P. 1
ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑ ΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ No 13

ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑ ΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ No 13

|Views: 151|Likes:
"Σε μια εποχή που όλο και περισσότερο γίνεται αναφορά στον πολίτη και τα δικαιώματά του σε μια εποχή που ανακαλύπτεται, από όλες τις πλευρές, η λογική της κοινωνίας πολιτών αξίζει να αρχίσουμε να βλέπουμε περί τίνος ακριβώς πρόκειται- και που οδηγεί αυτή η συζήτηση"
"Σε μια εποχή που όλο και περισσότερο γίνεται αναφορά στον πολίτη και τα δικαιώματά του σε μια εποχή που ανακαλύπτεται, από όλες τις πλευρές, η λογική της κοινωνίας πολιτών αξίζει να αρχίσουμε να βλέπουμε περί τίνος ακριβώς πρόκειται- και που οδηγεί αυτή η συζήτηση"

More info:

Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/24/2011

pdf

text

original

(

nU>A£iTal OTa K£VTPIKO r>1r>AIOTTU>A£ia

ITOlx£ia Ernxorvcovlcc:

'EvU>OIl nOAIT6,)V Via rnv nAPEMBAIH AA£~OVOpOU IOUTOOU 18, T.K.1 06 71 Ae~va TIlA./ Fax: 210-3616254, 210-3612963

Site: www.koinoniapoliton.gr www.paremvassLgr e-mail: paremvassi@ath.forthnet.gr

K£vTpIK~ ~IOe£OIl:

EK060£1C; naTTa~~oll AEBE, NIKIlTapo 2, 1 0678 Ae~va TIlA.: 210-3838020,210-3822496, Fax: 210-3809150 e-mail: papazisi@otenet.gr

TI~~ € 5,00

ISBN 960-02-1305-4

13

KOINQNIA IIOAITQN

[OE p.ia EnoxtJ. nou olo Kat nepiooorepo yiv£"tat ava<popa <nov Doli"tq Kat "ta l)tKatrop.a"ta "tOU OE p.m EnoxtJ. DOU "avaKa16nn"tat", ano OlEe; "tte; nlEUpie;, q loytKtJ. "tqe; KOtV6)vlae; nolnrov a~~Et va apxt0oup.E va IJlinoup.E nepf -.:ivoe; aKptIJroe; npOKEl"tat - Kat DOV ol)qy£i q ou~*qoq]

13

KOINQNIA IIOAITQN

13

XEIMQNAL 2007-2008

Mta EKbO<r11 'tllC; ENQLH1: IIOAITQN rIA THN IIAPEMBALH

IIpo&«;po~ NiKO~ MousD..,,~

Al&1)9tJVn1~

IIEpt1CA"~ BllotJ..67tOUAO~

IIEP1KA"~ BllotA67toUAo~ eclVO~ BEpEf.l"~

IIclvo~ KIlSclKO~ LCOKPcl'tT]~ Kovtopoo; L'tEMIl Allo"

N ll'tclOOIl AIlOO7tOUAOU IIcoAivll Aclf.l'l'1l

BlloiA,,~ MIlyKA.clPIl~ AlV'tWV11~MIlKPUO"f.l"'tP"~ NiKO~ MOUSEA"~

nwpyo~ IIIlYouAcl'tO~

A.!:J.. IIIl7tllytavvio,,~ L7tijAlO~ IIIl7tIlO1t11Al67tOUAO~ !:J."f.l"'tP"~ Lco'tT]p67tOUAO~ xp"o'to~ !:J.11lf.l1lV't67tOUAO~ AOUK~ TOOUKaA"~

r&VtKO~ CJ'\)VTOVt<rT'll~ &K06GT1~

BlloiA,,~ MllyKAclp~

:>

~UpPOUAotEK«;oa~~ AlV'tWV11~!:J.. IIIl7tllytllVVio,,~ Ni'tll KUP1IlK07tOUAoU

To OX&«;taapo TOU T&VXOU~ 7tpOaElp&p& ~ Omikron Adv

Tnv EKOOO"ll Kilt OlllV0f.l" 'tOU 't&UXOU~ 7tPOOElpEPIlV Ot EKAO~E~ IIAIIAZmH

Y 7t&vOUVOt &7ttKotvo>via~ Mupla- Muptvn KUptIlK07toUAoU

Ata«;iK't"UO Xpnoro; cI>IlOA"~

ETatptKll KOtVO>VtK1] &UOvv~ AlYYEAa MuArovcl

Tnv EKOOO"ll IlU'tT] o'tT] P~IlV Ot - TPAIIEZA IIEIPAU1~

- AAOYMINION Tm EAAAAO~

- OMIAO~ AwOl B~IAOIIOYAOI A.E.

- ArPOTIKH TPAIIEZA Tm EAAAAO~

LUVOpOf.lE~: E'tT]ma tOtco'twv 35€, NOf.l1KWV 7tPOOW7tCOV 75€

m"pocpopiE~: ENQLH IIOAITQN rIAl THN IIAPEMBAlLH AlA. LOU'tOOU 18, 10671 KOArovclKl, AlO"VIl, T"AlFIlX: 210 3616254 - TTlA. 210 3612963

HAEK'tPOVlKT] ot&'6OuVO"11: paremvassi@ath.forthnet.gr ImooEAioll www.koinoniapoliton.gr

KEV'tPlKT] OlclOEO"11: EK...:lOLEIL lli\IIAZHLH N1Kll'tIlPcl 2, 10678 AlO"VIl, TTlA: 2103838020 - Fax: 210 3809150

KATAAOrO~ AIAKEKPIMENnN XOPHrnN 2000-2008

EK06oEl~ IIIl7ta1;"O"11, Aoot BIlOtA67toUAo1 A.E.:BlOf.lTlXavtll Kill Ef.l7t0plll BUAEill~, naw,,~ L'tIlUPlViOTl~ AOYlOTIK6 cI>OpO'tEX\'lK6 Fpcosto, ME'tIlf.lEOov6KnE~ EK06oE~, EOv1KT] Tpcl7tESIl, E7tf.l0PlKT] Tpcl7tESIl, DIAlGEO, Eurobank, Tpcl7tESIl IIE1PIllW~, 'EVCOO"11 EUTlVlKWV TPIl7tESWV, Clinilab, Allianz, AlAOUf.llVlOV 'tT]~ EUcloo~, cI>AroPlKIl KUPlIlK07tOUAoU, Icoclvvll NlKOAIlPEU;Tl, Atvn BllcrtAo7tOUAOU, AlP1EuIl IIIlVtEAclKll, Alf.laAlll T6ytll, nwpyo~ TOIlP'tOlllvWTl~, A6f.lvll MlpclcryESTl - N6'tT]~ Maepvhcuc, N1K6A Kill OOUOOEIl~ KUP1IlK67tOUAo~, MllpiAu cI>pllyKlmll

H nEPIBAAAONTIKH ~IAXEIPIIH ITHN

«AAOYMINION TH~ EAAAAO~»

H «AAoUfl(VLOV Tll<; EMO:OO<;» (ATE) fl£ ul)illAo a(CJSllfla £uSuYll<; vur rqv TI£pt~aMOVnK~ TIpoCJTaCJ(a, Aafl~o:v£t TIpunO~ouA(£<;, Ot OTIo(£<; Tll<; mnpfTIOUV va avO:y£t rqv TI£pt~aMOVnK~ Tll<; £uSuYll CJ£ KaSllfl£pt~ TIpaKTtK~, flfCJCil 'I11<; TIPOwSllCJll<; 'ICilV CPtAtKwv TIpO<; TO TI£pt~O:AAOV 0PO:CJ£CilV.

LTllV Km£uSuvCJll aUT~ Kat CJTQ TIAa(CJta Tll<; £cpapfloy~<; £VO<; TItCJTOTIotllflfVOU Kmo: TO TIpOTUTIO EAOT EN ISO 14001 LUCJ~flmo<; Ilepi~aMOVnK~<; L'llaXdpwll<;, £cpapflo~OvTat flta CJ£tpO: flfTPCilV Kat apxwv:

• H T~PllCJll CJUflcpCilVtWV Kat OWfl£UCJ£CilV, TIOU fX£t £S£AOVTtKO: aVaAO:~£t , rrspnv TCilV VOfltKWV UTIOXP£WCJ£WV Tll<;.

• H £KT(flllCJll TCilV £TItTITWCJ£CilV TCilV opaCJTllptOT~TCilV Tll<; natpda<; CJTO TI£pt~O:MOV, 11 Kmaypacp~ TCilV KtVOuVCilV, 11 £KT(flllCJll TOU KtVOuVOU CJo~apwv mUXllflO:TCilV aTIO ru; TIaAatOT£P£<;, ru; rropooorc Kat ru; fl£MOVTtKf<; opaCJ'I11PtOTllT£<; Kat a~LOTIO(l1CJll TCilV £KTtfl~CJ£CilV aUTWV CJTQ flaKpOTIpoSWfla TIPoypO:flflma Kat CJTOU<; VfOU<; CJx£OtaCJflou<;.

• 0 fA£YXO<; Kat 11 CJUV£X~<; fldCilCJll TCilV CJT£P£WV, uypwv Kat a£p(CilV aTIO~A~TCilV.

• H ~£h(CilCJll Tll<; otaXdpWll<; TCilV KmaAO(TICilV fl£ tnv TIPOwSllCJll OtaOtKaotoiv avaKuKACilCJll<; ~ a~LOTIO(l1CJll<;.

• 0 {)'£YXO<; Tll<; KmavO:ACilCJll<; TIPWTCilV UAulV Kat £vfpy£ta<;.

• H TIPOAlll)ill KO:S£ KtVOuVOU pUTIavCJll<; , aKofla Kat Tuxa(a<; , ~ O:MCilV fl£YO:ACilV mUXllflO:TCilV (£KTIOVllCJll, OOKtfl~ Kat £cpapfloy~ OtaOtKaCJtwv O:fl£CJll<; aVT(opaCJll<; CJ£ fKTaKT£<; KaTQCJTO:CJ£t<;).

• H fl£AfTll, OtaT~PllCJll Kat £~fAt~l1 TCilV KmO:MllACilv flfCJCilV TIPOAlll)ill<; Kat KmaCJTOA~<;, tOta(T£pa o rqv TI£P(TITCilCJll TPOTIOTIO(l1CJll<; TCilV £YKmaCJTO:CJ£CilV.

• H OtOPSCilCJll KO:S£ aTIOKAWll<; TIOU OtaTItCJTwvnat, fl£ 'I11v SfCJTItCJll Kat 'rnv UAOTIO(l1CJll CJX£O(CilV OtOpSCilTtKWV Kat TIPOAllTITtKWV £v£py£tWv.

• H £KTIa(O£UCJll, waWSllTOTIO(l1CJll Kat TIAllPOCPOPllCJll TOU TIPOCJCilTItKOU, «rrd TPOTIO upoonpuoousvo CJTQ KaS~KOVTa Kat CJTt<; aVO:YK£<; TOU KO:S£ £pya~ofl£vou.

• H TIapaKiYllCJll TCilV ouvepvurov Tll<; «AAoUfl(vtOv Tll<; EMO:OO<;» (£PYOAO:~CilV, TIPOflllS£UTWV, TI£Amwv) yta CJ£~aCJflo TCilV (OtCilV aTIatT~CJ£CilV Cil<; TIpO<; TO TI£pt~O:MOV Kat Tll ~tOflllxavtK~ aCJcpO:A£ta.

• H TIpawmOTIO(l1CJll TaKnKWV WCilT£ptKWV Kat £~CilT£ptKWV £TItS£Cilp~CJ£ov yta tnv £KT(flllCJll TCilV mtOOCJ£CilV TOU LUCJT~flmo<; TI£pt~aMOvTtK~<; L'llaXdpWll<;, 'I11v £TI(T£U~l1 TCilV CJTOXCilV Kat tnv TItCJ~ £cpapfloy~ TCilV xoVOVWflWV Kat TCilV apxwv.

nwc; tva rrcpcnpolov I.I&TaTptn&Tal 0& XP~Oll.lll npwTIl uAIl. Mm tOtai'I£Pll TIpoCJTIo:S£ta TCilVT£A£uTa(CilvxpoVCilV, cqiopd CJTll0taXdplCJll TCilV KmaAO(TICilV BCil~(Tll (KB).

o ~Cil~(Tll<; sfvnt 0PUKTO, fl£iyfla O~£tO(CilV aAoufltv(ou, CJtO~pOU Kat 0:1.ACilV fl£TaMtKwv CJTotXdCilV. Kurd TllV £m~£pyaCJ(a TOU, TO O~£ioLO TOU aAoufltv(ou (aAoufl(va) _ KuptO CJuCJTmtKO TOU ~Cil~('I11 CJ£ TIOCJOCJTO fl£YaAUT£pO aTIO 50% -OtaAu£Tat CJ£ otO:Aufla KauCJTtK~<; CJooa<; (N aOH), £VW rn O:Ma o~£iota unpouevoov aotO:AUTQ Kat aTIOT£AOUV rn KB.

H otax£ipWll TCilV KmaAO(TICilV aUTWV CJUVWTO: CJ~fl£pa TO fl£yaAuT£po TI£pt~aMOVTtKo TIpO~Allfla yta rqv ~tOflllxav(a aAoufl(va<; TIaYKoCJfl(Cil<;.

H <<AAoUfl(vtOv Tll<; EMO:OO<;» CJuv£pyo:~nat fl£ TQ AEI Tll<; xwpa<; (ESvtKO MnCJo~to TIOAUT£XVdo, APWTOTfA£tO Flovrruorruuo 8WCJaAOV(Kll<; Kat Flcvrrucuuuo Ilnrpov), fl£ CJTOXO tnv a~LOTIO(l1CJll TCilV KB.

H TIPOOOO<; 'ICilV £pWVWV o£(xv£t OTt rc KB flTIOPOUV va XPllCJtflOTIOtllSouv:

• 0<; TIllY~ CJto~pou CJTllV TIapayCil~ TCJtflfVTOU

• 0<; CJuflTIAllpCilflanK~ TIPWTll UAll CJTllV K£pafloTOU~AOTIot(a ·0<; UTIOCJTPCilfla CJTllV KmaCJK£u~ mtXCilflO:TCilV CJTllV ooorrouu

• 0<; CJTpwfla Y£CilAOytKOu cppawou yta Tll CJT£yavOTIo(l1CJll TIu8flfva ~ cvOtO:flWll<; CJTpwCJll<; TCilV XWpCilV Yvstovoumi; Tnqn]; ACJTtKwv Anoppq» urruov (XYTA) ~ yta Tll CJT£yo:vCilCJll £TItcpo:v£ta<; XYTA ~ XAM (Xopo:

AV£~fA£YKTll<; L'lto:SWll<; ACJTtKwv Anopprpudrov)

• 0<; £oacptKO KO:Auflfla yta KaMtfpy£ta CPUTWV CJ£ xwpou<; npoc aTIOKmo:CJTQCJll

• 0<; flfCJO £flTIAOunCJflou Kat ~£h(CilCJll<; UTIo~aSflWflfVCilV ~ ampllflOTIOtllflfVCilV ~ aAmOUXCilV £oacpwv.

·0<; UAtKO TIA~PCilCJll<; Kat aTIOKmO:CJTaCJll<; TIaAatwv fl£TaM£iCilV.

H «AAoUfl(VLOV Tll<; EMO:OO<;» CJUV£X(~OVTQ<; tnv TIpoCJTIo:S£ta yta tnv TIA~Pll a~LOTIO(l1CJll 'ICilV KB, m£KT£iv£t ru; fP£UVf<; Tll<; Kat TIpO<; O:M£<; KmwSuvCJ£t<; OTICil<; 11 XP~CJll :

• CJTll OfCJfl£UCJll £KTIOflTIWV OtO~£tO(OU TOU o:vSpaKa Kat

• CJTll ~tOflllxav(a TIapayCily~<; CJtO~pOU _ XUTOCJtO~pou Cil<; TIPWTll UAll

H opaCJTllptOTllTa Tll<; ATE CJ~fl£pa, CPfpv£t 'I11v natpda aKoflll TItO KOVTO:

CJTOU<; CPtAOOO~OU<; TI£pt~aMOvTtKOU<; Tll<; CJTOXOU<;.

'HOll nrro ru; apXf<; TOU 2006 fva fl£YO:AO flfpO<; 'ICilV KB otm(Snat Cil<; TIPWTll UAll CJTllV TCJtfl£VTo~LOflllxav(a Kat tnv K£pafloTOU~AOTIotta, OTIOU fXOUV ~Ol1 aTIOppocpllS£i mpWCJOT£Pot crro 27.000 t KB.

Ttu TO CJKOTIO aUTO TIpawmOTIOt~Sl1K£ flta mfvouCJll ul)iou<; 2£K._ 11 orrotn TI£ptAafl~o:v£t tnv £yKmO:CJTaCJll flta<; <DthpoTIpwCJa<; yta Tll Ot~Sl1- CJllTCilvKB.

H £yKaTO:CJTaCJll aUT~ etvcu flovaOtK~ CJ'I11 L'lUTtK~ EupWTIll Kat fX£t Tll ouvmOTllTa va aTIOflaKpuv£t TO fl£yaAUT£pO TIOCJOCJTO TOU vcpoc TIOU TI£ptfxnat CJTa KB , KaSwTwvTa<; rn KmO:MllAa yta Tt<; TItO TIO:VCil £cpapfloyf<;.

M£ TOV TPOTIO aUTO aTIfKTllCJ£ CJO:PKa Kat OCJTO: 11 a~LOTIO(l1CJll TCilV KB, TIOU cpO:VTa~£ aouvmll fl£ptKO: xpovta TIptv. TIapO:MllAa 11 natp£ia cvmrroooct flta TIayKoCJflta TIPCilTOTIOp(a Kat AUV£t fva OUCJKOAO TI£pt~aMOVTtKO TIpO~Allfla, O(VOVTa<; Kat fva fl£YO:All<; KA(flaKa<; TIapo:o£twa mnuxou<; £cpapflO~<; TCilV apxwv Tll<; a£tcpop(a<;.

KOlv(A)via nOAIT6lv

ITa6IaK~ av66uoFl IJla~ vta~ tnox~~

To 'tEUXO~ LOU nEpl00lKOU «KOINONIA IIOAIH1N» non Kpa'ta'tE oru XEpla O'a~, 'to oEKa'to'tpi'to O'TIl O'Elpa, EXEl Ol~ KEV'tP1KO a~ova ava<popa~ 'to cr'6yxpovo Kpnroc IIpOV01a~ Kat 't~ npOKA;ftO'E~ zou avnJ.lE'tOlni~El O'E KaSEO''tcO~ 01EUPUJlEvll~ Kat nlEO'nK"~ naYKOO'JllOnoi11O'11~, aKOJl11 Kat oru; mo aVa1t'tUYJlEvE~ XcOPE~ ron «EupOlnalKou K01VOlvtKOU JlOV'tEA.OU». Kat 'to npo11yoUJlEVO 'tE'6xo~ 'tOU nEp1001KOU JlE TIlV ypan'ti] anOWnOlO'11 TIl~ oJltA.ia~ rou Anthony Giddens O''t11V EKO"A.OlO'11 't11~ IIAPEMBA~H~ 't11V IIEJlnTll9 Mnprtou rou 2006 Kat 'to KEiJlEVO rou Robert Castel «EnavE~E'taO'11 't11~ K01VOlV1K"~ Ilpoorcotce;» aO'XOA."S11KE nEpinou J.lE 'to iOl0 SEJla. H EntA.OyiJ Jla~ aUT" OEV etvm KaSOA.OU

'tUxaia.

Eivm O'XEOOV aVcO<pEAo vn JllA.aEl KavEi~ Yla Korvroviu IIOA.l'tcOV, Yla rptto XcOpo nEpa ano 'to Kpa'tO~ Kat TIlV ayopa Kat EVEPYOU~ nOA.i'tE~ nou O'UJlJ.lE'tEXOUV EVEPY11nKa O''tOV 011Jl00'10 01aA.oyo XOlp~ vn naipVEl uno'l"'1 'tOU on 'to K01VOlV1KO unOO''tpOlJla TIl~ KaS11J.lEP1VO't11'ta~ EKa'tOJlJlUpiorv nOA.l'tcOv OEXE'tat 'tP1KUJllcOO-

NiKO<; MOL)~tAIl<;, npo£c5po<; n£pIKA~<; BaOiAOnOL)AO<;, A/c5po<; 'EYWOll<; nOAITWY Via rnv nAPEMBAIH

su; ava'tapa~E~. 01 ava'tapa~E~ aU'tE~ npOKaAOUV aUaYE~ O'E rpfn KpiO'1Jla nEoia.

Emretvouv rnv KpiO'11 'tOU cr'6yxpOVOU Kpcrou; Ilpovotoz; oru; avan'tUYJlEvE~ 011JlOKpa'tiE~ EVcO KavOUV aKoJl11 mo OUO'KOA.O 'tOY O'UvouaO'Jlo TIl~ K01VOlV1Ki]~ noA.1't1Ki]~ J.lE Jlla 01a't11P"O'1Jl11

Eival crx£oov aVW<p£AO va ~IAO£I xovelc Via Korvcovlo nOAITWV, Via TpiTO Xwpo rrtoo ana TO KPOTO<;

xcn TIlV ovopo Kal £V£PVOl><; nOAiT£<; rrou oupuertxoov £V£PVIlTIKO crTOV Snuocno OIOAOVO Xc.upi<; va rrolpva l.)n04J1l TOl.) OTI TO KOIVc.uVIKO orroorocouo TIl<; Kaell~£pIVOTIlTa<; sxorouuuokov nOAITWV otX£Tal TPIKl.)~IWO£I<;

ovcrcoofuc.

Avan'tU~11 nou Sa stvm xnt nEpl~aUovnKa BlcOO'1Jl11.

EnavanpOO'010pi~ouv TIl O'XEO'11 'tOU a'tOJlOU-TIl~ a'tOJllKOTll'ta~ O'TTJV SEnKi] EKOOxft Kat 'tOU a'tOJllK10'JlOU O'TTJV apV11nKi]- JlE TIlV K01VOlvia Kat TIlV <l>uO'11 oro nA.aiO'1o TIl~ 01a01KaO'ia~ K01VOlVl-

TEAo~, 11 YEa O"XEO'11 JlE'tOV tOl0 Jla~ 'tOY EaU'tO Kat 'to O'cOJla Jla~ 01aJlEO'OU EVO~ KplnKOU avamoxaO'JlOU Ka111 EmSuJlia Yla aU'tonpaYJla'tOlO'11 JlE VEE~ ~'taO'El~ ZOl"~ anO'tEA.OUV O'E Eva ~aSU'tEpo EninEOO OUVaJllKE~ EK<ppaO'El~ au'tcOv rov ava'tapa~EOlV.

~n~ 0'11J.lEP1VE~ K01VOlviE~ TIl~ UO''tEP11~ VEOl'tEP1KOTll'ta~ OA.a 'ta napanavOl 01A."JlJla'ta napaJlEVOUV 'tau'tOxpovOl~ rrvoucrn, Aneo

stvm Kan nou au~aVEl TIlV nOA.UnAoKO't11'ta Jlla~ ,,011 noMnA.oK11~ npaYJlanKOTll'ta~. 01mSavE~ A.UO'E~ stvm nOA.A.E~ EVcO aKoJl11 nEplO'O'O'tEPE~ etvm 01 npoO'naSE1E~ EpyaA.ElaKcOV anA.OUO''tEUO'EOlV JlE moxo

'ta yp"yopa anO'tEA.EO'Jla'ta npoO'apJlOO'JlEVa O''t11V <PPEV"P11 'taxu't11'ta 't11~ 'tEXVOA.OytKi]~ Kat 'I"'1<plaKi]~

Enoxft~ nou ~OUJ.lE. H anOA.uTIl KUplapxia TIl~ ayopa~ JlE rnv SEonoi11O'11 't11~ 01KOVOJllK"~ aV'tayOlvlO'nKo't11'ta~, 0 VEO~ x p u t t o u o c , 11 'I'11<PtaK,,'tEXVOA.0Y1Ki] ourordc, 11 unEpKa'taVaA.OlnK" EUJlapEla JlE 'tOY O'UVExft OavE10'JlO stvm JlEP1KE~ ano n~ O'Uv'taYE~ zou zporetvouv

ot 01ucpopEnKSC; EKOOXSC; nov K0J.lI.HltCOV E~OU<riUC; O'nc; OUtlKSC; 0l1J.l0KPUtiEC; tU tEAEUtuiu xpOV1U. Tu UnOtEAEO'J.lUtU sivm J.lIDov nEVlxpa Eav xptvooue uno ru UU~avOJ.lEVU noO'oma O'taO'ECOV KuXUno'l'iuC;, avEJ.l1t1O'tocrUVllC; Kat UVtUVUKAuO'tlKOU «KUV10'J.lOU» J.lEyMCOV tJ.lllJ.latCOV tllC; K01V1lC; yvOOJ.lllC; unavavtl oru; KU~EPV1lO'E1C; tCOV nEplO'O'OtEPCOV xcopoov. Tnv i01U nspinou nEpiooo 11 avaoE~l1 tOU nUyKoO'J.ll0U K1V1lJ.lUtOC; tllC; Kotvorvtuc IIOAltOOV SCPEPE OpOO'EPO uspu KUl O'XEOOV IDU~E pll;;lKa tllV utl;;avtu tllC; noAtnKi]c;. 01KOAOytKi] EUU10'911O'iu, Bl00O'lJ.lll/ ~lUtllPitO'lJ.lll AvantU~l1, Av9poonlvu ~lKU100J.lUtU KUl K01VCOV1Kit EUU10'911O'iu, ~lKU100J.lUtU MElOVOtittCOV KUl XE1PUCPStllO'l1 tOU AtoJ.lOU, M1KPOXPllJ.lUtOOOtllO'11 tCOV cI>tCOXoov, ~1E9V1lc; Av9pconlO'tlKit Boit9E1U, ~lKU100J.lUtU tCOV ZOOCOV Kat Ilpooruoia tllC;AYP1UC; Zcoitc; Kat tOO'U IDu EnlJ.lSpouC; it YEV1Ka U1tltJ.lUtU npoco90uv-

rut uno tJ.litJ.lUtU tOU rptrou tOJ.lSU tllC; KOlvcoviuC;, tllC; oucovouta; Kat tllC; nOAltlKi]C;, tllV Ko tv mv iu IIOAltOOV n o n UVUmUO'O'Etat S~CO KUl OinAu uno tOUC; J.lllXavlO'J.l0UC; tOU Kpcrou; Kat tllC;AyopaC;.

