ~ L r/J~(rH~)q,:(iH~)S~ =  2.f(lH·~)~t·!'(iH')S~
'" <;!I'IO 3 i.'(lI1 .3 iaa s .
ql
r r ~l
J
~
.~ f we choose }I = N this general result simplifies considerably ~ for there w'i11i
then be exactly N + i values of l at whh:.;·~~ each term is evaluated" The resultant system lor equations. is readily seen to h ave ~he 5.01!jJ tion specified by requ iri ng IthAJ (note that H' ~ h ~. 1lN)
/II
2: II1t/J~ O'h) = J'(th)
· ~, : i
· i I I
• t
i lot
This result is. iru,erestijng in fh ,0 t it' does "lot depend on 'the choice of testing functions used; il is. simply the resuls obtained by point matcbing Eq .. (2.92) at . the poin ts l~' = ik, In essence, '1 he Itl umerical in tegration limi ts the knowledge of ~b~(u) and .I(u) to the sample points U' = ih, and clearly U' Eq. (2 .. 92) ho'l'ds exactly .(1'1: these points the error is zero at these points. Since no other ~n'Fof'rnation about ItPJi'(U) and IffJ) is used, this iis thee optimum solution for this,
i!..  a.  f H' e
CnO'I(:e 0 _ = ~
Acco rd i: ml ,g to· ·E. he above, t '11 e eq u a, t 1 0 n s .~ 0 bee so I v ed a re
.N· H' J
.~ I ~ ~ G~.l('.ih'S,"'cb' (',"R' = f' (ih)"
~ ~ 3 ~ J! ,1 1 ~"", , " .
!!!lif:::O 'jeD
* = [0'1 t 2' N" .
,_ ,ll,."", ... ~; ,
• I r •
· i
• L
 .
.. : 1 I
A further s·j:lnp1Iiflcatfon ,of the above equations occurs. if we choose .J t:::" N' so ~hat H :. h ,OJ80, because if the basis funct ions are local function s (hall span an interv al 21;[ and h ave the property Ul at eli 1(111:F.) ~ 1" 4> ~ (nh + 11') ~ 0 the system of equatiions reduces to
111 H
i ~ O .. "S •. I .. = t;
"1:IlI:(lIi
I I
I .
where IGllfU1 = u·(ln,'1.j. n~/I.) and f~ ~ /·(I,",'I} .. This result ls Independent of the cholce or local basis functions used and is simply the result of evaluating the integral iin the integral equation numerically and then 'Msing poiat matching. Although '(hie derivation appears to be sound, the lend result gives a solution for Ihe I .. that depends on the choice of the numerical integration algorlthm that is used l(see Prob, 2;.16). Thus the numerical results obtained are nd,t~ ~r~ genera I!" reliable,
'hl the in~.eg'fa~ eqnation for the current on :3 dipole amenna the dominant pert of tbe kernel was integrated e X act I Y' .. The remainder is a relatively small correct ion and h ence m ay be trea ted  i n an approxhnaie manner ,11m r JHlld
'I
"
• I
r I
•
~
• J
~ .
· .
introducing a large error (see Probs. 2.21 and 2.22). Thus we wm use Eq. (2.93) in spite of its limitations, since it is a numerica Iy very simple and efficient procedure. The results obtained compare very [avorably with those based on altemative numerical procedures .. r approximate analytical solutions. The attractive feature of this method is U .at the matrix elements are knowntbey are simply the values of the kernel function at the sampl e points multiplied by the Simpson weights. The method appears to converge quite rapidly with Illcreasing N, and th is is due to the fad that the dom inant pa t of the kernel
was ex tracted and in'[,eg'ra'lled exact ly.
The algeb aic equalions that wit! determine the current on the dipole
antenna are obtained by using the final expression (2.93) derived above, after substituting Eq. (2.91) into Eq. (2.90) and adding the remaining terms Irom Eq.
(2.89). It is found that the system of equations to be solved is
~ i  [(cos (r/("  mtl12 + al j_!in t.n/JrI  ,")1111:;' (r~It 1m COS Oa
J ~.o S"t V(11  mfh"l a2
~OS eVen + ~)2h'_ + (i~:ns~ :~7: ;thl + a~)l"  1m cos 60]
.. [1 mh + V;2 + (  ;,;it )1)[ 1 + mid' v' 0' + (1 + mhtl
+ 1 ~ cos (Jet In 1
a
l
. '
. ~
';8, AN ENNAS
.'
•
, .
I t
= j2nYj) V, sin 6mh + 41tC cos (Jmh m "" 0, I, 2, ... ,N
(29,4)
Note that 1(10) "" I,.. must be e·qual to zero. The constant C may be found hom the equation obtained for It! = O. After the constant C has been elim~nated, the el uations that result can be expre'5sed in 'the f Uowing matrix fo'rm~
..
 ,
sin 19h "
611" '
;..::; J"' ~ Y V 5111 26h
h IR J' I
,R'Nft RNm RN'i 4 •• R'N.Nm INII
where the matrix ellenien~s. R"U1 are given by
, [[COS fJVa2 . (n  mth1. cos (rJal . (n + mfh2
R' s ' ~~~~~~
... ,,~ .. Va2+(n~m}2hi Va~+(n+m)lh2
sin N8h
0.4
0.6

0.8
.0
f I
.,
'I
I I
~
t~,e ri:,gJ~t relative to th~, more alcclJlr~~te results obtained us;ng N ~ 8'1' In F;gs. 2~22 ,a~_~ 2.~3 results 'r~IE' .,R',,, and Xlii'I' using N ~ 2~ 8:'1 and 12 are given for a ~ O, .. OO~ ~ Figures 2, .. 24 and 2.25 give corresponding results ror 1m ~ O~05. These cu r~e$ ,ag~lee '~~asonLab]y~el~ wi th the 'm"e~sured values gi veri ; n Figs". 2. 1] an d 2.14. In Figs. 2~26 and 2 .. 27 the computed values of R,r;J and X; using N = Rand 12 'For ,(1 ;; 0.013,5 are compared w'iitJ~ tile results 0'( the KingM~dd~erron im
proved secondorder theory.t The KingMlddleton theory bas been shown to agree very wen wi~h measured data obtained by Mack]. Since the numerical
60 ANTENNAS
wi ~h 0:. ~ 0 'rf~r· n ;i f'~ and ,8~", :::;:: I. The 'input impedance Z~ = R,~ + j}(Q' is g;'~vlen
mn
by V,I1loo ~ . . .. .. ~ 2 , h"'· h
Thle simplest ap'pro'xi,m:atm'on that can be m~ad,e rs 10 choose N 0=/, v: 1C,
corresponds ~ to :BJppro'lini3tilng the ,cur~len~ on the a~.~en.n? b~ a P'O,~Y'~OI,~~1~I~a~ o~ degree 2+ The 'I1iUfrH!r1C,~d results rOT R,Il' and x~ with tins appr?xlmahorJ B;~e
L,. + F' 2~ 2('rIi '""i,!Aod 21 2'11 for ~i'l.Q .... eil~l~ .t.'!IIll~;:: n O'~. For COlmp,an;son" the more
$nfl'\:vn 1 n ~ ~lg~. ~ IIJII '~'WIIIII, I , .,' ~ '1!1 I~I ~I"' '1;..,'.:111.;;11 ..... 11,<1 . '1.1 0, _ "" .
accu ra te resu lts obt ained by using N' 5: 4 and N ~ S an! alse shown, t The
results for N = 2 predict t hie glen era] behavior of Z~ and its, depl":odence on the antenna radius quite well, with the exception fhat the curvies are displaced to
e . I
I
I
2a ~ I(],,(H I
I 2,01,0 0:
. II : i
1 la' ~ o.oom ;
JOO I T i
I
1
2:10 0 
i :
1
!
! 1
;
~:50'
,I U~:O 0\
II I ,
• I
0, 'I SOl n
I: I:
~ 1
...
tl!(~
~20 0 \ N;;'i.
,910ut1~~~t~~~......__4I"I_~1_1 ~
N:r;;;.1·2.·~'· .'
. I ~ .
,
,  .. N~ 8
6~O;~~~~~~·j.~4____'___''''''''· :.._.._J.JJ_: ~_~l~_ill
,,# · I
JOO~......JI+LJ!J9~~. L~.:)I~. :.......__.__~..........._~..t...~,
""
1
~ I I
I~~~~~~~~~~~L __ ~~I~~ __ ~
1(11,.4 o.s 06 0.1 0.8 0.9 ~ .0
, I
ti;:!!!! ~~
F'[!lure 1~l,2 Computed wah,le Oil Trtdl'iaf.ilo~ res:i~,t~~IOO '£~or a ,di'po'le ~ntennllJ wlth 1,,1' = OJ)O ~ r
:fill I"
..
~a _[SQ~~~II~~~~~~~~r~tr~t1
I'
:j
~,4,50 ~Ft
Ii
~
~ I
I I ~
~  ,
, , ,
,
0:9
(;,4
0,5
0.6
0.1 e ~ L
"W ~o
Ft~JJJlfI~ 1.,1~ Computed value ol i,npu1t reactance for a dipol,t anlt>enn:a ~si~g dU1leren'l values o!r' N~" .
2,~n ~ 001. _.' ,
. : ~'
! f\
I
, I
I '
NDAMENTAL~ O· ... LECTR.'OMA'GNETIC RAD~AT ON 63
61 ANTBNNAS
1 '
1
,600 ! 300, [I ,I
:
i
i
:
'I I
lOO
c:
..
a '11:1
.. ~' !
~ fJ I' 200! 2s O.OOl T
,r
.. 10.4 0,'; lOA:; 0.7
004 O,,} 0.6 '[.1 OJ~ 0.9 LO 0,8 0.9' 1.0
~
..
e s. ! e I
 '2 ....,..:;; ~
B x :IT "0
III results for N  8 Of 12 ;9 so agree quite closely it appears that for practical
purposes it is not necessary to, use a larger value of N'. . .
For reference purposes some specific values of Z, are tabulated in Table
2.1,. In Table 2,,2 the numerical values 'Obtained using N = 8 and 2 are
compared with those I om 11.'C King .. M·ddieton theory. _ .
The effect of a finitelength band over w'hich the applied electric field acts
is, very small '[or 'thin antennas I(a < 0 .. 01) as far as the computed values of' impedance are concerned. ASI long ;IS kg'" is small, a finite .. length source region ean be accounted for by replacing the source terms in eq, (2.95) by sin 8mlt ,~ .fJcr{b/4"a) cos f)[mn,. This change comes from solving for the co nstant 'C: in Hallen's equation by matching at z == (II and using the result giv[en after Eq, 1(2.76)[j that is" ~ jYo ViLkoblB,; for the source term at z ~ O. The cOlnt~ib~ti~n 'to C frORI 'this term can then be absorbed with the source term 1(j'YO V /2) sm kJ:%~
.
. ,
,II
in Eq. (2,.71)r Some typical values or z;~ u.smng, N' ;; 2~ b ~ 2a~ and 'O! ~ 0+01 are given in Table 2.3~ These show a negligible change for llA~ less than 'I ~'5. The changes at, the larger values of llAD are actually caused by a shift in the peak values of Rill and Xd toward smaller values or IIAg and are not due to any significant change ,in the peak values. For ,8, thicker antenna the eff,ec't would be larger if if is assumed that ,b is made propor ional to a.
Since th[e integral equation that is. solved is. an approximate 0"[(: without an exact solution there is. little justification in refining the numerical solution much beyond that correspo nding to using N ::= 12. Fi gure 2~28 '(pag[e 6:8) sl~ O\VS' the conve_rgenc~ ~ropertyo'f the numerical solutions for R,a; and Xlii, for a dipole anten ~ a AfJ/2 ,I~ng B,nd for various values 0 a: = 2011. These curves indicate ~ hat very 1nt],e further ch:anl,e in Rim or X~ WO'l11d O'C'CILU" by' increaslng N beyond 12.
i
I I
~
•
rUNAM NTALS ,OF 'ELE[CTlROM AIGN' cTIiC '" 'b~ ,1
;!'l. ,"~ I ~ 1tA." tAl·10't.,,1 ,~
.' • '.;::'II
~ = 0.05
"
[I
_2S01~1~~~J~~~~~+~~
I'
0.4
0,4,
116
0.7
9 I
_..:
jf l(!
0.8
0.9
'1.0
0.8
0.9
1.0
lilgurr :!.:!S Complilled value or inpul reaclal1<lf: for a dipole aillennl with ZaiT = 0.05.
along with point matching to compote the dipole impedance. They report that good results are obtained IIlsing five terms.I The analytical evaluation of the
'. .
[If p~w't .nnpedan~c[e using the induced electromo "'\' ", ' " ", , 
variational method and a discussion of the" h. e f?fCe ~E~F) method the
ma y be r ou nd in the lie, xt b' 'y EU',,, [ J,  • mg M iddleton iteration method
J . . ~ nl0t 1 t Th1'S text , r ' d"
so utiol1s. The numerical solution of 'p; .. ,': .... , a so '. I~cus:es numerical
Stutzman and Thiele [n th ." . o~khngton s equatton IS treated , b'y
.' , I· '' I,elr recent text t H' .,., . . .
out extensive computations ,0' f ' •. , [ , dinol anmgto? and Mautz h ave carried
, _' ' I. le ~pOlme antenna lm'n d  ',. ~
expansion functions and point matching.f .' . .pe .anee usmg triangle
Nell Siller. and 'rill man have used a trigonomet ric In nction expansion of fhe antenna current, or the form
t H. P. Neft, C. A. S'ller, and J. D. Tillman. "Simple Appmx'matioll 10 the Current 011 the Sudace of 811 Isolated Thin C"rndrical Cenler·Fed Dip;:lle A.ntenll<l (f( Arbitrary l.enllt"," lE~
J' • .• • t
nons., Anre'lItla5 Prop., vol AP Ifl, 1970, pp, 3911400. See ,Iso .. A Trigonometric Approl[imiti~n to rhe Current in the Solution of HalMn's Equlltion, • IEEE Trail:!"., AiJlf'lInll.l Prop .• vol. AP~11,
. ,. I
1969, pp. ROS$fl. •
t R. S. EmUon I An['ell,ul l1ur~ '", , 'a 0" ~',. :, ,_ , ,. 'I • ~l .
t W L S" ,_, . _ ,ory arl, esrgtl~ PrenfieeHal], Inc, EnlD."le'\lVood rtr;; N' ,. ",
'. .. tutzrnan and G. A. Thiele A, '. " __ .:" .  I S, ." 191'11.
New Vork 1911' . . " n e,ma Theory III1J DeS,gll, John Wile .. '" S~iI' ~."
I Il.. r :J "4", • .., Itl!'h·'i
_ § R. F. Harrington and J. Ma"l;! C. , ..... '. . . .. '.. ' ~I" '.
Rept, No+ 'RADCTR,663S' ,., • ~P!lllJh~ for Lmear Wire A "''''" 110.5 alld St;ol/el'ff:!", Tech.
R [I", VQf n ~ ome A,' rr De' 1  C
o[rne N'" v D' ',..'. ~ . i r. .... ,IW "v,e,op;Jn[eiu enter Olll'·i'ffi A 'I',~ F" ,
, . I., DC No. A[)63974S. All!!. 1966, ' 15 .... ,~ oree BIIM:
0.15, (lS@1
0.15 1.00
FUNDAMENTALS. IOF ELECTROMA:GNE tc RA.D1AT10N 16'
1 1 .1
In this section we 'w~n compare the solutions of H,aUen"s, approximate integral equation with those of the exact integral equation. The general behavior ol the solutions to the approximate and. lex act integrel equations have been investigated by many a,utbors" A comprehensive :and detailed discussion has been given by Wu.t
The model that we wiU examine consists or a hollow conducting tube nf radius a and length 21~1" The w':aUs are assumed to have negligible thickness, When the app~ied fie~d acts 'lJnllorml~y around the antenna 'th"e Induced current is entjrely in the z direction, and the vector potential \yin have a t component on 1 y .. TIle applied r1:e ld ls assumed to be high Iy concentrated at ~he ten ter of t hie antenna. For t'~e mathernatlcal model WIt! wn~ assume that this, applied !liie~d is constant and equal '[10 Vlbl lover tbe band  btl < .2 S b/2 a 'I' the surface or the antenna, as shown in Fig. 2 .. 29, Since the incident ne'lid does not vary with the angle .~, '{tie induced current J (z t) O'rI tile anten nn su rf ace is a function of z ~
Tah~e 1~3
0+45 O.S~ 0.69 0.1' 1.010
.. 'til
~ ....
.. 3CO~' ~t~
0,7 o I
;~~
• , 'L ' • of hoe 01 ole in p,u t 'reaChl'rH:e with ttl e eesult s 01£ t be
FlR,Ulf:e 2~21 COM ~,~nson o~ 100 mplJ t ed va~u e s o t  P
Kin g. WvUdd leton .~ h1eolf]' .
O,S
00.9L  j32..2
IDCL 0 "':iII:1 ~.f;t
();Ij • J')L ~dJ!'
188.6, ~ /:178 .. 16 61{t'1 + ;254 .:8, 343~O  j4Jli.l~
6L5 j30.0 8!.J };16 ... J 39. 'FJ 199+15 + J 18,1.9: 6691,5 + j2OS.:8: 281';9  j4M'.,8:
,6(t9  j3,2.4 ,8:S,.3L I j?/9,S lEU + jUi1 ·~3 ... j281 2831  j449
1 •
of
• •
I
7 N = '11' ,~ ~ """
~ .  .(.~l V  .iZ..'1AJ
Ta,hle 1.1
z; Ir ::.:;: OI,45Aoij ~, 1 = O.5A~ z, I ~ O.S5AI(g
N (l
S'.., .4.91  j82:01 19.98L + i as.sz 111.5 ~ j·n6!.S~
R 0.0010 11,4·.4, + j I IS
:86,.25· + 138.1
8 nJ) ~1UM:]1 00.20  fJL1." :88.00 + i37 356 t2;8.J[~1 + j 1'01.9
'8 (]i.O~ l,S 00:90  132.2 U~L3.5 4 i~8
, .. lO!t 1~ + jM J~'8
~, 0.0500 '61.5'8  ill ,4.1' 112.6' + I H5J.:B6
:8~l4] + j40.34
Ii 0.0010 51.1154· ~ jS'O.6 89. 96, ~ j 391:fJ1 t ],1 .. 8 + i 110.8
']2 O.n·~3$ 61.50  j29.99 114.sn 4 j ~8Jl1 ~:82.j· + j2A·.5·~
~2 0.0500' 6'.35  il 1.46L m). ~ /451
71.] + i21..5 39 1.16 4 j382~S 96(j,  j3fJS
13.0 ~ j45:3, 71 + f2M .. 6 3\'"'.6 + jl85.4 94J, ~ j414
I ·
t T. T~ W'u~ "~Introdu'c~~on 10 'Un,ear Ant,enn:u,/' chap. 8 wn R, E. cLo~nn and! F. J. Zuckt (eds.l, AHle'IIH,d TheoJry~. M:cIOr~w~"~1Ii Jj,ook. COimpan.,·~, N,ew' YiJITk" I96'9~ See also T. T+ 'Wo ,:alnd R. '"'. P. K j ~'I, j ~The Th'i,ck T~bu ~aT TIr.~l1s,n~i ~ tl rma An ~en fm;l ~ ,.,~ R,.ad'il(J1 &:i'.; "lO'L l~. ~ 967, pp. t061 l065; R, 11, Dunean a~td F. A .. l[iinckeJ~, !~Cynn.dfi(:a~ .An~:enl1,aJ Theory," NBS Jou,.. ,of Res .. " YO," 64·DII' 1110. 5~ S,ept.·40cl~:. ml9'60~ PP'. :569b584~ ,~fid W+ A. Imbr;,~]'e and P, G, II~l.ger.son." "On N't~]'m,eric~J COIl1~ W"ler"B'e[1'::;!£: or M,oment SC1TI!IlIfons 100r Moo,er.art·ely ThilCk \Vhr,e Allt'enmu.s Using Sru[IHl50lid~'1 R~sis Fun·CI~lo,n~.l'" IEEE n"".s.~ vot A'p~2m~ May 1'973j. pp~ 3633(,6,.
, ! ,
I
I
I
I
; 4
j 68 A tff'EN N A.S
'90 ,
I ,
,
1 •
~ b 1@.I~'ru ].5, ~
iS6
'Ii!'
~ 81
n~!1 I '" (It ~ (li1.!~)O'1
j
~
..
~Iil l
~
~= ,j
:2 1
7t1l 2 ,4 6 8 U) '~ 1; ~
N
(6)
I
.fUJI
m;:;;; O.If]O~1
J5
 ' ' :01
0.;
'iii! i' ~
~ ,~ C5. O,(U j S
,lOil ),1[11
, ~:
21(~'lII....~~_~~~......~~_~i~1~~ =.............~
2 4 6 g HJi !'l
N'
(b]1
FiE,Urf: 2,.11 (.a) 'Con'Ver,gelUlo~ 'of the f~diaU'[)n resistance BlS a ~'ll.iIifll(thJn ,of N. (b') CO~ii(Vlergen'!t,e o~ the i npu t react ance a'S 8, f 1U nc~ ien of N.
only. J (2"') represents rbe total current on theexlerior and interior surfaces. Since the fiel dl 'wiU not penetrate very far into the tube oJ the ends, when .£1 4 A1lJI~ the total current at z = 0 is essentially just the current on the outer surface. Hence the input current is 2ffaJ~O). (lnd the input impedance is Vg/21faJ(O). The exact integral equation for the current J(z') is the same as Eq. (2.71),
except t hat
n r( ~)2 JL ( . p)l + ( F)2tln r( ,)1 + 2:1 2' J (A. .J,.Ii'\jUl
n = II X ~ X I I' ,Y  Y I [ Z  Z ,'~ = iii Z  2: _ e a  _ a c'nsl 'lP ~ 'fP ,
since boll'! x, x' and y, y' He on the surface r = a. In addition, the righthend side of Eq, (2.11) is replaced by the expression given after Eq, (2.76), when the
,BPP~ ied field ex mend'S over a. finite band of length b.
Instead of dealing directly with the integral equation we win consider the
di~lerenHa~ lei(~lu!jt~on for the vector pot,ennia.1 Az~ w'hi'c'h is ';(j
'I : .. : I I
1 ,a aA ;;1. A,
:! + :r .n, i_lA r ( ) ~ I )
  r ........._ ~ _ ~ 2. "T KI@::! == ,tJ1rr'z'lu~l;  ,~'I
r ar sr iJz;
,Z:
~'b.
I: ~ I
I ~
J't f
I
:
II.
I'
I i
Ir 1
,
h../ ""',
: I"'"
r I
I :
I i
I Z
' _J _
.. ,
W,e can eliminate the dependence Ion ~ 'b. .: tt
respect 10 z. Thus 'if we let .. UJ' taking 3. Fourier transform with
(2.980:)
::,;:.
A (r Wlrl:::: J A 1(1'" '7)' o}IIIjrJ: d
,j!: '1 _ , ~,I!' j' ,;i:;,. _' I~ I Z
~
(2.98b)
'we find fhat Az is ,8 solution of
(2,ng~9)
~'he sollutio.n roll' .4..,(r, w) in the region r < II muss remain finite at
and hence 'IS the origin
10 ANTENNA.S
H~(r, W>,"· = J(W) '" _!_ iJA%(" W), '"
,tI. ~ 1J.1(jJ. ar ~
It is fe8d~ly found,!, upon \ls;ing. the Wrons,kian reiationsbip,
J (. ) dH~(J(), H' 1.)·· dJd(.X) 2j
 ~11,X. .J!I _ " IOI(XI d ~ ~ ~
aX 'X"lTX
.Iio
ttu:1'1 the solutjon for .AJ.(r, 'w) is,
A.{r. w) ""  i '~ij 2 woi(w)Jo(r ""v k~ ,"12)II~(r:> V k ~ w')
(2,101)
where r; is the smaller of r, a and '0> is the greater 0'( r; Q. We can expressJ,(w)
~
in term'S lof A2{a,~ IN') as foUows,:
';', _ '~(_ ) .. _ .4:iAz(a, w)
2naJ I 'w I ~ _ ~    _  
.  I'I~D('fV,k!l w2)H'~(aVk~~ w2)
[(1 .. 102)
The approximate integral equation is obtained when the total antenna current 21TaJ(Z') is assumed jn be cOllcentrated on the Z Dis. Instead of making Ihis assumption. we wiU look for :'.11 equivale~M line CUffe"' l.(z')lho.t wiII produce the same vector potential function A" at r "" a. The relationship between 1. and the total antenna current 2woJ = 1 can then be established. In 'he Fourier l!.ans(orm domain i.t is readny found that lor tlleequivalent line
current we obtain
... ....
This result may be obtained by r,epla,cing 21faJ by I, in Eq. (2.101) and them
letting a equal zero, which makes the Jorunction eq1!lal to un,ity. A comparison
of Eqs, (2.102) and (2:103) shows that '
i.(w) = 2'1r«LI(w)JII(aV k~  w"!) (2.t04)
For 11 ~ Au and I'lliI s ko the JIl function is very near1y equal 10 unity. For these values 0" w we glee that iil{w') == 21f[a./(w), :and hence the ]'o·w 'sl'a:'hd~lrequency content of the equivalent line current is the same as for the total antenna current. On the other hand when "' is real and large we. have (k ~  w~ln, "'"
_ Ilwl and by using the asymptotic formula for 1(1, that is,
t i . I
!

.
(2~ I01b)
n 'farge
71 ,A.NTENNAS
'The Fourier coefnc1:,enls, for the hl,gh",order harmonics 'Or the equivalent Hne current must grow lexponenfiJaUy,;, This, expOfH~;tH~:al growth takes over when mraf210 is of order 2, that is, when, n > 4'J?Ta. For II thin antenna. with ,'o/a = IOU, Ihis growlh rnanifests il:s·elf when ,t beCOIII1CS huger 1I1ao about 400/'11" lor ~ 30. For a ~ hiek an ~:en n a wi~h t,ri a .g l O~ the exponential growth would show
up f(lr n greater than 13.
The above resu It sh ows quite clearly 'why approximate solutions to t'he
approximate integra! equation, which is really the integral equation for the equivalent line source, are often very good. As long as the antenna current can be ap'prmcimated by a. finUe Fourier series with terms lip to " of order 41'o/1ril:; then the eOI'responding, equiv:a;~ent line current has the same Fourier series. However, ir the solut ion to the approxim ate integral equation is carried lout to a higher order or accuracy than this, the solution will ultimately diverge since the Fourler coefficients for the equivalent line source must grow exp'onenUa'~ly for large II. For thin antennas as many as tOO harmonics or more can be used, so {he approximate solutions to the approximate integral eq~liation 'for Ihin antennas are ,G.enerali~y very good. For a thick antenna the F'Qu[rie'lr coefficients begin t.ogrow exponenlially for much smaller values of n!. and tllUs the IIpprol!imate solutions m:lIY 1101 be very accurate at all. How.evFf, we may stiU dete .. rmine the 't" for a t'hil'C'k antenna Irom solutions of the ,a,plprox,im,rdle integral equation and then use Eq, (2.108a) to find thePourie;l coefficients of the actual an tenna current. The :an tenna 'input impedance is th~'n oJven by
\1
z~ ~ = ,
Q. N
1.
(2.112)
I
'!: '
(2.11 J)
V.,/b over th e band
E,(w) ,",V,sin(wb/2) 'wbtl.
(2. [019)
•
,', I
• r'
(2 ~ ] Co· z.i 4)
,Ii'!! 'III ~ J.".
, 1
•
'"
~ 1 ;
, ~ ,
~  ,
, ~ ,
l I j, I
II is alsollossible 1.0 establish tile asymptotic behavior: of the Fourier coefficients J .. fm large n from a knowledge of ~he behavior of the upplied electric fi.e~d at ~,he input region :and that ocr the scattered electric ne'lid at the
two edges z = ±lo. r = 0.. . ,
The scattered electric 'Ile~d component along 1 ~Sl given by:
" ~ i '~ (t~ 1 + (1)A t ~ )
J'WtEoJtoc..,~, 'I;.r~ z' J: ~ , ,K n ~ .. ,1' ,,1"'1 Z
l),2
t.il '"," '1,,3 ... , ':1
t
, '
"
" I
I,
i ,[
, I
(2.,110b)
I
! '
At r= Qilnd [z] <: Iii the scattered field must cancel the apP!liedlield E" For \zl ~ Ie) let the scattered electric field at f = Q he ilJlz). When ~ appmaches 4.r~, .1' = a, the edgecoHdilion requires that 1/1 (Z1 '~rlllJ As a tesuU the Fourier transform ~(w) behaves like wtll for .~arge values of .Wj In the Fourles
t R. E. com III , Field Thl!ory ofG!lldedWtll!rs. McGnlwHili Book COI1l1Jlanf. New York, 1900. pp.
181421. I
I
I
~l ~1" I
~'
, ,I
,,~ ~ • ,0/ •
I
~ [
~! '.
:.1
~
r I i
~hi5 occu rs r or n > "01 ,a , It [oUows, 'th at the Fourier series Ic()elmC'~en t.SI In Ier a delta .. funcHon applied field are essentially ~he S31'Dle :3JS thoSle fOf ;(1 unli'I'or'n1J apP,lrued fie'lid over a. hand of ~engtl~ 2a for the harmonies up 1'0 order n = lJ tl 'II which is, ,~ ~3j'rgle number for a thin an tenna. It is f'or this reason that approximate solutions using a deHahwction applied field are satistaetory askmg as only loworder fourier coefficients up to n of order lola. give a good approximation for the antenna current. The ]ogarilhmic growth in the input current begins tor values of Ii jn 'tile same range as the exponential growth 0'1 the Fou rier coeffiicilents for th e equ.iv3t~et1t tine sou fee begi ns.
IOn the basis, of the analysis g,~vem1 above, the qualitative behavior or the
equivalent line source ctlrrerntand tile total antenna current .1 = 2waJ at the input. 3!l It tunction of the I1ll1mlller or terms used ill the Fourier series expansion, call be expected 10 be as shown in Fig. 2.30. InHiaUy there is a region of rapid convergenee as the number of harmonics used is increased. This is followed by a. stable region in which the input current changes very slowly and is nearly equal to the convel":gedrendt. As the number of harmonics is increased beyond 11 ::= ,41oJ 1rla] the 'Fourier coefficients f or the equivalen t '~bl1e SO'IJtl~)e current wn~ begin to grow' ex:ponen:Hany., If the apphed field is a delta tunction the ~og3r'iithlt1.ru,c growth in the actual antenna current w'iU also begin 3'l this polnt. for :8. thin antenna the s{81J'~e region is quite w'rud'e" and. this accounts for ~ h e S M ccess of the a PP'fO x 1 mate ~O] ut io n s '{ 0' t'h e a ppro x ru m 3] te hl1 teg raJ equation. For a thick antenna the stable region is very narrow 0'1" may not exist. Th us ~'o'r a t h ~ck anten n a the dieh3..,r~1 nction appl rued He1d should be avoided; Theappl"oximatc integral equation may be used, provided the Fourier
coefflclents are corrected as ex plained earlier.
'For a solid cyHnCllric.,d antenna, the edge c·ond~Ho,n requires Ihat .(z')
"'ii "iI ,.... "I! ~"'III
_ ~ , ct.'"' _] ~.' _. ,'. '"  £iI',JI
behave hike (Z2 ~ ta:JJ~!,i' a~ 2· == +lo~ r = Q, in which case l~jJ'(J~) behaves hk,e w
[or large w, The second Fourier series ill Eq. (2.114) will now have coefficients th at vary,! [ike '1 ~~IJ ~ For the solid antenna fh,e radial Ir~lrn·~~nt. Inn the caps must be included to obtain the correct ledge behavior m The axial current also does not
FUND,A,MENT A'l..S ,OF E:]L;E(.·TROMA~'N"iJ!T~·"" . '  ,
.,Y C ~'~ R,ADIATll'ON lS
have to vanish ,at Z es ±It~ but ma'W .no'l.'iI:~' IOlii  f11 , . d· . _
., lid! , .':/ ~~. 1M' ...,.Ic,r ~le lei " ~, Ie·, .
constant zdirected current at z ~ t ak ,' B· b _ L _ ge _?nto .. the end caps, A
d '_. _ .. ~ _. . ~Ol ma 'es,·: 'eJ]13\"e like (I ~ ,)] _. .