Ilopon ru attltJ.lUtU UUta UVUOE1- KV60VtUl Kat 01EK01KOUVtat uno KUtUKEPJ.lUtlO'J.lEvEC; KUl O'UXVa EtEPOYEVEiC; MKO nupoUO'1al;;ouv avuv KOlVO tono ~UO'lKOOV nnpnOOXoov zou npoO'oioouv utu evornrc J.1EO'U ornv EK1tAllKtlKa unoKEvtpCOJ.lSVll noAuJ.l0pcpiu tOUC;. OlKOI..oYU(11 E1)al0'91)O'ia, KOlVCOVlKit E1)al0'91)O'ia, EV01)VclJlCOO'1) 1'01) 1I0Ai1'1) Kal 1'01) A1'oJlo1), VEOl 1'P01tOl Kal l;1'clO'E~ ZC01]~ JlE E1>9VV1) sivat to tEtpantUXO zou npoco9Ei 11 O'UVtpmtlKit nAElOVOtlltU tCOV 0PYUVOOO'ECOV tllC; Korvrovtuq

IIOAltOOv. 01 MKO 9sAOUV VU E1t11PEal;;ouv rnv xowovtc Kat tllV E~ouO'iu aUa OEV 01EK01KOUV tllV nOAltlKit E~ouO'iu oncoc; rn nOAlnKa KOJ.lJ.lUtU Kat tn opyUVCOJ.lavu O'UJ.lCPSPOVta. ~UJ.lnAllpOOvouv KUl EnEKtEivouv tOUC; uvtlnpoO'conEUtlKOUC; K01VO~OUAEUtlKOUC; 9EO'J.lOUC; KUl OEV EntOl00- KOUV rnv UnOKUtamUcrit tOuC;. 01 MKO stvm UVE~aptlltEC; KUl unOAUtCOC; 01UKPltSC; uno OAU rn nOAtnKa KOJ.lJ.lUtU uUa EntOl00- KOUV rnv 9EnKi] J.lEtE~SA1~it tCOV KOJ.lJ.latCOV npoc; OCPEAOC; tllC; KUAUtEPllC; AEltaUpyiuC; tllC; ~l1J.lOKpUtiuC;. Enl0l00KOUV 01UJ.lSO'OU rou 01EUPUJ.lSVOU ~l1J.loO'iou ~lUA6yOU tllV avaoEl~l1

01 MKO slvo: OV£~aPTr,T£C; KOI OnOAl>TCUC; OIOKPITEC; ana OAO TO nOAITIKa KO~~OTO OAAa £nIOIc.0KOUV Tr,V e£TIK~ ~£T£~EAI~~ TCUV KO~~aTCUV rrpoc OCP£AOC; Tr,C; KOAl>T£Pr,C; A£IToupyioc; Tr,C; ~r,~oKpoTioC;.

J.llUC; 0'1)V9E1'1K1]~ l;1)vaivEO'1)~ xcopi~ lOEOAOYlKE~ 1tpOKa1'aJ..1]'IIEl~ 1tpO~ O<PEI..o~ 1'01) A1)JloO'i- 01) l;1)Jl<pEpOV1'O~. H i01U 11 unup~l1 tOUC; IDCOO'tE coc; O'UUoY1KOOV J.lOPCPCOJ.latCOV nlmonOlsi rrtv unsp~uO'11 tCOV nupUOOO'1UKOOV 01UXCOP10'tlKOOV 10EOAOY1KOOV YPUJ.lJ.lOOv. H nAE10V0tlltU tCOV MKO npo~IDEl rnv UVaYKll J.llUC; VSUC; iooppoata; UvaJ.lEO'U O'tO KpatoC;, rnv Ayopa, rnv K01VCOV1- Ki] O'Uvoxil Kat tOY noA1t1O'J.lo O'tO nAuiO'10 J.llUC; 0Ul.lOKPUtlKUC; ~lUKU~SpVnO'nc; O'E E9vlKO, eupmnuuco, KUl nUYKoO'J.ll0 EninEOo. Tn nupunavco K01Va XUPUKtllP10'tlKa, EhE 01UtUnOOVOvtm J.lE O'UcpitVE1U sitE npOKUntOUV SJ.lJ.lEO'U uno rnv OpaO'11 tOUC;, UnOtEWUV nEplO'O'OtEPO EJ.lnElplKSC; 01unlO'tOOO'E1C; nupa 9ECOPllnKSC; O'UvEnuycoysc;. ~tO EninEOo tllC;

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 02

9ECOpiuC; UnaPXEl UK0J.lll noMc; OpoJ.lOC; ytu tllV E~UyCO'Yit O'UJ.lnEpuO'J.latcov. f\UCOO'tE 11 crUyxpoV11 Kowrovto IIOAltOOV unOtEAEi UK0J.lll Eva venpo cpatVOJ.lEVO nou coplJ.lal;;El E~EA10'0'OJ.lEVO O'UVEXOOC;.

EJ.lEiC; ornv 'EVCOO'11 IIOAltOOV Y1U rnv IIAPEMB~H KAEivouJ.lE 12 XPOV1U OpaO'l1C; KUl -EAnil;;ouJ.lE- 011J.llOUPY1KitC; O'Ks'I'l1C;. To nEpl00lKO «KOINONIA IIOAITON» EKOioEtUl Y1U S~OOJ.lll O'UvExil xpOVla. AUal;;ouJ.lE aUa KPUtaJ.lE nclVtU O'tU9EPO tOY nuPitvu tOU npO~AllJ.lUtlO'J.lOU nou UVUCPSPEtUl oru; tpE1C; KUtllyopiEC; EPCOtllJ.latCOV non npouvucpSPUJ.lE ornv upxil tOU ap9pou. To nupov tEUX0C; uO'xoAEhat KUpicoC; J.lE to npooto EpOOtllJ.lU. Tov pow Kat rnv KpiO'11 tOU O'uyXPovou Kp a r o uc IIpOV01UC;.

~tO EnOJ.lEVO tEUX0C; 9u UO'XOA119ouJ.lE J.lE tOY pol..o J.llUC; 011J.ll0UpytKi]C; UtOJ.llKO-

tlltUC; J.lE KOlVCOVlKi] covel- 0110'11 KUl Eu9uVll nou UnOtEAEi Kat tllV ~UO'1Ki]

npootll UAll ytu tllv avantU~l1 tCOV MKO KUl tllC; Ko tvmvtuc

IIOAltOOV.

KUAit UVaYVCOO'l1 KUl KUAit Xpovtn,

npOOKAr'lOr'l OUIJIJ£TOX~~ OTO EnIOTr'lIJOVIKO Iuvt6pIO

Koivcovlo nOAITc0V: 10TOPIKOTr]TO, AVTiTTOAOl, npOOTTTIKEC;

H korvcovlo TTOAITc0V KOI 01 oooek; Tr]C; I3pioKOVTol onueoo OTO £TTiK£VTPO Tr]C; S£c.uPr]TIKriC; KOI £UPUT£Pr]C; TTOAITIKriC; OU~riTr]Or]C;. TOUTOXPOVO IJ£ Tr]V OVOTTTU~r] TOU CPOIVOIJEVOU Tr]C; xorvcovloc TTOAITc0V IJUOTTOA£IJIKO, EX£I £IJCPoVIOT£i TTAriSOC; S£c.uPr]TIKc0v rrpootvvlotcov TTOU OTTOOKOTT£i OTr]V epunvelo KOI O~IOAOVr]Or] TOU £V AOVc.u CPOIVOIJEVOU. H EVVOIO Tr]C; xorvcovloc TTOAITc0V, r] OXEOr] Tr]C; IJ£ TO KPOTOC;, Tr]V ovopo KOI Tr]V TTOVKOOIJIO KOIVOTr]TO, I3pioKuOI UTTO 610pKri £TT£~£pvooio KOI TTPOKOA£i OU~r]TriO£IC; TTOU Srcrrspvoov OA£C; TIC; S£c.uPr]TIKEC; KOI TTOAITIKEC; TTop06oo£IC;. ETTITTAEOV, £161KO Tr]V T£A£UTOio 6£Kouio OTr] .6.UOr] , r] xorvcovlc TToAITc0v ouv6Euoi IJ£ £TTlIJEPOUC; 6poo£lC; KOI S£c.uPr]TIKEC; lJiKPOrroooevvlouc TTOU oooooov oX£6ov OA£C; TIC; £KCPOVO£IC; Tr]C; KOIVc.uVIKriC; ~c.uriC;.

ITr] 1300r] rcov TTOPOTTOVc.u, r] Evcoon nOAITc0v VIO Tr]V nOpE1J1300r] KOI TO TT£pI06IKO «Korvcovlo nOAITc0V)}, rrolovouv Tr]V TTpc.uT0I30UAio Sropvcvcoonc TOU ETTlOTr]IJOVIKOU Iuv£6piou TIOU OTTOOKOTT£i OTr] 61£p£uvr]0r] ourcov rcov 1300lKc0v ~r]Tr]IJOTc.uV IJ£ VVc0IJOVO TIC; TTOPOKOTc.u S£IJOTIKEC; £VOTr]T£C;:

0£IJOTIKEC; EVOTr]T£C;

0£c.uPr]TIKOC; nAOUpOAIOIJOC; OTr]V EVVOIO Tr]C; Korvcovlcc nOAlTc0V Korvcovlo nOAITc0v KOI.6.r]IJOKPOTio

H 10TOPIKri 6100Toor] Tr]C; Korvcovloc nOAITc0v .6.IOKUI3EPVr]Or] KOI Korvcovlo nOAlTc0V Korvcovio nOAITc0v KOI nOVKOOIJIOTToir]Or]

Korvcovlo nOAITc0v: Ev6101J£00C; Xc0POC; IJUO~U KPOTOUC; KOI ovococ:

EUpc.uTTdikri Evcoon KOI Korvcovlo nOAITc0v AKTlI3IOIJOC; KOI Korvcovio nOAITc0v KPOTOC; TTPOVOIOC; KOI Koivcovlo nOAITc0v ES£AOVTIOIJOC; KOI Korvcovio nOAITc0v

ETOIPIKri KOIVc.uVIKri £uSuvr] KOI 0 POAOC; Tr]C; Koivcovloc nOAITc0v EKTToi6£uor] TOU TTOAiTr] KOI Korvcovlo nOAITc0v

H Evcoon nOAITc0v VIO Tr]V nOpE1J1300r] KOI TO TT£pI06IKO «Korvcovlo nOAITc0V)}, 00c; TTPOOKOAOUV VO OUIJIJUEXU£ OTO ETTIOTr]IJOVIKO IuvE6pI0 TTOU SO 61£~oXS£i OTr]V ASrivo OTIC; 9 KOI 10 MoTou. 01 £v610cp£polJ£VOI KOAOUVTOI vo uTTol3oMouv TT£piAr]lJ)r] £IOriVr]Or]C; IJEXPI 250 AE~£IC; KOI VO Tr]V OTTOOTEiAOUV OTr]V r]A£KTPOVIKri 61£uSuvor] poremvossi@oth.forthnet.grri OTO fox21 0 3616254IJEXPI KOI Tr]V 15tl MopTiou TOU 2008. 01 TTPOTOO£IC; So O~IOAOVr]Souv OVc0VUIJO OTTO Tr]V £TTlOTr]IJOVIKri £TTlTPOTTri TOU ooveoplou KOI 01 £v610cp£polJ£VOI So £160TTolr]Souv TO OPVOT£PO IJEXPI Tr]V 31 tl MopTiou Tou2008.

ENOLH nOJ\ITON riA THN nAPEMBAIH

~w~eKOAOYO~ 8eaewv Tn~ KOlVWV(O~ nOAlTWV npoc uioaernon uno TO nOAlTlKO KO~~OTO KOl TnV Ku~epVnan

A] Lln~60l0~ LlldAOYO~ ncvrou lO[W~ OTa Meoa Ma~lKn~ EmKolvwv[a~

1. H O.AEL1jJYJ ouoinuauxo», 0Qyavoo~EVOU AwMyou YLa ~YJt~~ata IIavE- 8VLX~£ oYJ~aoLa£ L()LOO£ ()La~EOOu tYJ£ Qa()LotYJAEoQaoYJ£ aJtotEAEL tYJV XEvtQLX~ a()UVa~La rou AYJ~oCJLOU XWQOU otYJV EAAa()a. fL' auto JtQotELVOU~E to ceorovorrro YLa OAE£ tL£ riAAE£ EUQooJtaIxE£ XWQE£.

- TYJv 8EOJtLOYJ otYJV AYJ~oCJLa TYJAEOQaoYJ ~La£ oioiauu; xaerJflEQlvrj~, j3Qaolvrj~ 'i;wvrJ~ ~E Evanaooo~EvOU£ ()YJ~OCJLoYQricpou£-JtaQoUCJLaotE£ nou 8a ()WocpaALoouv tYJV LOOtL~YJ OU~~Etox~ 0XL ~OVo rrov JtOAltLXWV xouudrrov anri XaL rrov MKO tYJ£ XOLVOOVLa£ JtOALtWV XaL ~EAWV tYJ£ EJtLotYJ~OVLX~£ XOLvotYJta£. AJtOXAELotLX~ aJtootoA~ tYJ£ ~wvYJ£ -

otYJV AvaAoYLx~ ~ tYJV WYJCPLax~ tYJAEoQaoYJ - 8a ELVaL YJ avriJttut;YJ rou IIavE8vLxO'I) AYJ~OCJLOU ALaMyou. Ga JtQOXELtaL yw Eva OQyavOO~Evo otYJ ~rioYJ aQXwv XaL EL()LXWV EYyU~OEOOV aVOLxto «TnAEOJtUXO KOIV0/30VALO» blE uJtootrj 0 L1;'I] aJto t'l]v EPT XaL t'l]v BouArj tooV EnrjvooV. OL L()LootLXE£ tYJAEOQriOEL£ 8a JtQEJtEL va

EXOUV to ALYOtEQO ~W avtLotOLXYJ E~()O~a()WLa, OOQwLa EXJtO~Jt~ ornQLy~EVYJ otL£ L()LE£ aQxE£.

- Ka8LEQOOoYJ XaL EcpaQ~oy~ ouotYJ~atLx~£ JtQO~OA~£ XOLVOOVLXWV ~YJvu~ritooV EX ~EQOU£ rrov MKO XaL aJto rc L()LootLXri xavriAw ~Eoa aJto tL£ EJtLOYJ~E£ ri()ELE£ JtaQaxwQYJoYJ£ nou 8a EYxQL80uv aJto to ELP.

- AvriyxYJ ()YJ~LouQYLa£ ~La£ T'I]AEooaom; tooV IIoALtwv 00£ tQLtoU roue« ()LJtAa aJto tYJv L()LootLX~ XaL ()YJ~oCJLa Po()LotYJAEoQaOYJ OE orsvr] auvEQyaoLa ~E to KavriAL tYJ£ BOUA~£ XaL tYJv EPT.

YQacpo nou 8a avayvOOQ~EL tOY QOAO tYJ£ Koworvtce; IIoALtwv XaL rcov MKO ornv avriJttut;YJ tYJ£ OU~~EtOX~£ XaL tYJ£ AYJ~oxQatLa£, OJtoo£ aut~ avacpEQEtaL XaL oro ri.46 rou uJto oU~*YJOYJ EUQOOJtaIxou Luvtriy~ato£.

I] KOlVWV[a nOAlTtllV KOl BouM TWV EAMvwv: Lln~60l0~ LlldAOYO~ naVTOU

3. MLa YEa otsvri 0XEOYJ MKO - KOLVO~OUALOU ELVaL xa80QLotLx~ YLa tYJ Oooot~ AELtouQYLa rou JtOAltLXOU ouot~~ato£ XaL to rivOLy~a JtQo£ toy JtOALtYJ. fL' auto JtQotELVOU~E:

a) tYJv ()uvatotYJta AXQoaarJ~ EXJtQOOWJtooV MKO OE 8E~ata tYJ£ ()QrioYJ£ tou£ (IIEQL~rinovto£, ALXaLoo~ritooV rou IIoALtYJ, IootYJta£ XAJt.) OE OAE£

tL£ EJtLtQOJtE£ tYJ£ BouA~£. XQYJCJL~OJtOLYJOYJ rou AW()LXtUOU YLa tYJv OUVEX~ EJtacp~ JtOALtWV ~E ~OUAEUtE£.

~) tYJv YEVLXEUOYJ rou 8 ECJ~OU tYJ £ LJ nuoouu; LJ laj3ovAEvarJ~ y La oAa rc OU~YJtou~Eva Nouo- 0XE()W XaL tYJ£ ()uvatotYJta£ rcov JtOALtWV va OU~~EtEXOUV OE autE£, XUQLOO£ ~EOOO rou ALa()LXtUOU.

y) tYJV JtQow8YJoYJ rou

npon:lv£Tatll 8EOmOll OTIlV L11l~60la TIlM:6paOIl ~la~ Wplala~, Ka81l~£plVr']~, ~paOlVr']~ ~WVIl~ ~£

B] LuvTay~aTlKn KmoxupwOn KOlVWV[a~ nOAlTtllV

2. LtYJV uJto Et;EALt;YJ Ava8EwQYJOYJ va OU~AYJQoo8EL to ri.29 rou Luvtriy~ato£ JtEQL xouudrcov ~E EL()LX~ JtaQri-

£vaAAaoo6~£vou~ OIl~OOlOypd<pou~-napOUOlaOTE~ nou

8a OlaO<paAlOOUV TIlV l06Tl~1l OU~~£TOXr'] 6Xl uovo TWV

nOAlTlKWV Ko~~dTWV aMd Kat TWV MKO, TIl~ KOlVWVla~ nOAlTWV Kat ~£AWV TIl~ ernorruovunc KOlv6TIlTa~.

AnOKA£lOTlKr'] onooroxn TIl~ ~WVIl~ - OTIlV AVaAOYlKr'] r']

TIlV ijJll<PlaKr'] TIlA£6paOIl- 8a avoi n ovorrrutn TOU

nav£8VlKOU L11l~60l0U L1laMyou.

oo~apOAOYOUV Yla mv KOlvWv(a nOAm0V rtpsna

va curonepioptoouv TO uovonouo np60~aor']~

tYJAEOJttL1WU KaVaAL01) tYJ£ BOUA~£ CD£ JtQotuJtou lwnuQou ot~QLt;YJ£ ~La£ T1]AE6Qaa1]~ iOV IIOAlr:1] , OJtCD£ auto nou EXEL ~()YJ aQXLoEL va JtQoCD8ELtaL OE UAAE£ EUQCDJtaIxE£ XcDQE£ (Lxav()LVa~LXE£, raAALa XAJt.).

()) tYJV ouyxQotYJOYJ vEa£, EL()LX~£ EmtQoJt~£ tYJ£ BOUA~£ YLa tOY EAEYXO tYJ£ ()QuoYJ£ tCDV AVE~aQi1]iWV LJ LOI'H1]il'HWV AQXwv ~, av auto ()EV ELVaL ()uvato, tYJV EV()UVU~CDOYJ tYJ£ uJtuQxouoa£ EmtQoJt~£ ALacpuvELa£ XaL eW~cDV.

Ll] np6oSaon MKO OTn Lln~60la LllOlKnOn

4. YL08EtYJOYJ ~EtQCDV cDotE OL MKO, nou aJtotEAoUV tYJV KOLVCDVLa IIOALtcDV ~a~L ~E tou£ XOLVCDVLXOU£ EtaLQOu£, va EXOUV EAEU8EQYJ XaL taxtLx~ JtQoo~aoYJ ore oQyava rou

xQutou£. AEO~EUOYJ xae E YJtouQYou ~ XaeE IIQoIorousvou AQX~£ rou EUQUtEQOU ()YJ ~OCJLOU roue« OtL 8a ()La8EtEL 4 cDQEe; XaeE u:rjva OUVOALXU OE UJt0XQECDtLXE£ EX ~EQOU£ rou aXQoUOE L£ EXJtQOOcDJtCDV tCDV MKO ore 8E~atLXU JtE()La

()QUOYJ£ rou XaL OtL avu tQL-

~YJvo OE EL()LXO ()EAtLO 8a ()YJ~OCJLEUOvtaL rc 8E~ata

JtOU tE8YJxav xatu tL£ EV M-

yCD aXQOUOEL£, OL aJtavt~OEL£ JtOU ()O- 8YJxav XaL OL EVEQYELE£ JtOU A~cp8YJxov aJto toy avtLotOLXo xQatLXo cpoQEa.

5. KatuQYYJoYJ tCDV aJtaQU()ExtCDv ()LxaotLxcDv JtQOVO~LCDV rou AYJ~OOLOU XaL aJtaQEyxALtYJ EcpaQ~oy~ tCDV tEAEOL()LXCDV ()LxaotLxcDv aJt0cpuoECDV.

6. EVLOXUOYJ tYJ£ Et;UJtYJQEtYJOYJ£ tCDV JtOALtcDV ~Eoa aJto tYJv YQ~yoQYJ EcpaQ~oy~ tYJ£ «HAEXtQOVLX~£ Ku~EQVYJOYJ£» (e-KEII, TAXISnet, IKA XAJt.) XaL UJtOot~QLt;YJ JtQCDtO~oUALcDV MKO XaL OTA orov roue« tYJ£ UAExtQOVLXue; OUUJLEtoxue; XaL AmwxQatLae; ()La~EOOU rou ALa()Lxtuou (edemocracy).

7. Aut;YJoYJ rou xUQou£ XaL tYJ£ autovO~La£ tCDV AVEt;UQtYJtCDV ALOLXYJtLXcDV AQXcDV nou ELVaL ~()YJ ouvrovuctLXU xatoxuQCD~EVE£ (LUV~YOQo£ rou IIoALtYJ, E8vLXO LU~~OUALO Pa()LotYJAEoQaoYJ£, ALEII, AQX~ Iloootcotce; Ilooouimxciv AE()O~EVCDV, AQX~ AJtoQQ~tou EmxOLvCDvLcDV) XaL EL()Lx~ ouvtay~atLx~ xatoxuQCDoYJ tYJ£ E8vLX~£ EmtQoJt~£ TYJAEmxOLvCDVLcDV XaL TaXU()Qo~ELCDV (EETT), tYJ£ EmtQoJt~£ AvtaYCDvLo~OU XaL tYJ£ PU8~LotLX~£ AQX~£ EVEQYELa£ (PAE).

- ~I()QuoYJ XaL AELtouQYLa AAA YLa tYJv AYJ~oCJLa ALOLXYJOYJ, OJtCD£ EJtLOYJ£ AAA YLa rc AYJ~oCJLa ~EQya/ LU~~UOEL£ XaL ~La£ UAAYJ£ YLa to IIoAltLXO XQ~~a XaL tOY EAEYXO rou «II08Ev ~EOXE£».

Edv to nOAlTlKd K6~~QTa £~ouo(a~

TOU~ OTa MME Kat KUp(W~ TO ~OVOnWAlO

£Kn6vI1011~ TI1~ nOAlTlKr']~ TOU~ Yla TO npo~M~QTa TI1~ xwpa~.

- tYJV ouyxQotYJOYJ vEa£, EL()LX~£ EmtQoJt~£ tYJ£ BOUA~£ YLa tOY EAEYXO tYJ£ ()QuoYJ£ tCDV AVE~aQi1]iWV LJ LOI'H1]il'HWV AQXwv~, av auto ()EV ELVaL ()uvato, tYJV EV()UVU~CDOYJ tYJ£ uJtuQxouoa£ EmtQoJt~£ ALacpuvELa£ XaL eW~cDV. 8. AYJ~LouQYLa ~axQoXQoVLOU 0XE()LaO~OU oro XcDQO tYJ£ JtaL()ELa£ XaL tYJ£ uYELa£, OXE()LaO~OU nou va t;EJtEQVU to «xo~~atLxo cpout~JtOA».

IT] <POPOAOYlKn 8VlOXUOn MKO

9. YL08EtYJOYJ CPOQOAOYLXcDV ~EtQCDV YLa tYJv EVLOXUOYJ tCDV MYJ KU~EQVYJtLXcDV OQyavcDoECDv (Jt.X. xatuQYYJoYJ cpoQou JtEQL ()CDQEcDV / XOQYJYLcDV otL£ motoJtOLYJ~EVE£ MKO).

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 05

Z] E8vlKn Enrrporm Yla nc MKO

10. AYJ~LouQYLa ~La£ E8vLXU£ EmtQoJtU£ YLa tL£ MKO nou 8a avaAU~EL tOY O'UvtOVLCJ~O xataYQa~£ MYJtQcDOU XaL 8a ~EAEt~OEL tL£ avayxaLE£ CPOQOAOYLXE£ XaL VO~08EtLXE£ JtQooaQ~oYE£ aAAU XaL tYJv ()Lacpa~ JtQox~QUt;YJ EQYCDV XOLVCDCPEAOU£ xaQaxt~Qa YLa UAOJtOLYJOYJ aJto tL£ JtLCJtOJtOLYJ~EVE£ MKO.

11. ~I()QuOYJ EVO£ «LU~~ouAEmLxou KOLVO~OUALOU IIoALtcDV» ~E tYJv ~oQ~ ()La()Lxtuaxou cpoQou~ nou ~a~L ~E to «TYJAEOJttLXO KOLVCD~oUALO» nou JtQotELVO'U~E EJtLOYJ£ 8a aJtotEAEOOUV ()UO XQLCJL~OU£ OU~~O'UAEUtLXoU£ ~YJxavLO~OU£ ()LUXUOYJ£ rou AYJ~OCJLou ALaMyou ano rc XUtCD. AvavECDOYJ tYJ£ uJtuQxouoa£ E8vLX~£ OLXOVO~LX~£ XaL KOLVCDVLX~£ EmtQoJt~£ tCDV XOLVCDVLXcDV EtaLQCDv ~E tYJv O'U~~EtOX~ tCDV MKO. 12. YJtOot~QLt;YJ rou tQLtOU TO~Ea tYJ£

KOLVCDVLX~£ Otxovouicc; nou JtEQLAa~~uvEL EXtO£ aJto tL£ MKO XaL rc XOLVCD-

CPEA~ L()Qu~ata JtoAAaJtAE£ OvtOtYJtE£ O'UVEtaLQLotLXOU, aAAYJAo~oYJ8YJtLxou xaQaxt~Qa aAAu XaL EQEUVYJtLxou£ oQyavLo~ou£ U'lj1YJA~£ yVCDCJLaX~£ at;La£ ~E ~YJ XEQ-

()ooxomxo oxozo, IIQo~AE'ljJYJ YLa tYJv ()LaQx~ ~E ovotxtE£ ()La()LXaOLE£ avaewYJ - oUYXQYJ~ato()otou~EVCDV

aJto tYJv EUQCDJtaIx~ ~EVCDOYJ XaL ~YJ - EQYCDV ~E otoxo tYJv aut;YJOYJ tYJ£ coteCJXOAYJOYJ£ XaL tYJ£ XOLVCDVLX~£ EQyaoLa£ JtQo£ UAOJtOLYJOYJ aJto CPOQEL£ rou TQLtoU rouec, H aVaeEOYJ EQYCDV OJtCD£ XaL YJ ()LExJtEQaLCDoYJ XOLVCDCPEAcDV JtQoYQa~~utCDv ~E OUVEX~ at;LoMyYJOYJ rou JtaQayo~EvoU EQYOU, ()EV JtQEJtEL OE xa~La JtEQLJttCDOYJ va taut~EtaL ~E tYJ O'UotYJ ~atLx~ EmMtYJOYJ XCDQL£ ()Lacpav~ XQLt~QLa nou ~JtOQEL va O()YJY~OEL ornv Et;UQtYJOYJ aJto to xQuto£.

Edv rc JtOAltLXU xo~~ata Et;OUoLa£ oo~aQoAoyoUV YLa tYJv KOLVCDvLa IIoALtcDv JtQEJtEL va autoJtEQLOQLoouv to ~OVOJtcDALO JtQoo~ao~£ tou£ ore MME XaL XUQLCD£ to ~OVOJtcDALO EXJtOVYJOYJ£ tYJ£ JtOAltLX~£ tou£ yLa rc JtQo~A~~ata tYJ£ xcDQa£.

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 06

H 'EVCDOYJ IIOALtCDV YLa tYJV IIaQE~~aoYJ ELVaL, onCD£ YVCDQLtEtE, ~La ano tL£ ~aXQO~LOtEQE£ XaL JtLO EYXUQE£ avE1;aQtYJtE£ ~YJ XU~EQVYJtLXE£ ~YJ XEQOOOXOJtLXE£ oQyaVeDOEL£ otYJV XeDQa XaL XAELVEL CPEtO£ 13 XQovLa oQaoYJ£. H OU~~EtoX~ XaL YJ oQaotYJQLonoLYJoYJ OE aut~v ELVaL E8EAovtLX~ XaL yw tYJv oQaoYJ tou£ aut~ rc ~EAYJ tYJ£ OEV Aa~~avouv a~OL~~. AvtL8EtCD£ OUVELOCPEQOUV OE nQoOCDJtLXO XQovo EVEQYEW XaL nOQou£.

Lto OLaotYJ~a auto, nQoxEL~EVOU vu xaAucp80uv rc otOLXELeD0YJ {i;ooa AELtouQYLa£ tYJ£, otYJQLX8YJXE otxovojuxd otL£ OUVOQO~E£ tCDV ~EAeDV tYJ£, otL£ OCDQEE£ ~EAeDV, CPLACDV XaL unootYJQLxteDV tYJ£ xa8eD£ XaL ore sooo« ano tL£ oWCPYJ~LOEL£ nou OYJ~00LEUOvtaL oro nEQLooLXO tYJ£ KOINQNIA IIOAITQN XaL tL£ OUVOQO~E£ rou e-Newsletter.

ME acpoQ~~ tYJv OUVEX~ EJtExtaoYJ tCDV OQaotYJQLot~tCDv ~a£ oro ALaOLxtuo XaL to YJAEXtQOVLXO e-Newsletter - E8EAovtLX~ XaL aut~ OUVELocpoQa o~aoa£ ~EAeDV tYJ£ IIAPEMBALHL - 8a 8EAa~E vu oa£ xaAEoou~E, ECPOOOV to EJtL8u~ELtE, vu OUVEWCPEQEtE omv nQoona8ELa aut~, EJtLAEyovta£ ~La ano tL£ naQaxatCD ouvatOtYJtE£:

1. Et~0La OUVOQO~~ oro nEQLOOLXO XaL oro E~oo~aOLaLO enewsletter: 35 EUQeD.

2. Et~0La ouvoQo~~ ~EAOU£ nou nEQLAa~~avEL ouvoQo~~ oro nEQLooLXO XaL oro E~oo~aoLaLo e-newsletter : 75 EUQeD.

3. Et~0La ouvoQo~~ unoot~QL1;YJ£ nou nEQLAa~~avEL EJtLOYJ£ tYJv ouvoQo~~ oro nEQLooLXO XaL oro E~oo~aowLo enewsletter: 100 EUQeD.

4. ACDQEa: XOQYJYou 500 EUQeD - AWXEXQL~EVOU XOQYJYou navCD ano 1500 EUQeD.

Tur toy oxonri auto ~noQELtE vu EQ8EtE OE EJtacp~ ~atL ~a£ ~EOCD e-mail otoparemvassi@ath.forthnet.gr ~ tYJAEcpCDvLxa oro 210-3616254.

LYJ~ELeDotE XaL tou£ aQL8~ou£ tCDV tQanEtLXeDV AoyaQLaouorv:

EMIIOPIKH: 52063761 ALPHA: 115-00-2002-017323

L.rJfldworJ: Etoononiots ~a£ tYJAEcpCDvLxa yw tYJv xatci8wYJ.

MEA'l Al01K1)1'lK0'6l:'UJ1PO'UAio'U

NiKO~ MOll~Ul1~ IIp6Ec;po~ IIEPll(J..ll~ Baau.67tOllJ..o~ Al7tp6EC;pO~ Ni'ta KllplaK07tOvJ..oll r. rpaJ1J1aTEa~ BiKTrop IIa7ta~llG1l~ E. rpaJ1J1aTE~

1:TElla Aac;ll

XPll(J'TO~ AlaJ11XVT67tOllJ..o~ NaTaaaa AaC;07tOvJ..oll mia~ M6amaJ..o~ (av.) 1:roKpaT11~ KOVl6pc;o~ Aiva IIa7taC;07tOvJ..oll

0avaG1l~ IIa7tlXVTrov67tOllJ..o~

AOllKa~ TaovKal..l1~ 7tp.IIp6EC;pO~ A.1:.

NIK11<p6po~ AlaJ1aVTOVpO~ 7tp. r. rpaJ1J1aTEa~ Pllapc;o~ 1:roJ1EpiT11~ 7tp. Al7tp6EC;pO~ 1:x1]I..IO~ IIa7taG7t1l1..167tO\lJ..o~ Kro(J'Ta~ ZE7to~

IIrol..iva AaJ1'1'a

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 07

e-newsleHer KOI e-librory

ATTO TOV ~EK£IJR>PIO TOL> 2004 Il nAPEMBAIH OIEUPL>VE TO EPYOAEio ETTlKOIVCUVioe; IJE TO IJ£AIl-cpiAOL>e; OL>IJTTEPIAOIJR>OVOVTOe;:

1. To KOIVOTOIJIKO ER>oOlJooloiO e-newsletter L>4JIlA~e; YVCUOIOK~e; TTL>KVOTIlTOe; OE EMllvlKO oMo KOI EL>pcundiko ETTiTTEOO. To e-newsletter "tio TfJV BouAi), TfJV Eupcu{3ouAi), TfJV EUPCUTTOiki) ETTITPOTTi) KOI TIC; A VE~OPTfJTE<; LlIOIKfJTlKt<; ApXt<; Y'O TfJV E{300J.lOOO TTOU TTtPOOE KOI TfJV E{300J.lOOO TTOU tPXETO/" EKOiouOI KOI OTTOOT£MuOI OIOOIKTL>OKO Ko8E Tplrn OE 1.170 IJ£AIl/digitol friends KOIIJE TIe; ETTOVOTTPOcu8~OEIe; OE TTEpiTTOL> 3.000 TTOpOA~TTT£e; KOI TTEPIAOIJR>ovEI OL>VOTTTIKO ETTE~EPYOOIJ£VEe; rrxnoooool«; Xp~OIIJEe; YIO IJIO OCPOIPIK~ OVTiAIl4J1l cvovxoloc OXI IJOVO YIO TOL>e; eveovooc TToAiTEe; OAAO KOI YIO OTEA£XIl L>4JIlA~V OPIJOOIOT~TCUV TOOO TOL> oIlIJOOiOL> 000 KOI TOL> IOICUTIKOU TOIJ£O.

2. Tnv ER>oOlJooloiO IlAEKTPOVIK~ R>1R>AI08~KIlIOE~V (e-library) Il orroio OTTOOT£MuOI KOI OL>T~ OE oVTioTOIXO opI81J0 TTOPOAIlTTT~V Ko8E nOpOOKEL>~ KOI TTEPIAOIJR>ovEI TToM£e; EVOIOcp£pOL>OEe; OTT04JEIe; KOI TTPOTOOEIe; YIO EKOIlA~OEIe;, OL>V£OPIO, K.O.

KOI 01 OL>O TTpcuToR>OL>AiEe; trL>XOV 8EPIJ~e; L>TTOOOX~e; OTTO TO IJ£AIl KOI TOL>e; cpiAOL>e; Tile; 'EvCUOIle; KOI £XOL>V TTPO~EV~OEI YEVIKOTEPO IOIOiTEPO EVOIOcp£pOV.

EN!lIH nOAIT!lN riA THN nAPEMBAIH

AA. IouTaou 18 - 106 71 A6HNA

THA/FAX: 210.36.16.254 - THA: 210.36.12.963

www.paremvassi.gr e-mail: paremvassi@ath.forthnet.gr

KOIN!lNIA IIOAIT!lN

NIKOl: MOYZEAlIT. - IIEPIKAlIT. BAl:IAOIIOYAOl: ~'taotaK1l avao'\)O"l1 ~ta~ VEa~ E1tOXll~

01

IIPOl:KAHl:H l:YMMETOXHl: l:TO EIIIl:THMONIKO l:YNEAPIO Kotvovin IIoAucOv: Ioropucorqro, Av'ti1taAot, Ilpoozruce;

03

ENnl:H IIOAITnN rIA THN IIAPEMBAl:H ~rooEKaAOYO~ 0EO"EroV 't'f1~ Kotvrovtcc IIoAt'tcOv

Ot 1tpoij1tOeEo"Et~ 't11~ AVE~ap't'f1O"ia~

04 06 07

e-newsletter KUl e-library

ErKOAIIIO TOY IIOAITH

10

PAUL HIRST

To ~EAAoV trov 1tEpiKAEtO"'trov Ol1~OKpa'ttcOv Kat ot 1tteaVo't'f1'tE~ ota'ti]pl1O"'fl~ 't'f1~ 1tpovota~

12

MICHAEL WALZER

H xoworvucoaotnon ron KotVroVtKOU Kpa'to,\)~

17

AAE8ANAPOl:l:BnAOl:

H Kotxrovucn Ka'tEUe'\)VO"t~ EV 't'f1 E~EAi~Et ron Kpnroix;

29

ADAM SMITH

o 1tAOU'tO~ rorv ESvcOv

32

GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL To ~ro~a'tEio

33

A<DIEP!lMA: TO l:yrXPONO KOIN!lNIKO KPATOl:

rIANNHl: IIANArOIIOYAOl:

To Kpa'to~ npovotc; orqv cr'6YXPOV'fl E1tOXll

38

rrnrror AIEAAl:-InANNHl: YCIlANTOIIOYAOl:

H EVEPY01toil1O"'fl 't11~ Kotvorvtnc IIoAt'tcOv O"'t'f1v aO"K'flO"l1 xoworvuop; 1tOAt'ttK1l~ H 1tEpi1t'troO"'fl 't'f1~ O"'UvEpyaO"ia~ To1ttK1l~ A'U'tootoiK'flO"'fl~ Kat EKKAl1O"ia~

42

GORAN PERSSON

O~tAia ron 'to IIpro9u1to'\)PYou 't'f1~ ~o'\)l1oia~ ornv Ae"va ~E eE~a: «To ~O'\)110tKO ~OV'tEAO».

56

(l)AKEAO~: yrIEINH ZnH KAI TA OPIA Tm EAEY0EP~

BAl:~ MArKAAPAl:

H apX11 'tT}~ s1t1£iKta~ Kat 'ta optn 'tT}~ xcvovtornop; pU8j..ltO'T}~

63

OIKorENEIA 9ANAl:H IIAIIANTUNOIIOYAOY E8tO'j..lo~

66

BIBAIonAPonI~EI~

MAKPYAHMHTPHE ANTUNHE

Krovotuvttvoq Kapaj..laVA;ft~, 'Eva IIapa<>stYj..la IIoAt'tt1dt~ HysO'ia~

68

~UTHPOIIOYAO~ A. AHMHTPHE

Kpuroq Kat MS'tappu8j..ltO'T} 0''tT} LUYXP0VT} Nona Eupoo1tT}, EMa<>a- Ionnviu- I'taAia- Iloprojustc,

68

BIBAIOKPI~IE~

BAl:~ MArKAAPAl:

Citizenship in Britain, Values, Participation and Democracy,

70

IIEPlKAlIE BAAAIANO~ Civil Society

75

AorOTEXNIKE~ TIAPEMB~EI~

R.M.RILKE IIav8T}pa~

79

~YNEprATE~

Ot O'Uvspya'ts~ ron 'tsuxou~

80

ErKOAnlO TOY nOAITH

E-YKOJ..mo: KouP'Ipa BnltrniOIO, rpvJ..axro, PlKPO PlPJ..io pB m5V'rOP'InBPiJ..'1tp'l 'rwv "IVciJUBWV nov awi"lOV'ral UB OPlUpCvO KJ..tido B1ClU'rljP'Iq, 'rEXV'lq, dldaUKoJ.iaq, KJ..n.

To EYKOA1ttO ron IIoAt'tll, , . nc ostpu KEt~EvroV O'Uva<pou~ 9E~a'ttKi}~, EXEt Ka9tEpro9Et it~l1 a1to 'to, 1tPOllyou~EVa 'tEUXTI rou 1tEpto~tKOU Kat O'UVEXt~Et Kat O''tO avO: XEtpa~ 'tEUXO~, 'to 130, Ka9ro~ 9EroPit911KE a1to 'tll ouvnncrucn smtpom] 1tro~ 0" aU'titv'tllv evorrrro ooumncvdrvovnn O:KPro~ EV~ta<pEpouO'E~ 9EroPll'ttKE~ a1tO"'Et~ ~EYO:AroV ~taVoll'trov 1tOU ~1tOpOUV, O''tO ~E'tPO 1tOU rou; avaAoYEt, vn a1to'tEAEO'OUV 'to EvauO'~a it mv apm ~ta~ EUPU'tEPll~ O'U~it'tllO'11~ ym ~l1'tit~a'ta, 1tOU o:UO'tE 1taAatO:, aMo'tE cr'6yxpova, E~<paVt~ouv ~EYO:AO EV~ta<pEpov yta rov 1tOAi'tll Kat ueopouv O:~EO'a rnv KotVroVtKi} 'tOU ~roit. L'tO 'tPEXOV 'tEUXO~, Ka9ro~ O''tO E1tiKEV'tPO 'tll~ O'U~it'tllO'l1~ O''tllv EUo:~a aUo: Kat supurspn O''tllV E.E. PpiO'KE'tat it~l1 'to Kpcto; Ilpovoun; Kat 0 KotVroVtKO~ rou pOAo~ ern cr'6YXPOVll E1tOm, 9EroPit911KE O'K01tt~O 'to EYKOA1ttO rou IIoAi'tll vn aq>tEpro9Ei 0" aU'to 'to ~EOV 9E~a. To, KEi~EVa 1tOU aKoAou90uv 1tpOO'Eyyi~OUV, EA1ti~oU~E, O''tO ~E'tPO rou ~uva'tou, O'<patptKO: Kat 1to:v'ta a1tO 9EroPll'ttKi} O'K01ttO: 'to EV A6yro ~it'tll~a Kat KaAU1t'tOuV toroptxe, ~avo: O''tO ~E'tPO rou ~uva'tou, ~Ey6:AO ~EPO~ ron.

1. Paul Hirst: To ~EUOV rov 1tEpiKAEtO"troV ~l1~oKpa'ttrov Kat ot 1tt9avo'tll'tE~

~ta'tftpllO'11~ 'tll~ 1tpovota~.

2. Michael Walzer: H xowrovncoaotnon roo xowovucoo KPO:'tOU~.

3. .AU;avopo<; 1:.PO>AO<;: H xotvorvucf Ka'tEU9uvO't~ EV 'tll E~EAi~Et ron KPO:'tOU~.

4. Adam Smith: Anoonnountu a1to rov IIAou'to rov EBvrov, rou., A. S. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: To Lro~a'tEio.

A~I~£I

vo OU~~ELEXEI~!

Yn£pTOTIl o~fo 11 ~w". A~fl;EI vo Til mil Pfl;EI<;!

A~fo jJ£YloTIl<; onpocloc KOI 11 ouppstoxr] OTa 6pWjJEVO.

H ATEbank OUjJjJET£XEI evepvo, jJE KOIVWVIK~ unEu8uvOTIlTa' otov noAI'tlal..lo, tov A8AI1'tlal..l0, TIlV Yyda, TI<; Enla't"I..IEf;, TIlV nal6da,

'to nEplpaAAov .••

'Onou EVEpyEf 0 noArTIl<;, orrou OYWVfl;ETOI

KOI 61ljJloupyEf 0 av8pwno<;, orrou XPEI6~ETaI unooT~pl~1l KOI w8lloll.

H ATEbank 6fnt..o otov noArTIl, Wf; EVEpyof; auAAoYIKOf; noAi'tI1f;, Ev610CP£PETOI vro

tnv rroiotmo TIl<; ~w~<; lOU KOI OUjJnEPIt..OjJ~aVEI oto nAava TIl<; Til OT~PI~1l EVEPYEIWV nou 6fvouv o~fo mil ~W~ jJO<;.

E'[alpIK~ KOIVc.>VIK~ Eu8uVil

ENE P r H LYMMETOXH

ATEbank~

ArpOTIKH TPAnEZA EAAA.dOI

TO MEMON TON nEPIKAEIITON 6HMOKPATION KAI 01 nl0ANOTHTEI 61ATHPHIHI THI npONOIAIl

I1a tva VEO KpaTO~ IIp6VOta~

H 1111 tKavonoi11<r1'l trov Ka'tavaACO'tOOV IlE rnv unoxpECOTtKTl <pU<rI'l nOAAOOv 0111l00'icov U1t11PEmoov Kat 11 Ent9Ullia yta E1ttAOyit XP11mIlOnotit911Kav coe; eva EntXEip11lla Ka'ta 't11e; 011- Ilomae; npovotae; Kat unep 't11e; avliA.11'1'ite; 't11e; ano 'tllv ayopa Kat rov tOtCOTtKO roueo. Au'to OIlCOe; OEV etvm 'to ~it'tlllla EOOO. ~E IlEptKee; nEptn'tOOO'Ete; OEV EnapKouv napa uovo EupEiae; dillaKae; 0111l0mEe; napoxee; Kat cruAAoytKTle; Ka'tavaACO<rl'le;, oncoe; yta napaOEtYlla, O'E nEptn'tOOO'Ete; non aVaYKEe; Kat KivOuvot O'U 11'1'11 <pi~ov'tat O'E O'xitlla'ta KOtvCOvtKTle; aO'<pliAt<rl'le; yta rnv aVEpyia, 'to yftpae; Kat rnv a0'geVEta. Ot tOtCO'ttKee; napoxee; no'te OEV 9a eivm EnapKEtc; yta rnv nAE1O'l'1l<Pia rou nA11euO'Il0U O'E aU'tOue; rou; 'tOJlEtc;. /).EV cruvEnaYE'tat Ollcoe; OTt 11 unOXPECOTtKit Ka'tavaACOO'11 lleO'co EVOe; 1l0VOnCOAtaKOU npoll119EuTit, rou Kpa'tOUe;, sivm 0 1l0VOe; 'tponoe; yta vn av'ttA11<p9Ei KavEtc; ru nAEovEKTitlla'ta 't11e; IlEyliA11e; dillaKae; emuspt- 0'1l0U rrov KtvOUVCOV. To 0111l0mO Kat 'to KpaTtKO OEV etvm 'tau'tOO'11lla. Eivut ouva'to va unapxouv 0111l0ma XP11lla'tOOOTOUIlEVEe; un11PEO'iEe; zou vn oivouv orou; Ka'taVaACO'tee; eva JlEYaAo ~a91l0 EntAoyfte; Kat EAeyXOU. Ot u1t11PEcriEe; IlnopOUV

va opyavco90uv IlE rstoto 'tpono OOO''tE vn anoKolliO'ouv ru Kep011 ano 'tll cruAAOytKTl XP11lla'to06'tll<rI'l Kat va Ent'tpenouv COO''tOO'o rou; nOAi'tEe; va EntA.eyOUV 'to cruYKEKPtllevo ruueto it u1t11PEO'ia,

H unOxp£CUTIK~ OUAAOYIK~ KOTOVOACUOI1 rroo oovovcovrroi ovcu8£v dvo: OUTO rroo EX£I 0c00£1 OTIe; 0111...1001£e; orrnoeolec KOK~ <P~I...II1.

Kat, exov'tae; KaVEt 'tllv EntAoyft, 'tll ouva'tO't11'ta EVOe; ~a91l0u EVEPYllTtKTle; cruIlJlE'toxite; orov eAEyXO rov un0geO'ECOV rou.

H unoxpECOTtKTl cruAAOytKTl Ka'tavliACO<rl'lnou opyavoovE'tat

To OTOI...IO 8EAOUV VO 0111...110UPY~00UV TIe; OIKEe; TOUe; UnI1P£Oi£e; - vo KOTEXOUV TO OIKO TOUe; orrin. vo EXOUV OUYK£KPII...IEVO OUVTO~IOOOTIKO 0lKOlc01...10TO, VO EXOUV TI1V £nIAOY~ VO OT£iAOUV TO nOlolo TOUe; OTO nov£nIOT~1...I10.

avco9EV eivm au'to zou eXEt OOOO'Et oru; 0111l0mEe; un11PEO'iEe; KaKTl <Pitll11· AuTit 11 ano'tUxia eXEt vouuioaouicei 'tllv EiO'ooo 'tlle; ayopae; O''tllv zpovotu Kat rov

PAUL HIRST

Ka'taKEPllaTtO'Il0 rorv napoxoov Kat rorv OtKatCOlla'tcov, Ka'taO''tpeoovru; e'tm eva ano tn uaortgeJlEVa ~amKa nAEovEKTitlla'ta 't11e; 0111l00'tae; napoxite;, rov KotVOOV OtKatCOlla'tcov O'E opiousvo

EninEOo un11 PEO'tOOV. H tOtcoTtKonoi11<r1'l rov U1t11PEoubv, O'E cruvouaO'llo IlE 'tll xpovta unoXP11lla'to06'tllO'11 exstvov nou napallevouv 0111l00'tEe;, OEV eXEt OOOO'Et orouc Ka'tavaAco'tee; Ilta KaAu'tEP11 no O'o't11'ta it

IlEyaAU'tEPO eAEYXo - O''tllv npaYllaTtKO'tll'ta ot ypa<pEtOKpa'tEe; exouv 0''ta9Epa 't11v EU9UV1l. AUTO EvtcrxUEt 'tll tpopoAOytKTl anoO''tpo<Pit, rn a'tolla vtoo90uv OTt naipvouv Atyo'tEpa ano 'to 0111100'10 nEoio Kat npenEt va npoO'na9itO'ouv, onou eivm

ouva'to, vn uvtunoxptvovrm O''tO U'l'11AO'tEPO KOO''tOe; rov tOtCO'ttKOOV napoxoov yta cruv'ta~Ete;, EK1taioEU<rI'l Kat uYEia yta 'ta lOta Kat Tte;

oucoysvste; rouq,

To npO~A11lla EnoJ.Ltvcoe; aivm va owppayd 0 crUvOEO'Il0e; JlETa~U cruUoytKite; Ka'tavaACOO'11e; Kat Ent~oAite;. IIo1Oe; 9a it9EAE va unollevEt uoro 'to JlEiYlla napalleA11<r1'le; Kat OtotK11Tt-

Kite; napell~aO'11e; non ot 'tontKee; E~oucriEe; O''teya<rl'le; Ene~aAav o rout; evotxouc- 0111l0'tEe; rou; Ka'ta 'to napEA90v; H EUYVCOIl0O'UV11 yta ~aO'tKee; u1t11PEcriEe; - ru ~0119itlla'ta, ot 0111l0TtKee; Ka'totKiEe;, 11 nA11Pcollit

1 To KEi~~vo T?U P.Hirst, The Future <;>f Inclusive ~emocracies and the Possibilities of Sustaining Welfare 1 anoTEAEI nonvnon TOU ouvvocoeo aTO auvEoplO «H xorvccvlo TU>V 2/3», rroo oIE~~X811 aTO n6vTElo naVEmaT~~IO, aTIC; 1 0-12 NOE~R>piou 1997. MET6cppaal1 KuplaK~ MI1Aioou.

nov unpucov AoyaptaO"~rov - EXEt EOro Kat KatpO E;a<pavtO"tEi Kat aUtEC; ot U1rl1PEO"iEC; Ssv SEropOUVtat OUtE Kat' EAaXlO"tO EnapKEic; ano OO"OUC; etvm ~tpiroC; nEtUX11- ~EVOt. Tn ato~a SEAOUV vn 011~toUprflO"ouv ttC; OtKEC; tOUC; unllPEO"iEC; - vn KatEXOUV to OtKO tOUC; ordn, vn EXOUV cruyKEKPt~Evn cruvta;toOOnKa OtKatro~ata, vn EXOUV rrrv EntAorfi vn O"tEtAoUV ru natOUl tOUC; O"tO naVEntO"nl~to. D,n KanOtE anOtEAouO"E nc; npoO"ooKiEC; tTlC; «~EO"aiac; ta;119> EXEt yiVEt crUVllSEC;. To npo~All~a stvm Ott Ssv EXOU~E ~PEt tKaVO-

tTlC; cru~~tOX1lC;, rots ~nopOU~E va apxtO"ou~E vn YE<PUproVOU~E to xroptO"~O ava~O"a O"tTI ol1~oO"ta Kat rnv totronKi} O"<paipa. Ot 011~00"tEC; cruVta;EtC; oivouv noAU ~EyaAll ouvat0tTIta EntAOrflC; O"tO KpatOC; 0"t11 MEyaAll Bpemvto, nUa 11 ayopa tOtronKrov aO"<paAiO"sov Kat cruVta;Erov npooipspst OtaKU~avo"EtC; ~ opOUC; Kat O<PEAll nou ouviorouv O"KavOaAo. Ot KatavaArotEC; XPEtasovtat nsptccorepn npooruofn Kat O"nc; 0'60 O"<paipEC;. Av ot 011~0O"tEC; unllPEO"iEC; Kat ot tOtrottKoi npo~l1SEUtEC; ~tav unoAoyot ~E ota<popouc; tponouc; O"tOUC; KatavaArotEC; tOUC;, tOtE 0

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 13

EAEYXO O"E «tOtronKEC;» U1rl1PEO"iEC;, roee 11 ota<popa ~Eta;u rov 0'60 O"<patprov Sa apxtO"Et vn psuovetm, Kat ~asi ~ aUnl Kat apKEnl ano rnv tpExouO"a 'lf6XroO"l1 ~E to «KOO"tOC;» rov 011~0O"trov U1rl1PEouov,

Av 11 O"<paipa tTlC; «011~0- O"tOtlltaC;» EnpOKEttO vc OtEUpuvflsi, 011~tOupyrovtac; ~ta ~EyaAll KAi~aKa autoKU~EPVro~roV SEo"~roV ~E rrrv EK1tPOO"ronllO"ll rov KatavaArotrov, cruvoEOVtac; ru; XroptO"tEC; KatTIyopiEC; tOU KpatOUC; Kat tTlC; xotvroviac; nOAttrov, rots 11 npoO"<patll aVllO"uxia roiv OtKOVO~tKroV <ptAEAE'69EProV yta tTl ~iroO"ll tOU

POAou tOU KpatOUC; Sa s uo uvt o r e t AtyOtEPO

ATTO Til OTlY~~ TTOU apxi~ou~£ O"l1~avnKi}. IIpoC; to napov, uovo 11 unoSEO"l1 on 11 ol1~oO"ta napox~ stvm O"u~<puta aVEnapK~C; EXEt vonuo, Kat auto etvm Eva

KaSapo KOO"tOC; yta tOUC; nEtUXll~EVOUC; oopoz,oyou~avouc; nou OE SEAoUV nc; napExo~EVEC; uanpsctsc. 'EXEt EniO"l1C; vonuu, nv avn~EtroniO"ou~E tOV tOtronKo to~a roc; ~aO"tO"~-

vo crnv nEtSapxia rmv ouva~Erov tTlC; ayopac; Kat

notllnKOuc; rpoxou; yta vn nc; napExou~E O"tO O"uvoAo tOU nAllSuO"~OU. H tOtrottK~ napox~ anoKAaiEt r nv nAEto'l'l1<Pia ano EnapKi} KaAU'l'11 O"E 01.11 rnv KA.i~aKa rrov unllPEO"trov EVro 11 npoO"ap~orfl rcov 011~0O"trov napoxrov yta rn <ppovtwa rmv <ptroxrov Kat ~l1nEtUX11~Evrov, ~asi ~E rnv avas~tllO"l1

zoprov, Sa ano;avroo"Et tTlv' , ,

nAEto'l'l1<Pia ano u1rl1PEO"iEC; TOT£ ~TTOpOU~£ va ooxrooous

yta nc; onoie; nAllProVEt, va y£cpUPc0VOU~£ TO Xc.vPIO~O nUa cruVEXroC; KataVaArovEt ovcusoo OTIl 61l~oola Kal TIlV AtyOtEPO, nv EXEt aAAll

EntAoy~. H O"uAAoytK~ 161c.vTIK~ cooloo.