£. ge, but thls singularity is cancelled by the fini'e . ad ... I • .. . •. " _ z_ near the
e~d cap.t For a thin antenna. the current c bra ,Ialcu~r~nt _lI.t r  a on the With neglig.ible error. an . e assumed 10 be zero at z "" +'0'
74 ANTEN'N AS
'. I I
1 .. 1,]' "',lmurAL IMP'ED.ANCE
I, I ~i !
I
r
:if
:1
1,
,
1
FfoI; ......,_ ,2':!,~
.. I  r"" io ..
~ I
I
; I· ,
Z~I ' . ,......z 1:
21. :U1 I
I" ,I :r~
.: Iii
,
i JIl
l
I I
I i
: I
 I
I I.!
! I
., d
:
; t
~
I
I
. .........,;_ r:l(pO~1l~n'!'ill! ... '
lrmwth ,.
' .. wpr[~~1m~C
,~t@IW [llJ. ~r it ex i s~ s
If (0) .... ,~"..,.. _ .......
~ .................... ~_........~ .......... ~ ~ ........ ," ...... ,
: ~ d,
~ I I • .. •
F1!gltf'e l~31. Two pata~l.t~ .cdipO,ti' ~"lmJte .. nln:a's:
wnh m utu a~ ,eo'lJpn nlg,. . .
t
S~~~ge 'of rapld 'ead~ co n\llel[le 11 ee
Stable lteg~on
Reg~on ,~f n
'e)',;PliJI~'f: n ~ I~ ~ il'!OlW t 11 fer
"f(fJ:nl
I
, .
Fi:M;u(\e, 1,,3(11 Q'luilitafive bl~~'ih:BJ\I'i,olr olf the I~QiUli,valent liae current l~,(O) and ~be ~o~:~d In}llenn~ eurrent 21J',(.!J(O)1 as ra F.l!llmiJctton ,o,'r ~he number of lh~n'mo,nic5 used in the FO!.rurier. !;e!li'"~es ,t~PiiiU~ls,ion.
161 ANTENNAS
Ii , I
, ,
Tile reciprocity principle req IJ ires that 221 "" 2'12 Ingeneral the sellimpedances ZII and Z22 are somewhar different from the corresponding input impedances or the isolated dipoles .. This is caused by the interaction between the two dipoles, even it one dipole is opencirculted at the center, since this does 1101 force the current to be zerocverywhere along the dipole even thoilgb it is zero
at the center . .Z'IZ is the m u tual impedance. .
For rhin dipoles around ),012 long and spaced by Ar/5 or more, the self impedal!1ces can be approxlma led by the isolateddipol,e input impedances. All approximate expression for the mutual impedance 212 calli be obtained directly from Eq, (:t 116).. as win be sho'wn below.
The reciprocity principle, which is derived in Chap. 5, shows that the interaction of the electric field Edl radiated by 1,{% m) with Jl(2"~ must equal the interaction of the lield B'12 radiated by J~fl2) with '1(2'1)' that Is,
f~ f·~
:Cz:u(z2)Ii(Z,J dz:, ~ EiU~(:Z ru)ll'il(Z'.) d.2'1
~I 'ru
by
• l
~ ~
i
I r 1 I ~
t
: f
:J"=12
.' '" :II
(2~ l18)
. , , .
(2.Jf1b)
~ !
: .
I!J 
• · :
· .
r.
A similar equation is obtained lrom EQ. (2.1t6b). with the same mutual coupling term since R21 ~ Rl~' We now assume that the normalized Curren I distributions 'I(ZI)ll1{O) arid 12(z;Jl1Z{O) are not changed by infter.action between the dipoles; that is, 'l(zJIl1(O) is independent of I,(!)arnd vice versa. Wilh this assumption, the inlegmls in Eq. (2.120) are nol dependenr 011 theal11lplihJ~es of the inpul current, since the currents are normalized. Hence 11(0) and 12(0) ill1 Eq, ,(2.120)(;<ln be regarded as independent variables. When we compare Eq, (2.120) with Eq. (2~ 1119) we find that
I.
. ~ . ~.
I ,
whe e we 'ave dropped the prime r n Z2~ and
RlZ = [(ZI  z.s + ,dllt.11
The corresponding equation that can be derived Irom Eq .. (2<1 116b) w'ould have given Z'21 = Z'12 because Ru! = Ri~'
The mutua] impedance Zll is not critically dependent on t e current.
distribu·Hons. Hence Ior djpolee :a.pproximately ltJ2 long we may assume that the normalized current dis·.ributio·ns are
FUNDAM NTAt..s OF E
78 A NTEN'N·I\S·
sin k@.(11 1z ~I) sl n kfIJ Ii
and
sin k(J(ll iZ21) sin ko,l.!
: ~
}
. I
I
The second term mn Eq .. (2.121) may be integrated "y parts twice 'with respect to .2"1' By . sing. the relations 11(+ "1) = 0 and
d .
~ 'sin ko(l~ ~ 1%·,1) ~ ~kl}S8.z·t cos ko(ll  ~Z'ln dZ1
where sgz ~:: 1 for Zl > 0 and 1 Ior z~ < 0, and
ddJ 2 sin /(0('11:2:\1) .::;  k~ sin ko(ll 12:11)  2ko8(z I) cos kol, . z'
1
he equation for Zu reduces to
j.ZOI I "z .' e  Jl:o·A , e  JikoR:!
Zl2 ~. •. (. + ~
41f sin kfmll sin klOl1.  _~.~" R., R ~
, ~j1:oRI!)
 2 coswkoille ) sin ko(tJ; ~Z'1~) dZ1
RIO .
where Rl = [(I] ~ 1':;:)2 + d'rn.
R1 = [(II·~ Z2Yil; + .d1.rn
J i
~
r I
·1 ··1
. j
i
;
J
I
I I I
50~~~~~d~'hAo~~~~~J
FIIIi.I· .... ~ ~.,32 v arl a ~ ~O''f1 olf m u ~ !ud ~·nlped a nee be~ ween I~'W .'. I  " ," ',., ' ' ,.
SIf: paratton d{ A IW.  0 .pa ra~' e I d lIP oles A'o/2 loms, as a f d netton 'o~ 'l he
~ A ,rr~'~re corDp etc treatment of Hille mutuai coupling pro .... blern has b .
gt v  c b K" , t I ~ d . t'. I 1("",. 1_  :s e'e n
" e y rng, W~10 !Fin,. s that for a twoelemen Ii· array of d :'IP'O]'Q' 'l I  t
~ d .. . 11;.0 niL '(.1 'I!:i!l . . , " I!!;.rS A ~ 0 n g t 1 e
5'e ,3 rnittance diners. by, to to 201 p'er·c,Bnl' Ir"  •. ,.,. r'  ~ ~i .• ' .~ ,,' .'  I .
, ...• , _ .. . . . ..... I ~ 'v"l \\lUll 0 an isolated d1 ',]1  f I'
sp,aclngs, m the range 0.2;\. t 0 8' A ~]1 ., .'. . . .. ..' !, . po e or
. ' .. ~,.': • , (I 0 'i. '0'" 1 USI the dipole 'In teraction tn chan gmng the
current distributlon IS not entirely negligible. .
(2.122)
Ro = (zi + .d~~12
The integrals in .q. (2 .. 122) may be expressed in tern S of c sine an.d sine integ als or carried out numerically.
Figure 2~32 shows ~yp~c.~d results 'for Zll = R:12 + jX~1 for two parallel dipoles
lJ2 long as at function. of the spacing d. .. If' Vi is zero, then
Z·[ .. lO)
I to) ~ 11 ~\ '.
1\ ' Zn(O) , ~
and 'thle input impedance f'or dipole 1 wUl be
~. ..;; VI "" Z + Zi:t I~O) := Z _ Z!2
ZI~.,.,1 I (0) u Z 1/0), 1. t Z ... ..;
t\ . n 1,\ " ~
PRO'BLEM,S
~~~ If magnetie eurrents I ... lind magnetic charge pm existed, Maxwell's eql.l81iollls would
~
, a I ~ • : ~
v )it E =  j&J B  J ft'! V)( I : jw, D
'V"O=p"I 'V~D::=::O V'··J ..
, om  JWP
Let D =  V )it Am and ·r ollow tb.n 'De  :1 d . _ .' . m
. .... ~ neras p"olce· 'Ul fie of Se·t 2 2 ·t 0 s i. ow Jj. ~1~'· ..... ,., .  ~
veetor p ,iI' ill' 'I .... ." .•. U" 'U .![!II' u:~e magnet rc
. . . c'l.en I~ 13. Am and magnettc scalar potential ,0+. ~.ttlJt'·,·f .j;' . .'
Wm ;:,u· rns,.y me equat ens
(VI + k ~Am =  E't)Jftt
which shows that mutual coupling can have a strong innue'nce on the in'put impedan'cle fo'l!' closely spaced dipoles, since Zr1 is then quite large.
. ~ .
r I ~ ..
~ : 
•
~ L ... I II
•
, ~ . I
~I. _ .' V,,, A~ H   J(t) AJ.n + ~
j&JiJ"o€o
t R. W. ·P. K·i n,EI "~Cy~'i rnd:rica 1 .AWI ~en m.3S .and An YS'i' ~ op. c.j ~ .
. ,
s,n ANTENNAS
FUNOAM'EN'l' A,I.5 OF ELECT:=" .'
n,OMA.'GNETIC RAO'~Al'ION ,81
i '
~
[ ~
t
, t
N ~ ~ urn mno'p
~I, ...,..._.._~~~+G~.·, •. ,.· ~__"""j;
rl~~~~~~HJi km~~~~~~I
in3.l1Jienna theory these relllliolilships are useful whene'lI'er t'he Heidi can be expressed as thaI from equivalent magnetic sources, In Chap ... the results are used in eorrnecrion
wru~h radiiRtlotUl fn:.1lm aperl:ur,e...,type antennas.
2.2 011 11 dipole IIllh!nI'Il.I. or total length , the current distribution is 10 sin 111(11: 1
1/2)/sill(kllii'2), When I s 0,.2 lhi, CII,n be approximated by I "" 1n(1 ee :lIz!!'), as shown ill Fig,. P2.2. Find the radiated ellectric field, the radiated power, and the radialian res i51<1n ce, No~e t h lit k~ 1/2 is small e nou gill t III at 'l:os(1I: 02' cos 9)'" I", all IIPProX i!n3tioll that may be used to si,mplify the integration. Show tlilat 1I"e ntdia'iion resishlllce i5
p'fOjJortiona'l to the square o[ the area under the elJ,rrel'l~·di5trilmtion curve.
2.31 Find the rtldiation field from II fullwave dipole iin~,enl'la,as shown in Fill· P2..3, with ,curren~' 1;: lol~ii,n kozl.  ~,lnf2 ,~ z <: Ar;rjll. Sketch the radiad(n~ pattern,
, ,
, T
[
; ,
, :
I [
I
:l'
I ~
,I'
I :
, j
+
I
......_~+~~~ . ............
Ji
1.4 Find the radiation field, lotill radiated power, and radiatilon res;S~lInce [or the ((1.lIuterwave antenna above an inliillJile ground plane, as shown in Fig. P2.4. Tbecunenl on the lIIl~enna is I = 111 cos kez. Hinf: 8y image theory the field above the ground pilUle is the SlI.mellS (Of the hal.fwave an'lenna. The field below Ihe ground plane is zero.
. ...:.... " I
~.' ~~ :i_~_~~ ldl~l:
Ai[)
I ' ! !
!
! ! I '
"
, '
I ,
i I
, I : I
..
i
l.S A small coil of radiills 'iI'" 5 COl and wi~ll N = iO tums is used !IS III receiving antenna. This 8'l'Ile11lUI is located UI k.m a.way from a hallwave dipole and oriented for maximum !113gneUc flux penetrm.lion, as shown in Fig.P2.5. Find the induced opencirelli,t voltage i<!JB .. .N('ll'r~) In the loop when ~h'e in,!,ul power 10 the halfwave dipo,le IIlIIt,erms is 5 W ..
The fre'quen'cy of opc~atio'rnl il~ 27 M1ill..
i
r [
, ' , [
,
I
, ,
. ' "
I'
t
~ I
[
I ,
section U.I' ms defined as fhle tola1 scattered power divh:mled by the Incident power per unit are:l). S'how ,'h.at th'e scattering t(;;fOSS sectlon is .Riveinl by
U!jl ::;; '128 ~;ill1.l''''~) (. if  E~ ). 1: (: r:~1 )" , ,4
31 . , ' if + lEO 'Ao
Note tl!uJ/t the Slcau.er;n,g, cross section 'varies as ~.liiAlII Vlhi,cml is known as fh,e, Rayltlr.·glt $,cai',;'en'nB ,;"o,w'. Can yOlu use ~:h:i.s 1aw tOI lexphll~n w'hy thee sky' appears blue and 'uihy a sunset 8"p;pears. n~di? Hln«: S,~nce the charge at the end of :3 (;Urf,en~ 'Hlam'enl is gIven by iw.QI ~ 1 'then I dl ~ jOJQI dl ~ jWIP~ where P :::: QI dlr ;$ the dipo,~,e moment, DiUS 1 dt can
be replaced by,w.P in the 'fOnlTllulas for radiation (rom a short current ~~a:nl.ernL
l,
2'0110 U Sie t he rlel~ i'pro,c!" tv el ,ill '0, L. . .. ...iI '.  p , , , 0  ~
, ,_ 1' .' "'_ " ~ '_.,' , ~ ,Y re a t.uon_ ~u ra U'i e!iJI 1" 'fOlb m 2 .. '91 te d~1)'1 ve th e expresst on for II: ~H!
~~ect 1i,~C ~~~d_ !r~,~m,aled ,by ,0 small loop antenna located all the od8ln~ lli'n,,: 'Cons~,der
eleetrie drpo'~e~ located ,t . .',   ·',0" d .. h 
___ ," ~ _ , ~ ~I~<@,t,~ :a: Y~U'~O'us posrttons n1 space and w~t ' orientations thll~: produce a
1l"U1X [I m u rl"~ ~n 3J,g.n et H:' fh,,:jj~: i In ~:n:e h:HJ:p ~
,11,1.1 Show ~rult a Green's 'h.tru;~Ho'n I.h:alt satisfies Sq. (2.13) and vanishes ,a~: zj1 = +'l'o is
O. :;;: ~ s~n kQ!(z> ~ 100li sln ,lc.o{z < + to)
.I!t'o sin '2k'i)·t:o
\'Yh'~me .~'> = l f',o_r z >. z' and r' ro'r z ' > z, and l e = Z 'for 2; < Z ~ and ,2: ~ fOil z r < .~ ';, '~h~.I~ Is, l~ ~'S:, ~h'~ greater of z :and. z' and l< ls Ute s1na~~,er 'Of z and z '. llil'1t; Asseme tha~ c: = ,C~ srunl ,k'D(z  "IOI)! Z > z' and (J ~ C2 ~dn 1('mll(z + ,'0)3' z « Zl .. At ,:z = z' make G conhn uous and lI1l110k.'e the fh'st dertvatlve be (t:i$O()ll1lttnuo'u:s. by amount ( ~
l~ 11 W'11H:n the Green "9 function ~n Preb, 2,,"1 __ l '. ~,'I';:'_'.' 'III, !f!"'IP,,~.J1... co,
n II" v ~ '" ~ o::J ""..J to ~ mll ~,egrale 'Pnck.li';~ n g'l o'ri~ ~ S
eqU3'1:~'(U;' j. show ~hall: the resultant liaf'len'lis 'cquafic)n is
",
.. I ; I
~lint: Note that a(~ I;~) 5t 0('0) and dun
's.~n k~(lz ~ ~ 1:0') ~ ~~d11 lol1" I cos ko/~ ~ sln ko/Q cos Jroz sci n 2k OHio' ~ 2 lCOS k'itj 10 sl n klO to
~,J.3_ L~~. the current on a d1plo'~,e :I.nl~:enna be Jz;(z~') on the surface ,r':= d. Show that the 'Integral 1.'11 IlaUen'is integral] equation wU~ ~hen be given by
1 l' llT J 1111 e  JIkIi)R
.., , , .,~ 1'1{ z ~') ,I 'c a d,tP ~ ds ~
,L fflU I) .  ~ID ,ttl wR
lJJ. Figure 2.14 shows tha~. ,3 dlpole antenna \V'ifh '~engJh '~O diameter If'mUO I/,d' = 100 is resonant 'whe1n ,I,' = ((L4·58J..,@" 1"],15 an.tenna iSI connected to a U·,ans~1!1russjlon nne with eharacteristlc ~mpeda.nc,e Z ~ 73,0 .. The frequency is now increased so Ih,~i't at the new wavelength A &' < Ao th,e anillenn3 length ll;;;: to,SA b (3/bolut an 8 pen~en~ hllcrea~e in fre'qulency)~ 'By usinl U1.,e; data from Fig,~:w 2,13 ,and 2.14·, 'find the input n~meCdtUnl 'coetIH:~ent'i the 'VS.WR.~ and t~ll,e power reflection coefficient. At ~'h,e new f'r,equen'C'y the
n I, u res, gmve ~ ~ '100 I~ .i 80 n~
2,~9 Let a snutU sl:n.g~,e,·,turn ~hJ'op be loceted at x == z = 0 and y ~ 11 :and with lets axis, ,a1 01" I, tb,e x direct ion, as in fl8.~ ·P'2m9. 'The loop radius is '0+ ,A smaU curreet fU,8tn'ernlt l~ dt a.1!: ts loca t ed ~ t ~ h e t() r ig'i n, Fln d ~ h e ~ n du red ope nc i, rcu 1 t vo~~: age 1 n 't h e IooI[J1 an d de note I t by'
Vi. Wh e n ~ h e cu rre n t :, n U1 e ~ OO'p 'i 5 I~ n nd th e e !]Ieet'dc f e~ d iJ m pre ssed a ~o n g t he C'U rre Il~ f1 lament. (Note that the current fihun,ent is in ~'he farzone region afHI oriented to receive the 'n'9J(~m,U'l"n ele,c~ific fie~d radiated by !'he loop·w) By ntuJhi'P~y~m~,g. thle impressed e~,ectF'ic fhdld by dtf the open,c~rcullt ~li1du'ced vohag,e V~, ,a1on,g the CUfr,en~ fl'huD,ent ~s obta.;nlled~ Show U, ~'l V~~l = 'VI,,'~I'I wh'ich is· afl~1 'exa'lnp'~I'e .of ~he re'C:'mr1'Folcit:y dl,'e()rem applied tOI
ant en riIl3lS.
;,i !
~ ; .• j
q
, '
. 1
lt~ ~ (x  Xf)~ ~ (y ~ y')2 + (.:2' ~ :l°)1
~ :i,a! ~ 2a'~ C(Js(~, ~ ,~j) + (z ~ i '):2 .t/J' ~ ~I
~ 4a'l S'ir12 ,...~ (z  z ~)~
'2
'I  '
i
I I K(x •. y)J(y) dy = [(x)
" ill'
"~. ',,,,
. ~
: i 1
. !
..
~:.
~ i
"
ru lew U h ,3 SlJ bi ml te rva I H' ~ i IT; show t hat U .. if; system of eq u .. at H]'~5: ~[o de'{etn~1 ~ n e the In is,
~!
H·.T. [N' It ]
~ ~ .~ S'c,,~:,cti.I(·l:H)" ~ l .. ,·.i,. ('tH")1  f:'(tH)
~ rip' 1!'i!'iI'  '.' k _ 1l'I1'!'p'.1'I _ '. _'_
:1 .,,,,,~.  '. ~ ... o JI . ~. .
0iIi1 (II
[ II
31 T. .J
=  c~ ~ SrSr~lm (ill)f(tH)K~I(~H, 1'1)
"II ,Ill [~ . ...,(II
t
•
=0
I. '.I ;
Th e SU ~1iIJ:s over i ·arm d j wilt een t a, n 'o,n Iy ,(1 f e. w tie rm s if:' It h,e 'basi s f' u nc l ions a Fe I oca ~ Ir'Unl,t~i;OI1S tha~: span an intervat oln~)' 3J ,,'ew' ;ncremen!:s 't in ~'ength.
2~18 ASI 9 ~~leci,al case of'. Prob. 2. ~1 choose 9; subinterval 11 ~ lIN in the :rnJi!'rN?;rica~1 in tel,nl~:r.o'l'~ for the te~s.~~nl proeedu reo Show ~.l1,at the sy$,~[e~m of equ~"i:ons fOlf de~[e:r:min~OOlg [t hi e. IjJ h as a SIO'~ U don de te rR~; n'ed by sol v ~i n g the syst e ml
It N' Ii.f!!.i
~ 2: liffi~~ (~,H) ; ~ 2:. t; L: K ("U. j11' )¢I'j1.{jh )SI
3 ~ ..,[~ :1 !!I: ..... '~ ).,.[0
• I
I
]. 2
I I : I
.1
W'i:th Ul1S particular choice for 'the sJulbh11.ervl~ length H, Hie' ehoice of' 'testing functions has, no eR'~cl Ion Ole solution ft~lr the '~I.' In 'order Itha~. U1[e testing functionrs, should inniuence the nU~ln,er~~c,a11JahJ1esj, of the l; the number 0(' :inh~r'Y'ah;. T must 'be ,grel.'ter than the [111 u 111 be r N of b as ls ih.~ m~I[C t ion s used.
1,,1"1 As a h1i:lhe.r special ease of Probs. 2.,17 and :t!H~ 'let ~he ."I(.,V) be a set of snbdoma in basis functlons such as 'the Irianglle Iunetlons, the Lagrange polynomials, or aim)' other set that Indiv'iduaf'ry span an hUe:rv8,1 2h and have ~tN~ properjy .~I (n'11) == 1 J '(fi", (jll)";: 0" i ~ R. Sh,o,w rhat the equ;a,t1ons. for deterrnining the 1~1 now become (assume also Ula't H = '1)
N
Ify) ~ 2: J~I(~I~(y)
r.I.,([I1
.f .
l .. 'Ie .' b.~ nterval 11' ~ 1/J to obtain
Use ShlllP:SOI'll 's IfU e W~hl ,a $UJul' ~l~ '" (jIj.' .~, ~ ..
N J . ,
h I,rn I; IC(x, jll )<lJ .. (ih lS, "" !(x)
:3 LH II1II0 ,1iI1
I ' I
Let
I[
!: ,
· ·
which is lndependent ,o·f the particular subdomain b3JSlS ru",(:I'iot1IS, ~:h,a't are used. 111is prob le m sh cnlvs t:h at !J1·e i n terval 2/1. used ] iii S lm pson ~ S f11 le m 1.1 st be sm a ~ ~[e r I:h :21:11 t tie spa n
h rn il.. iii ~ b d · i!.. ~'f "',' "f I "' t. t.. b .
over w 1~ICn me Sill J omam v8S,IS : unctton rs nonzero f tlllll'e propertles Chi tne . a:8'IS
fUn'eU,ons are to h'ruli1lue'i1ce the numerlcal slo'h.u:ion~
2~Jn Conslder a kernel ~lUlrN:UtJlm .K(.1  yJ that JUIS. OJ domilUurun~ ~lng:IUJJ~8r PI~U"~ UUlt can he represented by :8 delta fUIM:;:UOlli 18(1'  y), that is,
,
I .
I
I .
· '
: , ~
• I
~I I.
r (
~ ~.
~.
i
t
~
K(x  y)~ G'(x  y)~" 81(x  y)
i •
:.t
. ~
I
I I
I 1
I ~
[ i
. .L . ,
; ~ ,.
IClfAfTER
THREE
DIPOLES. ARRAYS,. AND LONG';WIRE ANTENNAS]
This chapter begi;I1S wilh furUlliu discussion 0111 dipole a nlel1l nas, The dipole anlerma is similar in l1lany respects to an opelllcircuited transmission iine .. One particular dipole antenna, the bicol1ical antenna, is readilly analyzed as <I Iral1lsmis:sion fine. This !itructureis Uu!refore examined ror tJU! additional insight it provides ill to tbe operation of .01 dipoleanlel'Hla. Addi tional topics 01 practictll imporlal1lce in connection witI'! dipole antennas are then lakeolllp .. These Include the folded dipore, which has a radiaHon resistance or 292.5 nand 3. broader band of operation than (I conventional half.wave dipole, the short dipoleanterm.a and the use of loadillg roils and of capadUve loading 10 imlprove the current distributiOll, and related quarterwave antennas .
In order 10 produce a. more conC·fmtrated beam of r.adlalion and a larger IHlII'elHla gain, several halfwave dipole antennas may be arranged in an array,
TIH.ls the baSIC propertles of arrays are or importance and are discussed .. An important principle, that or pallern mi.llfiplic.a.lion, is introduced as II. useful tool in array analysis. Some 11 111 al topics on .anays.address the probtem of array synlhesis 10 produce cert ain desirabl'e radi3Jtion "altern characteristics. Special arrays, such as U~e frequency.independellt logpel'l,odic antenna, are abo covered
T1lcc:hapterconcll.ldes with a disctlssilOIl of lOlllgwire antennas, which are useflJ I a t the lower he<luel1cies where il is impractical to bui Id arrays .
.
The bicolllical antenna is shown in. Fig. 3.1 and consists or two cones with ~alf IImgle 9.,. It is exched at the center, between two spheli"ical caps. by a SinuSoidal 'Io.llage source, AI'! extensive slndy ,of the bicollical antenna has been n1~de by
Schelkllnoft, Hl1Id the material presented here is based 011 that work. t ..
1
~
I. I·
'.
1 I.
..
87
i :
~ ,
!' ,
,
v X 1, ~  Jwp.:JI reduce to the foUow'ing (see AI'P. I):
H ~ (..7(t)
~ .' ,a
S1n v
The biconical structure will support a transverse spherical (rEM) electromagnetic wave analogous to that ona conventional transmission line. The field patten! of the TEM mode is also shown in Fig. 3.t. fie intine orientatio,n
of the two cones in tile biconicalll.lltenna is such thai at r ~ 10 ideal opencilrcllit conditions do 110~ exist, even though the cones terminate at this point. In the space r > I,. ,elleclromagne~k. radiation is produced, and the presence of this field beyond the lermina,ting sphere 01 radius '('I results ill an eRective terminating hnpedance Z, Ior the biconieal trans'missiol1l nne that is very large but not il1l1nite 31':> il would be for an ideal open.ecircuit termination. If Z, can be evaluaJed, then ordinary transmission,Iine theory can be used to find the input
• ,~I _ I, .. 1 1 d 0" " '. 'L,
Impeual'i,ce at hie terrmnats locate at r = '11' .. ICOUlI"S,e, til pJ3CliCe tne
additional impedance, usually capacitance, Introduced by the terminal eonnections to the. feed transmission nne win modify the value computed by considering only the biconical t raasmission line driven by an ideal vohage
source hnpressed aCflOS,S the spherical gap of radius 1;01'
111 order to analyze the TEM wave on a bicon~c3J antenna we wm begin
with the assumptions that the TEM wave has only 13 .. and H ... cmnponenls and
• y....... • j J
that these are (unctions of r and IJ only. It win tum out that a solution 1.0 Maxwell's equations with these restrictlons calli be found. so our assumnu,ons
~'" ;,
will be [ustified. Obviously we are mak.ing use of the work of previolls auihors and known results to prol,l'~de this starting point for the ana~y5is, Wilhout that
(3 . .3t! )
(3.Jb)
(J'1
ar1. ('£>9) =  k :,E,1
This simple harmonic motion equation has the solution
rE6' = Cm(61) efk.v + IC,{9) leil@:'
'wh~re le'l and C2,orle funct~on5 of tJl only, Now we note that the '1':'1 zhth  . dl sid "
or Eq (3 3a)' ~ " '11 ~  I"g unam ~~,tl IE
t , •• _ •••••••• ' .·.va~lesas sm e, so E. must then also have this same depend~nce
on e. Hence our fundamental solution [or EI9 ls .
(J.4)
·
t· '
• I
•
•
· '
Because of the termination or the cones ,at r "" '0' a perturbing field is excited in the regiOlJr < ~ corresponding to other l1onTEMtype modes as Weil as .a radiated l'iefd in Ihe region r > lij. The currents induced 011 the cone by aflof the modes is such thai the TEMIllode current by itself does not need to vanish, The ,ellcct fbis has 011 the TEM mode is 10 produce an elTecliveterminating impedance 21 at r "" I., that is different Irom an ideal open circuit The addition al modes excited at r "" 'I) decay in amplitude as r decreases, so th al al the input where r == '11 they prodiJJIce only a small ejlect, ConsequenUy, file antenna input impedance is given quite closely by the usuallransmis.o;ionlillc fo rm til II a [see ,A pp, II):~
If the surface at r ""/0 is an ideal open cirCUli then at r = '0 dUl, current J will be zero. which requires ,hal \1 e.ikolo '" V'" f!.lk~"'. Iii this case
I = V i 'Y(eA~ ~ e2Aolo'JIk~)
1_
z' + I~Z tan k ... t;
_ _, If 'iC t II! 1!J'~I!.ll'
Za =: Zct  ,  t~
 Z{' "" jZt '~an ,KO~D
which for 10 ee '0/4, cOHcspol'lding to a l1a:lfwave dipole, is
Z~ Z~~· 19~ .. 2
Z 'il: "" (~  f u)
= ::: '~ ~" I ~In co. ~
,i\T Z, 71"1Z,' 2
Wfum the cone halfangle 9i1 is very 5!11all, the charaCleristic imped.alu:e Z, becomes very large. 111 his: book SchelkullIofJ shows that the terminaling i mpedallce Zf becomes l3Irge also as 60 approacbes zero and, ill actu 81 r act, increases in value fosler than the logarithmic growth or ZC' Consequel1t1y; in the linlil of an infinitely thin cone, an ideal opencircuit condition is achiev,ed, and (he current distribution becomes a pure sinusoidal standing wave. Thus the bicnuical antenna theory provides a theorefical hasis for assuming a sinusoidAl current distribu Ition on thi tl~wi:re a n ten n as,
The cylindrical dipole antellilla shown in Fig. 3,2 is quite similar 10 the thill biconicalanlel'lna, Consequently, the dominam tileld in the region r < ,'0 should be very neatly UUII or a shulding spherical TEM wave. The Inain difFerence is Ihal the boundaries do, I"IO! coincide with those or a cone with fixed hailf'!lngle 00. 111 essence, ihecylindrlical dfpolemnlenl1a is analogous to ill transmissioll line whose characterislic hnpedance changes gradually along its length. For the cylindrical antenna the eCJIuivalernt COile angle at the posi tio III 2 is given by tan Do = al z=» Oil' <IS Fig. 3.2 shows ... When we replace cot (1012 by 2/fJ®, the expression forr the characteristic imped.ance of the thin cylil1dricar aatenna ar
'I he point z is
(3.1 J)
{3.14)
I .'
, · ~h eciproeal of 11"( and. is, given by
TIle characteristic impedance Ise r '.' . c
Z "" ZO ~n cot 11i1 = 120 In cot ~o
Ilf 2 ."
1.r ~
I,
, ,
(3 a .10)
,~
')
, I' I
I
(3,. t IJ
For II thin antenna 2.(2) varies slowly with z. so that as a first <lpproximlltion
91 ANTENNAS.
( 1 ).
s t20 In ; 11
(1,,16)
oz' . ~r J ~"iII
Zig =  J:.( cot rlln~f~
(.3.11)
''1
! s
O]POlES,. AR.MA vs AND LONGWUtE ANTENNAS "'3·
I .
. f.
1 ~
,~
Schelkurrofl for 'Ih~nl 'COfU~;SI and 'may be used to find the input impedance for the bicon il,caJ an ten n a wit'h UH! a ld lor formula (3m 13:).. In practice, th,ere 'is no advan tage i Iml US:hl,1 B thin biconieel an ten n a h~ preference to a cyUndlr'il[',id an tenna, wh ich is easier hJI fabricate, However, the w·ide ... angle blconical anten na has ·3 [ah']'Y large bandwidjh of opera lion and ":5 used :in practice, For example, fO'f a 'h,alf·conle angle of 30° Brown and Woodward f()und experi .. men 't a II y .{ h OJ t r 0'11" A. (J/2 c II .< 3 A 012 flil e re 3ICU},nce doe s n ot exceed 50 n in magn it ude, and the input resistance remains between 130 and 200 n~ t This anten n a, when fed ·w·hh a transmission nne having a ch aracteristlc impedance 'Or I.s,B n." wJ~ ic 11 is. t h e cb aract erl stic 1 m ped S. nice ot ~ h e b iICOT1 ie aJ s truct u re, :h as a 11.
acceptable impedance match over more than a .. 3 .. toI frequency 'band," This, property of UU~; wideangle bieonieal antenna is also found '(or the thick ICy lindrical antenna, as shown b\ Fi8,S.~ 2.131 and 2".'14" 1l'O\\N;!'ver'i '(he biconical antenna is somewhat better than the cylindrical antenna in its impedance behavior over ,8 broad band~
A simple approximerion to the w'~d·e,anaJe biconical antenna 'iJ:s the '(riia~l" gular, or "bowtie," antenna shown in Fig .. 3,.3 .. The impedance properties of this antenna are ~10~ a.s· good as those of the biconical antenna bun nrc acceptable for use as a simple antenna to cover the UHF television channels 14 to 83 (f.requem'H;y of 4.50 to 900 MHz). The bowtie antenna is preferably made from a sheet of' copper or aluminum but may also be made rronm wire, ahhough UH:;; latter has .3. poorer performance. The dimensions shown in Fig, 3.3 :OfC suitable for use on 'the U'HF television band with a 3100 n feed line, Further information on ~his antenna m:ay 'be fo~.nd 1r~ the paper by Brown a~1d Woodward.