KataVaAroO"l1 napa~EVEt

ouotcorucf yta rnv nAEto'l'11- <pia, a<pou ot zsptocorepot Sev KEpoisouv apKEta yta vn tKaVOnotouv OAEC; nc; avayKEC; tOUC; ano nc; tOtronKEC; ayopEC; Kat rnv totronKi} aO"<paAtO"l1. H anaitTIO"ll stvm roorooo vn KataO"tOuv ot KataVaArotEC; ucrvoi vn 011~tOUPy~O"ouv tEtOtEC; O"uAAoytKEC; unllPEO"iEC; crU~<prova ~E nc; OtKEC; tOUC; avayKEC;, vn EXOUV ta O<PEAll tTlC; Kot~C; cru~~EtOX1lC; XropiC; rn ~EtOVEKnl~ata tTlC; Ent~oA~C; Kat tllC; uno~oA~C; O"tll OtotKllnKi} zpoutpeon.

Ano tll O"ny~~ zou apxisou~ vn o"KE<ptO~aO"tE yta crullOytKEC; unllPEO"iEC; ota~op<pro~EC; ~ao"Et tllC; EntAorflc; Kat

va OK£cpTo~aOT£ vro OUAAOYIK£e; UTTIlP£oi£e; 6Ia~opcpc.v~£v£e; 1360£1 Tile; £TTIAoy~e; Kal Tile; OU~~£TOx~e;,

aUO"tllPOC; xroptO"~OC; ~ta;u rov 0'00 xroprov Sa ueuovo ruv. IOtaitEpa, 11 ~EyaAutEpll EntA.orfl Kat 0 EAEYX0C; O"nc; 011~0O"tEC; napOXEC; Kat OtEUKOAuvO"EtC; Sa anoKaAu1ttav O"tOUC; avSpronouc; noO"o Aiyo EAEYXO EXOUV O"nc; tOtronKEC; unllPEO"iEC; npovotac;, noO"o nOAu Bptoxovror O"tO EAEOC; rov ennpeuov Kat noO"ll AiYll mEO"ll ot ayopEC; tOUC; EnttpEnouv vn E;acrKi}O"ouv O"E tO~Eic;, onroc; ot cruVta;EtC; Kat ot aO"<paAEtEC; sro~c; Kat uYEiac;. MOAtC; ot KataVaArotEC; ~nopEo"OUV vn 011~toUprflO"ouv 011~00"tEC; U1rl1PEO"iEC; KatallllAEC;

yta amouc; Kat anOKnlO"Ouv rn ~EO"a vn ao"K~o"OuV nOAtnKO

tOU uvruycovtouo» nou n p o m Go uv r n v aAllStV~ anotEAEO"~attKOtllta, Kat av ayvo~O"ou~E tTl ypa<pEtoKpatia

Kat rnv tEpapxia O"tO cruvtExviaKo tO~Ea. Ot nEptO"O"OtEPEC; EtatpEiEc; ~E~ata stvm ~EyaAot opyovtouol nou O"XEOtaSOUV Kat OtotKOUV, onroc; Kat tn Kpatll· ~tTI ~aO"ll aKpt~roc; autrov rov unoSEO"Erov Evac; EU<pU~C; <ptAEAEUSEPOC;, onroc; o Robert Skidelsky, naO"xiSEt va

KaVEt to KpatOC; va Enava<pEpEt ru; oanavEC; y'6pro O"tO 30% tOU AEII. 2 AAAa cv Ei~aO"tE AtyOtEPO a<pEAEic; yta nc; apEtEC; rcov ayoprov

Kat nEnEto"~EVot EniO"l1C; on ~nopou~ vn ~EAnroO"ou~E rnv anoooO"l1 rooo rov 011~0O"trov 00"0

2 R. Skidelsky, The World after Communism, Macmillan, Aovelvo 1995 Kal «Welfare without stote». w; Prospect, lovouoproc 1996, oo, 38-43.

Kat nov 101ro'tlKroV opyav10"~rov, rots au'to apxi~sl vn ~01(l~Sl ~s E~~OVTJ 10Ea O"xs't1Ka us OP10"~Evou; rponou; UnOA,OY10"~OU rou S9vtKOU SlO"oO"~a'toc;. IIEpa ano 'tTlv nsnoi911O"TJ on 'to Kpa'toc; avano~suK'ta O"na'taA,a xp,,~a'ta

napExov'tac; uanpeo tsc, apxi~sl vn ~ola~sl onv npo'ti~l1O"TJ va oivou~s rn xp,,~a'ta ~ac; O"S ~ta O"UYKSKP1~EVll o~aoa 01su9uv'trov napa O"S utn

<lUll·

eE'tOV'taC; 'to ro~a, 01 nA,119uO"~oi xps1a~s'ta1 va ~oosuouv roon noUa Y1a xpovotn Kat u1t1lPscrisc;, Kat 01 'to~dC; O"'touc; oz o touc ~oosuouv s t v n t osu'tspsuov'tSC; roc; npoc; 'to cruVOA,lKO sninsoo Ka'tavMro-

0"11C;. 'E't0"1, av 11 cruvOA,lKllOll~OO"la Kat 101ro't1KllOanUVTJ yta 'tTlv uysia, rnv sKnaiosuO"l1 Kat rnv zpovotc a9po10"'tsi - KpanKEC; Kat t01ronKEC; ouvrn ~SlC;, oanavsc; Y1a 'tll 011~00"la Kat 101ro't1Kll SKnaWSUO"TJ - rore 01 nsp10"0"0'tSPo avan'tUy~evsc; ~10~l1Xav1KEC; XropSC; retvoov vn O"uYKA,ivouv roc; npoc; rn cruvOA,lKa sninsOa Oanavrov. H xowrovfn cruvOA,lKa oanava rocn noUa oe ~la OSoo~EVTJ 'ta~l1 UnllPSO"lrov roO"'ts 0 cruvouaO"~oc; 011~00"lac; Kat t01ro't1- KllC; oanaVTJC; sivm enououo- 011C; roc; npoc; 'tTl cruvOA,lKll oanUVTJ. Elrs stvct 'to Kpa'toc; sits ~la aO"~aA,10"'t1K" srmpstu nou napExs1 'tll crUv'ta~l1 oou, Ssv ~nopsic; va ~OOE'I'Stc; ru aO"~aA,lO"'tpa O"S <lUa npay~a'ta. H iooppontn

rorv rouscov npEns1 vn stvm 11 npro'tapX1K" qip ov r ldu xpoxsuisvou 01 011~00"1SC; unllPsO"isc; vn npoo"~EpOUV A,lY0'tSPll a~ia per se.

H npo'taO"l1 au't" Ssv ~nopsi va unoO"'tTlP1x9si. ea ,,'tav OUO"KOA,O va 10"XUP10"'tOU~ on 'to Kupiapxa 011~00"1O 0"0Ull01KO

crUO"'tTl~a uysiac; napExs1 A,lY0'tSPll ~pov'tioa, xa~l1A.O'tspO npoO"ooK1- uo ~ro"c; Kat U'l'11A.O'tspo OSiK'tTl ~pS~lKroV 9ava'trov ano 'to ~lK'tO uuspucuvnco O"uO"'tll~a, nou KUp1apxsita1 ano rn 101ro't1Ka napayroytKa cru~~EPOVfU, " 0't1 'to

ntpo ana rnv rrerrolencn OTI TO xooroc ovorrooeucrc onOTOAO xp~lJaTO rrcotxovrcc orrnoeolec, opxi~£1 vo IJOIO~£I oov rroorlunon va oivOUIJ£ TO XP~IJOTO IJOe; os uro OUYK£KP1IJtVtl OIJOOO ol£u9UVTc.0v rrcoo O£ IJIO OMtl.

KUvS1 au'to ~s U'l'11A.O'tspo KOO"'tOC; Ka'ta KS~aA,", 01 unoxpsronKEC; Kpa't1KEC; U1t1lpscrtSC; ~nopsi vn stvm A,lY0'tSPO SA,KUO"'tlKEC;, aUa Ssv stvm 11 ~ovao1Kll sntAoYll yta nc; 011~00"la xpll~a'tooo'tou~svsC; unllPsO"isC;. 0 moxoC; rrov ooy~arucdrv O1KOVO~lKroV ~tA.sA.su9sprov etvat 0A.sc; 01 ~OP~EC; cruUOytKllC; Ka1 ol1~oo"lac; Ka'taVaA,roO"l1C; npov01ac;.

~s ~la ~s'ta-~tAsA.su9sPll xotvorvto aUtllll aKa~n'tTl O"KE'I'11

H £TIlAOY~, 0 OVTOyc.uVIOIJOe; KOI tl TUTIlK~ OtlIJOKPOTIK~ xovoeoclo O£ KOTOVOAc.uTte; IJnOpOUV vo 8£IJ£AIc.u8ouv O£ OtlIJ0010 XPtlIJOTOOOTOUIJ£V£e; OUAAOYIKte; orrnoeolec.

~s ~aO"l1 'tlC; Ka'tllyopisC; rorv S9V1KroV oanavrov Ka1 trnv aUO"'tllpa 01a~opono111~Evrov K01VroV1KroV 'to ~EroV, o rouc oaotou; 0A.sc; 01 oanavsc; Y1a ol1~Oo"la aya9a npEns1 va 01Ka10- A,oyouv'ta1, Ka1 01 101ro'tl KEC;

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 14

oanavsc; eivm O"u~~u'ta npo'tl~o'tspSC;, OSV Exs1nAEov vonuu. ~SV ~nopou~s rots va rrvnzupn- 9Eo"OU~S 'to uuompo Kpa'toc; anevavn ornv SA.sUSSPll ayopa. Av 11 xowovto etvm opyavro~EVTJ napa au90p~11'tTl, rots Kat autll

etvat nsOio 'tTlC; KU~EPVTJO"TJC;

Ka1 OP10"~EVSC; ano 'tlC; 101ro'tlKEC; 'tTlC; s~ouO"isC; stvm ~syaA,u'tspsC; ano nOA,A,a Kpa'tll. Eno~Evroc;, Ssv ~nopsi Kavsic; va cruyKpiVS1 rnv «KU~EPVTJO"l1» ~ 'tTlv «eowcevto», Kat va uvnus'troni~sl Ka9s 'to~a orrv va siXav ola~OpS'tlKa Ka1 o~o1oysv1l yvropiO"~a'ta - A.sc; Kat ~s 'to va stvm Ka't1

101ro'tlKO stvm crU~~u'ta Kat ro~EA,l~O. 01 01KOVO~lKOi ~tASA.sU9Sp01 ~nopouv va

O"'tTlP~OUV 'to s1t1xsipll~a roue ~ovo av npoO"n011190uv 0't1 ~ou~s O"s ~la xoworvfn ola~opsnKll ano rnv unapxouO"a. AKo~a Ka1 sKA.sn'tUO"~ev01 9sroPll't1KOi onroc; o Skidelsky, xpllO"l~On010Uv 'tTlv daO"lKll ~tA.sA.sU9sPll oo~" yta va nsp1ypa'l'OUv u t n ~s'ta~tASA.sUSSPll xowevto.

Av auto sivm 'to ~"'tTl~a Kat av 01 crUyxpOVSC; K01VrovisC; oanavouv O"'tO crUVOA.o eva ~syaA,o

zooooro Y1a npovoto, rots npEns1 vn avantU~ou~s eva <lUo s1t1xsipll~a, yta 'to nroe; 11 npovotc npoKs1'ta1 vn

OtaVS~119si ornv xowrovic, 't00"0 moue; KpanKOUe; 00"0 Kat orouc ~11 KpanKOUe;, a A, A, a 011 ~ 0 0" t n 0 1 0 1- KOU~SVOUC;, 9sO"~oue;. 'Eva 'tE't010 crUVOA,O K01VroV1KroV

pu9~iO"srov Osv 9a sivm ~ovo ~s'ta-~tAsA.su9spo aUa Ka1 ~s'ta-0"00"laA.1m1Ko. ~s ~la

'tE't01a ol1~oo"la 0101KOU~SVll ~lKtll 'ta~l1 01 i01Se; 01 10ESe; 'tTle; s9v1KonoillO"l1e; Kat 'tTle; 101ro'tlKOnoillO"TJe; 9a EXavav noA,u ano 'to vOll~a roix, Zl1tll~a'ta npov01ae; 9a E9sfUV oe svEpys1a 'tTlv aKp1~"

~Ei~T) cruUOytKll~ Kat tOtronKll~ KataVaAroO'11~, aAAa T) nAEtO'IfTI<pia rorv opyavtO'~oov zou napEi'Xav u1tT)pEcriE~ Sa E~Ota~av ~E nOAt'ttKE~ EVOOO'Et~, Kata to on Sa ~tav UnOAoyE~ O'ta cru~<pEpOVta zou E1tT)pEa~av. 'Eva reroio cr6- O'tT)~a Sa EtEtVE vn avan'tU'XSEi O'E ~ta ~T) KEpooO'KOntKll KateUSuvO'T), Ot KataVaA.rotE~ ~E ouvatotT)ta ano<paO'T)~ Sa EtEtVaV vu nsptopioouv ru EO'oOa zou ot OtEU9uVtE~ rov U1tT)PEO'tOOV Sa ~nopouO'av vc aVtA~O'oUV ano n~ opaO'tT)pt6tT)tE~ roue, Tu ta~Eia cruVta~Erov Kat ot aO'<paAtO'ttKE~ EtatpEiE~ Sa 1ttE~OVtaV npoq 'Xa~T)AOtEpa EninEoa KEPOO<popia~ Kat noUE~ EtatpEiE~ Sa ~EtatpEnoV'tav O'E SEO'~OU~ a~ot~atotT)ta~.

Ap'Xt~ "1)~ EvrocnaKll~ A1)J.10Kpa,.ia~

Etvat npo<pavE~ on stvm aouvato, ore opin EVO~ ~tKPOU apSpou, vn oxurypu<p~O'ou~ to noo~ Ot xetnvuArotE~ ~nopouv vu cru~~EtE'Xouv O'tT) OtOiKT) O'T) rrov unT)pEO'toov Kat to noo~ ot OT)~oO'tE~ napo'XE~ ~nopouv

vn ouvfiunorouv ~E 'tt~ EntAoYE~ rmv KataVaArotOOv. ~Ktaypa<pT)O'a to noo~ Sa ~ota~ouv nuroi Ot SEO'~oi aAAou.3 H ~EtappUS~tO'11 autou tOU tUnou aVn~trom~Et O'o~apE~ npaKnKE~ OUO'KOAiE~. To ~~tT)~a stvm on ot avSpronot npEnEt npoota vn KataAa~Ouv Ott EOOO unap'XEt Eva npO~AT)~a, on T) nnpouou xotaO'taO'11 npay~atrov npEnEt vc yiVEt ~EAT)~a rov OT)~OKpatoov. TOtE iO'ro~ yivouv npoSu~ot vn EPEU~O'OUV O'o~apa to ~~tT)~a rov EVaAAaKnKOOV AUO'EroV O'tO ypa<pEtOKpanKo EAEY'XO Kat croix tponou~ ~E tOU~ ozotouc Ot OT)~oO'tE~ U1tT)PEO'iE~ ~nopouv va ava~rooyoVT)SOUV ano t~ EVEPYE~ EntAoYE~ rmv KataVaArotOOV,

EVSappuVovta~ EtO't tOU~ nOAhE~ va unoO"tT)pi~ouv to KOO'tO~ roix,

<DuO'tKa sivm OUO'KOAo vn ~PESOUV rponot uvnnpocdmeu- 0'11~ opiousvov cru~<PEpOVtroV zou E1tT)pEa~OVtat ano opyavtO'~ou~ Kat <puO'tKa stvm YEYOVO~ Ott nOAAoi KataVaArotE~ Sa ~taV anpo9u~ot vn yivouv nOAhE~ O'E O''XEO'11 ~E n~ u1tT)pEcriE~ Kat vn opaO'tT)ptonotT)Souv. Min xowrovto, O'tT)v onoia T) nAEto'l'T) <pia anOtEAEitat ano EVEPYOU~ OT)~OKpatE~ non cru~~EtE'XOUV, sivm anteaVT). To YEYOVO~ auto Sa ~a~ EKavE apKEta KUvtKOU~ yta vn uvnueroxdcouue to npO~AT)~a E1ttVOT)O'11~ ~ta~ OT)~oKpatia~ yta tOV Aiyo OKVT)PO, aAAa oX,t rooo

ZOU~£ errlonc os tva KOO~O rrou tX£I, olKaicvc; Kal xcvpiC; va ucc £KnA~oo£I, xoooccrel ana TIC; ourorrlec. H aAAay~ rrotrra va

elvo: crtorexeouorun. aAAO errlonc oTaOlaK~ xcn ~£ ou~nAr,pcv~aTIK~ ~op<p~ rrpoxautvou va apxio£l.

noAU OOO'tE vn 1ttO'tE'I'OU~E on stvm aAUto. Ilpoxsuisvou ru ato~a vn E'XOUV npay~a'ttK~ E~ouO'ia croix opyavtO'~ou~ OEV 'XpEta~Etat vn napaKoAouSOUV O'U:XVE~ cruvEOptaO'Et~. 'E'Xovta~ tT)V E1ttAOy~ vn OT)~toUpyouv UnT)pEO'iE~ yta tOU~ EaUtOU~ tOU~ otaA.Eyovta~ ~Eta~U npo~T)SEUtOOV (zopot zou aKOAOUSOUV tOV KataVaA.ro~), Ot zepiocorepot Sa npoO'naS~O'ouv va Kavouv KaAa nAT)po<popT)~EvE~ EntAoyE~. Av SErop~O'OUV Ott ~ta u1tT)pEcria sivm Kata<propa ~T) tKavonotT)nKll ~ 1tT)yaiVEt npo~ ~ta KatEU9uvO'11 non OEV tOU~ upeost, tOtE ~noponv vn aO'KllO'ouv to otKairo~a tT)~ napaitT)~~ tOU~ Kat vn navE

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 15

O'E Eva aAAo avtayroVtO''ttKO npO~T)SEU~. EmO'11~ etvm ntS~ T) nEpimroO'11 upxerot KataVaArotE~ vn etvat npoSu~ot va 'IfTI<pioouv yta aKn~tO'tE~ npoSu~ou~ vn UnT)pE~O'oUV O'E OtotKT)nKa O'oo~ata Kat vn tOU~ OooO'ouv EnapKll vouuioaotnon O'E O''XEO'11 ~ tOU~ ~Ovt~OU~ UnaAA~Aou~. H EntA.O~, 0 avtayrovtO'~o~ Kat T) 'tUntKll OT)~OKpanKll AoyoooO'ia O'E KataVaArotE~ ~nopouv vn SE~AtroSOUV O'E OT)~oO'ta 'XPT)~atOOOtOU ~EVE~ O'UAAOytKE~ u1tT)pEcriE~. To ~~tT)~a stvm av ~a~ EVOta<pEpEt apKEta vu E'XOU~E ~yaAUtEpT) EAsuSEpia O'E O''XEO'11 ~ tOU~ opyavtO'~ou~ nou ~a~ nEptopi~ouv Kat ~a~ EAEY'X0UV EVOO

E~<pavi~ovtat vu ~a~

U1tT)PEtOUV.

H aVttA.T)'IfTI EVO~ nAoupaAtO'ttKOU KpatOU~ Kat ~ta~ OT) ~OKP an KOnOt T) ~EVT) ~ Kotvrovia~ nou unovoetrm EOOO OEV etvm KatVOupyta. AvantU'XST)KE noAU nptv Ot

xoworvuce; aAAaYE~ ~nopEi toopa vu rnv KavOUV 1ttSa~, ano SEropT)nKOU~ onro~ 0 P.J. Proudhon, 0 G. D. H. Cole Kat 0 H. J. Laski, ~ta~u tT)~ oEKaEtia~ tOU 1840 Kat tT)~ OEKaEtia~ tOU 1920.4 Au~ T)

SEropia, nou ovo~a~Etat evoxncKll, Ei'XE KanOta a~xrIO'11 ytan <paVT)KE vn np0O'<pEpEt Eva tpito opo~o ~ta~U Ka1tttaAtO'~OU Kat 0' 0 0' t a A t 0' ~ 0 u. II E P t S roptonOt~ST)KE ano tOU~ ~yaAou~ nOAE~ou~ Kat n~ EvtOVE~ xotvrovtKE~ cruYKpOUO'E~ otn ~EO'a mrrou tOU atoova, ot oaots; EViO'X,UO'av n~ ouva~t~ tT)~ KEVtPtKll~ E~ouO'ia~ O'tO KpatO~-Eevo~. nmoO'o, onro~ E'XOU~ OEt, T) anEtA.~ tEtotrov nOAE~rov Kat KotVroVtKOOV cruyKPOUO'EroV E'XEt ~EtroSEi opa~anKa O't~ ava1t'tUY~EvE~ 'XOOPE~, Kat to KpatO~-ESVO~ E'XEt 'XaO'Et to ~ovonooAto tOU navro 0'tT) KU~EPVT)O'T). 'E'XOU~E toopa Eva OtKOVO~tKO Kat KOtVroVtKO cr6O"tT)~a zou

3 Associative Democracy, Polity, Cambridge 1994.

4 BA. D. Nicholls, The Pluralist State, (2r} EKcS.), Macmillan, AovcSivo 1995.

EXEt O"acpoo~ ~EnEpao"Et n~ A:Uo"Et~ 'tOU KAaO"tKOU cpwAEUSEPtO"IlOU, aUa oro onoio ot tOEE~ 'tTJ~ E9vtKOnotll!ffivrl~ tOtoK'tTJO"ia~ Kat nov unoXPErottKOOV KpattKOOV unllPEO"tOOV OEV npoO"cpEpOUV nAEOV Ilta EAKUO"'ttKit Kat a~tont- 0"'tTJ svaUaKnKit AUO"11.

ZOUIlE EniO"11~ O"E Eva KOO"IlO nou EXEt, otKairo~ Kat Xropi~ vn Ila~ EKnAT)o"o"Et, xoupcorst ano ru; ouroma; H aUayr1npEnEt vn etvm anO'tEAEO"llattKT), aAAa EniO"11~ O"'taOtaKit Kat IlE O"UllnAllprollanKit 1l0PCPT) npOKEtJ.1E-

vou vn aPxtO"Et. Ot avSpronot EXOUV xoupcorst ano n~ KOtVroVtKE~ Kat SEO"lltKE~ ava'tapaXE~, oXt uovo ano aU'tE~ nou npoT)ASav ano 'tt~ IlEyliAE~ Kat anO'tUX11IlEvE~ unOo"XEo"Et~ 'tTJ~ NEa~ dE~ta~. Ot avSpronOt IlnopEi va avayvropiO"ouv rn EAa't'toollatn rou napaoomaKOU ronou 0111l0Kpa'tia~ Kat vn nEtO"SouV

on 11 O"UIl~anKit KpanKit E~ouO"ia sivm Atyo'tEpo ano'tEAEO"llanKit vn A:UVEt npO~AT)lla'ta, aUa XPEtaSE-

'tat vn nEtO"SouV on ot aUaYE~ Sa stvm npo~ 'to KaA:U'tEpo. To IlEyaA:U'tEpo nAEOvEK'tlllla rorv npoO"naSEtOOV yta 0111l0KpanKonoillO"11 rov opyavtoudrv sivm on Ilnopouv va npoxropT)O"ouv O"'taOtaKa, SEO"IlO ava SEO"IlO Kat rousu ava rouse, ~'tTJV npaYllarucorrrro, Sa T)'tav O"XEOOV a8-6va'to vn EtO"axSouv au'tE~ Ot aUaYE~ IlE Ilta «EKPllK'ttKit» IlEtaPPUSllt- 0"11, KaSoo~ Sa O"UvEnayo'tav rov E~aVaYKaO"llo rrov Ka'tavaAro'toov va EntAE~Ouv, unoxpEoovov'ta~ roix; ouotnonxn vn EtO"EASouv O"E ESEAov'tt KE~ EVOOo"Et~. Mtu ptsoO"naO"'ttKit svaUaKnKit AUO"11 0"'tTJ O"XEO"11 IlE'ta~u Kpa'tOu~ Kat Kotvrovia~ Sa yiVEt anOOEKtT) uovo nv EXEt VOll1la O"E 'tOntKo EninEOO, O"E O"XEO"11 IlE O"UYKEKPtIlEVE~ O"'tpa'tllytKE~ SEO"lltKT)~ IlE'tapp'6SlltO"11~. Ilpoc 'to napov, 0

Kivouvo~ stvm on ot nOAt'ttKE~ Kat OtEU9uVnKE~ EAi't yivov'tat oAoEva Kat nEptO"O"o'tEPO mo ouoysvoaot- 11IlEvE~, IlE ano'tEAEO"lla Ot nOAhE~ va Illlv EXOUV EmAOyr1 Kat svaUaKttKE~ AUo"Et~ 0"'t0 unapxov ouornuo, H nOAt'ttKit E~ouO"ia refvet vn yiVEt Illl-Volltllll. KaSoo~ Ot llasE~ osv EXOUV Kallta EmAOyr1, ot EKAoyE~ OSV onuotvoov Kat noUa Kat Ssv EVtO"xUouv exstvou; Ot onoiot O"Xlllla'tisouv KU~EPV11- 0"11, aKolla Kat av EXOUV 'tTJV unOO"'tT)p~11 'tTJ~ IlEyaAll~ nAEtO-

Ka8cbc; 01 IJO~£C; O£V tXOUV KOIJ10 £TIlAOY~, 01 £KAoytc; O£V onuolvouv KOI TIOAAO KOI O£V

£VIOXUOUV exelvooc 01 OTIOiOI OXfllJOTi~ouv KUr>tpvflOfl, OKOIJO KOI ov tXOUV rnv UTIOOT~PI~fl TflC; IJ£YOAflC; TIA£I04JflCPioC; TOU

TUTIOU.

'I"1cpia~ rou ronou. H UnoPPll'tTJ Kat aV'tt-noAt'ttKit, aUa smrmcnKit, SEropia nEpi KU~Epvi)o"Ero~ Kat OtoiKllO"11~ nou napouO"taO"allE napanavro EXEt OtEtO"OUO"Et ~aSta O"'tTJv nOAt'ttKit 'ta~11· ~'tTJ NEa Z11Aavoia, yta napaOEtYlla, rn 8-60 llayaAa KOllllata anOOEX'tTJKav 't~ anO'l'Et~ yta 'to OtEU9uVnKO pol..o rou Kpa'tOu~, Kat 'to KotVO ~PES11KE xro pi~ Kallia EntAoyT). y napXEt Kivouvo~ au'to vn O"U Il~Ei Kat 0"'tTJ MayaAll Bperuvto, 'to EpyanKo KOlllla IlnopEi va yiVEt 'to 0Xlllla yta rou; VEO'tEPOU~, nEptO"O"o'tEPO EKAEn'tuO"IlEvOU~, 'tOIlEi~ 'tTJ~ otEu9uvnKit~ EAh. ~'to 'tEAo~, 11 tEpapxta yivE'tat xcrcvnYKaO"nKit yt' au'tou~ zou ~piO"KOvtm KoV'ta T) O"'tTJv KOPUCPT) 'tTJ~ 1tUpallioa~, EhE O"'tTJv KU~EPV11O"11 EhE O"n~ 011lloO"tE~ u1t1lpEcriE~ EhE O"E ermpstec, To Epya'ttKo KOlllla cpaivE'tat va EXEt napaxropT)o"Et oro

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 1 6

O"UV'tEXVtaKo rousn o,n OSV Sa ota'tapa~Et KaSoAou 'tll OtEUSuvnKit E~ouO"ia. Mzopsi vn OEt ro~ KaST)KOV rou 'tTJV mo ano'tEAEO"llanKit otaXEiptO"11 rrov 0111l00"irov U1t1lPEmOOV, npoO"cpEpov'ta~ Eva EAacppa mo nvoucro O"'tUA IlE'taKOAEK'tt~tO"'tt KT) ~ 011 lloO"ta~ otoiK11O"11~.

Ev IlEPEt 11 EntcpuAa~11 rou Epvnrucou xouuuro ; stvm otKatoAoY11IlEv,,: 0 KaKoo~ svVOOUIlSVO~ ptsoO"naO"nO"llo~ Sa Ilnopouo"E va 0011YT)O"Et O"E

EKAOytKit T)'t'ta. H ano'tEAEO"llanKit KU~EPV11O"11 ano Eva KOlllla zou Sev stvat ExSptKO oru; 011lloO"tE~ unllpEO"iE~ Sa T)'tav Eva ~EXroptO"'to OcpEAo~. AUa au'tT) 11 EntcpuAa~11 OCPEtAE'tat Kat 0"'t0 on EXEt xaO"Et 'tTJV tKaVo'tTJ'ta rou va cpaV'tasEtat on unapxouv aAAE~ ano'tEAEO"lla'ttKE~ svaUaKnKE~ tOEE~. AnooE-

X'tllKE n~ OtEUSUVnKE~ tOEE~ nEpi KU~Epvi)o"Ero~ EnEtOT) ru; SEroPEi anO'tEAEO"lla'ttKE~ Kat npaK'ttKE~. ~E uu r o svSappuvSllKE ano noUa

IlEAll rou zou stvnt ru iota OtEUSUV'tE~. H llaX11 yta 'tTJv 'lfUxfI rev EpyanKoov Ssv etvat nAEov autT) IlE'ta~u O"omaAtO"'toov Kat npaYllanO"'tOOV, aUa autT) IlE'ta~u OtEUSUV'tOOV Kat nurdrv zou ntO"'tEUOUV Ott IlnopOUVE vn napEXOUV KaAU'tEPE~ u1t1lpEcriE~ J.1EO"ro 'tTJ~ EUPU'tEPll~ 0111l0Kpana~.]

* To napoov KEtJ.lEVO ano'tEAT) J.1EPO~SVO~EK'tSVEO"'tEpOUEpyOU.

H KOINCNIKOnOIHIH TOY KOINCNIKOY KPATOYI*

y no~aAAro rnv tOEa on O'KIHp'to~a()"'tE 'to O'uYXpovo K01VrovtKO Kpa'to<; ro<; Eva crUO''tfl~a EevlKOnotll~EvfI<; otavo~it<;. Opiouevn ~acrtKa xoworvucu ayaSa EXOUV anoO'naO''tEi ano 'tOY tOlro'tlKO EAEYXO it ano 'tOY anOKAEtcrnKo tOtronKo EAEYXO Kat napEXOV'tllt 'tcbpa ota VO~OU O'E OAOU<; (it O'E Eva unocrUvoAo ano) roi»; nOAhE<; Kat 'tOU<; Ka'toiKOU<;. H olavo~it xpll~a'tOOO'tEhat ano Oll~OO'toU<; nopou<; Kat opynvdrverm ano Oll~omou<; a~lro~a'tOuxou<;. An'to napaOEty~a anO'tEAEi II KotVrovtKit acr<paAtcrfl. Ka'ta 'to napEASov, 0 tOtro'tlKO<; 'tO~Ea<; nouAouO'E aO'cpaAEta Yitpa'tO<; Kat O'uv'ta~Et<; O''tOU<; IlnpE<; Kat 'tl<; yuva-

iKE<; nou ~nopouO'av vn nAllPcbO'ouv 'ta aO'cpaAtO''tpa. l:it~Epa avaAa~~aVEt 'to Kpa'tO<;, ~a~EuEt rn aO'cpaAtorpu ~ 'tfI ~opcpit oopou Kat Eyyua'tat n<; cruv'ta~El<;. To ~PE'tavtKO EevtKO crUO''tfl~a uyda<; AEt'tOUpyd ~E napo~ow 'tpono. To Kpa'to<;, Xropi<; vn Ka'tapYEi 'tOY tOtronKo rouso, OpyavcbVEt

Kal O'E ~yaAo ~aS~o EAEYXEt 'tfI Otavo~it 'tfI<; cppov'tioa<; yta 'tfIv uYEia, EYYUcb~o Eva EAaXtO''to EninEoo cppovnoa<; yta 6A.ou<;.

To xoworvuco Kpa'to<;, tOro~Evo ~E u u r o 'tOY r p o n o , e i v u t nsptccorspo ouceio ano 00'0 Sa unopouoe OtacpopE'tlKa vc stvm, H ESVtKOnOtll~Evll otavo~it Em~auEt 'tfI crUYKPlcrfl ~E 'tfIV E9vtKOnotll~ napayroyft, Eva K01VO xapaK'tllptO'nKo 'tll<; Euprona'iKit<; uv OXt 'tfI<; cuspucrvtKit<; nOAtnKit<; oucovouiuc. H EmXEtPll~a'toAoyia uou nEptEXE'tat ouotno-nxn O'E aU'tit 'tll

eo l)nO~OAACU T'1V 10tO OTI TO npO~A~IJOTO TOl) KOIVCUVIKOU KPOTOl)C; TO tXEI npOKOTOAO~EI, KOVOVTOC; TO ~0'1 OVTIKEilJEVO

KPITIKOU OTOXOOIJOU, '1 OOOIOAIOTIK~ OIOIJOX'1 VIO T'1V ({E8vIKOnoi'1o'1», tOTCU KOI OV TO ~'1TOUIJEVO OE Ol)T~ T'1 OIOlJax'1 ~TOV KOI E~OKOAOl)8Ei VO EivOI 01 nopOVCUVIKtc; rrcoo 01 OIOVEIJ'1TIKtC; OPOOT'1PIOT'1TEC;.

O'uYKptO'll. Ilpoxsrrm yta ~ta EntXEtPll~a'toAoyia n o u avanwO'O'E'tat Ka't' avaAoyiav. ea uno~auro 'tfIV tOEa on rn npo~Ait~a'ta rou KotVroV1KOU Kpa'tou<;

MICHAEL WALZER

rn EXEt npoKa'taAa~Et, KUvov'ta<; rn it0ll uvruceiusvo KPt'tlKOU O''toxaO'~ou, II O'ocrtaAtO''tlKit Ola~aX'1 yta'tflV «E9vtKonoillcrfl», Ecr'tro Kat cv 'to ~ll'tou~evo O'E au'tft 'tfI ota~aX'1 it'tav Kat E~aKoAouSEi vn stvm ot napayroytKE<; napa ot OtaVE~ll'ttKE<; opaO''tflptO'tfl'tE<;.

H a1toaaqnlvuJ''l TIl; avaAoyia;

H E9vtKOnotll~ Otavo~it oev Eivat npocpavcb<; vEa otaotKaO'ia.

To Kpa'tO<; onro<; 'to yvropi~ou~ EAKEl 'tfIv Ka'tayroyft ron ano 'tfIv EevtKOnoillcrfl 'tfI<; aO'mvo~tKit<; zpoorcota<; Kat 'tfI<; O''tpanronKit<; aO'cpaA.eta<;, II Otavo~it rov ortoiorv oro cpEouOapXtKO

KaSEO''tcb<; it'tav tOtronKit. Ot nAEov npoO'cpa'tE<; E9vtKOnotitO'Et<; Eywav O'E ~apo<; r orv Kant'taAtO''ttKcbv Survoudrv it rorv olavo~cbv ~EO'ro 'tfI<; ayopa<; - Xropi<; roorooo vn unocrKEAi~ouv OU'tE 'tOY Kam'taAtcr~o OU'tE

rrtv ayopa. H otaotKaO'ia xapaK'tllpi~E'tat ano ~ta anEptOptcr'tfl notKtA.ia, oton aKO~ll Kat uv Sev unapXEt

napa uovo nEpwptO'~Evo<; aptS~o<; ayaScbv zou II Otavo~it rou; Sa unopouoe mSavov va ESVtKOnOtllSEi, OEV unapXEt KavEva opto orouq 'tponou<; ~E

'To KEi~EVO ron M. Walzer, Socializing the Welfare State, nEptAa~pavE'tat orn Cn>MOY11 Amy Gutmann (en.), Democracy and the Welfare State, Princeton University Press, 1988. AnoooO'Tl O'La EMTlVtKa E~~avou"A.AYYEA.ioTlC;·

rou; ozotou; 01 E9vlKOn01TJ~EvE<; 01aVO~S<; 9a ~nopouO'av vn opyav0090uv OU'tE oro nA:fJ90<; rorv aV9poonoov yta rou; onotou; 9a ~nopoUO'E vn etvoi EYYUTJ~EvTJ TJ

napoxit rou EVO<; it ron UA.A.OU aya90u. 01 nEplO'O'O'tEPE<; E9vlKonolitO'eu; OEV etvm napu ~P1KS<; Ka9oo<; TJ Kpa'tlKTJ 01avO~it O'uvunupXE1 ~E UA.A.E<; ~opq>s<; 01aVE~TJnKit<; opaO''tTJpl0'tTJ'ta<; - onoo<; TJ

OTJ ~OO'la EKnaioEuO'TJ, TJ ozoin av xm sivm EYYUTJ~SVTJ yta OA.ou<; rou; nOA.l'tE<; O'UvunuPXE1 ~E 'tTJV 101oo'tlKTJ.

To E9vlK010pu~a Av9poonlO''tlKOOV ~nouooov (National Endowment for the Humanities) etvm ~la wmKTJ, av Kat itO'O'ovo<; O'TJ~acria<;, u1tTJPEO'ia rou K01VooVlKOU KPU'tOU<;: 01avS~1 nopou<; nou OEV stvm napu O'U~nA.TJPoo~a'tlKoi Ullrov 01avO~OOV, ~P1KS<; ano 't1<; ozote; stvm q>tA.av9poonlKS<; xm ~EP1KS<; O''tTJpi~OVml O"tTJv ayopu. 00''t00'0, ~nopou~ va nou~ O'tl TJ unoO''titp~TJ npo<; 't1<; av9poommlKS<; O'nouos<; ano'tEA.Ei O'it~pa E9vlKonpoypa~~a.

H avunw~TJ Kat TJ EnSK'taO'TJ uur div t mv npoypa~~u'toov SXOUV npoxoopitO'ElnEplO'O'O'tEPO O'E OP10'~EvE<; XOOPE<; ano 00'0 O'E !lUE<;, aUu 9a it'tav O'q>aA.~a va 'ta~lvo~itO'OU~E 'tl<; XOOPE<; ~UO'El EVO<; uovuduco» O'UVEXOU<;, O'u~noo<; TJ E9vtKonoiTJO'TJ vn SXEl Kunota avaYKaia ~opq>it it utn A.OY1Kit Ka'tUA.TJ~TJ. Ku9E K01VooVlKO KPU'tO<; SXEl 'tTJ

01Kit rou io-roptu xm, un09s't00, 'to 01KO rou nEnpoo~o. Ouox, TJ E9vlKOnoiTJO'TJ napuYEl uno O'UYXPOVE<; O'UV9itKE<; sva xapaK'tTJplO''tlKO crUVOA.O 01avE~TJ'tlKOOV pu9~iO'EooV:

KEV'tP1KTJ 010iKTJO'TJ, vso nupitva oTJ~oO'ioov unaUitA.oov Kat Eva A.1YO noA.u 0~010~Opq>0 KooolKa

xevovrov Kat pu9~iO'Eoov. OO'ooitnots ~EP1KS<; Kat av efvm 01 pu9~iO'El<;, oro ~a9~0 nou sivm Kpa'tlKS<; pu9~iO'E1<;, 9a opyavoo- 90uv xm 9a EA.Eyx90uv ~UO'El

K68E KOIVCUVIKO KpClTOe; EXEI Til 01- K~ TOU roroplo KOI, orroecrco. TO OIKO TOU nEnpCUIJEVO. 'OIJCUe;, 11 E8vIKOnoil1ol1 nop6YEI uno oUYXPOVEe; OUV8~KEe; EVO XOPOKTI1PIOTIKO OUVOAO OIOVEIJI1- TIKWV pu8IJiOECUV.

exetvou nou 9a ~nopouO'a~E va O'KEq>'tOU~E 00<; ~E~nEplavo nA.aiO'1o, crU~q>oova ~ OP10'~0 «Op90A.oytKO/VO~lKO» tOEOOOE<;. To K01VooVlKO KPU'tO<; EivalnpOO'ta an' oA.a KPU'tO<;. 01 anoOSK'tE<; 'tTJ<; npovola<; ~piO'KOv'tal O'E avaYKaia O'XSO'TJ ~E 'to KPU'tO<;, ~la O'XSO'TJ nou ~EO'OA.a~Ehal ano 'tTJV Kpa'tlKTJ ypaq>ElOKpana.

'Erm, TJ E9vtKonoiTJO'TJ 'tTJ<; 01avO~it<; eivm wnlKU nap!lUTJA.TJ

Orroro KI OV EivOI OIJCUe; 11 EKTOOI1 KOI 0 R>08IJOe; Tile; E8vIKOnoiI1011e;, TO XOPOKTI1PIOTIKO Tile; vvcooloucro EnOVEIJCPovi~oVTOI KOVOVIKO:

OUYKEVTpOnOII1IJEVOe; EAEYXOe;,

YPOCPEIOKPOTio, OIJOIOIJOPCPI1 pU81J10I1.

~E 'tTJv E9vlKOnoiTJO'TJ 'tTJ<; napayooyTJ<;. A~q>O'tEPE<; nEplKA.Eiouv rnv avuA.TJ'IfTI opaO''tTJPlo'tit'tooV ano 'to KPU'tO<;, Spuornptornrcov zou ~piO'Kov'tav npoom E~OA.oKA.itpou O'E 101oo'tlKU xSpla. H napayooyTJ, onoo<; aKpl~OO<; xm TJ olavo~it,

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 18

~nopEi vn ~'ta'tpanEi O'E E9vlKO npoypa~~a zou 'to olaXElp~oV'tat xpurucot a~loo~a'touxol ~E EnsvouO'TJ KEq>aA.aiou n o u nposPXE'tal, av stvm avaYKaio,

ano rou; eopoi»; Krrvsva

ano au'tu 'ta npoypu~~a'ta OEV SXEl avaYKaia ~opq>it OU'tE npoola'tE'tay~SVTJ Ka'taA.TJ~TJ. Dnoo<; aKpl~OO<; eivm ouva'to vn aVaA.U~El 'tTJ

01avO~it rou EVO<; K01VooVlKOU aya90u aUu 0Xl rou !lUou, S'tO'l stvm ouva'to va avaA.U~El 'tTJ ~la ~10~TJxavia xm vn aq>itvEl avsY'YlX'tTJ 'tTJV

!lUTJ - rov xaA.u~a Kal0X1 ru XTJ~lKU, rn XTJ~lKU Kat 0Xl rov xUA.u~a. Kat onoo<; ~E

Ku9E OEOO~EvO aya90 S'tO'1 Kat ~E Ku9E OEOO~EvTJ ~10~TJxavia, TJ E9vlKOnoiTJO'TJ etvm YEV1KOO<; a'tEA.it<;: xcvsvc napUnA.EUpO E~nOOlo 0''tTJ ~lKpit<; KA.i~aKa<; (~plKS<; q>ops<; aKO~TJ xm 0''tTJ ~yUA.TJ<; KA.i~aKa<;) EmXE1PTJ~a'tlKTJ opaO''tTJpl0'tTJ'ta - A.·X· O''tTJv EK1taioEUO'TJ it O"tTJv uyEia, otn XTJ~lKU it orov xUA.u~a. Dnota Kl av efvrn O~oo<; TJ SK'taO'TJ Kat 0

~a9~0<; 'tTJ<; E9vlKOnoiTJO'TJ<;,

'ta xapaK'tTJplO''tlKU 'tTJ <; yvoopiO'~a'ta EnavE~q>avi~ovrm KavOVlKU: O'UYKEV'tpO-

n01TJ~Evo<; SA.EYX0<;, ypaq>Eloxpur tu, 0~010~Opq>TJ pU9~1O'TJ.

Av TJ E9vlKOn01TJ~SVTJ olavo~it xapaK'tTJpi~El 'to K01VooV1KO KPU'tO<;, TJ E9vtKon01TJ~ napayooyTJ xapaK'tTJP~El, it unE'tieE'tO KunO'tE on xapaK'tTJpi~El, 'to

0'00'1aA.10''tlKO KPU'tO<;. 01 Bempnrucoi ron O'oO'laA.lO'~OU OEV A.SVE 'tino'ta

O"XE06v yta 'tTJ 01avO~it. Iliorsunv onrv av yivouv op9u olnapayooytKS<; pu9~iO'El<; 9a anOKa'tama- 90uv a~sO'oo<; 01 01aVE~TJ'tlKS<; pu9~iO'El<;. ~u~q>oova ~ rov Marx «TJ EKUO''tO'tE olavo~it rov ~sO'oov Ka'taVUA.ooO'TJ<; OEV stvm napu

cruvEnEUl rou ... iotou rou rponou napaycoyi)~» . Kntd zsptspvo rposto, nv Kat ot O'omaA.tcnE~ ornv E~ouO'ia Eixav noA.U llEyaA;U'tEP11 Entmxia orov E9vtKOnotOuO'av 'tll OtavOIJ.i) an' 00'0 onrv E9vtKOnot-

ouorrv 't11v napaycoyi), 11 9Ecopia nO'tE OEY npo<p'taO'E rnv nOAmKi} npaYIJ.anKO't11- 'tao H napaycoyT) E~aKOAou9- ei vn EXEt'tllV npO'tEpatO'tll'ta Ka't' apxflv Kat 'to EntxEip11- IJ.a yta n~ apE'tE~ 't11~ E9vtKonoi11O"ll~ E~aKoAou9Ei vn EO''ttU~E'tat crnv napaycoytKi} Spuornptorrrru. 'Eva~ auo~ A6yo~ yta au'ti)v rnv EO''tiaO'11 stvm ~E~ata 11 ano'tuxia EAEUO'11 ~ rou O'omaAtO'IJ.OU IJ.E 'tOY EAeYXO 'tll~ ~toIJ.11Xavia~. H E9vtKOnot11,...,sv" napaycoyi) uni)p~E IJ.eyuA11 anoyoi)'tEUO"ll. ea E~11yT)O'co 'tll <puO'11 au'ti)~ 'tll~ anoyoi)'tEUO"ll~ Kat EnEt'ta 9a O''tpa<poo O'n~ avuAoYE~ aAAu IJ.tKpO'tEPE~ anoyo11'te6O'E~ 'tll~ E9vtKOnot11IJ.EVll~ OtavOIJ.i)~.

~ E V e i vat 11 a v anO'tEAeO'IJ.anKO'tll'ta EKEiVll non EKavE anoyo11'tEunKi} rnv E9vtKOnot11,...,sv" napaycoyT). Ot KpanKE~ ~toIJ.11XaviE~ OEY etvm (ern ~UO"ll) AtyO'tEPO ano'tEAEO'IJ.a'ttKE~ O'E O'11IJ.aVnKO ~a9IJ.0 an' 00'0 ot tOtCOnKE~ ~to IJ.11XaviE~. IIpuYIJ.an, 'ta npo~Ai)IJ.a'ta aIJ.<pO'tEpCOV Kat ot Ent06O'E~ rou; anEvavn O'E au'tu rn npo~Ai)IJ.a't<l OEY u1ti}p~av EY'tEAro~ Ota<p0pEnKu. Ftn napUOEtYIJ.a, 0 ~PE'tavtKO~

Kat 0 aIJ.EptKavtKO~ XUAu~a~ EyvooptO'av avuAoY11 n'tooO"ll

yta napOIJ.Otou~ A6you~. H EUEt'l'11 otEu9uvnKi}~ EntXEtp11- IJ.anKO't11'ta~ U1ti}P~E iO'co~ Eva~ ano n~ A6you~ O'E aIJ.<pO'tEpE~ 't~ x e p t a r o c e t c , I'vu r t v n cruIJ.nEpt<pEp90uv Ota<popEnKU ot O'UAAOytKoi Kat ot xpurucoi OtEU9uV'tE~ zou cnpa'toAoyouv'tat

ano n~ iOtE~ KotVCOvtKE~ OIJ.UOE~ Kat unOKEtv'tat O'E 'tau'toO'11IJ.a ouourcmxri xtvnrpu Kat zsptoptO'IJ.OU~; AvaIJ.<pi~oAa, ot ouva'to'tll'tE~ yta EntXEtp11IJ.anKi} npmro~ouAia etvm IJ.EyaA.U'tEPE~ orov

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 19

anoyoi)'tEuO'11·

OU'tE Kat 11 EIJ.nEtpia rov Epya'tOOv om KpanKU Epyocnuma Eivat EY'tEAOO~ Ota<popEnKi} Kat a<pou 11 E9vtKOnoi11O"ll uno'tieE'tat on EXEt yiVEt yta AoyaptaO'IJ.O rov

Epya'tOOv, aU'to ano'tEAei IJ.ta npoO'9E't11 anoyoi)'tEuO'11. Ilotn efvm 11 ota<popu nv 'to a<pEYnKO stvm 011IJ.OO'to~ unau11Ao~ i) O''tEAeXO~ 'tll~ E1ttXEip11O'11~; 1O'co~, xnr' apxu~, vc sivm O'11IJ.avnKi} 11 Ota<popu, a<pou ot EPyU'tE~ sivm EniO"ll~ Kat 'I'11<po<popot Kat E'tm unopouv vn nupouv

IJ.EpO~ ornv EntAoyT) rou a<pEYnKOU roix. AUu 11 nOAmKi} anoO''taO'11 stvm

nOAu IJ.EyaA11 : exstvo non Ka't' apxflv etvct aA119E~ stvm aO'i)IJ.aV'tO npaKnKu. H ano'tEAeO'IJ.anKi} aAuO'ioa 'tll~ ote69uvO"ll~ Kat 11 Ka911IJ.Eptvi) EIJ.nEtpia 'tll~ tEpapX,ia~ OEY aUu~ouv rooo nOAU ano 'to YEYOVO~ rov nEptOOtKOOV E9vtKOOV EKAoyOOV. Ot crX,EO'E~ napaycoyT)~ OEY EXOUV IJ.E't<lcrxrtIJ.a'ttO'9Ei. H EpyaO'ia orn ypaIJ.IJ.i) napaycoyT)~ O'E IJ.ta E9vtKOnot11,...,sv" ~toIJ.11xa-

via OEY etvoi nEptO'O'o'tEPO cruvapnaO'nKi} i) Ent9uIJ.11'ti) ano 't11V EpyaO'ia O''t11 ypaIJ.IJ.i) napaycoyi)~ IJ.ta~ tOtCOnKi)~ ~toIJ.11xavia~. Oruv 0 EPYU'tll~ unoAO~Et ru KOO''t11 Kat 'ta O<PEA11 ron, 11 E9vtKonoi11O"ll ouO'KoAa EPXE'tat O'E AoyaptaO'IJ.o.

nau'to Kat 11 O''t<l9Epi) aptO''tEpi) KptnKi) O''t11V E9vtKOnot11,...,sv" napaycoyT) ~aiVEt co~ aKoAou9co~. EKEiVO zou EixaIJ.E Ka'tu YOU i)'tav O''t11v npaYIJ.anKo'tll't<l

01 SEU)PIlTIKoi TOU OOOIOAIOI...IOU OEV AEVE TinOTO OXEOOV VIO Til 010- VOI...I~. niOTEUOV OTOV OV vlvouv opS6 01 nopoVU)VIKEe; PUSl...liOEIe; So onoKoTooTOSOUV OI...lEOU)e; 01 OIOVEI...IIlTIKEe; PUSl...liOEIe;.

tOtCOnKO 'tOIJ.Ea. AUu Kat EKEi aU'tE~ U<piO''t<lV'tat ern optn Kat 0X,t O''tO KEV'tPO, Oxt O''t11 ~aptu ~toIJ.11xavia OU'tE ern IJ.EyuAa O'UAAOytKU O'UIJ.nAEyIJ.a'ta. AvaIJ.<pi~oAa, ot npoonnKE~ yta KOtVCOVtKi) Eu9uV11 Kat IJ.aKponp09EO'IJ.0 crX,EOtaO'IJ.O stvm KaA.U'tEpE~ ornv KpanKi} ~toIJ.11xavia. EXEt OIJ.CO~ anooEtx9Ei ouva'to vn Ent~A119Ei 11 unEu9uvo'tll'ta Kat va OtaIJ.0p<pco90uv O'XEOta EKEi

AVOl...lcpi~OAO, 01 OUVOTOTIlTEe; VIO ETIlXEIPIlI...IOTIK~ rrocoropooxlo EivOI I...IEVOAUTEpEe; OTOV 101u)TIKO TOI...IEO. AM6 KOI EKEi OUTEe;

UcpiOTOVTOI OTO OPIO KOI OXI OTO KEVTPO, OXI OTIl ~OPIO ~IOl...Illxovio OUTE OTO I...IEVOAO OUAAOVIKO OUl...lnAEVI...IOTO.

onou unupXEt 11 9EA110"ll xcopi~ 'tllv E9vtKonoi11O"ll. l:'t0 KMPO, O''tO cr'6yxpOVO pU9IJ.tcrnKO KPU'tO~, 11 E9vtKOnot11IJ.Ev11 napaycoyT) OEY stvm O"llIJ.avnKU Ota<p0pEnKi} ano rnv totconKi} napaycoyT) - Kat O'E au'to 'to onusio <pumKu EyKEt'tat 11

11 KOtvCOVtKOnOt11IJ.EV11 napaycoyi). H npaYIJ.a'ttKi) EYaUaKnKi} AUO"ll O"'tT}V tOtco'ttKi} otaxEiptO'11 stvut 11 uut ootaXEiptO"ll, 0 EpyanKo~ EAeYXO~, IJ.ta cr'6YXPOVll EKooxfl rou cruvOtKaAtO'IJ.OU - yta'ti 11 O''ta9Epi) KpmKi} avaKE<paAatOOVEt noUu

ano exetvu nou unoO"'titp~av EOOO Kat nollt~ OEKaE'tiE~ ot O"UVOtKaA.tO"'tE~, ot O"UV'tEXVtaKOi O"OO"taA.tO"'tE~ Kat aA.A.ot nA.OUpaA.tO"'tE~ xprnxot 'tOU Kpa'tOU~. IIpOKEt~Evon vn nUa;Et TJ E~nEtpia 'tTJ~ napaycorfl~, OEV apKEi vn aVaA.a~Et 'tTJ OtaotKacria 'to E9vo~ it 'to Kpa'tO~. IIpEnEt vn avaA.a~OUV ot iOtot ot napaycoyoi. Tu Ka9itKov'ta

'tTJ~ otaXEiptO"TJ~ npEnEt vn ru EXOUV ano KOWOU ot tiv'tPE~ Kat ot yuvaiKE~ 'tTJ~ ypa~~it~ napaycorfl~ it ot OtEUeuV'tE~ npEnEt vn EAEYXOV'tat ano au'tou~. ~ta<popEnKa sxstvo nou evrstverm slvm TJ Kpa'ttKit E;ouO"ia Kat OXt TJ E;ouO"ia'tou A.aou.