..
I
j
1 I
~
•
11
I ~ I ~
I
~ , ,
, l I:
I ,~
,
r
•
.l
~.
r i ~
1
,
i I i
I j
I' II
.. !
! ~
! \.
I~
i
L
The folded dipole antenna ~s shown ~n Fig+ 3,,,4. It consists of two conduetors o·r length I con nected together at each lend .. One conductor is split at the e'en tier and connected '((1 the transmission ]ine. The Iokled dipole antenna has a
3:00  n. U'nJ~ (~d
.. 1 ~ 'I. ·"r
I ~
t 01. H. BriO/Win and 101. M. ·Woodw.~rd, Jr., ~·jE::I(periJ~ne·n't.~!ly Determined R;d;,altiolJilj Characterms,tks. lo~r Conical~ and TIf:~.~nl~)dam' Afl!'h~;nnas/' ,A'leA Re'u.;,e·w!. ·vo~. ~ 3" 1101 4, Dee, 1952, 'I, .42:;;'
IV
['~l
2:
and
'LL ~____...........~, _............,_~~~ I
~.~ ... ~~~~~)
I
so
as may be found by using Eqs. (3.20) and (3.21). Note that the antenna dipole admittance is reduced by II factor of 4, and a compensating admittance
..
 j( Yl/2) cot ko/l2 is added in parallel, When I = Aeti the compensating, ad
mittance vanishes. since lcol12 = ,"(2. For very thin COl1dI.lCIO[S the antenna is also resonant when ,' ArJ2 and Vi  (13.13,,1 fl, so Z" ,.., R .. = 2~2.5 fl. For koll2¢ 1rJ2 Woe have YI = G1 + jB, with 81 positive or capacitive for k,lf2 < ,"/2, and hence ( j Y,,/2) cot lcol12is a compensanng inductive admittance for I <
In order :1'0 lInde:rsta,n.d the inJlpedance~,comp,en$atin,g f'earl~u~'e of '(hie folded dipole antenna, its operation lQay be viewed as a superposiUol'I of the effecls obtained by driving it as anantenna and as a transmission line. Mime JAb and 3.4c shows two ways of driving the structure. Th,€! excitation in Fig. 3.4b will excite equal currents 'OIl both conductors and will function as .3. conventlonal dipole anten lila. The excitatlon ill Fig. 3.4c will produce oppositely directed c u rre n t s ·il n each con du ctor or tin ot h er words" w·i I] m 3, k e the struetu re f til n c n:i on as two s,eri,esl~lconne,cted shcrt .. eircu it1ed 'f.ta.nS,~11iss.iori lines, S'Enice the trans ... [mission line currents are oppositely di'rected and closely spaced, the radia~'ion from the tw'O is almost eomlp~e{ely cancelled, W'h,en ~he effects of the two mel hods of exclti tlg the structure are superimposed, the resultan t driving voltage for one conductor l:u~:cornes, V;and is reduced to zero for the other, The irtpuf cu rrent may be found by adding together the currents in the driven conductor due to the two separate ex.ciit.EI'Uons~
Figure 31",Sa S'hIOWS the equivalent dipofe antenna problem for whieh the CUI'rCIiU 2/ru is given by
(.~,)
I~:
J' 1
+
.~ l·~
2: .
~ ~f
~
" .... v
""'\; I ~
1 +
V 2/  ~ y
1. "2 l
where Y[ is the il1put admWallce of 3. dipole antenna made from two parallel conductors connected together at each end and at the 'center." as shown, The equivalent transmission .. ·1ine problem is shown in Fig. 3.5b~, from whieh H is seen thae I,. ~ Y;rnl Vl2 and thus
(3,20)
(:t21)
I
where Y2 is the characteristic admittance 0'£ the twowire transmlssion line consisting of' the two conductors that make up the folded dipole antenna.
When the two excitations shown in Fig. 3.:51'1 and J.Sb are superimposed we obtai I:l the origi oaf excitarlon shown ~n Fig. 3.5;c. The i !1:J1u'f adrn it tance seen at the term inals is
"
1 + I Y Y i
y_::::: I 2 I ," :2 _ r_'
~  ~ ~J ~. CO'l!PIL~
~ V 4: 2 v2
I ~
.1 I
, , . I
I
196 ANTENNI AS·
I 1
fl 21[ iii: . ]; '1
I~ ~1')
v

1
A twowire transm is~si(ln Hne with a Ic]1,ara1cteriis{:ic Impedanea o,f' less: t ha n
100.n is not very praetical because of the close spacing required fo'r the conductors, For antennas ihat must be driven by a twowire nile the much higher impedance of a folded dipole antenna is iii useful (eature reit this reason alene 111 certain types of antenna arrays the dlpole amenna impedance is reduced considerably because of the mutual coupling Willli neighboring dements, The higher impedance of UU~ fOIl.ded d~plol'e antenna helps to offset thjs decrease and filius 10 keel' the required impedance of ~he feed lime within reasonable bounds.
I
~l
~ I
~ ,
 y
1~ . .. }''I
I
I
1_ .
, ,
~ :
I·
 j
~ t , r
, 1
Ai the lower freq uencies where the w",vel,ellglh is large, spacelimilations often do not permit the use 'of a dipole antenna a. fuU halfw3velerlgth long, As a consequence the rad1.a.tion resistance iSI reduced conslderably, 8J1d some means must be enip~oyed to tune out the large capachive reactance. The lat~er i~ usually accomplished by means of one or more inducloliS connected in series will, the antenna. Theadditionallossel'l in these Illnillgcoils reduce the antenna efficiency and gain. A simple tuning arrangement is sliJOwFi in Fig. 3.6.
If the luning coils are moved to the center or each arm of the antenna, as shown [n Fig. 3.7, then a more nearly uniform distributiO'n O'f current on the antenna is obtained, and this i~1creases the radia;t~oJn resistance .. For .30 short dipole the current distrfbution is triangular (see Prob. 2,2) .. and tile radiated power is proportionel 10 the area under the currentdistribution curve squared. If a uniform current distribllltion could be achieved, an increase in the radiatjon resistance by :a factor of .4, over tha~ for a tri,a.r~g,uhu~ dis.tribuHon 'would be
b ~ d o tamer '"
In order 10 see how luning coils arranged as in Fig. 3.7 can improve Hie
. d~ · ,. b" 'lL.. i, d~' 11 d ~ dl d·' d
current .'. tstri u tion, t ne an tenna ts moe ere as a roac lei open .. crrcm te trans
mission ~ine~. as shown in Frug ... :l,8", The inductance of ~he cons, should be chosen 5'0 as to make tile antenna resonant, This, is equivalent to making the transmission ... line model effectively a. quarlet .. waV'e~ellg't.h IOIl,g, whii,ch means that the i npu n iin~plednnele in: the transmlssion li'ne model should van ish .. Just to the lien of the coils Ifu~. inplll impedance is ~JZ< cot 11:0//4 I j'MLr;. This Impedance lis transformed tOI the following value ,3.1: the inpul::
'.' t
i ; . L
•
. I , ~
[ "
I ,
 JZ~ cot 11:04 + j(JJLm. + jZc tall Itll:;:
z·o_ :;: z. ~~.........____,.~~~ __ ~_~
n~,~ ~' I . I
Z( + (iwLu  jZ. cot k1l4} 1311 kg ~
. j 0
Fieu fie 3'.6 Sh,ort d~po~~ a flIll:'£ n n a wi m h
~ U fill i mig eoi liS ·M {[h,e fin p~ ~,
 jwLI to obtain
I
•
J
~ ~
~
• ,
i i l
!
!
98 ANTE'NNA',
1. '
..
or
(3..23)
 j:w'L .. ~iL. .. c
V~ == ,_ l~ == .,.._._ 11 = ~JZt:/~ (3,2$)
kn 'VLC
IJPon using k. ""W V LC and Z. "" V LJ C, wh ich are relationships that hold for
II! ~l Ill!
a transm ~SSf'On nne.
In .'the section to the rig,hl of the coils, the current standing wave must vanish at z = 112; and the voltage standing 'wave 'win have a fl18x:imum value. Thus we can write
FIIUJ'le 3,,7 Cen terlo aded shoe t d' pole an ten n a.
"i '.  . , d '. . ;;:u't"lj* vanish when the numerator in the above express,lo'n
The input im pe ance YIi!' U . .
vanishes ; thus,
which determines the required i.n~uct~.nce. . .... t· ions given in App, It to find file
.., ·1'~·· se t1,0 transmis sron nne equa I , h d
We W"~ ~ nlow US,I; ~ I"",, ' C'Jl ..:I,. .'. . _~ "' .. , '1:",.. ,0···· the left . an:
di ., .' "n the transnussron ~~ ne. . . n It· '_ .
~.I '.' '. '. . ",1 c u r"ren t' sta n ,11g! 'waves 0 I ill, '. 
voltage ,anQ .. ', ,~,,~
 ,
section we can write
, (t )
V:= V ""lOS ,~  ..::..  ~
:2 '!;.. 1[0 "
.' _ 2·
(3.26,a)
(1 ).
1 := I", sin k; ., ~ z'
.~ U! 2 :
.... '.'
\I, ;, ;f ..
V = . ~ s,~n k.oZ·
I ~ 1~1 cos koz'
,.  . m.,. . ~, .' eds .c ce conditions require the jnpu ~ voltage 'stan~lng
smce the. zero Hill pu t. rnpe~a~_.~, d h. C' , ren standing wave must then have a.
'. t·· have g, node at %  0 a.n t e  ur ," ._. d'll'ld' ........
w,ave 0 ,O'Y iI;iII , ....'., '. . V ._ "'1 I ,",~ obtained by' US,lUg ci v $1, ,Z ~
 ~ .    Th (£!jL r ell a' t ~ 'O,lIil' ,~,.Ii·'i'·1i p~' be t w ee 11, ~ .ana t I,S .. .
maxtrnum, 'I!;". I , ~"II .,;:'JJ!~" J
1(3.. 24.a) (l.24 b·)
where again V2 =  jZ.12• At 2 "" 114 the current is continuous through tile coils: hence
j ,
r
(J.27)
I P 10
,
I
, ,
· '
~ ,

The voltage drop across Lo is jwL"II cos kol/4 and this requires thai the voltage on the transmission Tine be diseon tinuous, so
~
· t
· I
· I , ~
• •
()t
I I I
 jZJ. sin kil4' + jZ<12 cos len 4 = jwLol. cos 1<:D.,
after e)!pressing the voltages in terms of the currents, When the relation (3.n) is used, Eq. (.1,,28) gives
(3.28)
~,
..
'1
..
~. ~ : , I
•
I'
which ·5 consistent w",! 1 '1: lie relation 1(3~27).
For (lin anten III a with 1:$: AoI'4 we can approxima te sin ,ko(I'J2  z) _ by' koi(1/2 z] and cos k"z by unity. since the maximum value of the argument is only kftl/4 = 1TU2A1'J < '11"/8. In this approximation the current is uniform arid equal to "1 For :t up to ,'1'4 and then dec rea ses linearly to zero a'( z ~ U2. The. eurren t and voltage variations are shown in Fi,g e 3.·8. in the genera] case. F'oT the approximation made here, the area under the current .. distribution curve ms
. . l
~
,
,
The capaci threJy loaded dipole amen na rnay also be modelled by at 'I ransmission nne wi th a {[tt'm in:a'ling capacl ~3nce~1 as shown i n Fig. 3 .. 1 O~ The curren t s'{and~n,g wave on this line ma.y bee deterrmned lin a s.'traigl1·fJoll'Ylard manner and
is (see Prob, 3,.6) f
I,  ) 10 ,0 (" .f... ')
!!..Z .1 g ~ .,  s·lna  ''''"02' .
ssn [0'
; I
, .
'where
· ,
i
.: l
(3 . .33)
and J(c is the capacitive reactance added ,0(( the [elm d '" This. relatiori shows that th e arm! enn a is ~en,g~ hened by an amou f1ll 21 ~ == 2.k;; ~ ~,an l{2;'/ X } or tan k 01: :::;:
 . ( e. ~
,Z/)(r·· The transmission .. Hne model is, of course, not exact, but it does, predict
t h e ge n era I e x peered e fflec't 0:£ ca p aci U vie e ml d 10'3 d i n g.. P or a sh 0 rt an tenna ~ h e current dh::.tribution given by E)q+ (3'.32)1 can be approximated by
"(2) ~ 10(1 _ . 21zl, . )
, I + 2z'r/koX,
(.3.34)
• •
•
where we have also made use of the approxlmatton t,a.n~c(Z,:lX~) = ~cIXr:' which is normally 1 rue i'n practice s,h;[ce '(be amoent of capacitive loading that can h[e obt a i n ed is· qu i t e sm all; Ul at i S"~' X, is large ..
For the antenna ShOW11 in Fig. 3·.9 the currents in the radial arms are oppositely directed and hence produce only 8 small change i~l the radiation pattern '[rom t'lul't of a similar antenna without capacitive lo;adiflg~
One or the reasons for introducil"~g the biconicel an ten 11 a and ,ills trans .. missionline features W,BS, to establlsh ·m. basis [or ]ook~ng, at a dipo,Ile as an open .. circulted transrnission li'n[e~ This polnt of view is very 'hlelphJ'1 in providing :an ins.ig,h'l into the various effects ,that ,BTl,! produced by loadi'rng an an~enl1la with series C'OIUS 0'1" using capaeitive end loading ..
Muh:;'band dipole antennas are sometimes constructed Irom lon,g dipolle
,I' · ,
I I
"'"".
I \ I ~ I
. ..
· I I
I I , .
   .   __ 
structures with ·p.ara~h:d~'{l1ned resonant circuits Iocated at sul'l.ab·h! points along the antenna iln order to make it function as a shorter dipole antenna :BJt a given high freqJuency and yet function as iii longer dipole antenna at a given lower frequency. One structure of this type is shown in Fig. 3.11. The LIC1 circuit is chosen to be resonant at the fre'quenc), where ''1:= AJ2~ The resonant circuit provides a very h~gh impedance to the current and effeetlvely isola tes the ou tier' portions of the dipole (rom the inner section at this frequency. At some desired lower ~lfequlency the L]C1 circuit has a net inductive reactance and for'lIn'S a loadlng coil1 to tune the dipole antenna of ien:gJh ,I to resonance at this lower frequency," This antenna 'may also be analyzed as :8 transmissionline circuit in order to establ il~dhi its. 111 ailn operating 'ell aracterjstics. An ap~1ro~.im,a~e analysis Inr
this antenna is called fOF" ilfl Prob. 3.7;
:D~POl.a. ARRAYS·, AN'()l lONGWIRE ,ANmNN.A.S: 103
A monopole antenna consists or one~half of a dipole antenna mounted above the earth or a grou nd plane. It is· no'rm:aUy onequarter wavelength long, except where space restrictions or other factors dictate II shorter Iength, The vertical monopole antenna is used extensively for commercial broadcasting in the AM band (50'0 to 1.500 k.Hl)~ in part because it is the shortest efficient antenna to use at these long wavelengths (2100 to 600 n1) and also because vertical polarization suffers, less propagation loss than horizontal potaeizanon does at these frequencies. The monopole antenna is also widely used for the land rnohilie"",,:ommnun1c.aUon service. Figure 1. ~.2 shows, a t~{pical vertical tower used for A.M broadcasting. The support wires are broken up into sections no ~onlger' than oneeighth wavelength by means 01' ~nsu~a'to'~>s run order to keep the lnduced currents in ~hesle guy' wires. small. The base of the tower is insulated from the grou nd, and the system is ted by a coaxial t ransrnission line, 'with the Ol1 ter conductor cOr1rruech~rd to ground, F'~gur'e 3.13 shows 3 monopole an ten na mou n ted on aJ tower above a. grolJlnd plane consist in,g lor four radial rods approximately 0.3 waveiengths long. These rods simulate a large ground plane sufficiently \JiJeU that the radiation pattern and gain are very close to those (lif :a haU ... wave dipole antenna. This antenna 1S, a. typical base station antenna used in
mobile comm u n ications.
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JII~ ~f! ~ulla '1@1'
~IRln'\e :t ~l A vertical ql'il:air~'er~watvlelernlth tower f C' . b .. d .~ .,,' ,,'. . .
1: M Hz). or roa .cas I.ln,~ (In the lower f tlequ encles (be1ow
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DI,[POl..ES, ARRAYS" ANO L'ONO·WIRE ANTENNAS 105
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and the current in the two halves of t,be dipole antenna ,:yiU not be the same. The radiation Irom the current on the outside of ~he coaxial Une win interfere
. .
with the radiat ion from the dipole an tenna, Wtt,h a resultant Inodification ol the
radiation pattern. The change in the radiation pattern, whicb is not readily predicted, and the modificatlon ol the antenna input hnpedance because of the unbalanced currents are undesirable eff[ect:s. Therefore, when a coaxial feed nne is used, some form of' balun is necessary to convert the un balanced Ieed system to a balanced systern before connection (0 the antenna is, made, Baluns are constructed in a variety of ways, depending on the frequency bland involved. A description or several 'types, ,of baluns is g'[v'[en in Chap. 3,] of Jasik ~'s book.f
A particular 'type 'Of balun that is useful at the higher Irequencies is shown in Fig. 3 .. 1 Sa~ It consists of a sleeve onequ artier wavelength IO~1g placed around Ute coaxial Hne at the position of the antenna. TIle end farthest away from the ante rna is connected 10 the coaxial llne outer conductor ~ and the other end is, ~efl unconnected. This sleeve runc1tions as, a shortcircuited transmission line one .. quarter wavelength long and hence presents a very 'til i,gh impedance ,31 the input end. This hi\g,h Impedance prevents currents fro'ill ftlowing 011 the coaxiai Nne and ts said 10 "choke olaf" the currents, For this reason this balun is sometimes referred tOI as a quarter .. 'Wd'vel cnoke.
A very common 'type of balun 'that is used in television antenna systems is :shown in Fi,g ... 3,.15b through 31.l5,e,. It consists of two 'lengths, of transmission line with characteristic impedance Z(, wlth dle load ,z,t equal tOI 2Z~ connected in series, and 'with the input terminals connected in parallel. The input impedance equals ZL/4, so a standard coaxial line with characteristic impedance of ,'S: n may ble used at the input when a Iolded dipole with radiation resistance of 292 n is used for the entenna, This type of balun thus allows an unbalanced coaxial llne to be used to connect the antenna to the receiver and provides an
impedance match as wlellt .
Th e operation of this balun may be understood by referrl ng to the series of Fig. 3" l5b through ) .. lSe:., In Fig; .3.J5b the two transmission lines are excited ~n balan ted modes w'mt h respect to ground .. From the s,yn'Unletry olf the excitation the 111 idpoint 10 of the' load and the poln t b can be seen to be at zero poten ~ ial Thus these points can be connected together and Z1,.I2 then becomes ~he terminating impedance for each nne and should be equal to' the characteristic impedance Z, 0'( {hie: transmlssion lines. Hence the marched load impledanc~ [equ,als 2Zcm In Fig" .3,.1 Sc 3,U inpu'r termina,b;, ,a're driv[en with the s,une p'otenti,;:d
V with 'f,espect tlo glound,. The four conducto'rs; are 'elquivalent. '1:0 a si 1,gle conduc,to'r'I' and 'thle input current will be smaJl, s'in'ce the load impedanc1e now :is 'the ~;:nr,a,y capa[cita:nce bel[ween the antenna and ground. Tille in~uct:ance of 'ltH.~ four Ico,nducto'fS, In p~l"ranel ,oJso pre~lents a high inlpedance ,to' 'tbe ~c:urre'nt. In Fig,. ,3m 15d tll[e two mod1es of lex[ci'tation Ilrle superinlposed. Th,e resul'l 'is tha't 'tl1e terminals, 1 and 4 are at ,a p()~f)ential 2 V and If:lerm~tl!:aI5, 2 anld 3, ,are :It zero'
.. f . •.
~ m... '  ~11I'nEI A 'g' :rou'nd
. ' 'II_ .:. surface o',f t ~~Ie 'g 'fOb ~1:1l!.,.~,,' '. .
.. I b elow tne ~'I;!II,." .,
normally buried seH:;~at. I'IlCJe~ce dditi ... 11.1 resistance added to tbenl.diatl0tl
S~Sh~;f11 of this type wd1 k3e.ep n .e _a. ,. Ii'dm~nl':', n w·. 'h~ch rep res,cnts, an efficiency of
J '. 1 alue of arounl. , I
.. ,t"'3Ii1"11.K"',iIi'!! '''lilt o;rj[ '110, 'n','ln3 'Y,a ,I ' ,. 
n~.s1.5!.ol~ I~~ al~ ,n ~ '
:around 195 pcn:ent. .. '... _. not 'be possiblle to build a tower one""_qlu',rtler
For economil'c reasons It Itnay :i _: "r' ,t· AM broa.dcast band and below.
. · 11 "h' 1 ,.;IiiJer frelqu[enCl[es ill the  , .' . '~Ci'  t
wave~el1ath hlSI' at t . e?",. oil or some other (orm of match,~g n~twof~ ~lJs.
In nus case a. b,as,eloadu1g ~~', ., 'I ['. C,aa'c.i'Uv,e top loadtng '~S' somleumes ,  . .d ii, tune the antenna to r[es,on~n1ce~, P
be use It 0' ~ !.' W1 " .
3J~S,O emp~oyed~ ". ' . rsed ~n mobile comtrn]nmcations,~ ~~,th
Quarter ... wave antenn31S ale Wlld,~~y u~~ ~ Id l' ne, In the 27 ... MIIz c~tlzlen
. "d"' ~ t'L relquurled groun p a ·  ..
the vebideitseU prov1' mg lie, 0 ~ole a~teIlitla is 2.71 m long. Many cluzen~
band, a quarterwavelength m?"/len ~ th undesirable. ConseQuentIY.,antennas band users find an" ,antlenna of Ibu; I ,81 5,[ , (3 to 5 It) long and use either ba~~
.' b d oltcn Qnlly 1 to ., m Th faU
f'or the ci't1zen ~Ian' are I. ' . ~ _ h  ntenn'a to resonanc>e", ' e ove
I d'" ~ . to tune t, ea. I . d'"  ~
loadrung or center ,O:3J l~,g ~l  I'. e fuUlength antlenna~ s~nce t,~[e r~, l~~.l~n
efficiency ,,;iIl not ~be as ~reat _as f';; tb and the unavoidable dissipative .1o~se~_ l,n resistance is reduced quite marke., 'Yh, ,t ,_ , :III;Eoielf 'win consume a s~gnlfilcant
,. e d '''', I n, an' tt e an erma ,It.:!! I~
the tU'I11ng, coil, groun, set ee '
he i t  01i.'lJDII"
fralct:i ['n or tl e mpu: P '~T~~ "'
3 5 '8~\ALU:NS
" d
d t em to an unbal anee: I
• ' , ~" ,,' 1 ' " 'cO] ,~e~, bah=lrl"u:!e[ SYS'I'" ' ~ , ' ~' _ " ",,," .
A. bairu, is ~ d,ev,~e u!led, .. loe _ ... ~wowire transmission hne is balanced With
'c=vs.'llem:t A d~lpo'e antlel1L1,a f:d. by ~',. " _ " h '1 " . of the dipJole ha've dlle s,arn[e
'" J ,', . _, _ '. d 'M'ov'lded t~\u:;; tWlo ,.a ,v [es, "  _ _ , ,,' , d",d
respect to the ,g loun 'I P, .. , . J ,.c.t .01 ,t'I"[e or'ound~ In t.he b,aliulce mo. e
d 1  e'n;' \Jl/ttn Tespe IU· roLl (;I . . . d
OM'ien tat iiun 3Ji1[ , 'PI,3,IC1ennl[ , ~ ' _;, _. , ,., m V: .'. d  'V with respect to grolln ' ~
, _. [ . h·' d~' ·Ile ar[e at: poten Ua~5 a.n "', !, , ,1 ~ .ed
t~l'e two h,a~ves of t ,e ,po . __ , ~ """ ·:~n'e' wh eh '~s an unbalanc. ,,'
~  ' ' .  d , coax~8J1 transTn~5,s~on ,,",.., " '
Il the dipo~e is ,connecte to.a I,', , " ." 'I. m of the dipol,e willI be ,at a
drive 5'ys(em, then the out~r condudol a1i1dhon~~rnd than that or the center
" ..  ~ 1·· ' 1  ~h resp· e,ct to t ~e ,grou. ,. 'I, ",,'h. ·1'
dmllenen'l potentnt~ _,e.~e .:" . .. ,,;.,"._.". 0'( th,e d'mpole", The resullt IS ~ 8, r
1[; '~. ,: ,~'a~ tnle and the otueli arm. , " ... ~c11 ~.~ e
conduc~or of tuecoax~ ,',' . ,+d ~ [.f ',he outer conductor of the coa,x,a~ un, ;. i~ aro [~vcl~ed on the ou t51 e 0 
leu rreljih.~' , [ 'V ~'"
• A '"; d F' ou" 1['le ~ ord t4i.')[fi1lhrullait;i[(Hll balafu.:ed~uQb:JJ ,arnced+ t Tn[e wo rd b(lI,Mf~ ,S 1Il,.IIer I \I'e
t Ibid.
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106 ANTEN~'AS
T'[
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2V V z; Zt
Z ~ '~~=~~
'~n ~ 2(1 4 1 ), I 2 4
,I 2, 1
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since 12 is very small and Z< =2 VIII' 8S Fig. 3.156 shows. III order to Increase the impedance 10 the !\low of the current .f2' the transmission lines are often 'wound on a ferrite toroidal core, thereby 'iJncrleasin,g 'thee it,d'uctan,e,e of the [FoUJr parallel conductors (see Fig. 3J5e). This 1118$ nUle effect on the balanced mode current, since 1M, is a. transmissionrine mode with equal and opposite currents in each pair of conductors, and therefore does not pmduceal'lY magnetization in the fe:rriih! cere.
J,~' I.NTRODUCTI'ON' TO ANTENNA ARRA VS
F~tdt~
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The dipoJ,e anrcl'ma. is a very simple antenna suitable for use when a nearly OInnidirecfional pattern is required. However, lts gain is low. 111 many com
!ll!l I Rl !ll • d it!, I!  i:J ill d
rnu n rcanon systems one ts 1:111 tereste In pom ttopoint commu 11 tcatien, ,an, a
~ h jo L'~ di .' b f di ~ b d d B
mucn more .' IUII!y treetive beam 0' fOliation cane usee to a vantage,y
arranging several dipoles (or other elementary radiators) into an array, a directive beam of radiation can be obtained. A more directive beam means Iha.1 the antenna will also have a higher gain, Simple arrays are readily buill that will givegains Df 10 to lS dB over that of a. halfwave dipole. All increase in the gain by a rador of 10 permits the Ir81'1smiUer power to be reduced tenfold for lIu'l same SIgnal strength at the receiving site. n, in addition, the receiving antenna also has a gain of 10 dB, 11 further tenfold reduction illl power Can he afforded for the s8merelalive perfonnance. U is apilarenithal increasing the g,ain or 'thee antenna h as sign ifi'eant advantages,
In order 10 establish the baSIC method used in analyzing arrays, consider lliiegenel'al array shown in Fig. 3,16. This array consists of N identicallllUel'!nn~ with the same orientation but excited with relative amplitudes G and phase "i for the ith antenna. 1111~ position of the ith antenna is given by the position vector r" For reference pu rposes we let the electric field radiated by ill reference antenna located 3'1: the or;igilln and 'with am 'excHatio~l eoefficlent or unity be
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I L, ~~~ ,=~r~~" =:=== ,I
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where f( 1I,,p) describes the electricfield radiation pattern of Iheele~Jnltal"Y antenna used in Ibe array. hi the far zone or radiation region where 11'"1 ~ .Ii; the rays from all of the antenna.s in {he array are essentially parallel. Thus tile distance from the Ith antenna to Ihe Iarflekl point of interest is R, "" r ~ B, · rio The distant field produced by the itb antenna wi]! sidler a prop;3igationphase delay by an amount k"a.· 1", smaller than that or the reference antenna at the
~ nd drive by'~
'. ~  :  r • ," [ [0 J' le ~
i' '"  ~", , ,~  ',e ,~.~, ls ma be connected together ,at1~,c n,v  n" _~'
potentia], These parrs of. terrnma SlY ..... d to round; that is, the mput.
single voltage source will1 ?ne end oolmecte. . g . . .
" t.. . 'II, reed w[th resnect to !I,rou.nd. _ _ __ " 1 b ,
source can be UIlIiJ818n . . . . . '., .1'. ' ..... , ed node 1" Fig. 3,15b and let 1. e
Lett " be the input current for the balance ,IllO, .. Fi". 3.15c. The input
, ,~, f' ,~, the unbalanced mode shown In ~
the lin ~}U'~ eurren III, or ,~i! "'"" u ~
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The radiatlo« pattern and directivity is proportional to '1611rl,r~'llE~2 arid hence N
D(6 •• ) oc It(6, "tli: C, ePf+Ji<O,'.'I
I", ~D'!
" '"
= i~ 1(61, ¢'l~21 F( 61, ¢I) Ij] ('1.38)
This relation expresses the very important p'ri'11ciplie of pattern m~ Urlipl/c[ution, l"V'laich states d1tlt' the r(J,diatiolJ pattesr; 0.1 Q,n [a,tray is the produc: of the€!' pauem [unction [of 111ft ri,td.ivid'ual [ant'enpUl W;·1.h tile ,uTay pauer» fU[fl.,CliOIJ" The latter is a func'[~on of the location of the antennas in the ,m,rray and their reJarUv'~ complex 8lnpHtudes, 0'( excitation Wee win have several occasions 1:01 apply dds, principle in this chapter ~
The derivatIon 'Of the principle ocr pattern m1uhipHcation 'rests on ~h,e assumpjion that all antennas in file ,array have thee same rad~3,Hon pattern. This ass u m pt i on is ,gee ne fa ~ 1,' not correct, because t hi e cu rre n t dis ~ ri b U 'f ion 0 I!ii an antenna is affected by mutuel cou[pUng, effects with nearby objects, that is, the
~ ~ . t I
other antennas in the arra,y', Thus. the elements near thee sides of the array w~n
be in ft uenced :1 n 3, different manner Irom those 'j:n the cen ter of the array, However, the modi fic:a,tion in the radiation pattern of' the individual anten n 85, is often small enough that it can be neglected, The general behavior of arrays can be predicted w,~h good 3'CCWlf81CY by assuming that thee principle 0'£ pattern multiplication ~,s valid, so we 'wHI proceed on tht[l basis in the discussion that follows.
In the study of arrays it is usual to focus attention on the arr'ay factor alone, since in an array with hi,gli1 dtrectivity the ~Tldi.vidua~ antennas 'lJJsuan~l heave a very broad pattern, and most of the directivity is contributed by the arm~~ay' fall': {or . 'For thee most 'part we 'win ro'Uow this procedure hl1 the discussion of va r i ous :3J nten n 3 arr a Y5,.
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origin. (This antelli'lil. is 1'101. neces.sarilypresen'_in the ~rray; it ,serv~s:as. a
f _. . t· 'h' ~" b t'l).. ~ r~d~,~,iled: iC1'e11d: [0' f 'f he an tennas U~ the ,arr.o,}! can be
n:;;;[ en::nce. II!.O W' ItC ~1[","" Al ~[U.\_ u .... ~ !:.L ~ " ... , . •
 ' .  , ..  . . iii," . ~ bs ~a d elays ,gn·..I the ddllerent
, ,_,', _ .. t) WIk[ :. the d'lRle'ren.t prop'ag:a::h lO~lp ,a!;Jil~ 1_ I ..... ) • iJ' ""'il!U I~, 1!60.. ~ ~._ .