~EV npOKEt'tat vn nxoA.ou9ito"co au'tftv rnv E1ttXEtPTJ~a'toA.oyia zspmrspm. ea E1ttO"TJ~avoi uovo on au'tft TJ KpmKit 'tTJ~ E9vtKOnOtTJ~EVTJ~ napaycoyit~ ava<pEpE'tat EniO"TJ~ Kat O"'tTJv nEpin'tcoO"TJ 'tTJ~ E9vtKOnotTJ~~ Otavo~it~. H anoyoit'tEUO"TJ ~E~ata OEV etvm iOta. H KpanKit otavo~it rov KotVCOVtKOOV aya900v napaoioEt npay~an 'ta aya9a - O"E noA.u nEptO"O"o'tEPOU~ av9poonou~ ano 00"0 TJ tOtCOnKit otavo~it EXEt Ka'top9ooO"Et nO'tE Kat ~E noA.U ~EyaA.U'tEPTJ 0"'ta9EpO'tTJ'ta Kat O"UvEnEta. ~E Opto"~EVTJ EK'taO"TJ, TJ E~nEtpia trov anOOEK'tOOV 'tTJ~ npovota~ EXEt npay~a'tt ~E'ta~A.TJ9Ei. ~it~Epa, o,n A.a~~avouv OEV 'to A.a~~avouv ~E 'tTJ ~op<pit 'tTJ~ napaooO"taKit~ zpovoun; (charity) Kat 'tTJ~ noblesse oblige nUa ~ 'tTJ ~op<pit VO~tKOU OtKatOO~a'to~ Kat 'to A.a~~avouv OXt co~ anopot nUa co~ nOA.i'tE~.

o ~E'taO"XTJ~a'ttO"~o~ O~co~ OEV etvor napa ~PtKO~ ytan stvm EniO"TJ~ aA.TJ9E~ on rn naA.ta npo'tuna E;ap'tTJO"TJ~ EXOUV

avaO"UO"'ta9Ei co~ ven npowna noA.mKit~ nEA.a'tEia~. Ot tOtOO'tE~ Otavo~i~ EXOUV av'ttKa'taO"'ta9Ei (Kat ot A.Et'toupyiE~ EXOUV ava~<pi~oA.a ~EA. 'ttco9Ei) ano roi»; Kpa'ttKOU~ a;tco~a'touxou~, nUa

L~IJEPO, O,TI AOIJr>aVOUV OEV TO AOIJr>aVOUV IJE TIlIJOPCP~ Tile; nOpOOOOIOK~e; npOVOIOe; (charity) KOI Tile; noblesse oblige OAAa IJE Til IJOPCP~ VOIJIKOU OIKOI<:.0IJOTOe; KOI TO AOIJr>aVOuv OXI (J.)e; anOPOI OAAa (J.)e; rroxlrsc.

exetvo zou 9a ~nopouo"E vn anOKATJ9Ei npovotaKit O"XEO"TJ OEV EXEt E;a<pavtO"'tEi. H 9EO"TJ rov ~t0"9co'toov Epya'toov, aKO~TJ Kat rov O"XEnKa KaKOnA.TJPCO~EvCOV Epya'tOOv, EXEt EvtO"xu9Ei Kat 0"'ta9EpOnotTJ9Ei. AUa ot nAEov <p'tcoxoi nOA.hE~, ot tlvEPYot Kat ot a~oit9TJ'tot, OEV stvm O"E O"TJ~avruco ~a9~0 mo avE;ap'tTJ'tot, mo unEU9uvot, mo ucrvoi vn Ota-

AAAa 01 nAEOV cpT(J.)xoi nOAiTEe;, 01 aVEPVOI KOI 01 Or>0~9IlTOI, OEV EivOI OE OIlIJOVTIKO r>o91J0 TIlO OVE~apTIlTOI, TIlO unEu9uvOI, TIlO IKovoi va 0IOIJOpcp<:.000UV Til ~(J.)~ TOUe; KOI va OUlJnpa~OUV OTO KOIVO EPVO TOU nOAiTIl (citizenship). Arro EO<:.0 orrooota

KOI 11 orrovonrsocn IJOe; Via TO

KOIV(J.)VIKO xooroc.

~oP<POOO"OUV 'tTJ ~coit rou; Kat vn O"U~npa;ouv oro KotVO EPYO ron noA.i'tTJ (citizenship). Ano EOOO anoppEEt Kat TJ anoyoit'tEUcrft ~a~

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 20

ym 'to KotVCOVtKO Kpa'to~. 0 o"Kono~ 'tTJ~ E9vtKOnOtTJ~EVTJ~ otavo~it~ it'tav va ~a~ anEAEu9EpOOO"Et ano Ka9E nEpt't'tft xu t E;EU'tEA. t o rt Kit uo p <Pit av9poo1ttVTJ~ E;ap'tTJO"TJ~. ~it~Epa

~E'tpa~E 'tTJV npoooo ron KOWCOvtKOU Kpa'tOu~ - nUa OEV ~nopou~E vn ~E'tpitO"OU~E 'tTJV E1ttwxia 'tou - ano rov au;avo~o apt9~0 rorv E;ap'tco~EvcoV zou 0

Ka9E Epya~o~o~ noA.i'tTJ~ npEnEt vn O"'tTJpi~Et Kat O"E noUou~ nOA.i'tE~ au'tE~ 'tt~ ~EPE~ 0 apt9~0~ <paivE'tat a<poPTJ'to~.

H anoyoit'tEUO"TJ nntpvst Kat ~ta aUTJ (O"Uva<pit;) ~op<pit. H E9vtKOnotTJ~EvYJ Otavo~it unon9E'to on E;E<ppa~E ~ta evvota rou E9vtKOU Kpa'tou~ co~ KotVo'tTJ'ta~ 'tay~~ orou; nOA.i'tE~ 'tTJ~ - it aKpt~EO"'tEpa co~ KotVo'tTJ'ta~ non EXEt 0"U0"'ta9Ei ano nOA.hE~ 'tay~Evou~ 0 Eva~ orouq aUou~. To KotVCOVtKO Kpa'to~ EYWE vonro co~ O"uO"'tTJ~anKit ~op<pit a~ot~aia~ apcoyit~, avnKa9tO"'toov'ta~ n~ ~TJ O"UO"'tTJ~a-

nKE~ (Kat ava;tOntO"'tE~) ~OP<PE~ nou npounltPxav. Iltoro ano aU'tit rnv aV'ttA.TJ\jITJ ~piO"Kov'tat OptO"~E~ ioropuce; anEtKOvio"E~ nou EPxov'tat OA.OEVa Kat nEptO"O"O'tEPO O"E av'ti9EO"TJ ~E EKEiVE~ n~ anEtKOvio"E~ nou ~piO"Kov'tat niO"co ano rnv tOEa roo O"oO"taA.tO"~ou. Ot O"oO"taA.tO"'tE~ EntOtOOKOUV vn Bscuonouicouv Kat vn Sunorvtoouv 'to na90~ 'tTJ~ EnavaO"'tanKit~ OEo"~EUO"TJ~, r qv aA.A.TJA.EYyUTJ 'tTJ~ anEpytaKit~ O"Uvav'tTJO"TJ~ it

'tTJ~ noA.mKit~ OtaoitA.coO"TJ~. Oi itpCOE~ roue OEV stvm 't00"0 noM Epya'tE~ zou

Epya~ov'tat co~ Epya'tE~ nou ( O"UV )ano<paO"i~ouv yta 'to noo~ 9a EpyaO"'touv. 'Eva E9vtKOnotTJ~EvO epyoornoto zou 'to OtaXEtp~oV'tat

ypacpE10Kpa'w; OEV a1tO'tEAEi Ka90AOU 'to O'COO''tO O'KllV1KO. A1tEVav'tim;, 01 U1tEpaO'1t1O"tE~ 'tOU K01VCOVlKO'O Kpa'tOU~ E1t101roKOUV va 9EO'~01t01110'0UV 't1l crU~CPU't1l O''tll O'UAAOY1K11 KpiO'l1

apcoY11, 'to 1tVE'O~a 'tll~ a~01~a10'tll'ta~ 1tOU avacp'OE'ta1 ~E'ta~'O rrov 1tOA1'troV 1tOU avn~E'tco1ti-

~ouv ~1a 1tAll~~'Opa 11 ~1a Ka'ta1yioa 11 aKo~l1 ~1a EX9p1K11 E1tieEO'l1. 'BXE1 E11tco9Ei on 11 ~pE'taV1K1l 9Ecopia ron K01VCOV1KO'O Kpa'tOU~ avao'0911KE a1to 't~ O''taX'tE~ 'tOU «KEpaUVO~OAOU 1tOAE~OU» (blitz). 01 11PCOE~

'tOU OEV stvm 01 0i80V'tE~ EAEll~ocrUVll aUa av'tpE~ Kat yuvaiKE~ 1tOU 'tEtVOUV XEtpa ~0119Eia~ ~'ta~'O aU11Acov. M1a 'taxuopO~1K11 E1t1'taY11, 1tapon sivct 1tOA'O O'l1~av't1K11, OEV 9ECOPEhat Ka90AOU O'1touoaia.

A~ OAOKAllProO'CO rnv avaAoyia: EKEiVO 1tOU Eixa~E 1tpay~a't1 Ka'ta YOU 11'tav 11 K01VCOVlK01t0111~ 01avo~11. 0

1tPO't1~l1'tEO~ 01aooxo~ 101conK11~ cp1Aav9pco1tia~ stvm 11 O'UUOY1K1l apcoY1l - 1tOU a1tO'tEAEi 'to EPYO 0X1 ~OVO rmv ypacpE10Kpa'trov 1tOU ~OOEUOUV 'ta xp11~a'ta rorv cpOpOAoyOU~COV, aUa E1tiO'11~ Ka1 rorv 1tOA1'troV 1tOU «~OOE'OOUV» 'to xpOVO 'tOU~ Ka1 rnv EVEpYE1a roue, QO''tOO'O, OEV stvct EUKOAO vn 1tO'O~ aKp1~ro~ rt 1tEplliXE1

au'to.

ME rt 9a ~01a~E1 Eva

K01VCOV1K01t0111~0 K01VCOVlKO Kpa'tO~; ea ~1tOpO'Oonus vn O'KECP'tO'O~ Y1' au'to

~E ~aO'11 'to crUv911~a «11 E~ouO'ia croix 01avO~Ei~», avaAoya ~ 'to 1taA10 0'00'1aA10'nKo crUv911~a «11 E~ouO'ia crouc 1tapaycoyo'O~». AAAa 01 01(XVO~Ei~ etvoi Ka'ta 'to ~EyaA'O'tEpo ~EPO~ xpurucoi a~1CO~a'tO'OX01 Kat E1taYYEA~a'tiE~

01acpopcov E10roV Ka1 11011 aO'KO'Ov 0'11~av't1K1l E~ouO'ia croix 1tEAa'tE~ roue, O''tou~ av'tpE~ Kat n~ yuvaiKE~ 1tOU Aa~~avouv rn OCPEAll1tOU 01(XVE~OUV. TO'tE, yta'ti

01 OOOIOAIOTte; ETIlOIQKOUV VO 8EO~OnOI~oouV KOI VO ololc.vvioouv TO no80e; Tile; EnOVOOTOTIK~e; otO~EUOIle;, TIlV OAAIlAEVVUIl Tile; OnEpVIOK~e; ouvovrnonc ~ Tile; nOAITIK~e; OIOO~Ac.vOIle; .

0X1 «11 E~oucria orou; a1tOOEK'tE~;» Au'to o~co~ 9a ~'tE'tPE1tE rnv E~ap't1lO'11 O'E apE~. Kat rt 9a ~l1'tO'OO'av 01 a1tOOEK'tE~, Evtcrxu~EVOl ~acpv1Ka, rrv 0X11tEP10'0'0'tEpa a1to oou 11011 Aa~~avouv;

OU'tE 01 01avo~~ O'O'tE 01 a1tOOEK'tE~, 01tCO~ 01 OUO aU'tE~ o~aOE~ stvm O'11~pa O'UYKpo't1l~EvE~, ocfvovrm EUAoy01 U1t0'lf11- CP101 yta vn EVlO'XU9Ei 11 E~ouO'ia

ME TI 80 ~OIO~EI eve

xorvcovncorromuevo KOIVc.vVIKO KpOTOe;; eo ~nopOUOO~E VO OKE<PTOU~E VI' OUTO ~E ~OOIl TO OUvell~O {(Il E~ouoio OTOUe; OIOVO~Eie;», OVOAova ~E TO nOAIO OOOIOAIOTIKO ouv81l~O «n E~ouoio OTOUe; rrcocvcovooc».

'tOU~. D~co~, a~cpO'tEpE~ 01 o~aOE~ 9a ~1tOpO'OO'av EUAoya vn cvnouyKpo't1l90'OV O'E ~1a EUP'O'tEPll ~aO'11. Touro 9a aV01YE 'to opo~o O'E Eva 01UO 1tpoypa~~a, 'to onoio 9a E~l1Y1lO'CO Kat 9a U1toO''t1lP~CO 0''t0 U1tOA011t0 KEt~EVO: 1tPro'tov,

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 21

E~ouO'ia O''tOU~ 01avO~Ei~ uovo 0''t0 ~a9~01tou O'U~1tpa't'touv 0"t0 EPYO 'tll~ 01avo~11~ 1tEP10'0'0'tEP01 aV9pC01t01, EpaO'1'tEXVE~ 00'0 Kat E1taYYEA~a'tiE~. ~E'O'tEpOV,

E~ouO'ia orou; a1tOOEK'tE~ Ka1 croix; ouva~E1 a1toOEK'tE~, 011Aa011 O'E xovovtKO'O~ 1tOAhE~ 1tOU ~piO'KO-

vrm 0''t0 O'11~Eio 't1l~ nnpnAa~11~ 11 Kov'ta O'E aU'to, 'to a~EO'o O'KllV1KO 01tOU ru aya9a 1tapaOiOov'ta1.

H aVclYK"l £~t(J'opp61tT1aT1~ Jl£'t'a~-6 £OVtK01toi1)(J'1)~ Kat KOtVroVtK01toi1)aTI~

H K01VCOV1K01t011)~EV1) 01avo~11, 01tCO~ Kat 11 K01VCOVlKO- 1t0111~ 1tapaycoY1l, ~a~ E1t1- ~aAAE1 vn ~pO'O~E 'tp01tOU~, ~E roue ozotouc 01 ouva~E~ 't1l~ aO"t1K1l~ xoworvla; vn ~1tOpO'OV vn EKcppa~OV'tat O''tOV au~avo~EVO aKn~10'~0 rou Kpa'tOu~ Ka1 vn EV10'xUOV'ta1 1tapa va Ka'taKUptE'OOV'tat a1tO mrrov. ~EV a1tat'tEi't1lv E~acptiv10'11 11 rnv aV't1Ka'taO''taO'11

xpcrou; - Eva OU't01t1KO 1tpoypa~~a 1tOU stvut ani9avo vn EV10'xUO'E1 't1lv aO''t1K11 xowrovtu. 01 «101ro'tE~» (civilians) 'tll ~

K01vcovia~ xpE1a~ov'ta1 'to Kpa'tO~ (xm rn ypacpE10Kpatic) vn roix; u1tEpaO'1ti~E'tat evovn trov 1tpOEPXO~Evcov a1to au'to'O~ XCOP10'~O'O~, va tou; 1tPOO''ta'tE'OE10'tav stvm ~ov01Ka1a~011911't01Ka1va E1t1~aAE1 YEvtKa Kp1't11P1a cpPov'tioa~ Kat aO'cpMEta~. D~co~, Ka9E Kpa'to~ Au~aIvetm rnv xotvorvin 1tOU

npoorureust, Tt' au'to 11 xowrovucoxotncn etvm 'to avaYKaio avnO"t01XO 't1l~ E9vtKO- 1toillO'11~. To 1tpO~All~a sivm vn ~ouv 'ta 0'00 O'E OP10'~EvTt YEV1K1l toopponic: KEV'tP1KO~ O'XE01aO'~0~ Kat EpyanKo~ EAEYXO~, Kpa't1K1l p'09~10'11 Ka1 E1t1XE1pll~anK11

'tou

npo)'to~ouAia, EAaXto"'tO xotvcovtKO Kpa'tO~ Kat 't01t1Kit aU'tO~01W-

Eta.

MnopOUIlE va OOUIlE optousvu ano tn npO~A11lla'ta aU't11~ 'tTt~ E~tO"opponTtO"Tt~ av E~E'taO"OUIlE npo~ O"nYIl11v

rnv opyavroO"Tt Kat rnv nOAtnKit 'tTI~ allEptKavtKit~ EKnaWEUO"ll~ - 'tOY npo)'to OtavEIlTtnKO rousu zou EiVat E9vtKonotTtIlEvO~ 00"0 Kat xoworvucoaomusvoc. H EKnaWEUO"ll sivm ESvtKOnotTtIlEVTt Ka'ta 'to on 'tTtv Eyyua'tat 'to Kpa'tO~ Kat Tt napOX11 'tTt~ PUSlli~E'tat, 'tOUAaXto"'tOv IlE Ilta optousvn ~amKit Mota, ano 't~ ouoonovOtaKE~ apxE~. Etvci xotvorvucoaotTtIlEvTt Ka'ta 'to on sivm opyavroIlEVTt Kat OtaXEtpt~OIlEVTt O"E TtIlEP11ma ~aO"Tt ano 't01t1KE~ Kat EKAEYIlEvE~ O"XOAtKE~ E1t1'tponE~ . H Ev'taO"TtnOU 0TtlltOUPYEi'tat ano rnv apO"ll rov q>UAEnKWv otaKpiO"EroV ore OTtIlOma O"X,OAEia - Ilta nOAtnKit nou 'tTIv E1t1~IiAAOUV ot ouoonovduncoi OtKaO"'tE~ Kat rnv anoppin'touv ot 'tOntKE~ KotVO'tTI'tE~ - anO'tEAEi Ilta Ev'taO"Tt uvuuscu O"'tTtv ESVtKOnoiTtO"Tt Kat rnv xoworvncoaotnon. Au." EXEt Eva xap aK'tTt p t o r t KO nEptEXOIlEVO 0"'t0 ozoio Sa avacpEpSw aIlEO"ro~. 0EAro va O"TtJlEtwO"ro EOW rnv xapaK'tTtptO"'ttKit 'tTt~ nOAtnKit 1l0PCP11.

H crUYKPOUO"Tt avacpuE'tat IlE'ta~u rmv Kpa't1KWV a~trolla'touxrov, OtKaO"'twv 11 ypacpEtOKpa'twv, zou stvm EnaYYEAllanKa O"'tpa'tEuIlEvot orouq E9vtKOU~ o"Konou~, Kat O"'tOU~ EKAEYIlEVOU~ avnnpoO"wnou~, nou stvm 'tontKtO"nKa crpcreuuevot orouq 'I'Ttcpocpopou~ roue, Mnopsi KavE~ va cpav'taO"'tEi aVaAoyE~ EV'tao"Et~ 0"'t0 nEoio 'tTI~ napayroY1l~ avallEO"a, a~ noullE, orouq KpanKou~ npoypallllan-

O"'tE~ Kat orn EPYOO"'taO"taKa O"UIl~OUAta. Oi EV'tao"Et~ ollro~ rou 'tEAEu'taiou Eioou~, 'touAaXtO"'tov O"n~ Hvrousve; IIoAt'tEiE~, OEV stvm napa cpav'taO"nKE~, EVW 0"'t0 nEoio 'tTI~ OtaVOIl11~ etvm npaYlla-

rnv xorvcovlc rrou npOOTon:UEI. n' OUTO r, xorvcovnorrolnon EivOI

TO cvovxolo oVTioTOIXO Tr,e; E9vIKonoir,or,e;.

nKE~, aKOIlTt Kat E1t1'taKnKE~. Eivm napa~Evo 11 O"UVTtSE~ (xapaK'tTtPtO"'t1KO iO"ro~ 'tTt~ aptO"'tEp11~ o"KE'I'11~;) 'to on 'to YEVtKO ~11'tTtlla O"u~Tt'tEi'tat IlE avacpopa KUpiro~ O"'tTIv qxrvrorrnKit nEpin'troO"ll;

H ouotn 'tTI~ OtallaX11~ nEptypacpE'tat aIlEO"ro~. H E9vtKit (KpanKit Kat ypacpEtoKpanKit) E~ouO"ia uvr tap o c cia e n s t O"uXVO'tEpa 'tl~ a~tWo"Et~

'OAO TO Eior, rcov E9EAOVTIKc0V

OPYOVc00Ec.uV OUj..Jj..J£T£XOUV OTr,V rrcooooon rcov OY09c0V KOI rcov

orrnoeotcov Tr,e; npOVOIOe; KOI

EivOI rrpotpcvtc OTI OUT£e; 01 OJ..JOOEe; AEITOUPYOUV OIOCPOP£TIKO OE OIOCPOp£TIK£e; KOIVOTr,TEe;, OVOAOYO j..JE TOUe; rropooc (xPOVOe; KOI EV£PYEIO K09c0e; KOI XP~j..JOJ rrou urropouv

VO EA£YXOUV KOI j..JE TIe; IKOVOTr,T£e;

rcov r,Y£Tc0V TOUe;.

anO'tEAEO"lla't1KO'tTt'ta~ Kat YEVtKO'tTI'ta~. A~ E~E'taO"ouIlE Eva anAO napaoEtYlla: 'tTl OtaVOIl11 'tTI~

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 22

ta'tptKit~ cpPov'twa~. Ta KpanKa O"'tEAEX11 stvm 1t1Savo va SEAOUV va Ent~liAouv Evav Ka'taJlEPtO"llo EpyaO"ia~, o"uYKEV'tpwvov'ta~ 'to oanavTtPo E~OnAtO"Il0 O"E Evav IltKPO aptSIlO KEV'tPtKWV vooo-

xouskov nou ot u1t11pEcriE~ roix; Eivat aJlEO"a OtaSEmJlE~ O"E Ilta EUPU'tEPTt nEptoxil Kat ~Tt'twv'ta~ rn uucporsp« voooxouefn va aO"xoAouv'tat KUpiro~ IlE 'tTtv npOATtnnKit Kat KaSTtJlEPtv1l opovrt-

oa. 0 Ka'taJlEPtO"Il0~ au'to~ EXEt venue, xt Ollro~ Ilta 'tontK11 voO"oKOIlEtaK11 E1t1'tPOnll, zou UnTtPE'tEi Ilta

EntllEpou~ xowornrc Kat EXEt EKAsyEi ano 'ta J..LEATt au"'~ 'tTI~ KotVO'tTt'ta~, Sa IlnopOUo"E roO"'tOO"O va EntOtW~Et va anOK."O"Et rnv 1t10 'tEAEU'taia ta'tptKit 'tEX,VOAoyia yta 'tou~ OtKOU~ 'tTt~ «avSpwnou~» - napouma~ov'ta~ Eva napaOEtYlla aU'tapKEta~ KotVroVtKOU Kpa'tou~ non etvm ntSavo vn ~PEt IltIlTt'tE~.

Ot a~two"Et~ E1t1JlEPtcrIlOU uvnnpootoasuovrut ano 'tTtv xotvevucn E~ouO"ia, OTtAa011 ano

av'tPE~ Kat yuvaiKE~ nou sivm O"'tEVa O"UVOEOEIlEvot IlE evo» E1t1J..LEpOU~ 'tono 11 1l0villro~ npOO"llAroIlEvot orn O"UIlCPEpov'ta 11 't~ Ent8tffi~Et~ Ilta~ EntJ..LEPOU~ OllaOa~. Ti' au'to 'to AOyO, Tt xotvorvtKonotTtIlEvTt OtaVOIl11 stvm

avanocpEuK'tO va eivut OtacpopEnKit O"E OtacpopEnKOU~ 'tonou~, EKcppa~ov'ta~

'tt~ OtacpopEnKE~ anocpao"Et~ nOAAWv OtacpopE't1KWV emrpozdrv. Kat «OtacpopE'ttKO» EOW O"llllaivEt Ka't' avaYKll avtO"o. OptO"J..LEvE~ Ent'tponE~ AEt'tOUPYouv KaAu'tEpa ano IiAAE~ EnEt011

CPOPOAOYOUV 'ta J..LEATt 'tou~ nEptO"O"o'tEPO, ~OOEUOUV 'ta XP11lla'ta rou; OpSo'tEpa,

E1t1Myouv rnv napoxil optouevorv Kat OXt IiAArov U1t11PEmwv. Dnro~ aKpt~W~ ru EpyoO"'taO"taKa

MIO ana TIe; OUVEnEIEe; Tile; cSIOVEjJI1TIK~e; E8vlKOnoil1011e; OTI1 ..6.UTIK~ Eupc.0nl1 ~TOV

o rreorooiouoc Tile; EKTOOI1e; KOI TOU EUpOUe; Tile; E8EAOVTIK~e; cSPOOTI1PIOTI1TOe;.

cru~~OUAta stvm nEptO"O"o'tEPO " AtyO'tEPO EmTUXJ1, S'tO"t Kat ot O"XOAtKS~ Ent'tpons~" rn VOO"OKO~EtaKa O"u~~OUAta e iv c t nEptO"O"o'tEPO " Atyo'tEpo EmTUXJ1. Oruv T} rcpovotc Ota'ti9E'tat KotVIDVtKa Kat ox,t EevtKa, ot nOAhE~ Aa~~avouv Ota<p0pEnKa " avtO"a EioT} " noO"O'tT}'tE~ npovota~. Ot xpurucoi ypa<pEtoKpa'tE~, opoov'ta~ O"'to ovo~a 'tT}~ ano'tEAEO"~anKo'tT}'ta~ " 'tT}~ YEVtKo'tT}'ta~, EmOtooKOUV (ID~ o<PElAouv) va 9EpanEUO"ouv n~ avtO"o'tT}'tE~, napsxov'ta~ iO"T} xpT}~anKll unoO"'l"1lpt;T} n.x. O"E Ka9E O"XOAtKll nEpt<pspEta. I1EV ~nopouv O~ID~ va a;tooO"ouv, XIDpi~ va Kampyouv n~ 'tomKs~ Em'tpons~, on 9a oanavllO"ouv E;iO"ou ru xp"~a'ta.