CfJ m p a, reo. n e!] 't . . ~ _ _ , . ,., 11, , field .
. '. d   .!  h . . ." ,'!III' ee: :;,~. at ion ~ ilf"AI, III' ak iI"i!oln into account (he resultant 1;~le .. amp" nUl les, a,no p, .ases· [01, 'EA'I!..,oIJ'i.'~, ~ 11,1Jj Q~, ~ 'L'(~ ~'~ ~ ~ ,.' 'I'. .. '.  .. ' "[ c.  .. , .. _ ~
r. c Il~ it ..... ·.· ielliln""a···~ ~'t~ the arrav can be expressed 1m1 thee flo~~ow~l1g form:
~rotJl1 a~'1 ~~e an'~ ",I~I oi:Jj" . )
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Un~f,orwm On'e""Dbnen.siona~ Ar1"'ays
Figure 3'.11 shows, a llne array of ,N + m elements, which for convenience we
.(3:,3.11,
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Princip,~'e lof Pattern M Idtip,licali'O'R . ", r.
e ~ ('3 36·.·) ~It." examined ,"'n will be seen to 'be the product ,C)( di~·
If the expres$'lon . '. I .. 1I.:.'IJ vAa  _,111'1 'bo. T . . , . ..1 • ... c I .' .... _ f
mdi ation l1eld from the reference all tenn a and the array factor F( tI,if, ) given ~~,
.• £': I
• r
~
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•
Flguf\e' 3" ~1 A H~[e ~fra~1 !J'" ,N + 'f h,~1r~w,arYe drn'Po~es.
, '
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.N'
F(lfJ, I~) ~ 10 'k ti~a,d+P;:~d. ~ riP ."",,0
Thus we find that
(3 a. 4.l)
1!J1 order to study v alii ab le u given by
u b
 · ~ I g'l _,   I Y
 •  • . , _ , 1_ Vie"
an d ,3JlS0 the v arta ., e Uo  
(3,44)
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t 1'~
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Main 'tiNeam
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N + 1 dipoles, 'TIu; ln tervening smaller maxima are called sid« lobeSi' w'it'IJ the la rgest one 'occurring, 3. distance
+31]" +3,'71
6u' =  ::1:: 
, 2('N + 1)12 N + 1
away from ~ .flo'" These first sidle lobes have 3Jl amplitude equal to 2/3,'111, or O~21 ~ 0'£ 'that of the main lobe 'when N ~s· large {eight or more), There are N ~ [ minor lobes between adjacent .major lobes ..
As a function of u the arrray pattern repeats every' 2.11' uniits. along the .u axis, We now note t h,a.{ since
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U· .~. k ad COl! f/I
the range of U' eorresponding to phy'$1ca.~ Slpl3CIC or the visi.bl:e' re,S;'o'l is,  kfJ.'d ~ u s k(l'd since C()S rp lies between ] 8i1d ]" Thus the visible rleg'ii,on corresponds to a value of U equal to ±21tdlAo on either side of u ~ O~ In practice we nonrnaHy wan t only one main lobe to occur :j It~ physical space, and this require's t turf we c h oose the spa ci n g d 8'M: a ll e n ou gh so fh aJ the fie gio ~~ .a. d i sta n ce 0 f. ±21fOJAIOIIOflj either side of .u = 0 does not include another major lobe; as shown in Fi g" .3 . .1 ,ft Two spec ia~ eases O'f lm portanee are the broadside array a nd the endfire array" which w'e discuss below'.
:~
Bro'adside Arrays,,, When we put Ii:! = 0 then .flOI = Of and the major lobe maxinmum occurs at .u = 0 or cos t/J. = 0 t vih lch gives r/I = 11'l2., Thus ma xlmu m radiation Occurs broadside to the array axis, as intuiUo'n would tell us should 'be the case with alii elernents fed In phase. If we examine Fig. 3.18 we see thaI, provided we keep the spacil1g €I' belweenelel1ents somewhat less thad 11.0, adduional major lobes win l!1ot occur in visible space since lbe closest other major lobes are ±211" away from the lobe ilt U '" O. The visible region extends from  kj)d~o kod and this will lie within the interval 2," < u < 211. provided
d<Ao,. ..
" "
II
ItH ror.es, AR RA V'S A NO LO'N" '0 '!l'§].I! ~'DE iiIi."
" ... ·W~of'!o," 1~.NTENNA.S ] ~J
I' , i
'It 1.5 or interest to determine the angu lar wi!d~h 0'(' the main lobe between Zle'FOS~ since this is, a measure 10 'f' the beam concentration achieved. The nuns, '(01" t h e m:3 1. n bea .. m. 0 ccur w h len ~ h e 3 r 11lI me n t of ,t he s·i ne f tJ 11 ct i 011 in t'l1 e n u rnera t or
~n Eq. (3 . .'44) equals ±1r'; thus
_N_+_I "~l 1'_ d eos IiJii ~ ...;p.. 1f
2 ~'iID'" """. ~. 'P' ~ ....,:.:,. .
2A 2A
BW' 2A"~"  a . 0
, =·q,.=(N+l),d·~L
where L = {N + I)d is essentially the length of the array, Equation (3.45) expresses tile general properly of a broadside line array Ih.i:iJ (he beam width is inver$e~y 'prop,orHcu1Hd to the. array length measured in wavelengths. For a beam wi.(Uh of 6°, or about. O~ I rad, an array sbou t 20 wavelengths lone iSI required. This is quite feasible at high frequencies, but at 1 MHz. where AD == 30(J m, the array ~ength would be 6 km, which might prove to be impractical. (It cert9.il1~Y would. be costly to bujld 20 or more towers AJ4 tall and to purchase the targelract of land required Ior I he inslalla tion.] The array amplitude pattern factor shown ~n Fig. 3.18 can be easily shown as a fundion of (Jand $, as in Fig, 3.19a. J.f the array consists of halfwave dipoles,~hel1l the overall resultant pattern is the product of the array pattern with the dipole pattern, as shown in Fig. 3.19c. N ote that the null along the z axis for the dipole pa ttern results in two fan beams along the ±}' direcUons, together with
the minor lobes or side lobes.
It is gel1erall y quite difficult to calcu late the absolute value of the directivity
for an array because the eornplex pettem makes it difficult to evaluate the total radiated power, In the present case lt would require evaluation of the fo'Uowi.ng
in tegra 1:,
(.3..45)
i z
r
~
~ [
· II
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[
~ [
y
F]BUre' oJ
:r~'¥o~~tion
.3 b<OlU t X .II:It l~iI
:
.11
· (,ill' ,
For N ~ ,aJ r gc, cos i~' ~ S S In a ~ 1" S,O l{fJ ; S c lo se to "",'2~ II e!11 'c,e ·i f we ~ e n til == 1f12 + L\ I~J we can repl ace ICOSt( '1f/2 +. l! ~) = + sin Ii til by ±,A r/J,. Consequent ty the b,e31!1f1
'wldfh B'\I' is gi yen by
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1
DCiBla
~~5j ~·C'tjon
F i'~jIIfC Qlr ~v~'fu UO'f:I :lb'ou~. t :I.;Mi.ii!.

• 1
~ .
i.
,
~. 'i
< I I. t ~. :1 • •. I
.. I 1 • 11 .. t r J
r J i'l' (COS(1i/2 cos 9) sin{[(N +n)/2Ikod S~1l 6' cos ~ 1)11 .,."  ····1· .. '·,.,1 "'1
... _ ~ r (~r di2' ).. ". . '1 SHl 6 dB dr;
. IU'~ srn 8 s~n ll~~ln" , ....• 1 S,t n If) cos <p' J
. . ~. I I ~ , '. !.
A reasonable estintate of the directivity may be obtained by' divilding, 4," by ·the solid angle occupied by the main beam and approximeting this by the product of the principal B~ and ll··:plane h:aU'",powler beam w']dth:~:;" For the array under discussion, the E",plhn~e h~td'r~po~v'er beam width is tha~ of file halfwave dipole anterma and is 78",. or 1.36 rad. The flplane hallpower beam width· i~ determined by the array factor .. This may be obtained by 'eqw.~d.ing, Sq. f3 .. 4l4) to
I
· I
l'
.2 .. 65
'.~. ~uu~~ N + 'I:
: I
"
~ _ ~ kOid[lrI·~ .. o l~· r1
~ L~.O i"'~::.O lrrl: ejCn~m)ad'[s'ifl{n :: m )kOldl/(n  ,tf.)
For file second special case 'of ,3 uniform array wHh ,an I" ~ .10 amid d ~ ArJ2~ this ex p ressi 0 ~ b eco 1111 es
,41f '103 ~
D=  .... , .. :~ ~.ltl I. I
2 x 1.36 x 0,.045
or 20.1 dB,
.' ~ ~ _ ,kod ( N + 1 )2 ~
D  I.~ 0 l:::~o [sin(n  m)1'd/(n  Ill)
iI'_ d ItN··' +1 '1" )il ·d
KII!lI' \~ _ .' . ' .~
=  I. =2(N+[)I~~Nf l
(N + 1)117 Ao
since a~~ terms in the denominator vanish except the N + l terms COfli'es'ponding to n = Ill" each of w'hi.lch equals 11. When we compare this exact expression with 'our earlier estimate we find ff'ud: ilm place of the factor 2.37 we have a f.actor olf 2~ so ou r estimate was about. j 8 percent 1:00 ~arge ..
In general, (or a uniformly excited :arr.3y of N + I isotropic radiators, the e x press i on r or .D s i rn pl i fi es '(0 t h e fo rm
1 ~ I
•
,N+ 1
D :;;;;!;. ~ :    _ _ :
. I + t/klD:,d I;'~a ~ [(N + I·_ s)/I(N' t 1)$ I cos said s,in SkOld'
Th ~5, FOllin is obtained by j ilii troducing ,(I new su mmarion :i ndex s ::::= n  nf jn Eq, (J.,4l,R) and noti:n.g that there are (N + I] 5 =: 0 terms: .N,$ == ± I terms: (N  I) s =: +2 terms; Of" in general, {N + 1) Ij~: terms ~n + s. When 'the + S terms are combined to give the cos sad factor, Eq, (3,,:49) is, obtained.
(3.49)
I
Emd~ilire A~rays,~ If ulO is chosen equal 1[0 _ k,9Idj. ,3 beam maxlmum is, rorrnlled when u :==.  Ul~ =::; k_'Itj,d ~ KlrrJ,d ICOS· ~" or at ~J = 0., which is 3Jong the array axis, The progressive phase change aid Edon,g t111e array' is. then  k'l~d" an amoun t fh,31( just offsets the propagetionphase advance from elernen t to element in the x dmr'e'ct;on" An array that is phased to produce a. beam along its axis Is c,oUed an endfire array. If ulD is chosen equal to k'~ld then the beam is Formed in thee  x. direction.
The array factor and resultant array pattern are shown ill1 Fig. 3.20~ 'Fr(1r11 Hliis figure it is seen that ;a spacing Id or somewhat less than A"r./2 is inOW' required to avoid 'h.a"in,g a. second beam appear in visible space, The second beam first begins to appear along the l:' dlrection when ,d approaches ,l'ri2,. The array pattern 'is again a figure of revolution aholU the array axis",
For the endern re array the array factor IS,
'F' l.1 sin{[(N + 1)/2)kod(cos ~  ~,)}
1"1 = II., Uk d/2)( '" 1 ) I
S,U~I" 'Q1 ~"'", ICOS;  I I
I
)
The directivity is given by
~. '
, ,
! •
.
:1
d [ t
: IIIFI [ I
~
•
'1
, 1
I 1
[ t
· l
[ !
.~
l
j
~
~
•
IJ D~POlE$, ARRAYS~ A.HO· lONG~VTRE ANTENNAS ~ 11
l·u·a :;;: ib"IO ~ Iii' '0
'~,elMg;~h measured in wavelengths, The beam is no'{ as narrow in a given 'p1ane as lor the broadslde 3Jrra(),!1 but this n~arrow~ng, occurs in two planes. The ,Ireah~~r beam 'width is compensated by :8. narrowing 0'[ the pattern hl both the E plane and H plane, Fn~Y 10 long array th~. mu'IIUpHlcaJion of UH~ array pattern by ~ he halt .. wave d:1 pole pat tern has n ttle leH,ec't~ since the la tter is almost constan l lover the angular region occupied by the array patter" ..
'We ~fu~y estimate the dir'ecdvit~" ~ 'find'~n,g. the he.lifplower beam wmdthm Whe;!m ,w,e equate Eq+ (3~50) to (IJV2)(N + 1), approximate C·OI$. A~:ifj ~ 1 by (~i~ ~n~)1/2, use a twoterm expansion of the SiWH~~ function in the numerator, an d 3pprox1~na'h~; the denominator by k(J,d(6·'I/I~nJ2/4, we rind that
_! , A.  ~12
6.fj.1 1 63[ 0 ]
, ~'~mJ2 ~ "." J • wd(N + 1) I
\ f
. (3..52)
,f:
· . • f
" '
(3..53)
Table .3 .. l compares the estimated values 'Of D from Eq. (3,.,53) \V~Hl ,(hiE exact values computed from Eq, (3,.49) from some representative cases of endfire arrays 'with aid = ~kod", '[~ can be seen Uurl the approximate 'f()rRluta. does give a
g: 0" IO",d" estimate
". . . l~~l~.ll ~ Ul~~1Ii
A greater di'relc~ivhy can be obtained by making the total progressive phase de~ay aJongl ~he ,array 1r rad greater than ,Nltlo.,d. Thus, instead 'Or choosing N:(X,d equal tOI N/(Ddt we choose Nad' = ~.Nk'®ld  1f~ or
I
'1
The m ain beam nuns occur ~v hen
N 4~ 1 I~ de' 'ii,; '~) +
2 tIL Itf [,coS :.p:  .1.'1 ==  '1f
h 11' 'I ~I I(;!O'_. t h at cos' A cI;,~~. ~
For N large, the value 6~' loI II at f, e nu ts 15 sma .l~, ~ w
~.  (.Ai/J)2/2 and we lob U8J in
{3,54)
~
• • : I
J : i
· .
I
I I
which is known as the Hansen WOIO',dy,aTid to,ldit'l'O,rI", This choice makes tbc main lobe maximum occur where u. ~  Uo = .kcj'd + ,",N or where klri].,d cos q;' == ,k(J'd ~ 1flN~, which is in invisible space since 'it requires cos ~ > 1 .. Wh,~d ha~1 h appened is shown in Fiig", 3~2J and corresponds to shifting the array factor pattern to the rI,g;lu by 3 small amount niN:, The portion of the mal." lobe that
I
~
(6. tV )2 = 211
2: (N + l)kod
or
i (3,,51)

where L ~ (N + m}d is essentially the arra~ lenglh.We see that for an end.AII"~ array the beam \v~dHl rus, inversely prnportienal to the square root of the array
0.4 OA l{t3
0.31
1 [.3')
12.r1 26.1 1.:85 16JJ4
22.7
,ft5;'n i7Jtl,
, ,
. {N + ~l'f~
'~l
~!
I j
.~
..
t 18 AN'fENN AS
I.Pi
1 I ~ ~ ,
.~
I I ~r I
, I
~ r t
I I
'lJleI:11a~nSI in visible space ~S' now a narrower Iobe with a. smaller rnaximu m value, 11 ml3Y seem a contradictlon that reducing, the maximum va'lue achieved by· the rnain lobe in visible space should ~e3d to au increase iu dlrectivity. The anomaly 'is resolved by recalling that the directivity ls proportional to the maximum power densl ~y divided bY' the tota'~ radiated powler. The 1a tter is proportjonai to the area under the curve representing the square or the array factor shown in Fig, 3,.21. For a small shilft of the main lobe into the in~l'~s~blle region, this area decreases faster ~han the square of the resu ltant maxlmum of ~FI in ·Vils.~ble space and hence results, 1m1 increased dlrectivity. Bly means of a. graphical evaluation, Hansen and W'OOdY8.,d arrived at the conditlon given b'y Eq. (3,53) as the optimum choice for "0 'to give maximum d~r'elcfivhy,;,
I
t
l' J' =.,;'W d Mig. ~ "",,"~,'
v '=' ~tr;rd cos 19 ~IO == f3d
arid rewrite Eq, 1(3",5S,a)1 as
IFI = 101 sinU(N + ,1~/~1.(~ +uo~} si~{[(M + t)/2](v + lIo)} I] sin [(N + uo)12j sln(v + ,fJ'o)/2
(3.55b)
" '.
M+ 1
e = ±n
2
~ .
as was .done for the linp array. II is r~adny found thai
and
U If T D~ <II II A,
n I (1 rm WO~ II me lunona 11 ,.t. rra Y's
.
A two .. dimensional array of h~J]f .. wave dipoles is shown in Fig. 3 .. 22+ It CO nsists of N' + 1 d~po'es along x and M + 1 dipoles along z, 0'1' a total (If (N + 1 )(M + 1) dipoles, The djpoles are assumed to have tile same amplitude of excitation but with a progressive phase change along both I.he x and z directions, Thus tile phase of Ihe current in the m,dh element is given by e/l ...... ~j"'~.
'The array described may be ~'i·ew,ed as an array O'f M 4 1 linear arraya Thus by using the principle of pattern rnu1tip'~icat;on" the twodimensional array factor is the product o 'f' the array factor Ior the M + 1 antennas arrayed along Z
. ,
with 'tile array factor Ior the N + I elernen ts arrayed along .t . Thus we have
IF (e. 4»1"" 1,11 si.n{[(~+ 1)/2](ko.dsiO fJ cos'; + ad)}1
st n { (dl2)( klUJ' S1 f~ 61 C,OS ~ + ,a )] ~
: ... , :sin{(M + 1)/2)(kad cos 6 ~+ 13d)}'1
x ~ .
I sin[(d/2)(ko cos fJ + P)]
I
I I
I '
I .
. ~
• I
, I
~ 
.. (B~)~ ~'(N2:~)d
; ., . ; . ~ 2l ~
(OWl,,, : (M,,";)d
, ,
. 
 r IJ'~" I
'. ..,11I'!.·
1 I ! I 1
I
t . d·, i .' .. ~ (3 ~ 56a )
. ~ "
. n.r ~:.~~
. f ~J ~ ~ '\
 • ' • I
: I '_! I I; (:l.S6b)
1.2'01 AN1"ENN AS
"  L , idth ~ aeh pc lane is, inversely proportlonal to, the array length in The loeam wrdt H1 'eac ~u'~ '. ~ ,, '" dl ,_ "
I ,If . ~ iila 'F wav 'II'11e ~,~'~f"'~'ower beam widths can bee found an" are
~ hat p .ane . .J n a srrm a~. '00.,11' 't ~ :I_,~ ~
,g~ven by" expressicns like Eq .. (3~46); thus
2.651,A,UD' (3",57 a)
(BW III2)",)' "" (N + l) uti
2.65.\0 (3.57b)
(BWIl2)y. '"" {M + l)1id
'The directiv i~y is approxlruately :gi'vlef~ by (note that there are two beams]
4," 8.83(N + i)fM + 1),d1
D ... 2(BW11l).,.(BW1n)"1 _ ,\~
,1\
= 8 ~,83 ; (3" S8)
J\,~
where we have replaced (N + l)(M + 1)d2 by the area A occupi,ed, by the array. Wit. see that the directlvity or the antenns is proportional to ~he area measured in wavelengt bs S(~U ared, a. property that is char8ct,:r:;stic ~,of all an te11n~as., ,OJ .
It is interesting to examine how the beam width changes as the bea1'11_ IS . scanned away (rom the direction normal lathe array., If ~e a~sume tha~ /3 _ 0 and choose aid,' equal to ~ kod cos ,~io~ then 'the beam drr',e;,chon, ts at the angle ~!fJ re Ii a H ve tot h e x ,(!l,X is ,3. tll d 'il rn1 th e x y pta n e. For val ues 0 [ ,p' c I ose to ¥lo we ca n use a Taylor series expansion of
ko,d(cos, </J' ~ cos ~:@) to obtain (we expand ~he function of ,f]; abo!lrl ~o)
,kod'(cols 'rP  eo's tPlo) ~ ( k,~,d sin 'l/Jo)ftfJ ~ ttl,,)
Tn us, when we put (N + I)r( u  uo)/2 equal ~:o ± 11 to f nd the beam width we obtain
1
radiation a:m1d is reduced to less than Arl2 for edgeside radia'fion" If t'h,e; element spatC!in,g, is too large, several beams win be fOllned in vtsible space on eaeh side of the array plane, The extra beams formed with large element spacings are of len referred to as grillifli lobe s , a term that 'comes fmmrhe theory of optical
diR'lra'ct'ton grat iin,gs. ~
30;7 ARR,AY PATTERN SVNTU:ESIIS
The preceding discussion was ~i mlted to arrays wilh equal ampl it ude
" ~ N L
excUalion ... 'arrow oeams were f'lund 10 be formed, provided the phasing of
each ,e1ement was, chosen properly, The relative phasing eontrols the interference between the r.adiation produced by each element so 31510 permit a b ea In 0 (' fad i a t i on to be form ed ~ f the exci t ,EI 1: i on a In pi ,I tu des, are also va ried rro m e Ie men ,t to el erne nt" it th en tu rn s 0 U t t hat con side r a ble con t fol call be exercised on the shape and width of' the main beam and on the locations and amplitudes of Ihe side lobes. Thus it is possible 10 actuany synthe.o;~ze iii aHay to produce I. radialion p .. tiem that closelY3'pproximales an a priori specified pattern, This synthesis. is called away pattern sYII,I,hesis or shnply array synrhesis.
DiRer,ent methods, hav'e been develi(lped '[0[' array synthesis ,and are 100 great in num bier for discussion ; n this text, t Instead we will look at some 'Of the fundamental aspects o! ana,)' syntl1esis and discuss III Iew selected methods only. We will consider only one'djiillieu5.iomd arrays, but the methods ina)' be applied to two ... dim'ell1lsiio'nal 3rr:ay's,~ since for the latter the array factor is the product nr the two (Hu,:·di men sional a.ul!l.y factors, and each array factor may be synt heslzed S'CP,Q fa f ely m
4w 2A"
2141!/iol ~ 2 ,A'; =(N + l)kod sin 1//0 "" (N + l)d sin .,
r I
•
FIOlJ riel" S,eri es Me~:hod
Consider '[hie line array w'iUl 2N + 1 element s, as shown in FI,g,. 3~ll. 'let the excitation o,r each element be prcportional to C~ lor the n ~h element. For :i nphase excit ation 'I hie array 'factor is
H
F = '2: CIi'iIl ,e:lko~l (\~J1! ~
and hence
II! 1'1
(3+60)
.
Ir ! C' C' "
J '/l' .  [', . l' ','~ , ':::' . '', . ~. .
, "e C loose .' ~ J!t: we ,c,a,n wrrte
, N'
F(/rOldl cos' 8) = F(u) = ,Co + L len' cos I1U
(3,.61)
\
which is a finite Fourier cosme senes willi N ... 1 unknown iunplitiJdeil .. By
proper choice 0'[ the C~:, this series can be used to approximate various, d'es:'ired radiation patterns ~J(U)I~ NOlte that 0 s fJI < 11 so the range ~k'Old'~ ,u s kf)d is
t Sy n'l hes ls m e.~ hods, are reviewed in R + E" ·ton i n and F. J, Zuc'k er, A lde,WI,r~a neo~l ;',of. 'J.,
McGra]'wI~U~ Bno~. Cornpany, Nle~ YOf~:;, 1969~ IChaps. Sl> 1'. I
121 ANTENNAS
Ia.rge array, tl1en F as liven by Eqs. (3.61) and (3.62) will be a good allpl"Oximatiol'l to the desired pattern. On the other hAl1d, fora small array with very few elements, the ap'proximation willi be poor in general because of the _ Few terms in the Fumier series. The Fourier series method is one approach to array pattern synthesis Ihat is easy (,0 apply 31i1d yields III leaslmean8squ3l"e error approxi ml31 ion to the desired pattern ..
.t
'. N"
_.
'. .
FiIU.f\t ::t13 A. 'I i n'e a Il'IIfIll y ~;i ~ h 2N' + 1 e'e:m[e nts,
.,   'H:' "Ii~ ever iii· hi e P'3 t tern 1111 U st
. '. •. 1 nds to . hysical space, . o·~ '~ ~ ~ ,~, '''c . ,
the range of u I hat correspc: ',,' p _  ~ S 'W. As an example, let Fd( u) b:e
· 6 d  t h complete period 'W U f th _
be speer. e over _"e _'.'" ,.". ln Fia. 3.24. A leastmeansquare .error 'It t?_'IS
the rectangular pattern sl1ow~ .B. as th rsnal Fourier serres coefficients, pattern is obtained by choosing the C", as t e us .
111 at is, I J' '" I J J:::.,d/l d . t3.62)
',' = ' F. '('u) cos ,"14 du = ~. I cos .ttu··· tf ~
e" .... d 211" . 5:0<112
21f !r _
Din,omial Arrays:
The array faclor Ior IIlla.lI"fII.y of 2N + 1 ejements can be chosen to be F{ h). = (eJ(A:od/l, ,c~, (J + e  :Ni: mJ/~l OO~ e)2N
= I( e i(~2) + if!  JClJ{!})2N
1.1'1' 'IN
"'" 22N (cos i) .... e 11<1" L C!N e/lou
Ii 11110
J
upon using the binomial expansion, The .C;N = (2N)!fnl(2N  'I)! are the binomlal coefficients, and tile last form was obtained by raclorh.g otHej~1. as
the efMl factor, Now C!N"" C::_", so Eq.(3.6J) is a series or the Slime form as Eq's. (3~60) amid (3~61), that is,

F( ). = (C····m "",iNu + C" ~N' dJN'UJ) + I C" ~N' s~f[[Nn~ ~L C'lH .Di~N!l~J + . ~ ~
u . ~ .' I'il'~ I I .. , "ll1Io!" Ill. • I 1 ~l 'Ii;.o II. 'U ~'I ~ .
'. . 'l;I' ~~." . III ... P'l . ..
2C··2N·  N' 2 C'2'N' ~("N 'fI)' + . C· 2N
~ ~ [ [0 [cos U + ...• :i 'C08. ~ Jl u: ' + ~ +, N
The binomial array pattern is characterized by the complete absence of side lobes. ll1e pattern IF(u)1 == 221<1 (cos ul2)lNhas 2N zeros at cos 'U/1 = 0 01"
U = ±11" and thus is Imaximally flat at these points. To make tin! visible region correspo 111 d I 0 ~"l'I" !';';; U s: '1r we m ust ell oose klJd "" '1r or d "" A 012 since '4"" :!:: kllQ when (J = O. 1T, respectively, The radiation paUerlll of the binomial array is shown in Fig. 3.25. The disadvanlage will1 the binomial array is that the
iFI
. ,
.~
!.Juu:;~
:. ,. 11
~ ~lQd ~  r II..o.d i::;l '1'
"gulft 3.:15 A Rill J pa t ~ elf n f or t hie hllFi!lo:mJ i a ~ .tU'f'.3IY •
I
•
..
DlpIOL..ESt AR.RA.YS·. AND lO·N(J·WUtE ANTENNAS 12.S
'haJJpower beam 'width ~s· broader than t'h,a.'1 'of a u.njf·,of'n~ array and the dir·e,c~iv''ity ls lower. Both 'Of these feature's are caused b:y the ine_ffi'c·ient. use ~If'
. the avallable array length iNdl,. since the excitation amplitudes are made proportional to the binomial coefficients (this ;.s· the orig'iin of' the name b,inorni,al (I"a)')11 and 'hence the elements neer each end :c·r the array' are weakly Icxcit~di' The small contribution to the total fl,e1d (rOI11 lhe elements near the lends or the array ms equivalent to a reduction in the effective length of the ar'ray, which results in. the decreased direetivity and larger beam width noted .above,
S'I nee the product of t.WO pol ynofnia~s is also a 'POltYll0n11 al, the ,following 'theorem holds:
31. The prOd1!JC'1 o'f two] polyrsornials Is. the array factor fur an Bf'f'8'Y 'whos'e pattern ls the product ·of 'the patterns associated wifh each polynornlal by UseI'! a
I J
1 ~
Visible space corresponds to ~kod s l~ S ,k'Od'I' and since IZ'I:= I ,'o'r laU real val u es 10 f u 8 n d U~l'~ visii b I e space correspon ds to ,8. porf on of t'h e un U ci rc I e circumference extending [rOll1 ~kod' + Uo to k,~,d + U'·OI '~n angle measure, as shown i.n F'i,g ... 3.26. When d =: ArJ2 . a ftmU 3,60@ is covered" while if d ~ AloJ4. a range of 1800 is. covered. Fo'F' spacing greater than ArJ2;. ,3 portion olf the unit circle is covered twice. As 61 increases from n to 1tf'l the polnt 0111 the unit circle moves fro:m. a'l'1 aim811dar position kod + .wOt in B. clockwise sense, to the angular position ~ KfJld' + U'0~ If '(lie coefficients en are complex, the additional phase or each en is addled '10' the progressive phase nad for each element's excitation. The zeros Z"~ cerrespond to zeros ~n the radiation pattern whenever they I ie I(~n (hat part 'Of the unit circle f,epres'enftl1,g vlsible space,
The .Arr.BY P'o,IYflomi.al
Let 11 s consider ,a I'll array or N + 'I elements spaced by equal amoun ts d along the z axis (as. 'in Fig, 3.,23· but with no elements along =.z)" The phasing between elernen U;. is {Jflrl'. For t Iii h~ array the array factor is
N
~'FI ~ I ~ C le';~('~+uo} (3~64)
~ ~ ~ I
II'!I""'O
. j I ! 1
I I
.
I
I j
,
l i
, . I •
I i
(3,.65')
(3 .. 66.)
I
•
II
j
M.iirin bcaffi . • .. / ·f!I!B~lon.
M.i!i~'n bei rn
1IiI'=t=II=~""'=
axis
The array ractO'f can be expressed In terms of this new '~·,a.t+H.ble as ·an N'lh degree polynomial:
This polyaomial representation was lutrodueed by Schelkunof]. t Jt has the advamage tha~ the properties of a. polynomial can be related to properties 'of t he ,arr.ay £a,ctor.~ and th us it provides. a guide to the syn thesis. of ,0 desirable pattern, even ~hough it :is not a true synthesis method.
Any polynomial of degree N has N zeros" so Eq. (3".6rfi) can be 'written in racto'red form as
(3·.61)
M.a ln bea m ~~~=tr~ :i1x~is., efill"d tllFC
Each ractor such as .Z·  Z:i can be in terpreted as the array factor [01" a_ two ... element array. Thus we have the theorem:
1 ~ The array factor or an (N + l) ... element array 'i:s the product of the array raC~Of or N two .. element arrays superimposed 'to produce nulls at the zeros or F~ as given by' Eq. (]".67).
. A n nth er basi c t h eore 1111 is:'
2~ TIle array factor of an (N + i}~·e1Ie·m,ent ~affay' is a po~ynomial of degree N,
and conversely any' polynom ial of degree N can be interpreted as an
(N + ~) element curray factor. _ _ .
t S. A. Sc h e~k n non ~ ,t A M ~}~ h e 11'1 a ~ k ~1 TI"M~O'fY of 'Li ne ~ r Arr.!!J'YS;· 'i B',eU S)'SI~. Te',~I1:.}., vol. 22~ f.1Ij10. I.~
194J .. pp. ,ROc ~Oi. ~. t
... <, M I in be:S1 f:I1 Rg['~·n
. .
Malin b~am
. .
#===~+1!'~~ axis. ~I ~ 8.0.4e
P'o. '!!!.  .14 d' ~ 01.".5),1
' ..... ~. Ma.in bei31!Jilim fe;B.bln
Flll:l!llre .:t16 (,d;) Visible space L on u n i~: lei fide f'101" eleme nt ~pa·d:n g ,g.rre,3rie r l~~la:n .A.o/2.~ U~I;;;;:
O~. :an g!J11 bUT e:den I :llr0 di• (J ;ncre'ls.j n,I.. fbi )Vbib lie space ~ elf e le llMlen ~ ~~plic'i AI tess. th:a;n .A,mJl" ·end~fiirt ~r.rayw (c') ·VI.s~b~e space fO'f d ~ 3AJ4, If® u' 1!J"t~·~. a~'1 zeros ·I:o;~a~.ed in ove rllappin e re·gruom ~
..