H ota<popa Kat T} cvtoomrn svrstvovtm ano rov

~EPtKO xapaK'l"1lpa 'tT}~ E Bv t xo n o t T} ~SVT} ~ Otavo~"~. DAa rn EiOT} 'tIDV E9EAov'ttKoov opyavooO"EIDv O"U~~E'tSXOUV crnv napaooO"T} 'tIDV

aya900v Kat 'tIDV unT}pEO"tOOV 'tT}~

npovotnc Kat efvm

npo<pavs~ on au'ts~ ot O~aoE~ AEt'touPYOUV Ota<popE'ttKa O"E Ota<popE'ttKS~ KOtvO'tT}'tE~, avaA.oya ~ roix; nopou~ (xpovo~ Kat EVspyEta Ka900~ Kat xp,,~a) nou ~nopouv va EAEYXOUV Kat ~E 't~ tKaVO'tT}'tE~ 'tIDV T}YE'tOOV roue, H AEt'toupyia roue EniO"T}~ E;ap'ta'tat ano 't~ nOAtnKS~ OEO"~EUo"Et~ 'tIDV T}YE'tOOV roix. Ilnpon rmroi ot av9pIDnot crux,vo'tEpa opi~oV'tat napa EKASYOV'tat, ot ano'l'E~ roix; stvct m9avov va EK<ppa~ouv 'tT}V 'tontKll yvoo~T} (unoxetuevn nOAu O"uxva O"E cuuospovru 'tT}~ ~EO"aia~ Kat 'tT}~ aVOO'tEpT}~ 'ta;T}~). Au'tO 'to Eioo~ 'tT}~ otavE~T}nKll~ opaO"'tT}pto'tT}'ta~ aV"KEt crnv aO"'ttKll xowrovto, aKO~T} Kat av OEV SXEt no'ts ~E ~ta TUntKll evvoic

KOtVIDVtKOnOtT}9Ei - OEV SXEt oT}Aao" ~E'ta~t~aO"'tEi OU'tE avaAT} <p9Ei ano rou; noAi'tE~. E;ap'ta'tat ano rnv E9EAovnKll xtvnroaot T} O"T} (0 pro ~SVIDV) noAt'toov. ea ~nopouO"a~E va o"KE<P'tOU~E o'tt T} E9EAov'ttK" KtVT}'tonoiT}O"T} ano'tEAEi au90p~T}-

'tT} " ~T} nOAtnKll ~oP<P" KotVIDVtKonoiT}O"T}~: Emrpeast O"E (optousvouc) ano roue nOAi'tE~ va EAEYXOUV Kat va Ota~op<poovOUV 'tT}V napaooO"T} KOtVIDVtKOOV unT} PEO"tOOV. AO"<paAoo~, 'tT}V EAEYXOUV Kat 'tT} Ota~op<poovOUV aU~<pIDva ~E n~ Ota<popEnKS~ anO'l'Et~ rou; Kat 9a 'to sKavav aKO~T} Kat av T} oanciVT} 'tIDV xpT}~a'ttKooV <pOPIDV Kat T} ypa<pEtoxpurucn npoO"na9Eta ,,'tav ouoiouopqn] O"E 01.0 'to sevo~.

M tn ano 't~ cruvsnEtE~ 'tT}~

OtavE~T}nKll~ EevtKOnoiT}O"T}~ 0"'tT} l1unKll EupoonT} ,,'tav 0 nsptoPtO"~O~ 'tT}~ SK'taO"T}~ Kat rou EUpOU~ 'tT}~ E9EAovnKll~ Spuompto'tT}'ta~. To O"a<psO"'tEpO napaoEty~a stvm T} Ka'tappcuO"T} 'tIDV naAtoov Epya'ttKoov «<PtAtKooV ermpeuov» non napEixav ora ~SAT} rou; rnv mo npoot~T} ~oP<P" KotVIDvtKll~ aO"<paA.tO"T}~. AU'ts~ ot o~aOE~ SXouv anAoo~ unEpKEpaerst ano 'to Kpa'to~, nou napSXEt orn ~SAT} rou - OT}Aao" orov Ka9eva - ~ta mo ~S~atT} aO"<paAEta. Ot aAAE~ ~op<ps~ a~ot~aia~ ~0,,9Eta~ SXOUV nepucozet Ka900~ tn EVEpya O"'tEAEm OtamO"'tIDO"av on 'to spyo zou Kano'tE sKavav yiVE'tat anO'tEAEO"~anKo'tEpa, av Kat Oxt nav'ta mo av9poontva, ano

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 23

rn KpanKa O"'tEAEm. I1EV VO~i~ID on au't" T} nEptKOnll un"p;E nou9EVa T} O"Kont~T} cruvsnEta 'tT}~ EevtKOnoiT}O"T}~, napon ot unspuO"mO"'ts~ rou KotVIDVtKOU Kpa'tou~ O"KonEuav aO"<paAoo~ O"E svav ~a9~0 cruvsnEta~ Kat ouotouopota~ ornv napoXJ1 'tIDV ~aO"tKoov U1tT}PEO"tOOV zou ot E9EAovnKs~ opjnvdios«; OEV ~nopouv va npoO"EyyiO"ouv. Anooxoaououv EniO"T}~ oro va EnaYYEA~anKonot"O"OUV au'ts~ 't~ U1tT}PEaiE~ xaptv 'tT}~ cruvsnEta~ Kat 'tT}~ ouotouop<pia~ Kat va n~ napaoioouv nEptO"O"o'tEPO anpoO"IDna, ID~ OtKatoo~a'ta ~aAAov napa ID~ ooopo.

H Kpa'ttK" opaO"T} Ka9tO"'ta 'tT}V E9EAov'ttKll Spnornpto'tT}'ta va <paivE'tat nEpt't'l"1l av OXt 9EnKa EO"<paA~svT}. Ano-

Bnppuvat aO"<paAoo~ roi»; E9EAov'ts~. ~E evav apt9~0 ano rn mo avan'tuy~sva KotVIDvtKa Kpa'tT} SXEt O"'tT}V npay~anKo'tT}'ta av u o e p Be I u t n

O"T} ~avnK" n'tooO"T} O"'tt~ E9EAov'ttKs~ O"UVEtO"<pO ps~ O"E xpovo, EVspyEta Kat

xp"~a. H E9vtKOnoiT}0"T} 'tT}~ Otavo~,,~ anOKotVIDvtKOnotEi 'tT}v zpovour - yta npo<pavEi~ Myou~. Au'to 'to ano'tsAEO"~a OEV stvm oporo oru; HVID~E~ IIoAt'tEiE~, onou T} E9vtKOnoiT}0"T} stvct Atyo'tEpo avanTUy~SVT} an' 00"0 ornv Eupoo1tT} Kat ozoo a;toAoYEi'tat nEptO"O"o'tEPO T} E9EAovnKll opaO"'tT}pto'tT}'ta. AO"<paA.ro~, T} a;ia ~nopEi va EP~T}VEUo"Et 'tT}v Ka9uO"'tspT}0"T}. Ev naO"T} nEpt1t'tooO"Et, T} npoo'tT} uvnzpoO"IDnEUEt rnv to"xU Kat T} OEU'tEPT} 'tT}v aouva~ia rou a~EptKavtKOU KOtvIDVtKOU Kpa'tou~, EVOO a~<po'tEpE~ unOOT}AooVOUV 'tT}V a~<ptO"T}~ia 'tT}~ EevtKOnoiT}O"T}~.

npoOEoll rov onaooov 'tOU xotvcovtKOU Kpa'tOU~ vn nEp1KO'l'OUV " vn J-LE10000UV 'ta aA.'tpOU10't1Ka a100")la'ta Ka1 rnv a)l01(3aia (30"OE1a. Anevcvrtcc, Oa EAEyav 0't1 0 O"Kono~ 'tll~ Kpa't1KT)~ npa~l1~ OEY eivm napa vn EyytJll0Ei Eva EA.aXlo'to nEpa ano 'to ozoto Oa EVEpyon011100uV EA.EUOEpa 0 aA'tpOU10)l0~ Kat 11 a)101(3at0'tll'ta. <I>aivE'tat roorooo, on nv au'ta ru OUO OEY svspvozotouvrm 0't0 EA.aXlmO EninEOO OE OXEO"ll J-LE 't~ (3a01KE~ unllpEoiE~ OEV Oa EVEpyon011100UV no'tE. 'E't01, x,pE1ai;;E'ta1 vn O"KEqnoU)lE rponotx; vn npOOEA.KUOOU)lE EOEA.OV'tE~ ornv di)laKa rov Spuornpionirorv zou XPll)la't000'touv'ta1 Kat En1(3aA.A.Ov'tat ano 'to Kpa'tO~. XpE1ai;;E'tat, onro~ ouo nptorepot Bpsruvof EXOUV npoocpa'ta unOO'tllpi~E1, )l1a «n10

OU)l)lE'tOX1K" Ka1 anoKEv'tpro)lEVll )lOPCP" napox,,~ unllPE0100V» - nou Oa acp"oE1 xoopo yta 'tllv aproy" Ka1 r n v npro'to(3ouAia OE 'ton1Ko EninEOo . H aUOOp)ll1'tll K01VroV1- KonoillO"ll XPE1ai;;E'ta1

vn EY10x;UE'tat ano rnv KpanKT) xoworvucoaotn 011 , 011A.aO" ano 'tOY 011)lOKpa't1Ko )lE'taoXll)lanO)lo rrov KpanKoov U1t11PEmOOV 0't0 'tomKo EninEOo " ano 'tll )lE'tacpopa ap)lOOlO't,,'trov Ka1 z o prov 0't1~ EOEA.OV't1KE~ opyavoooE1~.

Au r o (3E(3airo~ Oa napayaYE1 VEE~ uvtcornrec, KaOoo~ OP10)lEvE~ U1t11pEcriE~ Kat opyavOOOE1~ Oa stvm mo 'toA.)ll1PE~ Kat mo EYEpY1lnKE~ ano aA.AE~. Ouox, 11 EYaUaKnKT) A.UO"ll efvm vc rn (3pOU)lE )lE 't1~ anoyo- 11'tEUOE1~ 'tll~ E9vtKonoillO"ll~, vn anooEX'toU)lE )lE EUyvro)locrUV1l rn OCPEA.ll nou CPEPVOUV 01 ypacpE10- Kpa'tE~ Ka1 vn EYKa'taAEi'l'OU)lE 'tllv EA.niOa napoxit~ OP10)lEvroV

ano aU'ta tn OCPEA.ll J-LE mo aJ-LEoo rpono, ro~ 't)l")la 'tll~ KaOll)lEp1vi)~ opao'tllp10'tll'ta~ (optousvrov) nOA.1'toov. To ano'tEAEO)la Oa stvm Eva K01VroV1KO Kpa'to~ nou OEY Oa E~1O"0pponEiTat ano EKEiVO zou Oa )lnopouoa)lE vn OKEcp'tOUJ-LE ro~ xotvorvta 'tll~ npov01a~.

H aV~l1(Jll TOU apt9JLov TroV «haVEJLllTIDV

D)lro~ (naA.1) )lE rt Oa E)l01ai;;E )l1a xoivoivtc 'tll~ zpovotuc; H otaotKaoia 'tll~ KOtvrovtKonoillO"ll~ EXEt ouo nA.EUpE~. H npoo'tll, zou O"Ui;;l1'tT)Ol1KE noA.u 'tll oEKaE'tia'tou 1960, OlEUPUVE1 'tll O"U)lJ-LE'toxit o'tll A.,,'I'1l rov anocpaoErov. H OEU'tEPll OlEUPUVEt 'tll O"U)lJ-LE'toxit ornv npay)lanKT) napaooO"ll rov K01VrovtKOOV U1t11PEotOOV. PEnro 0't0

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 24

'tll~ zpovou«;

Y napXE1 Eva EYaA.A.aK't1KO )lOV'tEA.O z o u nA.llotai;;E1 nEp1000'tEPO uucrnpu o-rnv napayroy1KT) avaAoyia. Ilpoxemn y"a Eva Eioo~ O"Uv01KaA.10)lOU (trade unionism) 'tll~ npov01a~, onou 01 anOOEK'tE~ Oa opynvdrvovrm evcvrtov rrov napayroyoov. Au'tT) O)lro~ 11 aVaAoyia ano'tUyxaVEt EnEW" VO)lii;;ro on 11 E~ap'tllO"ll 'tll~ npOV01a~ OEY eivm trade. 01 anOOEK'tE~ OEY E)lnAEKOV'tat OE )l1a OpaO'tllP10'tll'ta Eni 'tll~ onoia~ vn )lnopouv vn a~100vouv optousvu 01KatOO unru EA.EyXOU. 'Exouv aocpaA.ro~ 01KatOO)la'ta ro~ nOA.iTE~ Ka1 )lnopOUv vn opjuvdicoov O)laOE~ O"U)lCPEPOV'troV" niEO"ll~ y"a vn uaspuomorouv au'ta ru 01KatOO)la'ta. OP10)lEVE~ CPOPE~ au'tT) 11 unEpaon1011 Oa x,pE1ao'tEi

vn stvnt )lam't1K", npOKEt)lEVOU vu 1Kavon011100uV aU'ta tn 01KatOO)la'ta. H EKKA.ll0ll O)lro~ rorv a n 0 0 E K 't 00 V anEuOuvE'ta1 o'tou~ auou~ nOA.iTE~. I1EY Oa OEA.a)lE oorot vn 01anpaY)la'tEuov'ta1

OUA.A.0Y1Ka )lE rou;

YnaPX£1 tva £vaAAaKTIKO ~OVTtAO rrou nAI101a~£1 n£pIOOOT£PO ouornoo OTI1V napaYCUYIKr, avaAoyia. npOK£ITal vro tva £ioo<; Ol)VOIKaAlo~ou (trade unionism) TI1<; rrpovoroc. orrou 01 anootKT£<; ea

oovovcovovroi svovrlov TCUV rrooovcovcov.

vc O"KECP'tOO on 11 OEU'tEPll stvm 11 nAEOV (3amKT). I1EY EXEt aVaAoyiE~ ps 'to nEoio 'tll~ napayroyi)~, ozou ,,011 unapXE1 )l1a )lai;;a napayroyoov Kat onou 11 xoworvucoaotnon OEY ana1'tEt napa rnv uvsupeon rponcrv vu E10axOouv )lEA.ll au'tT)~ 'tll~ )lai;;a~ ern olOiKlloll - )lEA.ll non ,,011 yvropii;;ouv Ka't1 O"X,EnKa us 'to n Stoucetrm, H Ka'tamaO"ll efvut 01acpopEnKT) orn 01aVO)l", onou 11 npoo'tll anaiTllO"ll )l1a~ K01vrovia~ 'tll~ npov01a~ stvm 11 au~110"ll 'tOU aptO)lOU rorv avOpoonrov, anoOEK'tooV " OUVa)lEt anOOEK'tooV, zou sivm EniO"ll~ Kat 01avO)lEi~. Movov orcv aU~110Ei 0 ap10)l0~ Oa yiVEt ouva'to vc OOOOOU)lE croix anOOEK'tE~ Kat 'tOU~ OtaVO)lE~ )lEyaAU'tEPO A.6y0 O'tll 010iKllO"ll

KpanKOU~ ypacpE10Kpa'tE~ yta 'to )lEYEOO~ Ka1 'tllv napaoooll 'tOU OcpEA.OU~ 'tOU~. Ano 'tllv aUll usptn, unapXEt )lta n01KtA.ia anocpaoErov nou Oa )lnopouoav EUA.oya vn A.llCPOOUv ano rn 'ton1Ka O"U)l(3oUA.ta rov noA.t'toov " ano 't1~ O)laOE~ rcrv EOEA.OV'tOOV, nou yvropii;;ouv Kan O"X,EnKa J-LE 'tll 01aVO)l" 'tOU OcpEA.OU~, EnE10" E)lnAEKOV'tat OE au'tT)V Ka1 zou sivrn 'taU'toxpova npay)lanKoi " OUVaJ-LE1 anoOEK'tE~.

H E)lnAoKT) Oa )lnOpOUOE vn J-LEAE'tllOEi A.E1t'tO)lEPOO~ EiTE OE Eva 011)lOKpanKOn0111)lEvO ouo'tll)la KpanKT)~ napoxit~ EiTE )lEoro trov A.1yO'tEPO oucrnun't1KOOV opao'tllP10't,,'trov rrov cptA.aVOpron1Koov opjuvdiosorv.

rrpay~a'tl, aE Eva Kpa'tO~ npovota~ zou 9a iI'tav Eniall~ Kat xotvorvia 'tll~ npovota~, 11 <)tXCOpta'tlKi} ypa~~iI ~'ta~'O 'tOU~ 9a apXt~E nt9avro~ 9a ~llv otaKpivE'tat. 'ROll OEV otaKpivE'tat os crxEO"ll ~E 'tOU~ otKOVO~tKO'O~ nopou~, a<po'O ot <ptAaV9pC01ttKE~ opyavroaEt~, 'toUAaXla'tov oru; HVCO~EvE~ rrOAt'tEiE~, oanavo'Ov ano'tEAEa~a'ttKa ru npoEpxo~EVa ano 'tll <popoAoyia xpiI~a'ta. 9a EnaUE Eniall~ vn OtaKptvo'tav Kat cs aXEO"ll ~E 'to npOaC01ttKo.

A~ E~E'taaoU~E, yta napaOEty~a, rnv npo'taO"ll vn nAllProvOV'tat ot E9EAOV'tE~ ano 'to Kpa-

roc. ea EAa~~avav EVOEXO~EVCO~ u o vo O"U~~OAtKa noaa, onco~ nAllProvovtm ot nptotepoi aK'tt~tO"'tE~ ~E a'totXEtrooll yta rnv E1tt~icoaiI rou; noaa (iI Kat ~tKpo'tEpa) yta 'tll OOUAEta 'tOU~ oro «KiV11~a». 0 aKono~ stvm vn E1tt'tPE'l'OUV aE xeptccorepooc av9pronou~ vn yivouv E9EAOV'tE~ Ka9ro~ Kat va Oll~toupyi}aouv ~E 'to Xpovo ~EyaAU'tEPll O"UvEnEta ornv E9EAOV'tlKi} unllPEaia. H tOEa rou nAllPco~EVOu E9EAOV'tiI sivm av'tt<pa'ttKi}; DXt oro ~a9~0 nou 'to a'to~o Ota9E'tEt Xpovo Kat EVEpYEta (Kat, EAn~oU~E, oAoEva Kat nEptaao'tEPll OE~tO'tll'ta) ano 't~ ozots;

9a EiXE nOA'O ~EyaA'O'tEPll

a~ot~iI ornv ayopa.

'R a~ E~E'taaou~E rnv npo'taO"ll va ~ll'ta~E ano OAOU~ rou; nOAhE~ ~ta 911'tEia ESvtKi}~ unllPEaia~ Kat EV O"UvEXEia va Ka'tEu9'OvoU~E ~ta all~av'ttKiI avat..oyia 'tOU emorpersousvou xpOVOU Kat EVEpyEta~ os Spuornptomrs; «apcoyi}~» - Epyacria orn vocoxoueto, <ppov'tioa crou; llAtKtCO~OU~ un. Ilpoocvdx,

OEV unapXEt Ka'tt reroto onco~ 0 Enta'tpa'tEU~EvO~ E9EAOV'tiI~ (znpon ot Ent~Epou~ smotpereu~Evot 9a ~nopo'Oaav vn EntAeyOUV rnv totahEPll u1tl1PEcria non 9a Ent'tEAo'Oaav). H E1tta'tpa'tEUO"ll o~co~ 9a Etcri}yaYE ~yaw apt9~0

Korvcovlo nO)..IT~V 25

H E9vtKi} u1tl1PEcria 9a npoaEAKUE 'tOU~ VEOU~, aAAa ~ta aAAll o~aoa, non 9a OtE9E'tE nEptaao'tEpo xpovo, av Kat ~tKPO'tEPll EVEPYll'ttKo'tll'ta, 9a ~nopo'OaE vn nai~Et aKo~ll ~yaA'O'tEpo pow ornv napaooO"ll

rov U1tl1PEO"troV: npOKEt'tat yta rov oWEva Kat ~EYaM'tEpo apt9~0 rcov ~EYaAU'tEpcoV os llAtKia Kat auv'ta~to'Oxcov nOAt'trov. 8EV outveun va unapXEt Myo~ yta'ti OEV 9a EnpEnE vn ~01l91190'Ov yta va aAAllAo~Oll- 90'Ov'tat iI vn opyavco- 90'Ov npOKEt~EVOU va npoaEXouv 'ta vrpnn iI 'ta

natota npoaXOAtKiI~ llAtKia~. Ta dOll rrov

'H cc £~£TaOOU~£ TI1V TTPOTOOI1 vo ~I1Ta~£ OTTO O)..OUe; TOUe; rroxlre; ~IO

9l1T£io £9VIK~e; UTTI1P£OiOe; KOI £V oovexelo VO KOT£u9uvou~£ ~IO 011~0- VTIK~ ovoxovlo TOU £TTlOTpOT£U~tvou XPOVOU KOI evtpvaoc O£ OPOOTI1PIOTI1T£e; «cocovnc» - epvoolo OTO VOOOxouelo. opovrioc OTOUe; 11}..IKIu>~tvoue;

KATT.

EpaO"t'tEXVrov va Epyaa90'Ov a'tll otavo~iI 'tll~ npovota~, aAAa~ov'ta~ E'tO"t pt~tKa 'tllv avaAoyia apcoyrov nOAt'trov npo~ 'tOU~ EnaYYEA~a'tiE~ apcoyo'O~, onco~ aKpt~ro~ 11 O"'tpa'ttco'ttKi} smorperEUO"ll ~E'ta~auEt 'tllv avaAoyia

U1tl1PEO"troV zou Kano'tE napEixov'to «qnxnxri» oro nAaiO"to 'tll~ ~EyaAll~ otKoYEvEta~ cri}~Epa anat'to'Ov EVaAAaK'ttKa oiK'tUa. Ot xpurnco] a~tco~a'to'Oxot ~nopo'Ov nt9avro~ vn ~llV na~ouv napa ~ovo Evav iIaaova POAO ornv avan'tU~ll uurdrv rrov OtKWCOV. ~'tO ~'tpo o~co~ non 9a avaou90'Ov 9a ~nopo'Oouv va avayvcopta'tO'Ov oro nAaiO"to rou xpenKO'O O"Ua'ti}~a'to~ - aKo~ll Kat vn E1ttXOPllY1190'Ov os opiousvo ~tKPO ~a9~0.

Av o u oi ; 0 ~a9~0~ stvm ~tKPO~, au'to 'to npay~a OEV anoKaAEi'tat op9a EK~E'taAAEUO"ll; To ~iI'tll~a EXEt 'tE9Ei KUpico~ ~E ava<popa O"'tt~ yuvaiKE~

To £iol1 TU>V UTTI1P£OIc.0V TTOU KaTTOT£ rrooelxovro ({c.pUOIKa» OTO TT}..oiOiO Tile;

~£ya}..l1e; OIKoytV£IOe; onueoo OTTOITOUV £VO}..}..OKTIKa OiKTUO. 01 KPOTIKOi O~IU>~OTOUXOI ~TTOPOUV TTl90vc.0e; vo ~I1V TToi~ouv TTOpa uovo tvov nooo-

vo po}..o OTI1V ovaTTTU~11 OUTc.0V TU>V 01-

KTUu>V.

rov nOAt'trov-a'tpa'ttco'trov npo~ rou; EnaYYEA~a'tiE~ a'tpa'tlro'tE~. OU'tE 11 ESvtKi} unllPEaia 9a dXE E1tt'tuxia nv anouaia~av ru <ptAaV9pC01ttKa ata9iI~a'ta, onco~ aKpt~ro~ OEV 9a EiXE E1tt'tUxta 11 a'tpa'ttco'ttKi} EntO"'tpa'tEUO"ll ( os ~ta oll~oKpa'ttKi} xoworvfn) nv ot nOAhE~ OEV iI'tav, os xancto ~a9~0, na'tptro'tE~.

non ~E 'ta xpovta O"UYKpo'tllaav os ~yaw ~a9~0 rnv nAEtO'l'11<Pia 'tcov E9EAOV'troV. Toao 11 au~avo~ tcrx6~ rou YUVatKEiou Ktvi}~a'to~ ooo Kat 0 au~avo~EVo~ apt9~0~ rorv yuvatKrov crnv Epya'tlKi} o'Ova~ll E~llYO'OV rnv <p9ivouon zopstc rou E9Ewv'tta~o'O. I'urr] 9a EnpEnE opiousvsc yuvaiKE~ va Kavouv xcop~ a~ot~iI

exetvo nou 01 aV'tpEe; (Kat oAoEva Kat nEplO'O'OtEPO aAAEe; YUVaiKEe;) a~oi~ovtav yta vn KavOUV; I1EV stvct EUAOYO rooroco on KaeE xowovto ~nopEi vc nAllProVEl yta KaeE aproril nou xpEla~OVtal rn ~EAll tlle;. DUtE unapXE1 Kan010e; A6yoe; ytati ea EnpEnE. H aproril npoe; rou; aUoue; anOtEAEi ~la KOtvroV1KiI opaO'tllPl0tllta ~E avta~01~iI Kat to yeyovoe; on OP1- 0'~01 avepronot O'ta0100po~OUv O'E aUtiIv OEV npEnEl vc E~nooi~El aAAOue;avepronoue;-aO'~aAroe;o~ O'E 10EOAOytKi! ~aO'll - vn to KavOUV. Kata to napEAeOV, 01 yuvaiKEe; O"UYKPOtOuO'av auto non ea ~nopouO'a~E vc O'KE~tOU~ roe; E~EOP1KO O'tpato tOU O'UO'tiI~atOe; xpcvoun; ea iItav aO'~aAroe; KaAUtEpO av Eixa~E ~la E~EopEia aVE~aptllta ano to ~UAO. I:E ~la nAiIproe; avantuy~~ xorvovtc tlle; zpovour; noUoi nEplO'O'orspot nOAitEe; ea iItav Et01~Ol vc ~olleiIO'ouv, ea E~nMKOVtaV ornv npay~atlKOtllta crnv aproril. ea ~OlleOuO'av xut ea ~OlleOUVtav·llnpoO'~opa tlle; aprorile; OEV ea iItav EK~EtaAAEunKi! OUtE II anoooxiI tlle; aproyiIe; tanElvronKi!. I1EXo ~EVo1 rnv 10'0tllta O'E aopEe; ypa~~e; roe; npoe; aAAEe; nAEUpEe; (WlattEproe;, roe; npoe; ne; EUKatpiEe; yta oouAEla), OEV ~Mnro Ylati ea EVOtE~EPE noAU av II nAElO 'I'll~ia r oi v EeEAOVtrov iItav yuvaiKEe; iI av II nAElOV0tllta rov EnaYYEA~at1rov tlle; npovolae; iItav yuvaiKEe;.