. I
In order 'to appreciate how the polynomial representation may be used 8S :3 guid,e 10 array design 'we can imagine IF~ 'to be a stretched rubber band at some h'e~ght. h above :BJ plane surface. W,e now imagine p~nnh1g this rubber 'band hJI til e su rface at t he 'poi n ts, ,U,. correspond ing to the zeros Z",,. The ban d W1U rise above the su rlf 31Cle ,Sl,t the in .. between 'poiln ts, If we place the zeros close together
'~~ . 'Il.. b d l~ h ~ t.., • .' '" d h .,
we 'CiU1 rfi.eep tne ian C ose to ~ e surt ace over tne 'In terven ~ng, region J ani t n;
corresponds to ~()W' side lobes, ~{ double zeros are used, then ~F'I and its derivative are both zero, and this helps to keep the adjacent side lobes small. Along those lntervels 'where there are no zeros the side ... lobe level will be large, corresponding '~O a section 'where the rubber b:a,nd is not pinned down,
An example that we have already discussed iis the binomial array. For an array with N + 'i elements, "0 == Ol and Id = Ao/2", let '05, place all of the N available zeros at: IN' = 1T,! that 1.8, at Z ~ I. This corresponds to IJu! 'point tJ = 0 and 1T~ Th e array fatten' ls
When this Is expanded we obtein
("Z ,/ + 11')111 Z:'N _ilL c" NZN'i +' C' NZN'" + C' N
I , lI. I = .... r 'I·' I,. 2. / . I '."'., .. N
where the C:' are the bmomial coefficients. H'ence we arrive at the same result obtalned earlier for the excitetlon coefficients. Thls approach to the binomial array demonstrates the addltion al ~ns,~ght to 8J''f8'Y' behavior obtained, with the
po'~ y n om ial re p rese n t at i on ,
As a second example, consider a uniform five'eh;;;lnle'O~: 8.1'[,8,Y with array
II .' ~
porynormar
~iFI = ~'1 + ,2 + Z2 ~~ Z3 + Z~I
For this array the first side lobe is, approximately 13.,$ dBI below H1U~; "lain ~obe. Let us now replace all the single zeros with double zeros, which wHI reduce the sidelobe level con sidle ra bly, This ls readily accomplished by squaring the array f'actor for the u n ilorrn array, since every If acl or Z ~ Z~ \\11 U then ~1.1IfM~:3,f twlce. Thus for the new :arr,ay 'we choose
(3..68)
The array pattern is the square of that for ~he uniform array so the first side ~obe is now 21 dB below the main lobe maximum, The patterns of the two arrays are shown h11 Fig, 3~27~ Note that if' d < .)..012, the unit circle in rhle Z plane is covered once by visible space, and four pattern nulls, occur. When d' approaches A 0 the unit circle is covered twice and eight 'pat tern mlU Us, OICCU:r. In addition, ,grat~l1g, lobes along the array axis, along with the main lobe ,f1'1
broadside; win appear 'when ,d ;: l,,~m '" ..
'W'hen Eq., {3m6R) is, expanded it blecomes, .
iF~ = 11 + 2,2 4 3Z2 + 4\,Z3 + 5'Z.5 + 3Z'6 + 2Z' + Z91
:~
I
'~
I
3
••
1 i
II
~ ~
. i
r ~
: "
f ...
~ , ~
l t
rl
r~
\ ~
~ I
I !
. ~
f r
!,
r
I ~
~
J
~ I
~~ : '9 =e~ernlem1I'I:
III ,9In'8Y
JI
~
'I""" 3',' 4:·' 5~" 4:'" 3',~ 2'· .. 1. 1,'
l!l ~'! ~, • •• !" & ~
• ~
'. f
t
._
It S.hOM 1d bile noted ftuH the array w'ith triangular leu rren { drus.t ribution wlll have ~ broader b,ea~n w'iidth and smaller directivity 'fhaf~ a uniform array of the same t~lta~ m1 ~m~er of ,~~en~~l1'f'S bn t wlU h ave much lower side lobes. Th'e tapering or the eXlclllallo~1 0::£ the elel~len~s of urn arr:ay towards zero as, the lends of the array ,air~" :a~'pro,aehed generally results in reduced sidelobe levels and ,3. broader ~a,duu~n:l1 p:at tern and '~ower directivi ty. The decrease in direct ivh~f' and increase 'In b,earn "~Iri,dlh 'n13Y be viewed as caused by the inefficient use or the ,8.v,a:illab~e ~.nray len gJh ~ RJS d:iscu3.{)ed earlier mn con neet ruon W1 ~ h the hi nomial array. ] n ,getle'1r8Ii jl red Meed sidelobe levels are obtained at the expen se or ,3 decrease i III
d~'pectivi~y and a broader main beam, ~
For a hro,a,~s,de array w'ith the maximum allowed etement spacing, almost two~om~lete cin:uits.armll1d the unit circle corresponds to visible space .. Thus a b.,ro~d~j.'td'e array with N +. elements 'wHt have 2N nuns or zeros in its r'fl~ UltUJi1 '~,a ttern, since ~he N zeros 0" the array polynomial are encoun tered twrce, as shown in 'Fi,g .. 3,.26Ia. 'For arm endf re array the spacing is restricted to ~,ess, '(han Arl2" so . less thlan one complete eircui ~ around fhe unit circle cor res po n ds to ~ '~"i s ~ b I e s'p ace, 11 e n Ice an end ... :111 re a r ra Y' wi t h ,N' ""~ 1 el em e'li1 '{ 5 ca n have at ~lo~st N nulls, or zeros, in its radiation pattern (see Fig. 3.26.b),., For an ar'rar wm'lh ~he blf;,a,'m 'po'iinted a'way 'fro~n t'he array ,a:K:is,~, v'isfb~e :spa,c'e 111,as ,(1l portIon,. ,of ~~le un~t c1lrc'le 'travers,ed twice, ~and ~he ttvaitable N zeros can aJ~ be
P'l"il~e'~ U''11 '~'h IIIiii::' regtnl!1  h ~, ~ F~ ,I, 3 2' 6 . '
~ U/~" lUI I"~ t lI~'  lV .' l. ",.. " .'.", '. ~  , llil !II
.. " ~ ,~~ ;,. " .,' , a~, ~ own In 'Ig~ .1 Ie. Ho'w'e'''leT:,~ til IS, ~S' generaUy not an
opt mm u 111 cho~'c,e'j SHiite ~t ~ea'\N~~S e, lar,g,e regi'oill 'wi th,ou l zeros and thus, n!~;suhs in
.. .
. '
~ f
, ,
a broad asymmetrical rnain lobe a. The placement of ~:he pattern zeros controls the pat tern shape and side .. lobe leve] and m MS'{ be done in :0:" appropriate tna:nner ..
llR A.NTENNAS
II t . II
il
~~ _.':;""__'" ~
Chebyshev A" rrays,
OrN! design criterion that 'is often chosen Is that wh,tc1l1 Ulfin produce the narrowest possible beam width Ior a given side ... lobe level or conversely that 'wrull1 produce the smallest sidetobe level f"9'F a given beam width, If we had ,3, polynomial 'w:il.h these properties it would be easy to diletermine '{he required elm rren ~ dist'r~but ion ~n the elernen ts or the arra y,. Fortun ately there exists a series or polynomials known 3.S, the IC~~t.eb.ys/Jiev poiyno'111i,als t'hal (';,3.11 be adapted to the design of optimum arrays according to the criterion given above. The method was first introduced b:y Dolph, SOl this type o·~ array is also called a Do,fph: IC~':1 e'by:s~'u~t~ (llrn:JjJ'. f The I.heory ot the Chebyshev array is, readily developed by using. the Fourier series represematlon of ~he array factor. Before presenting this theory 'we wBi summarize the basic propertles 'of 'the Chebyshev pol ynorni al,'5 ..
The Chebyshev polynornials are defined by the following relations:
T'I(x) ~ oX' T1(x) ~ 2X2  1
TI('x'l = 4x3  3x
J... ~
Tt(x,) :=: 8x"  8x2 + 1
.1
'1
These polynomials also :satisfy the relationship T~(cns ~) ~ 'cos 11)1
.'
.. 'Let tJS.I~O\V .. consider '~:he function T1(a + b cos iU') = 2(a + b ens U)2 ~ 'I upnn usm g E(I· (3 .. 69)", When we ex pand th is, and use 2 CO52 U. == COtS 2u + ] we ob tat 1111
Ti(a + b ICOS U') = (2.,a1 + tJ2 ~ 1) + 4ab cos u + b] cos 2u. (3.73)
'W~lch IS, a ~Iiii~lt,e cosine Fourier series trip to' the term in cos 2u. Similarly, upon using 4 cos3 U = 3 cos' ,fJ + cos 3u we 'find that
~1(a + b' cos .u ') :::: 4(a + ,f} cos rr~}"l ~ ,3(a + b cos u'}I
= (~a,3 + 6ab2  JIQ) + fl2a1b + 3·b:t ~ .3b) cos' u
__j 6···  L i  21 _ _1___ I.. J 3
,~ ···,uo cos ... U It" ~. 'Clos,· U'
. (3 .. 74)
The Chebyshev polynomials oscillate between + 1 tor x ,in the 'fcjJng,e 1 '10' 1 and have  all n zeros in this I nterv al. For ix! > i the pol y"~onfl ~a.ls, increase monotonically, :85 shown runl F'i1g .. 3,28. The ZlelJ"OS of the 'Chebyshev pclynornials
are given 'by'
I ,I
'~'hj;,c'h Is also a n III j te Fourier series, I n general jl TN (tl' + D' cos u) is a r, n ite Fourier series "with terms up to ICOS, Nt« and may therefore be ldeatlfied ,3J!i an array factor Ior an array with 2N + ] elements,
_ For a symmetrical broadside arre.y· with 2N' + 1 elements, '{he arr,ey factor is given by Eq, (3.6~).j, which we repeat here ror convenience
or
"
N
F(tl)~ Co + 2 ,2: C~ cos tu.~
1( 1
t C. L. Dollph.. ~! A ,C~ moe nt D'i M ri~bu ~ ion £.or B ro'ad~ride Arra y 'Wh ieh Op~ i m lzes l he Re~~a/tion~,'h~'p'
H,~'~~i!:~,N~~len B'e!llrmli~~i!chh .aJnd Sldelobe Level,' Proc. lRE.'IJ vel, 3~~ no. 61~ tg.~'6" p, 335. .' .
..
I ~
I
. .
This series may be equated to the Chebyshev polynomial 01 degree N" since
TN' (a + b 'cos ,u) i 51 also a se r i es of 'I: h e S·BJn e £'0 rm as Eq, 1(3. '7 S).. Th,~ cons t:3] n t s a and b :are chosen to make the visible range ot ,tt correspond to vllues or x In THfr) that range from X' ~ 1 up to x ~ Xh where XI > I. The v~a~lu;~; of cT~1,(_.x"I) corresponds to the maximum value of ,F(u)~ which is greater ,than ], and '{he side lobes correspond to  i < X' s 1 and are of unit amplitude, There are two
"nil e CO·Iin.~.S po n din g val u es o'f' x a re 1+2m
• . ':J;
m: = 0; I t 2,. " ~ m ; n  1
.
I I • ~ 1i
Ii"jI j'
,
t 1 ;
.~
•
. ~
I ~
~ 1
If we specity the ratio or the mainbeam maximum. to the sidelobe level to be R, we require TN(xt) "" R. We can use Eq. (3.70b) to give Xl "" cosh 1'1' TNI(XI) ::::: cosh N7~ ~ R" and hence 'Y"! = N1 COSh~l R and then
(3.78)
The constants Q and b can now be found explicitly.,
~ .
In some desiglflsthe beam widlh is given. The main beam extends from tlte
last zero of TN(X) before x reaches the value of 1 up to XI. I( the beam null is placed at f,. then the corresponding value of 1.1 is u. "" lod cos (}. and x. is gh'cn by
'!Iii' ::::;; a +1., ;fi!'fii,~ i'.:I! .~..8 + b "'0 ,1iJl a: . d' IIi""O~. ILl )1
A;j!' I (1 1!l,.;'V~ M,iZ!' 'IA I 11".. .. ,;]!\.iP\,@ _ ...... .:lI V'Jr .
(3.7'9)
Now x •• the zero closest 10 one, is also given by Eq. (3.72) as
(3.71a)
This equation, along with the requirement that a ... b cos kcd '" ~·1. cal'! be solved Ior a and b to give
x.~·+ 1
b == ~
2
(3J3 I a)
•
•
since a.~ U == 0 we have 1:' ~ X I .= a + b.
In the design of a Chebyshev array we can specify the sideIobe ratio parameter 1(, in wl.klll case the beam width is fixed and can be found from the known value of XI and tile value or x, giver! by Eq. (3.80). The value of 9. 31 the nun 15 given bYEq. (3.19) usi ng Eqs, (3.76) or (3.17) fora and b. The .ahenm.livechoice is to specify the beam width 8" FI1 which case there is 110 cllolceavailable for the parameter R. In this latter case we must fiind Q,md b using Eq. (J,.Bl) and can find R: by using Eq. (3.82). The array excitation coe01cientsare determ illed by expanding TN (.0 I b cos u) into a Fourier series and comparing it with Eq. (3.75). A variety of designs have been worked 'Out. so iii! practice the computation does not need 10 be repeated.]
We win illustrate the design 11I00'r, by considering two examples,
L
•
"
Fil~re 3 .. 1' ~n~~h,3Jti(~Ir1JJ .of fe~::a~:i,o·rnsh~'P be~W,el~f1Il e. fA .. and x.
• : I ..
t R. J. Stegen. "PxcilllJtion Coefficients and Delllmwidths 01 Chehyshev A.mays." ,Pm::. IRE., vol. 4.'~ ~ N·,OiV. 1 '95:2, rpl. 1611 ~ 1 f:i] 4~
Superd'i rectl ve .!t.rr.ars
We have found {S.,t:N! Eq. (3,,4·5)] that for a uniform line array '(h'e beam width is inversely proportional 10 the array lelilg:tll measured in wavelengths, 111 princlple ~i~: is possible to design arrays w'itf~ a fixed length L 'to have as narrow a beam ~idth and as high a directivity as desired. Any anay with til direcUvity signlficantly greater than ~:hat of a uniform array ~s. caned al superdirectioe or s uperga in a rra yl~ h1 prac tlee, i '~' ~ U rns 0'0 t t h at ~ h ese s u pe rd i reef i v e a r.r3 ys :3 re n ot pr 2H~~ t i c.a 11 for se vee ra 'I re asons w h ; ch '\Vle will d iseu ss 1 a ~ e r w
. . If we have an array or fb:ed length L and use 2N + i elernents the spacing d' ~ L/2N .. There are 2N zeros avallable, and if' we locate aU of these in visible space we can 'keep thee s,ide~'()bc level a's S,I1].aU as pns~Th~c and s~'in achieve ~ ~HU':rOW beam find hiigh d~ir'elcHvhy .. We wiU MhJstrate ,3 superdirecrlve dcsmgn with u~ chosen equal '1'0 zen) Ior :s,limpl~chy. The major lobe p,cf~k, w~n he chn'scn to occur ,:It U' ~ 0, or 9 = tt/2m The v~sibrle space ccrresponds to  kfJld :::: ;1 S" Jc.'O[ri'i '111' 'in view of' the restriction placed on d,
·W'·f!;. w'in d[es,ign the array' as, a Chebyshev array' and restrict the arr,aJY ~,en,g~'h 1_ to equal A,J4 and use seven elements. The side lobes wH~ be made equal 'to o. ~ of thee main lobe (20 dB down).
The required element SP1,AC';ing is such tha~ kO[d' :: k[nLlri, or d ~ Ao/24. )'r we foHow the procedure in] Example 3",1 we obtaln a = 1.3~OIS442l9" b = 74 .. 55·58;11[9'2; and Xl == i ~5404297J... The relative values of the currents run the eleine n ts are
3.992008816 x 10~ 3~006383,ii4 x ]~O~ ~"I ~217.5861 x 10~ 2.072'~23161 x IO~
elenren ts In 0 .. 2: an d  2:
In the broadside direction of the main lobe HlC field is proportional to' the ·81 T ge b Il"S:1 C sum ·0 f a n ~ h e c tJ rre III t s sin ce t h ey :31 U CO"ti1Jl r il b u t if; 1 n ph ase. This sum equals J 0 .. 0:0:02 in spite or the very' ~arge 'elm rren tSI (ml~n [()f1S of amps] hi each element and is due to cancellation effects because the currents alternate in sign, The beam width can be determjned ;J.S in Example 3" l and is 69.7°. It is thus seen ~lUlH even though 'the array ~eng,t:h was restricted to A,®J4 a beam w'tdth of 69+7fJ could be obtained with side lobes 20 dB, do'w"," The array fac·t[o'r is shown ~n Fig. J,,3[. Note the s~l1J:an visible region, w'hh~h does contain six nuns; and the very large value tlhu~t !F(u)~ reaches in invisible space [(1.28 x 10'" versus 10 for
the main lobe). . _ . · ~'l +:.
T~~~~, example of a sM,perdire·cUve array ~nu~trates verj cJear'~y' why these an ten n~~JS are rH:~,t practical, The n:;;qu ired curren ~ in each element ls very large
, .. ~
 .
~~~~~~f;~~~~~. X
~I x I,
L~ .:~
~l :2
FiJl~ t'~' ::tJa A 'n ve  ernelUlThen l' [Ch e byshev .arT illy 'wit hi 20d B side 1 obes.
..
(3.,83a)
II
greate'F 'fh an A ,/2' It ,.
'_ ,!, II , ' ~ It" .,hle spacing ,d_ [can be optimized [to achieve the narrOlwest
possible beam w" idth W' h _ d > \, "2 k d ,I '
" '  '_ ~ ~ ,_ ~ ", en "_ A[[J.IJ' '0 Ui greater than 1T~ Thus x =
,a + b cos U' will reach a minimum value 0'[ a"  b w, ,'ll'[e'n' k' d co' Q (J = ' d' '11
t b _ " .' _, ' ' , '13, '.' " • ' "h' . al .",,' ['  1T an \\' 1 ~
; ~n II1Cre,~se in value ase moves further toward the value .,,, as shown in Fi.
... 32,'Ye ~~,n allowxlo.~ary fro~ XI (beam maximum) to 1 and back to t
and [~~S W~n repeat the side lobes rn  I < x ,< I twice in t il1II[ c isibl ' : " ,,':
B, , ','f.' .., _," "  ", ~lIe VISI [e rang[e of u
, "y re errmg to' Fl,g .. 3~32 we see that 'W'c need to choose ,'~
x:1 == a + b [c'os(kod cos' 8) ;: [Q + b 8 = 11'/2
1 ::= a + b eos kod (J = 0" '"
Th e Ilrst two equet ions may be solved for ,Q and b to give
_ x:t  t
a ~ .__,;;"._
2
LotJle;:wim h pelk v,iluc
1.18 x 1[07
, , t A, ...
,£Ii . ""0' S'  ~ + u
[if  'L.r I OJ ~
"  2d
[(3~8]b) (3.83c)
Lebe WU~. 'pea'k; value
1.18 X U)1
~j
!
I
or
~~_~~~~~ __ ~~ __ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~bA~~_'U '2:'5
and results ~I large ohmic losses, The effective current, productng radiation in the direction of the beam maximum, ~s very srnal] 'because the currents in adjacent elements are of opposite sign. Thus relative to the input currents in each element" the radiated power rus very small J and hence the radiation resistance is small=usually much smaller than the ohmic resistance. The required tolerance on the current is, severe. A change in the current in one elemen t by ten parts in several m lllion could reduce the main lobe ampl it ude to zero. be reactive fleld is related in alnpHt'~de to the value of the array factor F( u) . n the i nv is' ble region and is large (due 'to' the large currents), and hence ~he inpu t reactance of the an ~e"na is. very large an d the band width of 'Operation is vanishingly small, These eflects are so severe that in practice only a very small amount of supergaining 'cou~d be run[corporated 'into the antenna design. A gain gre,al'i'er '[han that obtained with a uniform array using A[o/2 elem en ~ spaci n,g is. difficu 1 t to achieve. The term supergain is in appropriate in as much as the superdirective arrays have a vanishing gain because ol the 'high oh rnic losses relative to the radiated power, Never theless, superdirective ;" ntennas are interesting Irom the mathematical viewpoint and have been the subject o( 3 large number of papers t
Ch'ebysl1ev' Arrays willh d > Ai/1
The narrowest main beam for a ,givreml side ... lobe level is achieved by [crowding, ;a'~ many side lobes as possible into the visible range or u. When d is allowed to be
t A.. Bloch et 3.1 .• U Superd irecti, ily:' Proc. II? E,. vo]. 411. 1960. p. 1164. This II rl iele cent ai ,,$ 3·j re f ere Aces.
11
e = "f'
(3.. 84h)
while the 'th'ird equation gives the optimum spacing d, that is, , kd l~[a 3~Xl'
cos "',, ", = '= ' k d (','3'.8,"'iI'.C! )1'
y 11" < "0: < 21T ~ ,
b' ] + XI
Equation (~.82)for th~ b~am.~a~imllmtoside.robe ratio R is still applicable.
When the beam width fJ, ts arven we r' equire :tll'  k d , n d
:iii i!:I' t' I""", • '"z  I) cos !J]"z ~nl,
.j
•
.
I
J
1
I . ,
1
+ b  11'
,a .. [ CO'" U ~ x = C'_"'O"'~ ~
~ '~  z ' ~ ,
2,N
where Xi is. fhe 11 rst zero of T~t(x)1 to the left 0"(.' "" ....... t , _ ".. ,
~'If " ,~ J ' h..... [t . A  e Ii [a s ,g~ v e
(3.85)
:x ,6; t b' ~ Xl J
[
,Iii ... b OO! k.[r!Jf"l' '!II! ] :
,iI ' l'! :
o'b'i!:!i'1[::
..
lJfi ANTENNAS
• [ .
I •
"
.'
. .  . ~ hi so the required design formulas are
b') and (Jm8,3c)l must no .,
Xl ~ e~s ll" (3..86 a)
a = _. '
1 + (;OS U;t
DlroLm::s .. ARRAYS. AN ' l.ONC:~WIRE. ,ANT:ENNA~, 1.11'
4N zeros, can be placed in visible space. 'he design pr[ocedur[es des,c'Jlibed above do resuh in the ·ldf use of the rnaxirnUtl1 availabte number ,o[f zero's;
~ , ,
The transformation x = G I"b COS,II was il1~rodtlced by RiMel and is ap
pi icable 10 arrays with alii odd n umber of ~ lerner Is only. t f may also be applied 10 endfire arrays, and the design formu las fin a ]I be found in a paper by DIU Hamel.j
III the original paper by Dolph, the Iransformation x = beas(u + uo)/2 was used. A function such as cos Na can be expressed as a polynomial in cos £I' of degree Nand contains only even Or odd powers in accon::lance with whether N is even or odd. Th is property is readily verified by repeated application of the formula:
(3.86b)
,
1 ..
L
{
~
(3,.86c)
cos Na = 2 cos a Icos,(N  ~)a  ,cns{N  2)0
The ar('ay factor for an ,array with an odd number ()if' elements and with symmetrical excitation h as, the form
,N .
, . L '.'  (.u + ,uiDl)
F = I I 21 c  , 2·
 ()  '{I' /' " ,,, ,Pi'  os .:::. n !
. I 2
Ii"" .
while aT1: al~:ray wiilth an even number of elements has, an array (actor of the form
N 21 1
 n~ I
F ~ ~ 21 cos  1(,U + u ),
t ~'i'iIi 2'· 0
" '
[I
where the [e," aloe suitable constants. Since the 'Chebyshev polynomial 1M I[ b cos (u ,u1[JI)l2 JI is ,3 pol y no nld a ~ 0 f deg ree Min cos (rl i u o){2 and con 't a f n s o'111'y even or odd powers i n accordance wi th ! he parity of' 1\1. ;i ( follows tha t fUI' bofh cases the arr,ay factor can be represented by a Chebyshev polynomial of degree one less than the number of elements in the array.
Fo the broadsrde array case, Dolph's method \yni not yield optimum designs ir the spacing is ~ess than ).'0/2, since it wjll not allow the fun number of available zeros: to' be utilized, owever, for the endfire array and also for the broadside array with opt{mjzed spacing, Dolph's method gives biJliml.lm designs. The optl mized designs for broadside, arrays using either bolph's
Figure 3.,33 A I ra y f ac 'I or r . r a fi Vi f'~g. :lJO).
. t H. J: Hi ,~e[. il"sctl~'ion on • A_ Cunelll~iIFibllliol1. fo~. ilro:adide Ar~ays ~.kh .!J.p!ilnlz£~ the Rtd,8JIruOln!dup B,e~w[ee'f1 B,e9rn Width and Sl[delohe Levet Pro« .. "'R.Ei vel, js'l rtt:j~ ]~'4' .. PP'.
41!91~.g2. ; , .
. • • . ill • ~
t R. 11. DuHam,ef'l ~!Op~bnuml P',aHern' for ~Endfiir'e Arrays," f'r,oc., IRE .. voL" t j May t95J[" pp. 652659[.
~ .. 
138 A N'TENN A'S "
.. I "1If'! 1 Th e deslgn formulas
, "' 'd' ~l1ll!.lC3' ,",.:l!
R·'LI  f t'ransform1at on are m [.... ,'~ b II f .. "
tr,anSr()rmatmon or ,~,~I e s ~ ' __ . I: '['", ,c'I('" .. u'/2 are sUrnmaril.,ed ,'CJOW or
'" '.1 b, , [t '" islo r'motlon x  b cos U 01, " 2'
using 0011'11 s, 'Hln!! " , ,,',' , E, t r T ' I [b cos(u + [10,1 I
, "'it, N"" el .. ements and an array ac 0 NI
arrays 'Wh~l " , ~' ...... '~,. '
[: [[
O~POLE:S" AR,RA YS" ANI) , O'NG~W:I'RH ANTENNAS lJ9
2. Beam width 9~ specifled:
~ ,~,(~[UfJ[)' X,"i sin9:lo,d!2~ =. sinr(kod cos fJ,)/2']'j
cos  " " ~  l.. " L~ _ ~ _ _
",2" {xl+H2:itcos[kotl(1+cOS9.)i2)}1f.1
. (].91 a)
11 ~"l1d,sid~ A I'f:lI!Y ",Uh [Opl inlum SpatEn g t. Sidelobe ratio R sp\ecmfled~
( 'i '11 'I R"' )
b == cosh N _I cosn . "",'"
Rod cos· ,Oz ~ c[s[ 7t/2(N'  1)]
cos 2 ~~ b·
B,W :; ff  2B,!
B " "' '1.tNld,th"I" [(' """,  26[ ), sp ecified ~
2 ,earn ~'¥ [I" I , II =r s r ,
, ~
·cos[ TrI2[(N  1)] _
b~ ]
[  cos[ (k~,d [COs. ,(J ~ )/2
R ~ cosh{(N  1) cosh ' b I
. " is de te rrn i ned by the relat ion
or both cases r h e opt unum spacm g lS ' 'e,1 e I  1 ' ' ..
k. d l
 0.. ._... 'I"I!!I"P""'
'cO's 
 2 b
'1r where x, = cos 2(N _ 1)
,~®,~ ko,d b = se,c~~
2
(3.'9 J b)
I ~
"
(3.9]' d)
(3 87c)
r
I ' ~
\
(3.'91,e)
(3.,89)
. ,
J
'I
. ~
, j j
,I
I~
, ,'I
I j
11
'1 ,1
[ [1
t
'·1
.. [
,
for the endfire array the design is optimum for all values ofd < 11012 .
' ,
The endfire a rra y design produces the unexpected resu II thai for a given
sidelohe level the beam width becomes smatter as the spacing is reduced. However, very small spacing results in II slJpel'directive array, along with hi"h currents and ohmic Iosses, as exptRin[ed [e,arHier,
(3",88a)
(,3,90c)
The design or a transmissionline network that win provide input currents having a prescribed amplitude and phase at each element cam be very complicated, because the input Impedance for each element is affected by the mutual impedance with all neighboring elemen~s. JnJ3rticular, the input impedance of the elements in the central porti 'n of the luray will be differenl from that of the elements near the sides of the array. The problem is Iurrher [cOn1ljlf1c,ill\ed in the case of' n[onuni;fornl1y excited elements because of the' need to use some form 0'£ lowloss pow'ers,pHtt;ng circuit element to achieve dillerel1t mnl"'litude levels lilt Ihe varjous elements. It is usually necessary h match each element to the transmisslon line feeding U in order to obtain 3ccel)lable performance from the ai ray over a band of frequencies. In typical feed nefworks the various elements are usually grouped into smaller subgroups or bays according to the overall symme{ry in the array. Similar bays are then red From sYlllIllelrical reed networks. As an example, Fig. 3.34 shows a nineeleml1l array arranged into three bays consisting of three elemenls each. Each bay is fed by a single transmission line, which is brought back 10 the main input fransmission line. 111e symmetrical arrangement of the reed network ensures that the excitation or the overall array wilT also have a high degree or symmelry independen: of impedance mismatches and mutual impedance effects. In the array of Fig. 3.34, elements l, 3, 7. and 9 will have ihe same
", • ';'11'1 I 2 d 8 d T 'I A d L:. B ,I! ill'
excuanon as Will eternents / an .... an aiso elements .. lin. u.y malntalnmg
End .. :Rte Arr'ays
'~~ Smdef1o'be ratio R specified:
fJ,·90a)
(3~9nb')
.~ ..
(3', 9"'·'0 d')·
 '!j. •
B . : m width := ,(1.
ea ,,~IUI" I: .z
I '
rlf.p.OLES~ A.RRA. YS'i AND  ONO ~ W mRE ANTE.NNAS 1,4,1
140 A,NTENNAS,

l' 1 ~
I
8,
I
\
,
9 
I
I 1 :: I + .  Jtrl2  1 ... > Jtrfl :=  ,0 C' , + '"' 1)'
llilti !1 e . !\iJ f! J .' d' ~' "
~ i i
. .
.~::ci'
4'~c:i:iij,·" '~
I P
, i
n
i
"
\
I ,
\ t
~ !
..
: j
]
,
~
~v:
~ } l"!J::.  .,y V,
,Zd J GJ I
lit is seen t'h,at lin' is related io V,lZlj independent 0'( the antenna element input impedance and the characteristic impedance .of the main Une.
In Fig. 3·.35b the above prlncjple is applied to excite •. hree elements wHIl inphase currents proportiona! to 'l)'"iii' Y&I~ and ·Y",. Since the length of U'U~: trans mission J1ine between each quarter .. wave section 'is A" the vo[ha,g[e 81 each point a  a~ ') ,,~ c·._ c~ i~ the same, so the antenna clement currents are propermiion.::d' to Ih,c cha acte: istlc admittances of each Aol4 section. Transmission ~Iinles AJ2 can also be used by reversing the connection 'to element b to complensa~e Ior ~he t80° phase dilflerence in the voltage at this point: relative to that for elements d and c, The 'inpu'l. impedance _s[een on '(he main Un,e is the paraltel corn 'inat ion of .Z; I Z ~,im zi.l Z lJn 1 and Z'~I Z[d[~" If each elemen t is matched 'f 0 its quarterwave section, then Z;n equals. the parallel combination 0'( Z~1 Zh'
and Z,.
Du tler 'M;ulll'"ix
It is sometimes desirable to Ieed an array through ,3 feed system that win have ,3 number or input pOII'b;; with each input p;orm: exciting the array so as to produce one 0'( n18[1'1'Y differen1t be.an1!s aU olffs,et from each other by a finite angle, Such feed systems Brie known as beam ~/o't'ling matrices and the best .. · known type is 'the Butler nl3·tri.x·"f BeamIormlng matrices use a combination of hybri\d junctions and fixedphase shifters to achieve the desired results. A simple example of a Butler bearnIorrning matrix is shown in F~,g", 3,.36b'. The Ieed system uses a hybrr,d junction such as the waveguide magic tee shown in Fig. 3 .. 36a and a 90° fixedphase shifter. The hybrid junction has the property that ports 1 and 4 as w1ei:! as ports 2 and 3 are uncoupled, The transmission f rom port 1 :[0 ports 2 and 3, is equ al, wh ile transm Issie II from port 4 to ports 2 and 3 diflers in phase hy 180'0:, Consider now 'the efTeclt 011' exciting port 1. The signal delivered to element A in the array win be 900 out of phase with the signal delivered to element So> TIlle beam is thus Iormed in the direction that wiU make the path length I horn element 8' Ar/4 longer than that 'frorB element A (Fi,g", 3r.36d) in order to compensate Ior the ~'90c' ph:asing of' eiem~~'i Am Th is direct .ion Is 4.5° to the t[eft of the centerline, as shown in Fig. 3 .. 36c. WH~n pOlrt 4 ~s excited, the phase of element A 'win be advanced by' '90° "etath/e 'lh ,hat 0'£ element B and thus produces a beam at an angle 0" 45° on the 'rig,hl side of 'the centerline. Since ports l and 4 are uncoupled, these beams are independent
I
 I
I J
".
.,: . Tfans.ruS$io~(til
\ II..._.,...._ ~::;;;;_ ...•..... > Un.:!! of rue nlUfl ),.g

•
•
" [ ~
~ ,
Figure l.l6 (.a) 'Ma.gic 'te t.ybrid j snction, (h) Twoelement a 'ay wi~h be:anll:fo'rmi,!ng matrix. (Ie) Bea m s In rmed hy exci ~ n I; port ' ~ and 4. (,d) Pal h le 11 gt h delay 1. for ttl ~Hditr1']r In bea m di reef' on for
IP'fH' t ~ be a In .
and may ell: isl separa tel y or sim ult aneously. Ihe principle involved in this twoelement array may be extended to array's with many elements and w'in result in a number of independent uncoupled input ports, [each 0'( which produces a single beam using the full gain capability of the array. The number of elements in the array must equal a power 'Of 2 in order to construct the beam .. [orm in g, mat fix USl ng h ybrid junctions,
A Butler beamforming matrix for a r ouretement array ~s shown in Fig ..
3w37o+ This matrix uses 9'0°' phase ... lag hybrid junctions with the transmission propert ies shown in Fig, 3+37[b,. By traci ng the signal f rom the fou~~ U1PUt ports to the array elements, the reader can 'lr,ea,d~ly verity that the following aperture
el ative phase distrlbutions are established;
Port I : 0'0 ~ 1350 2700 405'0
 [
'Port 2' (r' 45'°' 90° ]35'0
_I I,  ")
.
Port 3: 0° 45° 90'0' 1350
P',orl 4': OP 1350 2700 401$0
,I ~4,2 AN'1"ENNA.S
UJ2./ :
_ ............. 1
beam
(c)
.: (3.93b)
(b)
2 4
II
3
. '
Ar·r,a.~s, in ~h ich not an (llf the elemen ts are ' . · " "   ., c ' _', .' •
The nondriven, 0« parasitic ele ," _ _ ~~1V~~ are caned perastnc U"[uys r' , ,~. , ,,'., ," . ' , ~J m,[en~s, ar[e excited b' '." ,I ,"', ' .  • ~~ng, with the driven elements a ,', ,";' n. ',: ,Y mutual unpedance ICOUP
P'a , "If'!' _' " ,s weu ,a,s, with the orh ~, ,;"~, ,,' .. ,
. mShlC arrays have usually be, de  . __ d _, er parasmc elements,
of the difficulty of calculating Ih:l1mu~Sllgll1~ by expenmentat methods because the optimum spacings since these . ~ u8.mmp,edanc[es",. the element engths, and
" ", ' ,~,'  "" ,~~Iese p,arameters are aU ,.: ,.'. II,,·  .'
non linear w'ly. The best ... knov " .... '. ::. ,. '. ,_ ml lin terrelated 11n a complex
Th..' ~ . ' .. ,,, .. ~ . ~... wn parasiuc ,arr,a,), IS the Yazi ... U· da " . ",' 1,
e simplest PIIl'Jli""!!iIIS'II'('IC :' , ", .'_ h "g . a. array, t
~ <i);~, ,'(JI[, ~ U Ii ~' array t'S I" .'  I ~ ,
F~ 0. 3" 3;"'8' , ._ d wl '0·. . Co ~,. e ~ wOIe en1en t arra 1 I ~.1 '.' . .
II,~'O .,» ,4 an,' which consists of' 3, d' ", :" .. '~, , .. . .'.)/' wmcn :IS shown in
an  .J' t: . nven ,el:en1'en t and a " iJ I' ]
~~ enonre ,arr,ay with max'imum" di "";.' ". I  : u' renectos e ement, 'It is
this, twoeJemlen t arra y ~; ',' I" _ . I . r.a,,~ t~hon a. ~ong ,Ulle ar'ray axis, W,e can view , " ,,_., . I . us, a !,L wo t er ~n ~ n aJ p cU  , ,t· I , . It ,~,  .  .
reflector, 18 not driven, lts te .. ~ ., '. ' , ,I , ',' .. ~ r ne wO,r ". Since element J ~ 'the
, ;.',I rmlna~ voltage IS l,e'ro" T1 .' .  . . . ~,
, . [IUS w,e can write
OZl+Zl'
.  :;...o~1 .. i / "'II :
~ 1,ii: :z
,I
~ ~
.. ' <.'
(1.92:a) (3.92b)
, t3.,93a ) ... ,
. ~. I ,
• j I
 .
144 ANTENNAS
, ~
I'. , .
,
• l
I
[. 1 I
~ 1 i
I .
. .
l~
The ratio of 'I toll is  Zn,IZII· If we let this ratio be IZul Zllle~·'. then the array factor will be
F(· ) 'I I Z~21 . JYf.W~'ik .. tJ· em .fr
lu=!~e ,'II!
 . Znl
where ~ is. the angle relative to the array aK~S. tin order to obtain maximum r.81di.aHon in the I/J :=: 0 direction ~ we require ad  k od :; + 1T Of d = + 1I'/(kfJI  ,O!), 1 [ t111e radi afton hi the backwards direction it/J· ~ 1f is requ ired to be zero then we also need ad + kod = 0 or 2171 and 1Zul Z ll~ = 1. I ~ is generally not feasible 'to make !Zli ZIII equal unity so Oldy a minimum and not a nun can be obtained in the ba(:kW(1rd direction .. The phase angle of Z1] can be varied by varying the element length .. When the element is, shorter than the resonant [eng.tll, Zlt has a capacitive reactance,and when ill> length ~s greater than the resonant length the reactance is lnductive. The mutual :imlp,eda.nce Zll depends on the spacing dm In practice it is found that the ref1ectlor,,'element 1ength must be greater than the resou ant ~engfh, and the spacing ,d should 'Ole arou nd 0 J SAo for the best approximation to the desired goals given above. Ideally we should have d = "014, ad =  n'/2 and !Z,i ZIII ::::: L A spacing d equal to "0/4 results in a srnal] value nf Zu; and hence a snl,aU induced current. Thus a spacing smaller than ;\.014 is better. even though the exact theoretically required value of the phase ad can generally nol be obtained. With the optimum choice of spacing and element lengt~l a directivity of around 3 can be achieved.
If' 'the parasi tic elemen l is. 111 ade shorter than Us resonan t length i'~ acts as :3.
director, and 1111 aximurn radiation occurs. in thee d lrection 0'( the director elemen L Fu rther i mp:rove,ne'llt h11 directivity can be obtained by using both .Fl~~lec'tor an d director pa rasi tic elemen ts, 3j'S shown in Fig, 3.3·8cb. This array is
the g,imph!st Iorm of ~hle Y·agi·Uda array ..
A serious shortcom il'ng. of parasitic arrays is the small value of radiation
resistance seen Frorn the terminals of the driven element. The reduction in lIa.d~fit ion 're'silstr~n,c,e wit h 3. spacing 01[" Om] wavelength for a single parasitic element ls by .3, 'factor of about 0.15, and an a spacing of O.5AI[m1 i~ is reduced by a. factor of about 0.3+ F()r a standard ·ha][wa.VIf; dipole the radiation ('l:;s:ilstanIClc lin, Ihe presence of a parasitic dement would typically be 20 n or les~.Thjs ~atue'
'j ~
,.
t
, I
I:
F~ ~
~ ;.
,
t
•
1 i
.
( l
D.r~~lnl ~fime,nt
.N
, ,
:I
,
A significant advance in antenna design was achieved with~he development of the ~og .. periodic antennas. These antennas acre truly broadband devices and can he built to operm,~,e over essentially 3J1Y [n:~~qulency band desired. Operation over a 3,,,,to,,1 frequency band or more is q~Jl[e common In logperiodic anten I!1UlJi, designed fo'r television reception. The logperiodic antenna W':DS developed by D. E; Isbell at the Umlivers,ity of Ini"t1011$ and 'was part o( an extensive reseerch program on fneqlIH=:ncy,~independlen~ anteunas.t
The underlying concept lin log~pem~i[o(Hc antenna design is that of buHding, ,3,
structure that scales, into itself periodically as the frequency, and hence wavelength, changes. A g~v,en antenna that operates satisfactorily at a wavelength A l '\,vruU perform equany 'w[e~1 at a wavelength A1 t'f its dirnens,ions are changed by the factor Jt llA I' M:a.ny of (hie centra t concepts on which frequency .. independent antennas are based were ori.gin:ated by Prolessor V" I~. Rumsey.j
Consider the 'innnitie array' 0'[ dlpoles shown in F~S., 3.40a, with the [nt'h
dipole 0'( ~e'f'rugth 1(.1" :a distance xJl1 {'rOM ~he apex, spaced Id~ from element XI!ll'H~1 and having :8 radius an' AU dlrneuslons are related as IfOnOW8::
I,
[
: [
I
, I
I I , I
~
1
•
Ditil'1l!:cUornm c,f' rad ~i'1!1 t le til
.. 
In:p~l~ ffi"!!l!rtd UI~e
{1.96)
, I
l~blJI
fiBUII"~ JI~,40 [(0) Bask ~!ol,g~peri'odi'c drupo,11e 3Ir'r,IV (\b) ~ , __ _ , " _..ii' ,
I J.  .;IO[S pe If I:O'!!.ll11C a I'm te n n ,i:} feed system"
• I
The arr:ay is, IC\fnnp'~et[ely defined by any two 'Of '(hie parameters 1"" a = d;n/2['"I' Of t he angle (l"
1£ we ronulti,p~y an dimensions of' this array by T It scales into iltsetf with
element ,n becoming element n + I" element n + i becoming element n + 2, etc. Th is self scali ng propers y imp1 ies th at ~he array 'w111~ 'h ave the same radiating properties at al] f requencies that are related by a factor 1", tbat is, a~, ,.~ I' Ii '= T'/~'i'
I  2/' /'  3f',' ,t, , w  jI~' h , t 'III' f' '~f ~ I, c I,  , 1/ ~ 1  2 =", 2 'II   ' ,iii" '.
J  T l!l ~  'T l' e ~c" . e 1l10"e; It I,ij  ~n 2', ~ In 'T, ~ n _ j 'I ~ ~ 11 7  , ~n T" e""c" jl
hence T 1S called the trag period, from which the array gets hs name.
] n order to obtain rad ~ation from the array :j ~ must 'be excited by a teed system. 'It has been lound cxplfrllflllcntaHly ~h:at U is l1iece~,~ary :10 introduce a tSOti' phase reversal between elements, and this is accomplished by using a tw~s.ted transmission line 'reed" as shown in Fig. 3co40b .. I~ has also been found that at a gruv,en frequency the cu rren ts hl aU elemerrts except those that are [close 'lOI onehalf wavelength long are small because of the hig'h~y reactive I'm'pechlnce of nonresonant eJenlenHL In addition, the current along the feed line decreases
·
~ I
, I
I
,: I
~ I
f' E. [C~ Jordan et al., "Developments in Broadbsud AWlI[.ernfil,i)SI ~'~ IEEE Spe''''ll~'~:1 vel, t ,A!pllrill 19fi~,~ pp. S811. Th e ,I l'lVen eion of, ~he '[ogpeIr1od~c d ipo11e a n ten 1'[:1 was :a n 6'\1'[0,1 U'[],Clnl,arr)f nrecess
.r . r'at
furu'm1.J~l~ltl~d by eta,fI~li,er work by J. DJl"so,n 8r1ld R. H, Du'H,~mlel '0'11: sp:ilfa'i arstennas, 'lo:gper[i[oo:lc
~oothed: structures, and tr.lpeio~:da1 !log~,pef~odimc s,tllfllctUf'[es, at I,he Int[e[nn:l 'Iabora~ory ,or ~~~ 'Un~i'versi~, o~ In~i1o~s,. The evalu3~rnon or the 'ItJgperiod;[c dipo~le 8.:r'f3Y and ~he com~)ilaUo'nl 'clf des'~I,ll
d at m, were c~lrrh::d 00 ~ by R.I..... Carre 1,,· . I '
t 'V. r1. Ru mse y l' ~., F re'q u,en,cy In depen dent An ten n as," tn E N~llt ~ I Cfn~ v. R\e"Ot"'", '~[9'51.;. ppl~ 1 i 41 '1,8,
i
J
, '.
· :
, I
I
I
i
1 :
angle and not .a cheracteristic length. A discussion or these other antennas may 'be fou nd i n the literature. f
, ..
I
.. I
I  . l
The discussion so r:ar lSI intended to provide a background Ion the basic principles ln vo'~ved :i n an ~en n a arrays .. ]m is; by no means, a complete disicusslon or arrays as currently used in practice. Antenna arrays are characterized by one important redt'ure~ The signal inpus (or output) or: each element is separately available, This leature npens. up the possibility ()f a variety of signa] processing schemes that may 'he hll'plem1ented in order to enhance ~he ver .. s.f~,tHH.y and performance of the antenna system (lor diflerent applications. A rcw of ~.hese special.types o'f arrays are brieJ'y described below.
I .
· '
II
j 1
j I
"
I! j'l
Phased Arrays
Large antenna systems are cH'ffia;uU to mechanically sean in a rapkl l3J.s'hion, and because ,or this. electronically scanned arrays have been developed, These arrays, whil.ch may have several thousand elements, sire scanned by incorporat~ In,g ei ther ferrite or diode phase shifters in' each feed line, The electronic control of these phase shifters 'to produce incremental changes in phase allows veery Iast scanning '0'1 the beam direction in space, Large phased arrays ~ypic,aJ~y use ope n wa vee II U ~ des, 'SOl a ~ i 11 om S l or s, 0 ~ S {'IO r ,t he rad i at i n g. elem e n ts, (rh ese basic anten nas are described in 'Ch:31.p, 4 a. ) The array m:fjJ)I have a planar aperture, or i~ may be made conformal to Ht around c;yt~ndd,caJ structures SU(~11
as the Iuselage of all aircraft. The applications for large phased arrays are mostly in advanced radar systems and in radio astronomy. Smaller phased arrays and beamIorrnlng arr'ays are used as 'feed systems to 'iUuminale ,it rene1c'tor in satellite comsnunicetion systems when it is necessary to provide several spot beams, scanning beams, and/or wide ... angle coverage beams from
the oneanten n 8. system.
The reader is referred to the papers by Stark and MaUio!lJx for a discussion
oW ~ar.ge phased arrays :and the associated problems :a.nd solutions 'that have been developed.t Arrays are also discussed in several specialized books and these are listed in the gener:a1 bibliography at the end of this text ~
• ;.
~ :
I • I I i
: ·1
I I ) I
r
t ~
,
• I
I :
~ ':
~ ~
I
 ~ •
~ 1
A" COS(wl' </I,,) COS [(2{dI I tUn ),] ~ cos [(6,'1 I A
+ &IW)I 4 "JJ'] + ~ cosf(3·,W'~ + A,w,)t ~ ""'I .~
2 ' ~n~
A retrodirective array' is an array ,that wi.n receive a signal from :a.lly direction U; space and return a signal, usuaUy after suitable modulation and amplificatlon,
I
· J I
\
I M ad ijl~!l'hJ!tf
' ............... ......:11
t JOllfd~11I. et ~1.~ OP'~ dL
i L, St~r'k, I ~ 'M ~c row ~ve Theomy of 'P'hillsed A fr i1I)' A l'1ite nn t}~A Review ~ n PrIOC, IE1IE ~ ·~·loI1. 62,~
Dee. 1914.~ 'Pfi. 166'nl101; R. J'. M.,Ulotl)l;~. ufhl,~~ed Arr:J'Y Theory ~md 'T'e,d~no~og,~~'1 Proe. IEEE,.
vol. 10, ~~ar~ 19R2" plp. 246=l~H.
CI~lm mon 10,~'1 I ....".. 1 w'rn 4 ,41W osel II3Jh)1[
'f1:glofe J· .. ,41~ .. 1\_ t,e~lf(iidilfec~.1·Yle anray. E91ch rel!elme'fu: has the same eleetrenle ,ci'rt;uh,
phase .. locked loop principles. Each local oscillator is a voltage .. centro ned oscillator (V[CO) whose instantaneous phase is controlled by an applied vol .. tage, The phase of the mixed signal ,1:1 the intermediate Irequency is compared with that of a fix[cd reference osclllator operating a'l the intermediate frequency fJd.l' A, phase detector produces an error voltage V(¢) with ,a, magnitnde proportional to the phase error and w~t'h a s],gn that causes the phase of the voltage .. controlled o's;cUlato,j to change SI() as to reduce the phase error Ito zero. The '10 tagecontrolled oscillators are thus fOf"c[cd '(0 track 'with the frequency 'W', above (01" below) the signal frequency and with ,R phase offset such that the in termediate frequen cy signal has tile same ph ase as, that 'OJ the re] ere nee oscillator.
Other types of signalprocessing arrays and adaptive arrays are described by B i'ck more t and in a special issue of the IEBE' Trans,actiol'f:s,~
There aloe aI:S(JJ arrays, that employ nonlinear signal processing, such as multiplying or correlating the signals received on two diflerent arrays, Arrays of ,this type find application in radio astronomy and are described in detail by. Ksienski ~ §I
3.12, LONG·WIRlE ,ANTEN'N'AS
SUI [ m!,nl ~ 11~'p~i!fiH
In the frequency band (r[om 2, to 30 MH,z long wires (several wavelengths in length) supported by suitable fowlers, may be used as effleiem antennas. The bestknown types are the horlzonta] V antenna, the horizontal rhombic antenna, the vertical V' and sloping rhombic antennas. the vertical inverted V or helfrhombjc antenna, and the single ... horjzontalwire antenna. .IUus'lrat~nns of these an tennas are shown 'in Fig" 3..43. Most longwire antenn as, can be operated as resonant anten nas, in which case 'the current on the wire win be a
di ", 'h h h ~. '. id I oj> '. h
stan Ul,g wave Wltl tne charactertstic sn USO] ail vanatton. T ese antennas
usually operate satisfaetorily only at a particular frequency and harmonics or this [requency. The input impedance win be highly frequencysensitive, so only
b d ..' 'hi M' ~ " I b
narrow an operation ~S' posstr ~e.. ost ~'Ong""wllre antennas 'call a so,e
operated as travelingwave 'or nonresonant structures by terminating the f,f~r end of the wire (or wires) in a suitable resistance having ,8. value equal to ~ he [ell lU acterist ic impedance of U1[e antenna viewed es :3 transmission Une~ In t his mode [of operation the useful frequency band can be quite large, with an
acceptable impedance match over the whole range of frequencies, ,
Varlous types, of long, .. wire antennas are used for commercial shoi twa vie transmission in the frequency range frOom 2 to 30 MHz when propagation ~S' by means of' ionospheric reflectlon For these applications the optimum angle or
__ 
~ !II
I
"
,I [F ;an1[prner
~
[ [omlmo~, re el[ene,it. P~II::ll~
'O'sciU3tor It ,w, d[!I~cch):r
t R. 'W. Bick me , e. uAdapdve ,A,nltenna Arrays," Spe'£:.t'runm., vol, t Aug. l[%41; pp, 1s......S8,,' * IE E.E Tr:dn.r~ ,A n:~'i!;!t1"~Q.$i '''r[(Jpa,g., vol, APR t 1~ M areh 1964,.
'A. A. KS:lens'k~5 ',USig,na~ 'P~6~e$5:ilni An~ennasl n Ch,~p,. 27 ~n R,. ' ... Ct)n~:n 3JnL.F~ j. Zaekc
(eds.)" Antenna: Th,t,ory'li Part '11, ~1cO'ra'wHml Book C'omp[8!IlY" New YOlr1< ~~'9(,9'. • ~ .;!, ~
I·t rl f~MU. U~e
.~ 52 A NT'EN N AS
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s; n (11 1112) COS [( n '11"/2) cos' r/J]
1 fJZ~I, = ~ .. ,,+ ~i'i'i'~VI +~O$. ~'1L 'S ~ n f/J
~. e .r.""u .,. ""1\ . iJ ,
211'" . coslrur/2)8in[(n1ft2) cos "1
sin ~
= lo~, ejI! .... i(~"i2Kl· ees ~)( 1)" sin( "11, siIl1(I/tI2)]
21T'r S;'I1i1 f/I
'F~I~ re ,JIA) l..(H'! gw lre I nte nn as. Olashledl ~·i nles represen t 'S~ pporr~. towers"." (~ ) ,~.IIOi~1ron ~ :arn . V: ' [(~ ) f~'Ofilont~'1 d,ombi,[';~ I(C) Vertical v~ (d) S.~opling rh'(Hrnlb:j,(:., [(e) in\lrerh!d V, U)I [:.J[ortlorn:t.~~ 's[l:r~I,Bhl
radiation is usually from 10 to 30@ relative 'to the horizontal Hne in the direction
of the receiving saation, ,
S1 nice I[Q m1 8,'w'i re ant C'I1:n a's are ~ oca ted in ·t h e p rese It ce of' the. grou In d ~I '. 'til e
·'Iatter has an importans effect on UU~; radiation pattern ~nd must be taken l~tO aceoun t 'i n the design of" the anten na configuraUoln,. 'Ilil _ gen,eral" t~e design problem is one of obtaining a dh'c(:tilv'c; beam a .. '~ th'~ d,esi~ed a~lg.l,e.~,e~~atl~_vle to ~I~[~ ground for O'ptitDU_n1 Iong .. distance c~m~~n,c:aluon,. v'la '. r[e~eFt~on. from ,n,.h~ ionosphere (i,onosp1rneric propagation IS. dlsc:~s:sed ,. um_.C~:~p." .6)~ .,a:lo~~ ~ w~~h acceptab tie inpu t impedanee characteristics that w~tl facilitate m ateh 'I 11 ,g. the
antenna ttl' i!t~, 'feed line.
1m, this section we will firs,t examine some of 'the radiation characteristics of
typical long .. wire antennas jn free sp,ace., Th[e eff~'et the gf?i~~d _h~as on ."the ra d i at; on pa. t 'ru: ern wi I 'I the n be i n 'l fOO I!J ced by' appl :~'I n ,g 'I he pn n c,t'P I e ~lf 'p,~ t tle'll~ multi!pHcat~on from array theory. From t,~~ 1i'les'~I~s, thus '~bl:a.1ned 'It ~!I~I ~Ie possible to predict the main leatures associated w~th long .. wtre antennas In ·th.e
pf"eslence of the gro~n~d,"' ; , L'i I
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The ~as~. ex pression iis obtained by replacing [cos rIt by
] ~ 2 s,in~(~t2')
and~x'~,a ndin,1 the tri,g:O'll'lOmetr'ii[c functions. 'The resuhant radiation patterns (orn :::: 2 J .3, lU'1 d 4l a re sh own :i ~ Fig, J. 45 ,. The pat ~ er n s s 11 O'W n sh ou I d. 'be revol vied aro:.'U~ld the ,~Udi5 or the wire . '('0 get (he t'1r'ele~djm,ensitQn aJ radiaiion patterns, w hi eh are '( h e n se e n to eons lst of' se vera ~ [con es of rad i a tio n + 1 r.~ ge n 'era I, th e number of lobes or cones formed is equal t.IC '1~ The pattem is s.Ym~et.r:[[c,al with respect to the plane that. is perpendicular to the midpoint of the wire. When 11 is _ even; there is :3 'nUlI!1 in ~he direction ~ =:; ,"/2", 'i.11at is, perpendicular to the wire, As I'i increases, the lobes become sharper, The first major lobe makes a smaller angle with respect to: the wire axls us " 'increases in value, As tfle len,g.tf~ of ~11e antenna increases, the 'maxin11u,m directjvity increases ,aJong w~th the
radiation resistance referred to the current maximum that is !lC"'!R,I ~ P. T' able
, , ~ ~, . ~,~, l Ill) ~ J".~' II
),.2 lists represen tative values for the dir'e'cti'Vit~l and radiation reslatance,
The ~ong .. ~ire antenna ma.Y' be fed' at one end, as shown in Fig. 3 a. 4[DIQ and b. However, because of UllC unsymmetrical arrangement the currents iw 'the transmission 'line win not be balanced, and some radiation wU]~ occur (ro'M the feed IhH:;; itsejf. A more s:a'tisf·,a.c'tolfY feed arrangement is h) connect the t ra nsm iss i on I in e ,3, t the Ice n i er 10 f' a cu rre ri t i oop as close to the mid pO:I!'n 'I of the antennas as possible, as in ,Fig,. 3 .. 46lt A AcJ4l transformer can h[e used to
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'Fig.lIre .3~4l4 show's. a. longwire antenna [of !eng,th_ ': nA.rJ2 w·it.h· a current Id~S~fibuHon 1(1) = ltl sin ,koJ(~ It 'win be convenient to use the ~n,R'I~ llIi· as th[e.
transform the radiation reslstance to the commonly used 6000 twowire t ra n sm ~ S,5 won .~ in Ie" Th e re~ ~ i fled eh ar act e ris"t le lm pled a n ee of ·t he m 8 tc h 'i n.1 section is given by Z, ~ V 600 R,a ~
Radiation l'r01111 a V Antenna
The V' antenna shown in Fig. .1,47 consists [of two straightwire antennas arranged so as to subtend an angle ~o. The radiation is the superposition of that Irorn each straight .. wire section. The objective in the design of ;3 V' antenna is to choose the angle :~/fJ so as to align the two lobes produced by each strajghtwire section. I'f a maximum ~n the direction of tile V antenna and in II e plane of' the V antenna 'is desired, then the optimum value for the .a:na1le rfJlriJ 'is twice the angle {hat the radiation lobe makes with the wire axis Ior a. straight .... w·~re antenna" If each ann of the V antenna ~s 3.AIJ2 long, this opnmum angle is ,840, as reference to Fig: .. 3..45 shows" For 1 = 2AoI!' the optimum angle 'is approximately 72°~ The currents on the two arms of t.hle V antenna. are out of phase, but this is, just the condition required fo the electric field B~ radiated by each arm '10 be in phase 111 the direction of maximum radia r tion. The resultant radiation pattern olf 'the V antenna wH1 lave a maximum lobe in both the forward and backward direc .. tions. Smaller minor lobes wiU occur 'in between.
For a horizontal V antenna designed to radiate with a. maximum at an
Table 3,1
211..\0 1 2 3 4 .5 [6 7 8;
D 1.'64 l.8 2 2.1 2.5 2.1 2'9 ]1.3
RiIJj 1.3, 94 t05 114 f2.1 '26 131 135
... IS4· AN ENNAS
DJPOiL S
. '. A RR,A YS .. AND VON:' • WIRE ANTENN'AS t 55
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[angle y r~l;a·tive to the horizontal plane, the angle It/! must be reduced t. b .: '[ [I
t hie lobe ," . ~ c . ,,"'"C _ "T} . ~ e " ., .. 0 [ ~ng
,, e .' " c,' ~ rn. 0 a ~~"n" 1!len~" , ,.1!It thiS 15 ·the 'case ITlay be seen by recalling. that the
pattern from a single w'lI1j'e ilS a C'O   f· d" ,. '. .
t" ... . _" ~ [.. ,... . ,..' ''~.'. ne 0[· . ,m: lab[on ~ so that in order to b 'ring' the
P'OI n ~'S labeled P .. d p.' F'· 3' 48 .. . . li. . .. " ':, . ] an "2 In Ig,,'~., ,1._:, into coincidence the V' anal ~ 'l.l~ ,' ... ,. be
reduced A" ltern ,.. i, " . ed _.', _ _ ' til e "'[0 nlUlS,.. e
. "Ill a. emative proce ,U re 115' ~'o· lope t 11'111 ec • V', an ten "C : • .,. d 11... . ._
• . .. . 1 _ " ..  I~ ~ ~ h· . ~ ~ ~ n a u pw a. r [s uy the
required e evat on angle " .
The discussion above anolies in g eneral to the :rh· 0 nb·"·  I· ""  I h
d .. " : ,. "" ,"..: .. '. _. f'" r . " '. Il ~ "'"" ,,"~, '111e a n ~ en I'll a a so., Ti e
. eSlgn ob jecnve IS to choose t he ~!n' gular [0,T1·· entation o· f .' .... h "t. "  1l.. . "
... ~. . ~  u ... , ~  . "''Ii h:l! '~. I· cae 5,[ ralgutw'~re
section so as to ;ahgn the radiation lobes from" the fo '~, C di ,td' . J . ~ ~
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Fi:lure 3'~41 oe e a n·un men ~ for V' .I!!i. n ,I 
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fiiIure 3,.,,4:8, R:ad~l,aHo,n, cone 11~'i rnmen~, r'Of V ,an1:eniJ1B.
. . ". " "",,, r. '',dd"'t"'" 1 the leng fh of each :a('n1 must be chosen so
one common direction. iLn ,a, I. ~ 101 ~[ , _, ' ~ _, ~ , , ',_ '~, [, .... ,.
as to obtain inphase addition of the 6[eld radiated by' each straightwire
Sleet i on,
t56 AN N'NAS
of kill, this value can be used Io f3 on the righthand side in Eq, (3.99) to obtain a corrected value for ,(3. ,A somewhat more realistic approxlmation tor the current is 10 eIkr.J~[~"',~ where the attenuation constant a 8ICCOUn[(s for r,ad'iatmon loss from the an'te,.I. :35, the current 'wave propagates along he wire, The at tenuation factor a iis small and produces on ~y a ~JJnan change in ~he radiat ion
pattern, so we are neglecting thls effect., _
Til e radiation pattern for the trav,eling.,.wav,e an ten n a is shown '~n F1:g;~ 3~SO for two different antenna lengths 1. The main feature exhibited by these
~ • t, di ~ .' h f d di 'I! d h b
panerns 1.5 a major [cone ot ray iatton In t: e rorwaro mrec Ion anc t, e a isence
of a major cone of radiation in the backward direction .. As the length of 'rille antenna 'is increased, the angle of the major leone decreases. If I ~ nA,o there
win be a total of 21"1 lobes. .
The V antenna can be converted to a travelingwave a.ntenna by terminal. ing each arm in a matched resistance. The optimum VangIe Is chosen, to align the radiation cones from each arm in the one. common desired direction. The prrnnc'i:plles Involved are the S,8m[€; as those fO'1" the resonant V antenna,
The rhombic antenna: can also be made into a travelingwave antenna by inserting a suitable resistance .at the vertex lar~hesl ,away' from ~he feed [cn.d .. The current on each wire in the rhombus w'U then be a ir8\'eling current wave ana' ogous to' that on a transmission line terminated in a. matched load, The nominal ;npul. resistance of the rhombic antenna is in the range or 700 to 800 flo
The Iravclil'lg.w3ve antennas have the advantage that the input impedance is mos[Uy resistive and relatively lndependenr of frequency, Thus these anten .. nas 'willi operate over a fairly broad fr·e[quency band .. The limiting factor is primarily the misalignment of the lobes that takes place as the frequency is changed,
,  
D'TPOLES,. ARR.A'YSt AND, l.ONGWIRE ANTENNAS 151
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IGrou.ndl Int[er[eremC='e E.O·letts
Consider the long·I~orizont.a·I~·wire antenna shown in Fig. ] . .5 I. For radiation at
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1.58 AN'TEN NAS
For a horizontal wire the reflected field is out of phase wjtb the direct radiation, as shown in Fig, 3.,51; 'th at is, file image current is out of phase w"itl~ ~ the anten na curren t I' so the appropriate array factor to use is 2Is,in(koh $,;'11 ,~)L wh ieh is, approximately equal '[10 2'~s~n k,oh~'1 for the range 'of angles I/! 'Of interest h11 practice. 'Tolle ar'ray [actor ls shown in Fig .. 3.52 fof' values of h corresponding
to A,®l4, Alri2, and Ao .. It is 'tt'eadily seen ttuu the reflecdon from the ground will reduce the [o'r f;'eld 'sig,nii'flcanUy at low elevation angles U nless It.'h,e ~anlh~;~rtn.a ·hleig.h ~ is [arge 'enough so' that the ·B.rra.)" factor itself \~tin lex'hiibi,t a lobe rn3xi'mu In ~n the desired direction. For exam pie ~ for a 'maximum at tb = 20'6 we require koh~':= 900 'Or h = ~t2.5.A,~l# :; O,72Alo· With th·jis height the free .. space 'fTjeld is doubled 'ill value by the reflected ne~d adding jn phase, Whl1 an actual ground the reflection coefficient p wlll be less than unity; nevertheless a s:il!rlifi'(;.ant reinforcement 0'[ the direct radiation will occur when '(hie antenna hei.gh' is appropriately chosen,
In a later le·h.ap·l,er where propagetion at frequeru:;i'es below 2 MHz is. discussed i l ~.s. shown that the dorm i nant mode of propsgatlon is by' means of '1 he su rface wave, For th i 5, mod e '0 [ propa gatton horizontal I Y' polarized 'fields are attenuated much more r.3:pidly t'h·an Y'ertic:IUy polarized "Ie~ds,. For th:i.s reason horizontally oriented longwire anteanas are normally not used below 2 Mliz. In the shortwave band (rom 2 to 3(J MHz,,~ where propagation is, via ionospher]c reflection, longwire antennas are effective and beeause 'of ihelr simple struc ture are commonly used. Rhombic 3:nd V antennas also fh~d some applications at. [requencjes Irorn 30 to 60 M'Hz~
_ A considerable amount of design data for longwire antennas has been worked out, and the reader is, referred 1:0' the Iii terature [or this lnformatlon. t
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the angle .~/, the field h as ·a comribution from rth~ direct radiation fTonm_the ant e ~~ na an d f rom ra d iat j 011 :n~J" ect ed 'f ro m the g'r'o u n d Q:I t 11 ~ ang le til. ~lH~ re fl ec t ed rad j at ~ on un die rg oes U 'PlOp ag a t :[0 ~ ... ph ase d e ~:8. y eq u i v ~ 1 e rI t _ 'I. 0 It h. OJ t rr'C)M the irnage of the lorntlem111 a in the ground. If the field radi ated by the
antenna in free space is
'f Jk,tJjIi'
E= ('(tp)~ 41r"
the total ffijleld obtained by taking tile reflected field ~nto account win 'be
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E == I( ~l) e_ (1 + P le/~ ~Jl~o~ ~'hl'~)
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where Pi e'~ is the reflection coefficient at the ground a~d 2h sin ~~ i~. th:e 'ex .. h""~ prop1agat"ion distanc,e in troduced when fhe. antenna ,1$ a,t: ~_. het,~ht.h." ~,~1~ expression is seen to be of the same form as that OCC'U'fl'Ulg in array theory, with
~ he; arrav tactor being
...
(J,~10n)
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F( +) === 1 + .P e,~~2,r~4\:g" 5h! ~ (3~ '(01)
The reflection coefficient. depends on the conductivity of the ,gr'oumld., o.~ ·th'~ grazing angle 1//, and on whether the field is ",:rtically,or horizol1.tally p.olat'lze~.
, . .'. . I .. ;'., .. _,.1 evaluation 0: f En {3.1(1)1 ~S' eossible .. I.t IS,
For these rlea.so'n~s no sl,mp.le uruversa~ . If,ul "m ~~ .. "'I.~ '.' ." ,'1 ~ '0 _ . _ ~ _ .. ' .
often possible 10 assume I.ha't tile ground acts as a pedectly. condudl~~~~rf~~e w,~thout serious error rn J n til is case p = 1 and a = 11 for horizon tal pohlr~lat" t08
arid la = 0 for vertical polarization, t With these idealized conditions the array "
factor becomes
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i 1
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I F (.1/1)1 == 2! sin. (klOlh 'S.i n ~)~ ~ F'( ~)~ g 2~ 'cost( ko/l S 1, n ,t/I)I
horizontal polarizetion vert ical polarization
,.
't A.R.R. L, Ar.rfe'I:~~G H!'l.j>N1·bc~:lr" 0IP~ ele,
J ··'k ~
. 351 .... ! '011'. crt. .1
.1\ .. E. li:arper~, R'IiI·ond:ll'C A'~le'I~'U]' Des.i,lfm, D'~ VariIJ r'k~lS{r3.nd Co., Inc~.; PdrncetIOi~l.~ N.J .~, 19:U. D, FO!!r!efl ~cR.:aldia;ll:ililJn from R.h'OfJ1'lhk; Antennas," PNx,'.,. lR'Ei ",,01.. '2.5, Oct.!. 1931~ IP. 1327"
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'~'O ANTENNAS
3,~ I Let a ~n:t,nsm~S$ion ~hlll~ bave induc't,ance L Ind C:lpl."di~:a'nee C p;e'i" u~lt ~ength~ Then the f'oU,o'wlnl relatlons ho1d~:
3",5 A It WO'~ W lite It ra n S~1'~:j ssion ~I ii rm'e is requ i n~d to ha ve I. ch aracte ristie hnped a nee of 73 n. TI'H.~ ICO n du ct ors h ave ·8 d'i ,am'e tie r ,of O. SIn co F~ n d th e req u ii red SlplS cl fill, D. See Pi,e;. iT .. 2 in
A ppen d lx II. Is th i S: a PIT aetleal tra n sm i srdo III Un e'1 J" •
3",,6 F (1·r t'h'e t ramI5,mb;~d on llne C1 re u M. :$ho1wrn ~'n Flg. 3. 10 let ,I"(.l ') ~ 1 f'J1 Sil n ('Iil' ~ I:,~z )/si n tle\ U'Si'! lallal! ~ ~J~Co V to 'lind V(,l)~ At ,l E U2 nM~~~ terrninal condru~ion 1 = i'~C'V mu~,~ hold. Use ~ hese resu ~ ts to derive Eq. (3,.3,3) where X~ = ~ /IW,e,
J,~'7 The '[ ransrnlsssenIine rnod,e~ o~' U,e dua'llbl,nd djpo~'e antenna shown h1J Fig. 1., 1 ~ ls ~ike that shown run Fig, :l.,B: but w':ilrh Loa replaced by the parallel resonant Ll C~ circuit. 'It is desired to operate ~:his antenna at a f"req,uen'c), /1 a.mld also a~ l'}. ~ 1.,,5/"1' Find U11e required le:flIll,ttts, ,lt~ " ~nd U]]le parameters Lh Cr. when /] ~ :;0 MHz and, ~he antenna t'h,afa'ch~F~S('ic impled:m,fi]'oe Z· eqjuafs 600 fl, A pniu:dcl'l value to use for V Lm/C1 is, 600 l't 'lin': The Input impedlml{:le in the m:ransm;s:sru'on.,.'I!i:ne model must vanish a~, both frequcneies .. At It. the ITleSOf1M~Ult IciilTcuits havle lrnfini~,e (i"fl practice, \1l'cry ~arge) impedance.
. .
3 .. ,8; A, uniform ~inle alTay of Ilve leJE~ften~s, 'bas a ,~,pacirn,£, of' d = O.4A.,o. [::rund thle phas~ng in
10 rder to, plt'odl uee a ben m a ~ 4S~ tot bl e ,I rra y ax] S", t h a ~ is, at ,r/i :;: 1f/,4. PtOot ~ hie a rI:B y 'fa ct or
~F~ arnld show II:he visible f,e,gion. Sketch the n1lahl robe radi:u;on pattern. .
3,~' A Une array is requ~~ed Utal, will produce beams ~d t/I ~ 0" 7r/2" and 11'~ find the req U 'i red spac in I: ,d a n d th e p'h ase or exel ta lion of e ach e lem en t .
,31~ lOA n an [t en ~Ul prod u ces a fi eld fie Et C cos] 19(e  i>lrCV''/4 n.r) wh ere Ie' ls a 00'111 5 ta n t, Th e pattern consis,~s, of beaml! ,aihlng du~ ±.z' axls ..
{a) Frund I:he tohd radiated plower. (.6') Find the d~reCli'!iUy D ,at ()' ~ [11. (c) Find the halfpower 'beam wmd~.h~
(d) Find the solid angle occupied by' 'the beam up to ~he halfpower angle. This is rghN~~f" by du~. area intereepted !by' the 'beam on ,3 sphere of un~~ radius.
(e') Bs,~ irna te t hi e 'cU ree Uvit Y' by di v id ~ n g 4 ff by t liD e so Ud an gle '0 r ~: hie two bea ms U Pi ~o' ~he baUpo'wer 8lngre s.nd Ic'Om'p:are wi~h H~e exac~: res1Jh obt3,1i~ed in (b),
,31~ II Consi,der the Ilw(l"le'fe~ne!nt :array, ~s,hown in flg" P'3. 'I '~~ cons~stinl. of !Iudf'wav~ d'i po ~,e$ ,IU x ~ 0'1 X ~ d on t hi e };' a x j:s. Th e cu rrle n t ill t hie ~ w'n d ~ Ilo'les :is to' and lrtD, ,e,jn'd '. Fmnd ~ :£n~d the spl~u:rnng d SilO' 'that lerlO' radmaUon OCClJ]fS run UU~~  11 d~t,ec1'ion ,('uuj "'la.~ inn~lml :rad~i3JUon occurs ~n ~h:le + x d'i·rect:i'o'n., Sketch ~:be r,ad'i:aHon pl~'d tlern hll the Xl' p'lm'l1e+
r '
Use these r,~;d~tiol[nl:S', alOln~ with E'q+ {3.1(l)'i ~o show that for a bleonlcal antenna ,". P.'@I ,_ 19'Q,
L = (J..t'~;EIO) III Zt ~  lrn COI~ ~
1r 2.
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3",] A biconica~ antenna has an input imp:ed:ance of" 1l30' + j4,O n mud ls conneeted h' ,I ~ ra n srn russ ion ~ i n e '~f I th ICJ, a ra cte rlst 'i c iJ rnped a fnllC,e or m, $8 n. F~ nd ~: lu~ power ref ect ~ on coel!IN:~lle"'t and the 'V·S,WR, on ~:hle input tnlns:miss,~,o!11. line.
3.3 f:i n d It h,e ra dia t lo n pa t t e r fl of :8. d 1 pole a n ten n a ol [Iota] ] en g~: h 3.A~J2" The an ~Iell\~ B Is loceted along the % axis between J.AO')4 amlld 3AJ4~ The C~ft'ent on the .,an.~[en~a is ,g,h/le',n b'i 1 f{jl COIS, Ie oZ. S,k e ~ e h t. fJ~,e rod ia't ion P,I t t ern an d Ic.0'f11 pia re th e Ale 1 d S~ fen It h in ~ III e (J ::::: nl2 p~ it mle w m~, In l'h B t produ ced by. a di po~j(~ A 1r:J2 ]o'n,g.. G lve a p:hy~!dcall re:ISOml why t hie ~lo'n,I,let an '[ en n B does n o t produce 3J ~ a rger fiJ e~d s ~ re n gt hi ~
],,4 'Find th'e m:a,J(,imum field st rengt~h <dOtll,g the x axis f,or fhe V..shap'ed dllipole :arnterU'Ull shown ~ n Fig. P 3. 4l" Consider th e two eases wh ernl lo ~ A tJ 4 am d Iffjl = 31014. Com pa re the fiJ'e ld 's~, ren It h r or th e t~~o 1(: ases 'w ~ th ~ h at obt ai n cd i en Prob, 3.], wh e~l Itl' ~ 30 and 4,5,°," Hint ':: Sh(JI'\(V t h :It '()m1, '{he ~. a ~ds EIfJI i1s ,6 i ven 'by
!,,~.. of'J! J.. ~!lII
J'lfi.lrw~ _.~. , . ~_ . l~!li;l' tr~!1I 0'IIi .J
E(IJ' = JfAlA',r: == It ~\k,o~ 2101 cos, ~ C 015 K'®'U Ie' u ~t.
41fxo
~ 1 .
4
!1
/
"
"
,r
I I
i '
1("
  _I ........... __ .•
===~~~~ ..
,3".,'12 Use the 'Fourier series method to fiJnd· 3; sevenelement array that w'in produce 31 lea st mea 11 .. SIq]U are error appro xl mat: i,o n to the ,R rrm y f act or Pd show n in Fi g. P3.12,. S'ketch the appro',dmla~'e p,~t:h:~rn. ASSUlne d ~ A.~J2,"
I ~FJ;I~ f$)~
I
:
I 'I
:1
I
:If ,t
 J  II
! I :1
I
~ ~
J'J ~ 11"
I ~ ~, I
~ ~ , ,
I
~~,1_1 m For It~i'e '~o;~T .. ,e~.eme~nt a.r~a~ drii~en l'hrough the Butler beam~f'ormin,E m,atrb:: :s,hlowrn tn ~ru,I' _ 3.37 rverd,!{ t~lB'[ the relative ap,erhtre p,hl8rse distr;bu1io:rns are as: giv,en in the text, Ir the element spa,cing ,€I equels A.t;j/2, find the dilrecd,ons in space of the fo'ujj beams,
,3~ll: _Co'ns'iid~r ~t~: t:wo~elemle":t array shown ~~ Fig. P,3~22. 'T11Ji:s array is, 'fled 'r,hr<)lllgh ,B '90P P hase  ht,B hry~ rlld .1~'1ll net U:'Ml" a~nd ~ ~ 9(10 P b,Rse sh i (tell' is i nrcorpo'ra h~;d in on e feed Un e. The element sp,~I~~ng d :a: 3AJl~J~t Find the directioes or ~he beams ~.fun are ['oflfiied by exci tin'
ports m ·;;U1 d 2m . g
3'~13 Use the array po~lfnomlila'l methnd '~O de:si:gn a sb:,,·eh~~Ii1~eI!1J broadside array w'I~1l1 a radiation pa~:~'eFn hav1ng nulls at 6 = 0, Trl6~ 1f/3, 2 7f/.'3~ 5"/6 and sr. Choose d ~ AgJ1.. and tlnd the relative value's 0'( the required current h1 each ehnlfU~llJL Sketch the array factor. NU'~,e tha~ the zeros at 9 ~ 01 11" 'both correspond to Z = ~ I,
3'.,1,4, D'esil" ill, sevenelement broadside arraJY havin,g d,)ub'~le zeros hl hs radhltion 'pattern a~ tJ 5 O~ 1f/4~ 3""/4" and w. Assume fha~ d = A 0./2. Find t~u~ relatlve value o,f the re,tl]uh"ed current 1 mIl each element. S,k.,etc'h the arr,ay f~l:et,o:ll". Note thaI the zeros at (J = 0, "'" both correspond h1 Z ~ +L Repeat the design w'hen d :;;:;;: Ai~J3 and nine elements are
used.
],.15 'D'es.i.g,~ I sevenelement Chebyshev array with d = Ao/2 hav'ing side lobes 261 dB be~lu'w' ~:h,e nl ain ~lobe. Find the ex,di~'3JI,ion coefficients and the beam width. Sketch ~'he array factor iF{u ):1 .
.31~ I' Fi nd the excitation coem(ien'(s and s~dl'e~lo'be level for a fijl\"i~'"e'eml,elllt broadside Chebyshev array with e~,ement spacing d = A,®/2 and h:aviing a beam w:khh of ,5,5°+
3..IL7 Find ~:he currents for a fiv,eeJernen t superdirectlve array O'f length .L ~ Aol4 and with swede lobes 20 dB down. Find ~,h.'e beam width. Sketch d1J,e array taeror. Find the rErll eetive raldi,at'ing current in th,e directlon o,r the ma,I:" hJbe" 'You wU~ need sixfigure accu racy ,I n t fu~ cO'n' 1P1U' a ~ ,I O'l~l s,
3 .. 18 Repeat Prob. 3J7 but use an array ~leng'lh L ~ AID. Wl18t is the peak value of F(u) ~n UH'! 1Iri1ly~si'b1e region? ~rlli1~15, OCI!:;U rs when % ~ It! + b cos' r~ = a + lJ' ICO~ 'W = tI ~ b' and m~lay be r'(lund frt)mli1: ·T1f(x·) for thb, value o,f 'L
3 .. ,1"1 Design ,8. 'nve,,.elemen~ optimum Ch,e'byshe'v 8,rra~r ha.virnl,1 the specifiN:atiomlis given in
~ . ~
Exampl e :13. USee U~J,e d es ign 'fo rim] ru ~ as, 81 "N;~ n by Eq w (J,J:ri), No tie U, at ~ h e sa me resu U,s, as
in '[Example 3.3, are obtailned.
,3 .. 20 0 es iJ,g,n an optl ~n [Ii mll1 end ~ fi re array w:j t h Hrv'e if! 1 eme n ,"s, [I s ln g t hi e desi gn f',o rm ul a'S given by Eq, (.3+90). Carry out the design [or the three cgses~kod:: 1~1'6,"",~ l~l4'1r~ and 1r) .• l1r..........a,rnd compare fhe be,am widths, In the Ulfee cases .. The smaUer 'spacings, result in a
supergain design wU:'h extreme values for the currents, The slde lobe rati,o R' ::::: Ul .
Am'w'er~ The beaml widths ere 5,6.3" 50Ji, and 47.V. For kOld ;;; OJ)I1F ~he beam w"i,dth
hi, 41"3>4'0,.
~ ~d~~1
.'
L
~ ~
I ~ •
I,
:
l f
~
~
j
. ,
I i
...
A 'PER UR EL i'YP'E ANTENNAS 165
. In Fig, ,t 1 we sh·O'w· an aperture S. located ,;.~, the ~ ~ 0 ,i '. " '. _
~ "' . 'il' """ IL ~n Ie z  '~a neW e ass ur 
~ la~ we know the tangential co~nponents of (hie electric field 'on :~'h~' " I·" ,~~~ su rtaee and lei E de note ,h" '.c.  ";, _ ~, "" ,.' " tS apert ure
. .' , '~  no. e t. IS field. W,e wIsh fo dletermJne the radt.81,ed f ld ~,
the regton Z >, 0 W, ' , .. '. .., ,.' " ., " . el ,n
" ~ e can ~m.ag.n'e that the aperture ft Id '. ~ ', i..,
es,tabUs,hed b " .. , , f ,"" ~, , ~. ", , ~ ,I e~, ~5, 5,ornel,~ow
know ", ~~ m,e~n~, .~, ,~ultabl,e ~,o~rlces ~n the region ,2" < o~ w do n~lt need to these sources Since the field E On the aperture .•. 'II' ·1 den ..'
the field '~n the h,alf space z > 0., . tJ  '_  WI u~nque y , 'e~ermn,e
If 'we 'h ave a' fUIIF1'l"'iI't"o . f' .  . (")'
, . , ,~, ""~ 1l~ 0 .['. say Jl W, x, " I S Four'ier 'fr,a.ns,form is
CHAPTER
FlOUR
APERURE, .. ,TYPE AN'TENNAS
, , ,
co
W (k .. ) "" f w (x) ejl.x dx
(4.1a)
AU of the antennas discussed so far could be analyzed in term'S of the current distribution on the antenna .. There is another broad class of antennas •. more conveniently viewed ;BS, aperture 1t;l11,tle'lnds!, in which the radiation is. considered to OCCur from an aperture, Two CQ,mIDOn. antennas in this class are the paraboloidal reflector antenna and the born antenna. An aperturetype antenna must have an aperture length and width 0;( all least several 'wav,e'!engths in order to have a high gain" 'Thus it is no surprise that aperturetype antennas find their most important ap'pUca,ti,ons. in the microwave frequency band 'where the wavelength is, only 8. few centimeters ..
In the filrs! part of this chapter we 'wiU develop the necessary theory fo'r calcularing the radiation fie~d in terms ol an assumed known field distributlon over the aperture of the anten n a. This theory is the cou nte part of the theory used to calcu ate the radiation fie d In terms of an assumed current distribution,
After the basic thleo'fY has been developed, we will apply' it to analyze some of the "lore important features associated wi h open waveguide and horn antennas, lenses and paraboloidal reflector antennas; radiauc n Irom ~dO~5 and waveguide slot arrays; and microstrip antennas.
The variables Ie. and x play th, :" , , I :, " '. _" '.
 " .,.,., ,r ~" ' I' " e s~une ro~e ,a.s time t and radian freq u'enc '. .'
~he FO~iI rller anlalyil'l~ or 'If" _ F " it"' e . Y W In
. ' ''4 II, ". '.::tI'h;l' , .II. dnlC s~gnaaS~ l1!11 a snnHar tr' .' "f  h  "" .. .
or be th  , d " 'I "'" I anner"" we ave a Iuncrion
OIIJ, x an 'U, say, u(x y) we can '0,"' ,m th ~
J'I " '., , • ", " I"",,,,, I tAPP~Y 'L e ouner transfO~"ln to both
variables: thus, l ~
(4.2a)
,.
.,
!
_ _ . : ~ + I J
The first approach that we will us .. e to 'find the field radiated 'from a 'plana~
I
aperture wiU be based on Fourier transforms. The importance of this method 'is,
Hat it s h ows 't h at the rad iati on ,6 Ie ld p 3. tte rn is th e F ou r i e r t ra n sr 0 rm of the. aperture field. This enables one ',0 use many of the known properties of Fourier transform 'pairs to predict '{he performance of aperturetype antennas",
1
; J.
4,~1~, RADIAT ON FRIOM A P'LANAR AP'[R,TURE: THE FOURIER TRANSFORM METHOD
,r
1
! I
. '
, '
, i
+
I' .
..
(4.,2b)
AlPERTURE TYPS ANTENN'AS· 167
1 fil' A.~TF.NNIA~.
f 01 ,vh ic'b the i 11 verse re lat j on .~ s
obta,in
1 J~ J" , .Ill: ~' jJL'I;;l dJ ~~ d'k'
, U'(/' .r.~. Ie. ) [e J!.. F"': ,I(J! ['"')i
r~ 1(. X'~ y) ~ '_ l' I ,K_i'1j! .)?
, 411' ,.,
'.!:Iil:l " ,
['v "". i t_ :2 to. :2 )] iIi"I(k . ' ) 0
alz~l + (!!t 0 ~ [~;I'  #t J' I,.n .. ' _ _Y" ~~ Z" I=
('4 . .7 a )
1
1
~
I
8
kJjE;.(k., kyo z) + k,E;(k". Ie" z) + j iJz EJ(k •• k,. z) "" 0
where E( Ie". "Y' z} is the Fourier transform of the electric field with respect to x and y. We are using the same symbol E. but the arguments are shown explicitly to remind us that E(k ... ky. z) is an entirely different function from B(x, y, z].
If we llet
(4..7b)
m
, 1 .. '.. r .'. . iulas we 'win uSle~
~r h nl5""' "'tr'a the ,·.as,.:; arm ~  0; _
' I ..... 1,,, iii ..... It '. h electric
. '1 Ch ap 2·, it was shown that tne ere: I
n ,,111 ~ 
equation ("Eq. (2,.12)1:
.. r.= d th e Io :)'10\\ in [g:,.
'n eld sat 1:5111 t[  ' ,'. •
;, '1' . operty
• ~ ! ',  : I' 1 I I . ..
. , .,. ~ : , ,( ,. ,. we have the operauona pr . "
For the conventional Pourier trans orm
k :Z~ ...... ii'~:2 1. :2 . k.:2 l ~ x.o ..... K.l; ....... ",
(4·,,8)
then Eq~ (4·,7a) becomes
[al~(k1i; "1.' .%) + .:... :2·1C!I'(·k. k . ): ....... 0"
. a zr~ 'I( r ,II!,.<,: ~~ yl' Z" I 
(4.9)
, ds(,) . tZ (")
:1F, ~ = Iw~~s",'J ,
f d,t:
t .'
, . I . ."' _' de .' , ti vie 0'(' :a f 11 net iron leq u :a.lS JW
 ~ .' '.  . " ." ""'f, rnl of the tune erIV[QlJ" __ , ~u h ',_ ._,,'
that Ul the FOUJler trans 0 .. _ e . ' 11" simila .... "manner w[e Wtn c!' ave
" .." , .  ,., the function. In a smmlll·1J
times the Fourier transform Oll '  ,
~ .(" ') (4 Sa)
 uti.x~ Y. ~ ~J':" [ei: .u(x y')', .... , ... [  ,
fF ~. ,[K ... .t:r !p." '['"
. ~ ~ ~
l a. 'x
(4.4)
. [
which has solutions of the Form e~P<·~. Since the field should consist of waves pro1p,a.g.at·r.n,g outwards a~o'n.g z froln the aperture, only the function ejll:q;'t w'iU be valid. Thus the general solution to Eq, (4.[9) is.
E(".... ,... ). f'(·l. 1_), jl. z
K J.:,~. ~,; .X ,~ .. '" .I'll !Pl.)' I ,e: ;f
(4.10)
that
'I
~I
,.
I t
I
(4 .. 5.b)
,
,
l
l
~
where '(kr, ky.) 'rs still to be found.
When we use Eq .. (4 .. 10) in Eq. (4,.7.b)1 we find that
k ., + k t I Ie' = 0'
x:JJ 'yl', . V'l:
(4.1'1 a)
or
where k is the vector with components k,,; k,. k: s: Equation (4.11) tells Us that only :1'\\10 components of the vector f are 'inde'pendent, and this eflects 'the corresll[ondi:n[s restrjctjnn on the electric field imposed by the vanishing of the divergence as expressed by Eqs, (4.,lb) and (4 .. 6b)
When we use t hie ~nver~·c Fou rier t ransforrn relat ions, our solu tion for 't he' e f ec t ri c fi e ld ca n be ex pres sed as
a2,u (J(,~ y) ~ _ k'. l~ [m; .ii.';,("'x" y,,)
~ .  ,' l:',,jy'yX"'"" r . '.
dl1('2 '.'
~ .,  vmbolle way
. ' I  .. [, ". t letter ,1' with a subscrtpt 'lS a Sj ',' . '
and so forth. In the above I~e SCrip ( .. '. t be taken with respect to the
0'1' i.ndi[caling that the Poorter tr~~!s_ .~rtmnI5',e Om' ~fIUS' sian occurs. in Eq+ (4.5,a)
di  t the SUuSCT~p ~ 1 ~,,,, e . ....1 _
variable correspon :'Ing [0 I ',. C ,'. .. ,_ _ d k. corresp'onds to t In t lie
  1":;.. '4 4)1 because .x corresponds, to [00, an, ~
and not oq .. \: . "1',
basic relation given by Eq. (4~ 1 a)~ '0 , ' _
 ~  (4 3) can b,e expressed tn the form
Equ:aUon I,  
2  i _ 1.
I(~ I iJ 2 + .; J + Ie ~)IE(X, .)",. z.) ;:= 0
, (/X2 ,iDly fJz
,~c (x' . \:P, Z)I 0." E'v(x, Y'~I z] + aE.%(x, y~ z} = 0
VL:J: " "J'J . + _ ~ _ _ ,
. ~u oZ
';Jx ,f]' i _, ..
. Ii .... and 1:1 wle
 ..  , ~.' t respect 'IiO A." ... oJ ;
·  ' ..... ,', ,. " b' ,th ol these equations W~ 1 ,~~.
1'1' we Fourier ~ Il"Hnsform" 0
(4~.S;c)
(4~ 12)
(4,6a),~
(4~6.b:)1 .
...J.
where we have introduced the compact notation k. r = k~x + k,f + kiZ, This equation slates that an arbitrary electric field in the half space z > 0 can be represented as II. spectrum of plane waves since '("!i' k,,) eik .• is a plane wave withveclor amplitude f propagating in the direction or (heropagation vector
'. Note that the definition or k, is such that Ikl = kll' For k ~ + Ie! > k~ the
.".. .
, , ,
:~
!;
,.
"
propl:agadon constant ,K, is hnaginary, and the plane waves in ,this part '0;[ the spectrum are exponentially decaying or evanescent in title z dir,ec·llon .. These evanescent waves make up the near .. zone 'Held i.n frou'{ 0" the aperture. Only those plane \v a ves tltuU come from the 'part: of th.e spectrum eorrespcndieg to values of k; + k; inside the circle or radius leo.in the k]l  k,. plan~ cOI'liribute to the radiation field, since (H11y these waves are o1Luw':ard·p'f'Opla.gB~ulg 'W ave's '"
When z ~ (1 our solution fOoT the .x and .Y coertponents .of the le'~etCtric field 'In U st e'q II a'~ the a $,S urn ed k n OW'l1 a'ple rt u re tan g.,e nri aJ fi e ld e Th us if' wee ]'e t I'f denote the x and y components of 'f we must 'have
E 1(' v \lI':::::: E' 1( ..... W 10')1
liiI ,.1\0, J J I ~p "",.~. .J'
1= .
I J ~ (:k Ie)' _IL~,_'Flil'" ' •• dk' dk:
= . I '.' ~' ...  JI'L:!J'.J'. ..
~ 1 ,r , ;1'::' s ,t ' . x ,
411" ..
(4 .. ~,3)
f
, ,
•• ~ I
,
~
~
, Ie  j\l'IiII _
E(r) = jk~ 2~r [0,(/% cos' c/JI + I, sin ,q,.) + R~ cos fjl(f, ItOS. tP, =t, sin 1r/J)1
This expression can be recognized :9S a two ... dimensional Fourler trensform, and t h 'us f'I'om Eq r (4 ~ la ') "vie se e t h :91
SO fJ' is given in terms or the Fourier transform of the aperture field. From Eq .. (4~ 11 b) we can find f'£~ and i~ is, g:~~"en by
. ~ ~kr:;' 'f~, ~ ~kJx ~ kJj
t.  ~_ ~ V 1 ~k2 1
,kz ,', ,Ie @  ,.' Jt'.  k}'
W\e 'have now found a fonlil"Ul'I solutlon [or the electric fiek~ everywhere in the region z > fl~ provided we can evaluate tbe iJrltegraJ in Eq. (4,.12). In general this ~5 dilfficllh to do except in the radiation zone 1A11~e1re r is large compared with LAI~~ ~ . e w, k fl' is large r Since we are pri IltarHy in terested in t he rad~ation field '1t1C asymptotic value of Eq, (4.12) as r rends to 111lnnIty is :atl we need to know. Th ;·s :r.~syrnn,'1.o~ 1C evalnat ion is carried out ; n the appendjx '~O Ih i~ chapter, and
'l be resu h ~IS
iii' , ~
" '"' E~.;I J.~ J eit.,x· jlt:!IJ dyax
~ iIlII . ~~I
where fJ and c/J' a Ire the spherical coordinate angles shown i fi1 Fig, 4,. t. This rather remarkable result shows 'U'\at the far .. zone radiation field, which is, the diflraetion pattern of the aperture Illeld,~ 'is, smmp~y related to the Fourier '~. r a f.1 s,r 0 rm I[) F the ape r t !J re fi eJ d w'i t 11 Ie x purl eq u aJ to k I) S ~ n If} ICOS r/J\~, an d ky set equal to kl~ sin (} sin ~,~Th·ese are the appropriate components of' the pr'O~ pagat ion vector for a wave propagating radijany outwards, along r iw the d irection sp'e,ei'lled by the angles ,9 and I~", 'In .h'e evaluation of' f~, the hl'le.grals over x and y are taken over ,al~ portions of the z =:. 0 plane on which nonzero
~ 4'" , b'E ~ sh1 kxtl sin k"l
~ ,' I. till" . f·  ,,'
, ~,t;" i:, Ie; If! ~I~ ,f..
~~ " K(J
..' • ,. L r , .'
. . .
.  ~ : .
, ., !" I r ,
j , "
· ·=4ab~'IsIn(koa. sin ~ Cool tP) sin(kob. sine sil'l ~)
_ k,~a sm 19 ,ICQ~: ~ k'f}b 51 n 19 S1 n t;, .
... r ,
,~
... ..:  I
. '. ~ ~ .,
. '.
A.P R. URE~TY'E ANTENNAS 171
17'0 ANTENNA's'
In a principal plane say .,A  0 e h
IJJ ,..;Ii,a.. "p  'l' we 3v[e

~ ,
: ~
I .'
~ !
. ,
, ~
! ~
! ~
J ; ,
, ~ , l
L ~
L I t ~
E = Ji'k_' ,f!eilor 4 I.. ~ sin(kDa sin [9)
'. 10' . _ a, aii~i.c.(lJ1 ~ ... ,
, 2", , koQ SUl e
A sk etch or I CII! is ziven i' c, FlO, 4 2',' b ,,~" ,.  
~ t:;, ' I ~n 19., i"~ " a a function of u Th " .:. d"I·'R· : ,'.
has an angular W" Id th A n,· b . e mam ,~ racnon lobe
... ~ I~ au' .g~ven Iy
(4.20)
0.11'
[ .. ; ! . ~
1 i r
I i I
lJ
B'W = .... n = 2 sln '1 7r 2' _!I AID' Ani
u, (J .:_ OJI'I~  : ;:::; SIn ~ ~ ~ _! f
kot1 2a a 'or a p. AI)
Thus the diffraction lobe has an angular width 'nverset ,'.
apertu e width measured in wavelength . i' h lI1verse ypro~"IO"al to the r or !I n arra y. g .: s, W lie I was also rOI] I1d to be I he case

S!paii::~
R.e Iii ti.'Ye
ndd st iU1rr~gt h
R.adialion (r[Oln a Circular Aperture
"igure 4 3[Q shows a circular aperture 'Of radius , ~ {I.,. ~" '. .
.. s a rn 1~1e z  0 plane, A linea lv
~ ~
'Visible
(~t 1.9)
where (4' = k. In. 5' n 6 cos ,t/J, v == kob sin 6 si.n~. The radiated electric field IS, given by Eq. (4.17 a) and is
I his expression is similar to that given by Eq. (3.55) for the broadside array, and indeed the radiation patterns are nearly identical 'in the visible region of uv 'space, which extends over ~ul's klo,a and ~ul:s klo.b· FO'r an array the pattern repeats p,eriodi~caUy~ while Ior an aperture the sidelobe pattern contlnues to decrease as u and v move into the invisible regioru For a. large array the range of u and v to. cover visible space is small enough 'h:at (he sin u/2 sin 'V'/2 term in the denomin ator of the array factor can be replaced by ,u'vI4, '~ln which case the pattern for a uniform twodimensional array of dipoles becomes identical with the pattern from a uniformly illuminated aperture. Note, however, that (OT an array we defined u to be equal to kid sin (Jl cos ~ [see Eq. (3.55)] where d is the element spacing. A onetoone cor espondence with the aperture problem would require defining u a.s ko leN + 1)/21d sin 9 cos if> for the array. But this Is simply a change In scale for u and does not change the pattern, The above
remarks also apply to the variable ;v.
I
i
,
I
Vis;jb]~ .
R'elath'~ n~Jd :Ut·'C nlt1
k Q' G' ,
: .
].83
] 11 ANTE.NNA.S,
t
I.
p'o~aJ'riized uni fO'nlli electric 'field given by
v ,I::" x2.+. y .. :,J<.a2
~id = L[o8x '.
= 0, otherwise
w'mB be assumed 'for the aperture lfile~(t 'We then have
.[
The ~nU sidle lobe has, an ampljtude of 0.1.3 1(~17.6dB] relative Ito the main lobe.
~
~ I
· [
•
·.1
• I
Un.fort» Aperture Fiel,d with ,8 Linear Phase Variattj:on
W'e wHI now reconsider tile rectangular aperture problem shown in .Fig. 4.2 'bul
assume It h at the apertu r~ '~Ietd 'n as a :1 inear phase vari arion; that is, .
h
1 I ~
·E·.. = E,;' a ,81:/D"M.j{J'y
Ii'I &[~:rll x 'I;r
(4 .. 23)
In order to evaluate this inte,gra~ \"IIe m'l1!troduce cylindrical coordinates o, qJI' with {J' ~. \/ Xl + y1; thus i' == .() cos ;PI"~. Y' ~ p sin ,~i. W··e ,315,0 have kx = k,~, sin e cos ,p, k')I = k'o s·~n 0 sin r/J. Hence
~;
·
.' I
I I
i
,
For this aperture d~strib!lJ tlon
.ca, i'1l "b
., ' Bollix J I e;(k'"}'+f(~.8)J tty dx . 1IlIl ~b
~ ,
p ,
· l
1'1 I
I I
. iI'ii' " 217
f,~ = Eo:iliJi J f. €ik,~·~iJ" 19~(~'1pl [d4JI' ,dp . [111'0
. ~
· ,
~ ,
r
wh ich shows that the on Iy mo[difi,caUolfl in the pact tern ~!i). that brought .: about by
replacing k.~ and k, by k,~  ex and k~  /3" Hence ·if we call era ~ ,UOJ 13'61 ~ V,o:~ we obtain 'by di rect an alogy with Eq, ,(it 19)
~ (\ iklo4tlibEa _jk~' sinl(u'  u'o) s,in(v'  v@J). . . . . .~".
[Ell" I =: ",. Ie ' [llIlr •. ~ .. ~. ~ • (ai, cos ,rj,  :a ., sin 'rP' CO'5 0)'
2m uu v~v •
~ ~ 0 0
(4.24) In uv space t hie pattern is the sa me as ber ore, except [C)f' a sh iJrt cor the rnaxhnum from u = v = 0 to u = U(h 0 ~ V'O" In pt~ys.ica~ space ~hjs means that t he radiation lobe is no longer aJo(J'lI,g the :z axis bur ~nstead oC'C!Jj rs all the ,0 ngles specified by
We now note that
·
, :
t .
~ :
r · . I '
· .
:' J
ei~ C~"(~_'~')1 = Jal(w)  2![Jl(w) cos 2(~  ~')  J4(.w) [cos 4(</J  Ir/J') + w • ']i
+ 2jlJ.I(~1I) cos(rP' ~ 4J'} _. JJ(~v) cos 3(~  ,cfJl) + ~ , .]
where Jr1(w) is a Bessel funeUo·n of the first kind and order ;to 8~, ~~Jn,8 this expanslon the I~I' integration is. readily done. AU terms integrate to zero except the term ;invohdng HH:~ 10 (unct'i:o'n. The remaining integral OYler (J can be done and gives
1 I I •
I . . i
~. I
kOla sinl tJI co'S q, :: flo'= 0\(1: kob sin fj' sin f) = VI]I:_ 1310' The'51: relations can also be expressed in the form
:, ....
 [ I
a
upon ustng
I;
i I ~
I' J
.
The Bessel Iunction "l(X) is similar to a damped sinusoid and for large values of
~~ ceq uals (llnx )li2 sin (x  H/4). 'In the It/> ~ 0 plane the rad bi;~ed field is proportjonal to I~, as Eq, (417a) shows, The d~n:r·ac'non or radiation pattern described by Eq, (4.2. I) 'is shown in Fig. ,It,,3b', It is si milar 'tOI the rad i arion pattern Irorn a rectangu ~ar apert u,~e; except thet the decaying: t . behavior 'Or the J, function makes the side lobes smalter. The main lobe goes to zero at koQ sin 19 ;; 3.,8312", 'which is, the first zero ','or the Bessel (uwcUoln ,1'[. thus the anguhlf width ~)f the main lobe is,
3.832 3·~832 A~.
BW" A. ,0 2 ~ ~ I II<!!
': == ,U!]J' =. S1't~ " ~. 
k~,a 7r a
(.Q?~ + 13'") 112
s,:i n 61 = . .
ko'
The beam can be scanned or poshloned in any desired direction by controlfing ~ he ~ inear phase variation of the aperture field in a man ner an alogous to what was found fO"(" the twodimensional array,
If f3 = O,~ then the direction [of m ax ~nlum: rad iation is, 1 ml the I~ == n or xz plane at an an,gle e ~ tilO given b:y' shl[r(alk,®)'= srun~(.aAIJ21t)" The beam nuns OC'CUIf where u  ,!ID;_;' ± 1r or a·t u = ,Um~.11 =', k.od(sif!J tJ = K,IQ [sin le[~1 + cos '0(0 ~ 60)] upon uS'i:n,g a 'Tay],or series expansion of ~iJn , about 9CN the posltlon 'Of the maximum as I'i'v\erni by kl(i·a sin 60 ~ U~Ji the :beam widrh between ItHJUS, is thus given by
(4,25b)
I
~
.. I .'~.~·I~
[(.4.22)1
Tapered A'p'ertU're Field
In nlany appl lcations of :3'0 ten nas :j t is desired to ~ h aye v'c:ry l~w si~,e~'~,be levels, in order to reduce interference effects. A strong interferi ng signal incideut o·n a receiving antenna in a dir,ec'tion corresponding to a. side lobe ~il:~ inter3JC~ ·w··i.~h a weaker desired signal incident along the direction of ~.he rnam lobe, It ~.s often necessary' Ito reduce the side .. lobe level to 300 dB or more b_e~ow' the .. mam lobe, For a rectangular aperture with .8. uniform fi,e~ld the first side lobe ~~ dolwn b:" 0'['1 ly 13 dB ~ For ·a Uri iformly HI uminated eru'~lcu'lar apertu r,~ the first s'id~ lobe tS about '17,6 dB below the rnain lobe, 'wh~c'h lis, (filly' a modest amount b_etter. In the study ·of atrays it was found that the s,:i?e=lobe level could be red?,ced by tapering the element excitations toward the ends of the array. !hl~ sa~ne technique works with apertures as wen. A tapered a~'er~:urefi;e~d_ d'ts~r,~b'~h~I]~ will generally result in a reduction of Ihe. sid~~~obe I~vel '. T~.e penalty paid ts an increase in the beam width and a reduction 111 the directivity brought about by a reduced effieilene}, of u ~i lizat ion of the avail able aperture area.
111 order to ilh;strate the effect of a tapered aperture field we will consider the rectangular aperture with a triangular aperturefield dlstrjbution of '(bee form
AP'ER.TU'RETIfPE ANTEJ.lN'AS 17',S
174 ANTENNAS
We t1 nd that whelm the beam is scanned away trom the normal to UH~; aperture the beam width ~s· increased inversely with the reduced or projected width 'n~ UH!; aperture in the directlon of the main lobe. This same result W'3S also fou'nd for the a rr~"y ..
I
I ,
2abEri:,Jr'IT fOll" a lJi1ifmmlly illuminaled aperture. This reduction Is due to using a trianguhlr aperture fteJd~ T~u~ pattern function along u now involves the square of (sin lJI2)/( u/2) h~ place of tf~e function (sin u)1 u and this means '1.11 ~u the beam width between nu!]s has been doubled, but al the same time the first side lobe has been reduced from 1310 26 dll3 below Ihe main lobe. II. is clear from IMs example 1111311 tapering the aperture field can have a pronouncedefle,el on the sidelobe level. The radiation pattern along u has double zeros and is similar 10 I !;i at shown in Fig. 3.27 for the array with triangular Current dist ribu lion.
Although the Fourier transform theory provides. a convenient forrnulatlon for calculating tile radiated field from a known aperture field 01'1 a plane surface, it cannot be applied directly to the case of an aperture cui in II curved surface such as on a cylinder or sphere. Therefore it is necessary to develop II more gCllJcralapproach (0 aperture radiation, and this is. the topic taken up in '1 hie nex { two sections,
, . ,
I • •
• •
4(i2 ELECTJRI'C ,ANDI MAGNETI'C ,S,OU'RCES A.NO FIELD ... EQ'UIV.ALENC·E, PRINCIPLES
i
We will show shortly that it is convenient and useful 10 introduce Iictlrious Magnetic currents and charges as, 31.echnique 10 aid in the fllUlly.sis Qf the radiation from an aperture. Magnetic currents J", 8111d charges Pm can be introduced il110 Maxwell's equations, by analogy with the way electric currents J. and electric charge p. enter into these equations. in the foilowing W3.y:
V x E ~ ~jOJ'B  Jm (4~30,a)
V x ., = jew:O + J',~, 1(4." 30b )
, :
I •
, •
· ,
(4.27)
".
For this apert Wi re field
~ I
. j
In
1
('4.30t) (4·.3CJd)
~
When both IYlleS of sources are present the resultant field is a superposition of that produced by the electric sources J., o, and the magnetic SOUrCes J"" p", acting separately. The field produced by the electric SOurces is readily found using tile electrictype vector potential, which we now denote by A. instead of A'l' as shown in Chap, it By' means 'Of a similar devetopment, the fie~d radiated by magnetic sources can be found using a magnel:icIype vector potential Am,as
shown in Prob. 2.1. t The total field is thus determined by solVing .
(Vl+ k~)A~ "" p.oJ~ , (4,31a)
I, ~ . , ! i . 'I
, .§I :.
mt2 + '.2'A J (43''illb)·
Il ". It oi ·ml :; .~ ,Eo "" ~ ; ~ .. "'. J. .
.
f
The radiated electric field is thus
j k oQ bED . s i m1I V' ( .. S ~ n IrI/2):2 . .. ..J. . . fJ~I)· (_4 ~ 291)_
E;l(r) ~ . e'  Ik,o!i' I . .. (8.9, 'cos c/JI ~ a,~, s~n y)' c'Os ..
srr V· uJ2
We note dUllt the maximu m fi,eJd strength at Ii = 'VI = 0 ls abErriclri'11 ~n place of
t We have adopled I~e illS!! odh~ words di!;tri~fy,R and magNeli'c iyJM ill reierHlIR (0 Ihe \l'lecr~r Jlo'telli1lU,~~S; S~I as h) be d,e:S1cri'pmmve o~· dale 'type ,of' seerce irn!Jolvedi and COI[1silsi'te'l1:1 wi~:h mh~ ler;n~l\Iology used for the closely related herlzi'll polelliiais. MallY ,ulll'IOfJi 1lI:5e Ib,e opposi~e terrn I n,olO',BY; e  g ',' AI' ls c,i!iI11ed a m,aSr.I',edc :f)e,r:l.or po,;!tLtmtial ..
,
• f
I '[
I
•
,
E
~,
 "'
.Fi._re ·4 .. 4· Equ ~\',!l1Ie nt charlie ill nd m:3gne~ le CI{:I rteln1 ~ di st ri bu I: t!Jfr'lS needed h) sUPP'O rt a Aelid Eat in
r ;> ro and .~ He ld Eroax mn r <:: '0, .
to support the fie'~d E for ,f > r~l and also p~ace a ·ch,ar,g,e d·ens·tty 'loR.,. ' E:O.iI;a; ;;;:;:; ~EQcEo sin 81 cos q, to terminate the normal component or the field :Em a~ 'the surface r :::;:; '1' so than it win :i~or contribute to the fi,e~d in r >. ':0.
We r111USt a~so place a static magnetic current sheet 'On the sphere to termlnate the tangential eleetric field in the interior. A surface on which an electric current sheet of density i!_fQ nOIYlS results jn :9 dis.c,onHru;u:uj$ change in
the tangentia I magnetie 'field aceording 'to the relation n x (1=1'2;  IJ'~I) ~ ,J't',. T~H~ correspending ~rela.ti'onsh:i p for the di~H2:0t1 ~linuity in the t angentlal electric field
,3JC1fOSS, a magnetic current sheet of' density ,J'~.f is ~
(4·,3[,c)

{:4.32b)1
~
1 ...
• ,!! •
where dr' stands for an element or volume dVf. .. The corresponding expression
For 'th·e electric and magnetic fields in the radiation. zone are .
E· 'A' · Z· AI (:4· 33a·)·
tiJ =.  jaJ' !i!lrJ ~ JWI/ O,i""\m6 . '" .
~ Z A' (,4.,,33 b).·.
E~ == ~ jWA'f~ ~~ Jm fJl m'~' • "
11.', =.  Y ~~I 1(4,.33(:)
(4.33d) H.dJ; ::= YoE,
The application of these equations will be deferred until tater g,
I.,
L
t
I L
· ,
"
fJ. ~ ,~  flO ,Eo, sln ~ (:0,$ ,;. ~I;"e'~
................ j Inl ~ .1 f Ernl sln ~ + ;t" E@l I~O:!!i; ,9 OO'!§ "
. n )( (11~. ~ lEli)'! = ,J .
. ~ I m~
Hence we require if magnetic current sheet J."I "" a, x RxEII = allEo sin", + ,9~EID eos e cos It:/J on dlle surface r = 'D ~n addition 1:0 the [oyer of electric charge,
In essence we can place on '{hie surface r == T:~J :an equivalent ~ay·er ol 'chr.rge and magnetle current that wH~ produce fhe original r1leJd [rom the point charge tJ ou tside or r == ';0 and that wlll terrni nate an y arbit ra ry sourcefree fiek~ that we wish Ito postulate for the interior region, The charge and field configuration that we hi ,al v'e s e It u p ii s ~i n deed ·3 so ~ u 'l ion t 10 M ,:I.X we I I' s e<'l U ,at i on s, s i: n ce everywh e re except at r = ro both V x E· and V~· E vanish. as does V K 1:1 and 'V ~ E~ by hypothesis. At the surface, r = 'jI. E03. • (E  E1) = Pit' and III, x (Ii:  E1)':'" J .... by construct ion ~ Hence Maxwlelil '5 eq uations and the req Mired boundary ~ond'i tions are satisfied. When we choose E~I to be zero we can place a ~onducHno
... ~ ",~
spherical shell .j ust inside the surface r ~ 'to wi:~hou't Bff,ecting, the efterior r, eld.
The conclusion tel' be drawn from 'this example is that there are n13ny equivalentsource distributions that may be placed on a closed surface surrounding the orlginal sources and HUI't wiU produce {he same fi'eld o'lil~~d,e of
•
f:
•
r I
~ , ;
I I
1
,
·
j'
,
  .... . ~
'11'8· AN, ENNAS
. d TI , ce :~ ~ involved can 31s.0 be
this surface as the original sources prodll.ce_ ._ re cone. p. s . I, _
appl ied to' a t lmev arying elect r rnagnetic ne~d", 85 d~~~ (1, W,~S.[ 10= .\[/ bounded b'y
 ." " J contame ~n a vo~um",,", I ". I.
et a system of ,e~e'c~'nc SOUfICles. ~'I p~ , [ '. .:., . '. " W' _ c',', nove the
.  , ',,, d", ': . fl, ld E H, as Ul Ft.g~ 4.5a". ' e now rem, _ . _,._,
a closed surf ace S fa[, ~ate a rete "_ _, " , _, '._' .. __ f'" '. fl ,ld E II
. ' . and ostolate the existence of an arbitrary SOlU ce .ree ~ _ ~._' ~
sources lIJ .. , p~ an, p.. ,,. . ." V rI' '~d" of S~ .... eo ~'11' Fis 4' 5"b': The
0:: .,. f  d E 'R . OU 't 51 . e. . , 1 4."J;,:) 1m 1 III e ~ . . .
inside S and the original lei, . .' . In.. :i.. ,.... ~.,.. :_  ~~e 'ro~rly jolned
sostulated tolal fields are a valid solution only If t~ey_ . p.p ..., ,l,
po _. L _ , d , S. This is accompl ished by oflsetting twl e
aClO~~S, the 'Com,ITIO'n lurOtUl ,ary ~ . _ ._ ._ _ _._. '. ,w '. . . by:
~ '. , ,'f. '" i!.~' e tangential field components by surface currents given
discontinuuy ~:n lllll'· lil, . _ .
J. ~ n x ('1·1 11) (4,34a)
!i!'$. t
(4,.34b)
J :::=  n x I(E  E~)
" 1IJlII:!:
'~E ... f~" , , (4 "',4 a)1 is J'~iil1'~t the boundarv 'condition for the magnetic field f"c.ros~ '~
"" q U· h ~ 0 n . "  , ""'. '," ~ 1  '. ~" , UlI t ~,c
11; .. , ~ ,.... '.' ..... _ I H' t .~ c,an have a d;~conunuous. C~Hl.ngc. .
ClIITCnt sheet. In on er Hi we .. .... . . .. .. .(_.. • .... 'v. lent layer
. , , . .. "'1 ...  ',·f .... field we must post u la te the eX.1 s~ enc,e 0 ,8 n equ. ~ . . :': _
tungentHl ~ ec nc. .: . ,_. ,_. . :' ~ 'hi, , e .uirement that motivated the
of magnetrc s~urace c~m~I1i~: J ...... It ,IS ,1_ .~ .. (,,~ .. f this section. The fields EI
introduction of magnetic sources I~ the beginning 0.. I'd , .. I tion to
1_1' '" 'V' '. d E 11 in V,. along with the currents on S, are. a v.a".1 S?_ ~ __ ~ .
I~ In . 1 an , . l' '1 S",·, _ th elution 'IS untque
,·t, : , , ~m d Maxwell's eql uations everywnerev Smce '. e sorutu .' _ ", '.' the glenera~lze .. . , .' . ". _ bv E (4 34) must
: 'l, .', U b·' ,.' ,d' I , conditions, ate satisfied the currents gIven [y. q..I:,
Wilen au oun amy. . _ _ as the ~""ld' ,.,  V are concerned the radiat e t hie postu lated filelds~ Hence, as far ~ as t_ e re '. ~ Ul 1; ~ . ,_'.  ,. ( '/' 11 ~ ce ..
. , . . b  E, (4. 34) are ru 1~y equivalent to the ongi I'm a1 set 0 sot r: . S
currents grven __ ')I '1' .. ''', 'b'" ,"t' "': r so we may choose this as :3J null fie~d. Thus
FI' rt hermore, 1:1, H, are ar ~ I ary, s .
placed on S wi U radiate the origin 31 fi[eJd outside S and a n uU Held i nside S, as
· .. 45 Th' · L h ']1  , f'lL.I , '" + t d'
In' ~g,. : ,. c, ':]5, 18 It ne mat: .emattca statemen t 0 Hu ygen s prU1CI pre an· 'IS
known as Love's field equisalenee principle. The cu rrents specified ill c.. qs. (4.34) and (41.35) radiate in a freespace environment and the field may h found using the vector potential [unctinns A,t' and Am+
If we choose ,8 null field In 'V'l then we can replace 5' oy ,3 perfect electric condnctor, as, in Fig. 4.5dm 'In this, case the current J,u is shortcircuited and docs not radiate, Hence the iIleld E, H 'in V;z can be found from magnetic currents .' if!s ~  n x E placed on a perfect electric [conduc'tin,g sur r,ace ,5. We could also replace S by a perfect magnetic conductor (a surface on which n )( I( = 0) as in I~~g~ 4_5.f·,~ in which case E, H' in V2 can be Iound Irorn electric currents J'f.t = rl x H placed on ·8. perfect rnagnettc conducf:ing surface S~ The fields radiated by the equivalent surface currents J;, alone or .1., alone must, or Course, be found such that the boundary conditions on the enclosed perfect elect ric an d m agnetlc conductors are satisfied ..
lt is not beces8,ary to impose any boundary conditions on the no', mal components ol the f1.elds at the surface S since, if the tangential field components ,3 re properly ma tched by suitable cu rren ~ sheets, Maxwell "s equations ensure that the normal components ~dU have the proper behavior at the surface S. The reader ...... ishing to pursue fleJdequivalem:e· principles in further depth is referred to' the literature .. t For our purpose the relations needed to formula te the problem of' radiation from an aperture are either the s,et (4.34) O~· (4.,35)~ depending on ho\\,1 w·e ':\;+~i.h to ~,pe[c'iry E1, 1m In the ne,rt section w[e show ~lO\W ~hese fi·eld lequiva~ence principles rnay be ,applied ~o aperture radiation",
APERTURE~TYPe. ANTENNAS '179
J~$ = n x H
J' =: n x q
1tI.\f . I:~
(4~J.5a) (4 . .35b)
~ :
, 1 1
i 2
I I 1
f .. I
i 1 .
i! :
I \
: ~
, !
r .
· I
, t ~
· F
. : t
: I
· .
, ~ ~
t
~ . 1.
1 .
,
1:1.
; r F
,
L~
'I'll
'Consider .ag.a:in the :aperlure "n a C'ondUC!ling sece,en 'Shown ~n F'i,g~ 4.!.,  em Ed:; H,~ be t:he ta'ngentilcd fieJds on the z == 0 p~aill·e, wh~ch we ·assurne thRt w ... have s,a.nlehow de~:erln:inle[!. Note tha~ E,t,1 =:= 0 outsi:de the ,aper'tul!'e ,op,enilng, but
E.n
E"H
~
J •
I t
I
1 . ~
.. '® J .
 I! ,
Pi! .... '
!" ... l
4,~3 AP'P'IJICAT'ION OF FIE:LD·EQ'UIVALENC'E P.RI·NCIPLES TO AP ·RT'URE RADIA,'TION'
(b)
t S. A. Sche~kuin'oR., ~fSOIil'e Equ,jv.ail,enlc,e ·Thlcorems, or Er,eCIU)nr13.gneti:cs and Their AppUcari'oil1l$ to Radia!~oj[i frob~[e'ms_,n 8\elf Sysfem3 Tech. )OU'l'ri v,oll, ~S~ !.93{~i rp. 92~ rl.
S. A. Sch'eJkurnoft'Ii' h'Kh'chhoft'l', F:onnllIDl'a, hs 'Ve,ctolf Anallngtle and Odleli Fiel!d Eql!Jl.·vah~ncc
l1~le'olrem1s,·" Catll·""I'r"'n. Pur~' .Appi'. MaIl.·., Y'(iL 4, June 1'9'.:5 II ppr 43.S9. _
R" F. Hali' ~ngltom~ nm[ llarn.io.dic ElecrrOtJ.1Q,gn·,etic Re,lds, McGr.aJ'w~l~U~ Boo'k Cnfflp,3JT'iY" New York~[ 1961.
B ~ B,. 8a'k e'r., a!fJH~  ,..;.. R. C·opson.. l11..e' A.fa·~'h,e~;m d tical' n~·eory 01 Il[l),R.',e'i1 q S Prin,clp#e' OM f otd Ulml iver:s h y r~,eS~t New V'odc i 1'93,9.
n
lIml
~,eIr r,e'l';l! e~¢c~fic:
COm1d~chl~
Perfec~, :~n .agmurUc
(,d)
Fi'~'liIlre 4, .• 5 Equ~v;ili;~en~ sources ror fffile H,e'ld E. II o\uside S.
(el
: I ~ !
I
r
I
I I
Ar'ERTURE~TYP'H ANl'ENN'AS 1'81
. r
I
! , I j'
, I
i .
,
~ ,
 ike .
E. '" 4nr ,e1kW[eos 0(/, cos ~ =I, sin ,,)Z(I(g, sin.p· + Ix cos 0(1.)]
(4~37b)
I t l [1
+ .1
I .
II
L I I
t
I I
II
i :
1 I.
I' I
• I ~ .
I
J~kA
E. " 'I!J. =« ~ f> + l ,. fJ 'J.
. ...... e' ~lr!;i.... lI""ii'"lIS··· . ~J·~n··· .
19 = 21ft I . :t I"",IV .'  _}'';'} ~ _ . I .
, I
(AI 319 ).
~.~ ... a
. ~.
and
t
•
Wle have already seen that Eq. (4~39) agrees with the results obtained earlier by using Fourier transforms. The solution given by Eq. (4 . .37) is the average of Eqs. (4,38) and (4,,39). If the correct aperture fields a .. re known, .aU three of the above procedures give identical results. However, when approximate aperture fields E~.~ H~! are used, the three f€)lf'mU~ations generally disagree, There is some advan tage in using Eq, (4.38) or (;~t3;91) alone, since 'On ~y one of E, or H" needs to be specified, 0111 a curved surface, image theory cannot, or course, be used. ~n that case we must use Eqs,. (4,32) and (4,.33) directly.
Obviousl y the above th,eory ls or , itt le use un ~e~s. rU11e is able to fin d Pi ~,~diistRc~ory ·esfi'fna.h~ or either the aperture electric fle~d Of aperture magncric field. For Ilnnny practical antennas U is, possible to use the geometrical r:ay optics theory or other means to find. approximate solutions for the a .. perture n·e~ds". Some of these techniques '~¥i'[~ be explored in the remaining sections of ~h'i:s chapter ~
Magnetic sources do nbt have a 'physical existence, but they may, nevertheless, be introduced as part of' the equivalent system of sot_1T,6es, 'l1eededl '110 prod u ce t he sa In e ~le Id ; 'n a re s t ri et ed ('·'e.g i on 0'[ space 3.5, some 0:( her rea I physieal sourees do. I·t is in 'this comext that magnetlc sources are used, and for this pdrpose ~hey provide ,3 convenient mathematical artifice to aid! in the calcule tion ·of fileIds radiated by ape1FtMre,fieJd dis'lributii()rt5L
. The steps leading to the result 'Of Eq. (4.39),. whiell :is: ehe same as given by Elq, (4.,174) and obtained 'by using Fourier transforms, are ;8111 independenr way
we find that.
,
t I:
I
........_......
, ,
• :I'
.. ~ r ~ _' ............... __ ~
(Jf finding the asymptotic val ue of the in tegral (41~ 12) for the total ft'e'ld as leo" becomes larue.
If w'e tlel~et to Eqs. (4 .. 32) :and (4,3.5) \VIe S'fN!, that an element of area ,d,S~, wrut.b unit normal :n and on w'l1"l'ch the t angentia] fields are Ed,,(r'), lid' (r')~, w'H~ contribute to the vector potenU:ah;, mn the following way~
• ,.
~
(4.4.0a)
Th e ev al u ation of" the radiation frornn Ian apertu re 'in A. conducting enclosure such as a, cylinder or a sphere is 1110re d;iffi'CMh to carry out ~han that of an aperture in a. 'conduct iing pI ane. The formulation that is, usuall Y' used is to close the aperture by a perfect conductor and placle a magnetic current sheer .Jms = n x E in front Tille radiated field may be found Irom ,this, magnetic curren t source bu ~ must be de .. term ined so that n)( E win vanish 011 ~he conduct 1 ng su rface, TtH~ m agnetic ICM rrent cannot be considered as radlat ing, in a. freespace environment. I'J a good estimate for Jm~ cannot be made, then ,1m!: must be treated as an unknown IqluiI,ntHy,. TfJiH~ boundaryvalue problem requires that the total electrom agnetic n'e'ld both inside and outside the enclosure be round such that the tangential components are continuous ~:u::rOSSI the aperture opening .. The treespeee torrnulas (4 .. 40) can only be applied rnf we know both n x 1~lcd and n x E~ over the total surface enlclos,h~g the structure In[ h1J'f,en!.s,t ..
IE~~'
oil· :J!
.'P I:":j'
"2
1~,E,.,f 'OO~ 6' ¢~o
2# ~, .  ~iIl'
'lI' l:lt' :s :i1'
(hl~ 1 2 ~'h e ~e the p rops g,a t ion ICO nsta nrn 13' ;;: (Ie ~I  1i 2/ a 1) ~12 and the W,B v e ad! mi ~ tan elf Y rOlF the mode Is given by Yw == f3 Y Jk.®,. A! 2 ~' 0 :tIH~: dorninant mode fi!l:::id:s, tlr;
B   1'fX )" =: E~l ICOS, ~ a
An open rectangular or circular waveguide is not normally used as Ian antenna hy itself because of its low directivity, However, waveguides are frequent1y used as the prirn a ry feed to 'i II~llJm.iTla.h.~, a paraboloidal reflector, 'So it is of some
[L til 1 '" dlll III L, i iii
~ nterest to exam me ~: 'le'~1f ra· 18.Hon eharactertstics.
i
·f
1
I
I
~
I
!
.J
1
(dr~24h)
Rectangular ';Y.a vegu ides
Figure 4.JJ,a shows .Q rectangular waveguide of d:im·ensruons a x b, whh the aperture located in the z = 0 plane. The dominant propaglat~ng mode ln file rectangular waveguide is the TErulJJ (transvers,e electric) mode, \vh~ch has a y component or electric fie~d and x and 2: components of magnetic field, The x and y fi'e~d compoaents are given by , .;
j ,
I
l
Wifh t hie guid,e terminated _ at z ~ 0, a reflected dom inant mode plus higher. order modes _of smlaU amplitude are excited near the open end. ~·f these are neglected and rur ~ve also as,s~ume that outside the aperture on the z ~ 0 plane the _~ and y _ eomnpon;,ents of the !lie~d arle_ negligible then Eq .. (4 .. 42) f113J¥ be e~ns,u:i~~e~ " to "s,_p·elr~r y _., the . aperture nelds O~ t hie z = 0 ·&1'1 ane, l~h i~~ apprO'Xll:1nIHt~on, in practice, gives ,8 reasonably good estimate of' the main
radia tion ~OIJN:~ even though it does not gh~\e a very aecura te estirna te 'of "thee ~id,e robes. in .th~ radiation pattern. In the applicatlon lor waveguides as feeds [or par;aho~otda,1 reflecrors we are mainly interested in the characteristlcs of the rnam lobe, so the assumptions made above are usuaUy acceptable for this purpose.
+
I n ord~r_ to c31~~idale the ra~mation field ~t is simpler to use a ShlgJIC current
source, which we choose to be the magnetic current source
.: .. .
•

. ..
(41 .. 4·1 aj
(4 .. 4,tb)
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