Auta ea anOtEAouO'av EVola~EpOVta oEoo~a, non ea E~E~pa~av Eel~lKEe; cuunspupope; non aUa~ouv apya iI to ola~oponol11~EvO EVOta~EPOV ornv nEplnoillO'll iI (ornv nEpintroO'l1 rov mo llA1Klro~roV EeEAOVtroV) tll YUVatKEia unxpo~10tllta.

Eorfnon nprota O'tllV napaooO'l1 tlle; npov01ae;, ornv Kaell~EplviI EpyaO'ia tlle; Survo~iIe;, EV ~EPEl A6yro rov anotuxtrov tlle; «~EY10'tlle; E~lKtiIe; O'U~~tOxr'Ie;» orn npoypa~~ata zpovotu; tlle; oEKaEtiae; tOU 1960. 0 IIoAE~oe; O'tll <l>troXEla iItav npay~an ~la npoO'naeEla, II mo npo O'~atll npoO'naeEla, vn xowcovucozomflst to KpatOe; npovolae;. Eapoxeuo o~roe; Yla ~la xowoivtxoaotnon EO't1aO'~Evll O"XE06v anOKAE1O'tlKa O'tll AiI'I'll rorv ano~aO'Erov. Ilioro ano autiIv Bptoxsnn ~la aVtiAll'l'l1nap~~, iO'roe; acrUvEloa, ano tll ~tAOAoyia tOU EpyanKou EMyxou. 0 Robert Kennedy 01atUnroO'E to EntXEiPll~a KaAUtEpa ano KaeE aAAOV exetvu ru xpovla, omv EinE yta rou; ypa~El0KpatEe; tlle; zpovotc; O'E O"XEO'l1 ~E rou; nEAatEe; rou; EKEiVO non 01 0'00'1aA10'tEe; O'Uyypa~Eie; EAEyav O'UXVa Yla rou; OtEU9uVtEe; O'E O'XEO'l1 ~ rou; EpyatEe;: «I:XEola~ouv npoypa~-

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 26

E~nAoKi! rov ~troxrov O'tO O'XEo1aO'~O Kat ornv E~ap~oril rorv npoypa~~atrov: vn rou; oroeEi npay~anKi! ~roviI O'tOUe; eEO'~OUe; roue». To neptocorepu o~roe; EntXElpiI~ata Kat OAa rn unntUXll~Eva nElpa~ata EiXav nEplO'O'OtEPO vn Kavouv ~ tOV O"XEolaO'~o napa ~ rnv eocpuoriI. 0 Gunnar Myrdal EnE~E ore ~O'a tlle; oEKaEtiae; tOU 1960 Ot111 ~rotlKOtllta rorv eEO'~rov tOU KpatOUe; npovotec; E~aptroVtav ano tll Aa'iKi! O'U~~EtOxr'l orn olaxEiPllO'll Kat O'tll 01EUeUVO'l1. To npo~All~a iItav on OEV uniIpxav a~10Aoya O'tEMX11 anoOEKtrov tlle; npov01ae;, EKnatOEu~Eva Yla ra KaeiIKOVta tlle; olaXEiplO'l1e; Kat tlle; OtEUeUVO'lle;·

'Erot, 0 IIoAE~oe; O'tll <l>troXEla uerurpsaoruv noAU O'UXVa O'E Eva 01a~opEnKO Eiooe; noM~ou: O'E Eva nOAE~o ava~EO'a O'E pl~oO'naO't1KOnOl11~EVOUe; EnaYYEA~atiEe; xm opyavrotEe; tlle; ~O'aiae; ta~lle; (~E tll crU~npa~ll OP10'~EVroV tOnlKrov ayrovlO'troV) ano tll ~la ~Epla Kat O'E ~OV'1~OUe; EnaYYEA~atiEe; xn t nOAltlKOUe; tlle; xa~llAiIe; ~EO'aiae; ta~lle; ano rnv aAAll ~Epla. Ttn Ka~la o~aoa OEV iItav npay~an E~lKtO vn ~EytO'tonoliIO'et tll O'U~~toxr'l, napOtl 01 nOA1t1KOi ea ~nopouonv EVOEXo~Evroe; vn x t v n t o a o r n o o u v nEplO'O'OtEPO to «Aao» av nlE~OVtav. 0 Daniel Moynihan ypa~El yta

autOUe; tOUe; noM~oue;

o nOA£j...lO<; OTI1 <PTc.0X£la 9a unopOUO£ va £iX£ KaALH£PI1 tK~aOI1 eov orrnoxov n£pIOOOT£POI orcoxol IJ£ OPIOlJtVI1 eurraplo OTO va cSivouv 000 Kal OTO va naipvouv. H eurraoio OIJU)<; TOU va cSiV£I<;, t~U) ana TI1V oucovtvao. OTOV £UPLH£PO KOOIJO Tu)V VOOOKOIJ£laKc.0V ~0119c.0v, Tu)V ouMoyU)v yov£c.0v-Ka9I1YI1Tc.0V, Tu)V £KKAI10IaOTIKc.0V OIKOTPOc.p£iU)v Kal oouxcov. orrortxcl uro xapaKTl1plOTIK~ eurraolo TI1<; uecoloc TO~I1<;.

~ata yta rou; ~troxoue;, o~ ~a~i ~E rou; ~troxoUe;. 'Eva ~EpOe; tlle; aiO'ellO'l1e; aouva~iae; Kat ~atal0- tlltae; npoEPXEta1 ano tll aiO'ellO'l1 aouva~iae; vn E1tl1PEaO'ouv ttc; AEltOupyiEe; rorv (unapxouO'rov U1tl1PEO'1roV npovotcq)». Exstvo nou iItav avaYKaio iItav «ll

on «01 ~troxoi iO'roe; vn unv stvnt nOtE "srouioi" vu napouv rnv E~ouO'ia O'E ~la avantuy~ xorvovtc: II aO'KllO'l1 tlle; E~ouO'iae; ~E anOtEAEO'~atlKO tpono efvm ~la lKaV0tllta zoo rnv anOKta KavEie; ~O'ro tlle; ~aelltEiae; xm tlle; oiptucvonc». 0 Moynihan ~aiVEtal vn VO~i~El on

TIl ~aSrrtEia Kat TIlV ropi~avcrrt 'tt~ a1toK'tUEt xuvsf; ~eO'ro 'tll~ EnaYYEA~a'ttKft~ EKnaioEUcrrt~ Kat TIl~ 011~0O'ta~ u1tl1pEO'ia~.

Mnopei vn eXEt oiKtO, aMU ~OU epaiVEtat 'tOUAUXtO''tOV ouva'to on 11 O'U~~'tOxft O'TIlv naPUOOO'l1 rmv unllPEO'tOOV Sa ~nopOUO'E vn O'UvtO''tU eva Eioo~ EKnaioEUO'l1~ yta 'tll O'U~~E'tOxft O'TIl otaXEipt- 0'11 Kat O'TIl OtEUSuvcrrt rorv unllPEO'tOOV. 0 IIoAE~o~ ern <D'tOOXEta Sa ~nopOUO'E vc EiXE KaAU'tEPll eKj3aO'l1 EUV unitpxav nEptO'O'O'tEPOl ep'troxoi ~E opiousvn E~nEtpia 0''t0 vn oivouv 00'0 Kat 0"t0 vn naipvouv. H E~nEtpia

o~ro~ rou vn OiVE~, e~ro

ano TIlv OlKoyevEta, orov

EUpU t ap o KOO'~O rmv VOO'OKO~EtaKOOv j3011Soov, trov O'UAA.6yroV YOVEOOV- KaSllYll'tOOV, rov EKKA.llO'taO''ttKoov OlKO'tPOepEirov Kat acrUArov, anO'tEAEi ~ta xapaK'tllptO''ttKit E~nEtpia 'tll~ ~EO'aia~ 'tU~l1~. Ot ep'troxoi (srot ~a~ AevE) OEV exouv

vc anOK'tOUv KunOla yvoocrrt yta 'tllv KOlVroVtKft oucovouto 'tll~ npovOla~, O'U~nAllpoovov'ta~ TIl yvOOO'l1 nou itOll exouv yta 't~ tOtro'ttKe~ 'tou~ oucovouiec - a~epO'tEpE~ zspioptoueve; nv Kat ~E OtaepopE'ttKOU~ 'tponou~. TO'tE Sa u n o p o o c e v u e Iv u t nEptO'O'o'tEPO EeptK'tO vn O'KEep'tOUV

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 27

aUu Kat O'E oooix napuyouv o.n Ka'tUVaAOOvE'tat. ~l1Aaoit, vn 'to nou~E ~avu, 11 xotvorvucosotqon E~tO'opponEi napu av'ttKaStO''tu rnv ESvtKonoillO'l1. To KPU'tO~, onrv otanpay~a'tEUEtat ~ rov napayroytKO rouso, npenEt vn EK1tpoO'ronsi roix; Ka'taVaAro'te~ Kat O'tUV otanpay~a'tEUE'tat ~ rov

OtaVE~l1'ttKO rousu,

npenEt vn EKnpoO'ronEi rou; napayroyou~ ( rou; epOpOAOyOU~svou~). Kat O''tt~ Mo nEpt1t'tooO'Et~ j3ej3ata, tcrxupi~E'tat TIlv KaSOAtKo'tll'ta, aA.A.a ot a~tro ~a'tou XOt r o u EKeppU~OUV npoo'ta ano oAa sxetvou; nou OSV

aivm napov'tE~ o t o onuslo TIl~ napayroYit~ it 0''t0 onusto TIl~ napaAa-

j3it~. Tt' uoro aKptj3oo~ sxstvot zou sivrn napov'tE~ Eni 'tonou exouv a~tooO'Et~ crnv U~EO'l1 nvrtnpoO'oonEUcrrt, O'TIlv «npay~a'ttKft eprovit» 0'TIl Ait'l'l1 anoepuO'EroV. ~sv exouv o~ro~ Ka~tU a~iroO'l1 O'TIl ~ovaotKft eprovit.

To npoj3All~a stvrn vn Ent'tEuxSsi 11 O'roO''tit tooppomc, Eivm yta napUOEty~a AOytKO vn 011~toUPYllSEi eva 't01ttKO OtaXEtptO''ttKO O'U~j30UAto yta eva r o m xo npo ypa~~a xpovou«; (onro~ oru npoypu~~a'ta 'tou IIoM~ou O''tll <D'tOOXEta), aUu Ssv sivm AoytKO vn O'KEep'tOU~E o'tt 'to OtaXEtptO''ttKO O'U ~j30UAtO ~nopd vn uvtucuru-

O''titO'Et r nv 'tontKit u u r o S t o t x n o n .

Aueorspu npenEt vn ouvspycoroov Kat iO'ro~ 11 aU'tootoiKllcrrt npenEt vn EKnpoO'ronllSEi oro 0'U~j30UAtO. Ot «roptuot» a~tro~a'touxOl ~a~i ~E rou; avoopt~OU~ ep'troxou~; 'Exou~ KUSE A.6yo vc otaO'epaAiO'ou~ OOO''tE ot ep'troxoi vn

To KpClTOe;, OTOV OIOTTPOYIJOTEUETOI IJE TOV TTOPOYU>YIKO TOlJtO, TTptTTEI va EKTTPOOU>TTEi TOUe; KOTOVOAU>Tte; KOI OTOV OIOTTPOYIJOTEUETOI IJE TOV OIOVEIJIlTIKO TOlJtO, TTptTTEI va EKTTPOOU>TTEi TOUe; rrcpovcovouc (TOUe; <pOpOAO-

YOUIJEVOUe;) .

xpovo it, aepou yiVEt 11 OOUAEtU roix, OSV exouv EVEPYll'ttKO'tll rn. l:'tllV npay~a'ttKOTll'ta epUO'tKU ot ep'troxoi exouv Kat xpovo Kat SVEPYll'ttKO'tllru, yta'ti OtaepopE'ttKU Sev Sa yivoV'tuv nO'te nOAt'ttKe~ ota~ap'tUpiE~ OU'tE oPyuvroO'l1 O'UVOtKU'troV OU'tE eptAtKe~ E'tatPEiE~ OU'tE pt~oO'naO'nKu Ktvit~a'ta. DAa au'tu stvm epyo ESEAOV'tOOV - oprcuevot ano rouq oxotouc 'tOUAUXtO''tov O''tpa'toAoyouv'tat ano 'tou~ ep'troxou~. ea ~nopouO'av avuAoya vn O"tpa'toAoyouV'tat criJ~pa ot ep'troxoi yta 'to epyo TIl~ aUllA.oj3oitSEta~, avaAa~j3uvov'ta~ utu O'EtpU ano OtaVE~l1'ttKe~ SpuO'TIlPtOTll'tE~, OOO''tE vn apxtO'ouv

yta 'tll ~Eyt o roaot 11 0'11 'tll ~ O'U~~E'tOxft~ O'TIl Ait'l'11 anoepuO'-

sorv.

ea it'tav o~ro~ AUSO~ vn nEptypU'I'OU~E 'tt~ u1tl1pEO'iE~ TIl~ xorvovucoaomusvrp; otavo~it~ O'UV vn «uvrpccv» orouq ep'troxou~ (ot «SEO'~oi roue», onro~ sinE 0

To TTpoR>AIlIJO EivOI va ETTITEUX9Ei 11 OU>OT~ icopoorrlo. Eivoi YIO TTOpOOEIYIJO AOYIKO va ollIJIOUPYIl9Ei tva TOTTIKO OIOXEIPIOTIKO OUIJR>OUAIO YIO tva TOTTIKO TTPOYPOIJIJO TTpOVOIOe; (OTTu>e; OTO TTPOYPOIJIJOTO TOU nOAtIJOU OTIl CDTc.0XEIO), OAAO OEV EivOI AOYIKO va OKE<pTOUIJE OTI TO OIOXEIPIOTIKO OUIJR>OUAIO IJTTOPEi va OVTIKOTOOT~OEI TIlV TOTTlK~ corooroknon.

Kennedy). Dnro~ aKptj3oo~ rn xotvrovtxonotnuevu EpyoO''tuO'ta OSV uvrpcouv uovo croix EPyU'tE~ aMU Kat O'E ooou; Ka'tUVaArovouv ru npo'iov'ta roix; e'tO't Kat ot unllpEO'iE~ npovOla~ Ssv avitKouv uovo orouq Ka'taVaAro'te~ rou;

anOKnlO"ow Kat allEe; E~nEtpiEe; nepa ano tT} <ptOOXEta roue,

ME'TOOX1)"O'T10""O; 0"Tt; OXEo"El; 010VO"1l;

o napayroytKOe; to~eae; anoppo<pu O"it~pa ~ta <p9ivouO"a avaA.oyia tT}e; EpyanKite; ouva~1)e; - Kat 9a E~aKOA.ou9ito"Et vn yiVEtat etO"t EKtOe; Kat rrv (nt9aVOtEpO, aKo~a Kat av) ~pOU~E veoue; tponoue; Kata~EptO"~OU Kat o"u~~toxite; ornv EpyaO"ia. Mtn oA.oeva Kat ~EyaAUtEPll avaAoyia avopoov Kat yuVatKOOV eXEt anEvavtiae; E~nA.aKEi ornv napoxit, napuoo- 0"11, oPyuvroO"l1 Kat Otavo~it xotvovucdrv unllPEO"tOOV. IIoAAoi ano autOUe; tOU av9pomoue; exow 011~oO"ta anaO"xOA.ll 0"11 ,

011A.aoit eivct 01)~OO"t0l UnuUllA.Ol tOU KputOUe; zpovotuc: OUO"KaA.Ot, KOlVroVtKOi A.Ettoupyoi, EmO"tUtEe; Kat EnttpOnOl noA.A.OOv Ota<p0pEttKOOV EtOOOV - Kat, O"tll O"'Il~EPtvft EupOO1t1l, ytatpoi Kat voO"OKO~e;. Auroi nnoreA.OUV ron; napuyoVtEe; tlle; E9vtKOnOtll~evlle; Otavo~ite; Kat 0 apt9~oe;

rou; au~uVEt oxosvc, ea ~nopouO"a~E va O"KE<PtOU~E on curet eivnt EnaYYEA.~atiEe; «aproyoi». H anoO"toA.it roix; OEV etvm llnapayroyit E~nopEU~Utrov nUu 1) avU'I'roO"'ll tT}e; av9poomV1le; sroite;. Mspucs; <popee; rooroco A.eYEtat Ott exouv ~ta npoanoO"toA.it, 011A.aoit tOV eA.EYXo tT}e; KOlvroviae;, rc ~eA.1) tlle; onoiae; ~01190uv. Emoui>Kow tT} ~EA.tiro- 0"11 t1)e; OtKite; rou; sroite; roe; EnaYYEA.~atiEe; aproyoi Kat roe; EK tOUtOU exow O"U~<pepov OA.Ol ot UnOAot1tOl vc ~ptO"KO~aO"tE O"E aouva~ia. To tEA.EUtaio OEV outverut vu anotEA.d utnv EVtEA.IDe; O"UVEtOllnl it avayvroptO"~evll anoO"toA.it, ava~<pi~oA.a o~roe; E~l1YEi eva ~epoe; ano autu

nou KUVOUV.

D,n KavOUV roorooo, OEV to KUVOUV ano ~OVOl tOue;. OEV exow to ~ovonOOA.to crnv aproyft. IotronKee; it ~11 KEpOOO"KOmKee; EVOOO"Ete; noUoov Ota<p0pEnKOOv EtOOOV roue npoA.a~~uvouv Kat ouvnuu rouq EVtO"xuouv. To KpUtOe; zpovotc; O"UvunuPXEt ~E rnv xoworvtc tT}e; npovOlae;, aUu 11 xotveovin crft~pa stvm O"XEnKu a0"9Evite; O"E O"XeO"'ll ~ to KpUtOe;. Ot ~EYMEe; OlKoyevEtEe;, ot <ptAtKee; EtatpEiEe;, ot EKKA.1)O"iEe; Kat ot aOEA.<pOtlltEe; exaO"av to npo~uotO"~a oru; KOlvroVtKee; napoxee; Kat Ka~tu yea o~uoa OEV E~<paviO"tT}KE yta vn E~tO"OppOnito"Et ne; 9pta~~EuOUo"Ee; 01)~oO"tEe; unllpEO"iEe;. To KpUtOe; stvm EVEPYO -

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 28

oouv vn ~piO"KOW rpozoi»; vn ~01)90uv tOV EaUtO rou; Kat roue UAAoUe;. 0 O"KonOe; tT}e; xotvrovuconoillO"'1le; etvct vn npoO"<pepEt vsou; rpoaou; - eva nA.it90e; OtKroroV Kat 9Eo"~OOV yta tT}v nUllA.O~oit9Eta. Auto anattEi tOV nEtpa~anO"~o ornv tomKit ol1~oKpatia. Azntrs] EniO"'lle; ~ta npoO"nu9Eta OtEUpW- 0"11e; tOU nEoiou OpuO"l1e; rorv E9 EA.OVtl KOOV 0 pyavooO" srov. Tautoxpova, anattEi eva KpUtOe; apKEtU to"XUpo vn EnOntEUEt Kat vn E1ttXOPllyEi 'to epyo rrov noA.ttoov Kat rov E9EA.OVtOOV. DO"o ~EyaA.UtEpOe; eivm 0 apt9~oe; uur div r oiv noA.t'toov Kat E9EA.OVtOOv roco nEptO"O"OtEPO epyo 9a KUVOUV roe; ~EptKite; anaO"xOA.llO"l1e; Kat EpaO"tteXVEe;

Otavo~Eie; aya900v Kat

unllPEO"tOOV Kat tOO"O nt9aVOtEpO etvm ot EnaYYEA.~atiEe; aproyoi vn sivm npuy~an xpitO"t~Ol. Min opaO"titPta xoworvtc tll e; z povo t c ; n o u npoO"<pepEt aproyit, o"XEOtaO"~EV11 aUu OXt EA.EYXO~EVll ano eva to"xupo KOtVroVtKO

KpUtOe;, 9a nvrurpoO"oonEuE, yta vn EnaveA.9ro yta tEAEUtaia <popu ornv

aVaAoyia uou, evav 9E~EA.tOOO1) ~EtaO"Xll~attO"~o O"ne; O"XeO"Ete; otavo~ite;·

o OKOnOe; Tile; KOIVU>VIKOnoiIlOIle; eivoi VO rroocotoa vtouc TpOnOUe; - tvo nA~8oe; OIKTUU>V KOI 8£olJc.0v YIO TIlV OAAIlAOR>o~8£IO. AUTO orrcrrel TOV n£lpOIJOTIOIJO OTIlV TOTIlK~ OIlIJOKPOrio. Arrorrtl errlonc IJIO rrooorroaao OI£upUVOIle; TOU rreoloo opaOIle; TU>V £8£AOVTIKc.0V OPYOVc.00£U>V.

EUA.oya, yta ~ta aKo~l1 <popu - Kat Ol nOA.ttEe; oAoeva Kat nEptO"O"Orspo na911nKoi (it svspyot uovo O"tO vn Sl1tOUV rnv KpanKit OpUO"'ll). Ano oro npoepXEtat 11 avuyKll Kat ot nEptoOtKu ennvaA.a~~aVO~EVEe; npoO"nu9EtEe; vn xotvmvt KOnOt1) 9d 11 iota 11 KpattKit 0PUO"l1.

No~iSro on 11 Otavo~it Kat oxt llnapayroyft 9a etvoi to npooto nEoio tT}e; av9poontV1le; SpcornptotT}tae; nou 9a KOlvroVtKOnOl119- ei. Mtn Kat ot nEptO"O"OtEPOl uv9pronOl OEV 9a etvm EUxaptO"tT}~evOt ~E evav KOO"~O O"tOV ozoto Bn zupuusvouv a~oit911tOt (aKo~l1 Kat av 9a oexovtat nsptoOtKOOe; ~oit9Eta) 9a E~aKOA.ou9it-

H KOINCNIKH KATEY0YNIII EN TH E:EAI:EI TOY KPATOYI·

[H KOlVroVUCit Ka'te6S1V0"1~ IN 't11 E~EAi~E1 rou O"uYXpovou Kpnrotx eivm <patvoJ.LEVov ron 10' Kat K' uuovoc, Eivm 0 1tOA1't1KO~ VEro'tEP10"~O~, 0 01tOiO~ K1VEi Kat 'to IN01a<pEpOV 't11~ E1t1O"'tiJ~11~ Kat 't11V 1tPOO"OxrlV 'tll~ K01viJ~ yvroJ.l11~, OX! ~OVOV 010n INEO"apKroS11 it011 Kat E~ SEo"~OU~ Kat apxu~ ~1Kaiou, yvroO"'tOU~ a1tO rwoq Kat 1tap'11~iv, aUu KUpiro~ Ka1 1tEP10"0"O'tEPOV 010n U1t0011AroVE1 rnv ~EUOVnKitv ~Op<pitv 'tOU 01apKro~ E~EAtO"O"O ~EvOU 1tOAt'tEtaKOU opycvtouou, Etvm o"uVE1tro~ aouva'tov vn ~11v aaxOA11S11

~ 'to <patVOJ.LEVOV 'tOU'tO 0 SEAroV vn 1tapaKoAouSit 'tOY Kpa'ttKOV SEo"~OV OU ~OVOV IN 'tll O"'tUO"Et 'tOU aUu Kat IN 'tll ouva~1Kit 'tOU U1tUP~E1. Kat evouioo on OIN Sa EOtKatOA.OyOUV 1;ro11PO'tEPOV

'to IN01a<pEpov, 'to onoiov opovdi on a~i1;ouv rn SE~a'ta 't11~ Tsvnoj; IIoAt'tEtOAoyia~, 1tap' EUV Eppt1t'ta ait~pov Eva ~A.E~~a Em 'tll~ YINEO"tOupyia~ Kat 'tll~ 1tpOO1tnKit~ rou onucvruco» 'tU'tou <patvO~EVOU, 01tEP 11 IIOAt'tElOAoyia ~EA.e'tU KUp1ro'ta'ta, 11 OE 1tOAmKit Kat 11 011~0O"tOAoyia SEropOUV ro~ aV'ttKEi~EVOV E~atpEnKOU IN01a<pEpov't0~, E1ti 'tll~ KOlVroV1Kit~ E~EAi~Ero~ ron

Kpurouc,

H yaUtKit E1tavuO"'taO"t~ a<pou aVE'tupa~E 'ta~ \jIUXu~ ~E 'to EAEUSEpro'ttKOV 't11~ Kitpuy~a, EYKa'tEA.e1\j1IN E~ro 'tll~ 0"U~~'t0- xrl~ su; rn ayaSu 'tll~ t010K'tllO"i(l(; 'to ~Eya 1tAitSO~ rou Anou. 0 KOO"~O~ rov aK'tll~ovrov, 0 onoto; EiXIN E1tiO"TJ~ 'tPE~Et 01ttO"SIN rorv ropairov E1taYYEA1rov 'tll~ EnnvnO"'tUo"Ero~, EioE ue EK1tA11~1V on EYKaStOpUS11 ~ia ~OVOV 'tu~t~ E1ti

H YOMIK~ Enov6oTOOIe; OCPOU oV£T6po~£ TOe; lj.Jl)x6e; ~£ TO £A£l.)9£pu>TIKOV Tile; K~Pl.)y~O, £YKOT£A£llj.I£V £~U> Tile; Ol.)~~£TOX~e; £Ie; TO oyo96 Tile; IbIOKTIlOioe; TO ~£yo nA~90e; TOl.) Aooo.

rov spsurkov 'tll~ <pEouoapxia~ Kat 11O"SavS11 't11V a1toyoit'tEUO"tV o'tav EiOev on 0 Code Civil EKAEtO"IN E~ rou; 1tpoA.e'tapiou~ 'tllV Supav 'tll~ tOtoK'tllO"ia~ Kat on avnSE'tro~ KaS11yiaO"E Kat Ka'troxuproO"EV au'tiJv, ro~ 'tOY tOXUP0'tEPOV rov SEo"~roV rou ~'tE1tavaO"'tanKOu Aucuto u. H~1tOpOU~EV vn 1t1O"'te6O"ro~IN on a1tO 'tOY yoyyuO"~OV sxetvorv, oinve; 1tapE~t-

vnv 'to'tE E~ro rou J!EYupou rcov ayaSrov, E~E'tpu<P11 'to pEu~a 'to ozoiov ~E au~ouO"av opuqv 1;11'tEi vn 1tapaaUp11 EK'tO'tE 'tllv avSpro1to'tll'ta Et~ 'tllv Emrvdctnotv Ka'tu 'tll~ aO"nKit~ 'tU~Ero~. BE~airo~ 11 yaUtKit E1tavuO"'taO"t~ EYKaSiopuO"E YEa 1tOA1't1KU 06y~a'ta. EYKaSiOpuo"E 'tllv apxrlv 'tll~ Eev1Kit~ KUp1apxia~. 0 Aao~ EY1VE KUpiapxo~, 1t11yit 1tuO"11~ E~ouO"ia~, IN'toAo06't11~ 1taO"rov

rrov E~OUO"troV, roy it'to OOUAO~ Ero~ XSE~. AU' 11 ~E'ta~oAit aU'tit OIN ES~E rnv ~aeu'tEpav ouoinv rou xpurtxou SEo"~OU. To Kptrtor; rou 10' uuovo; 1tapE~EtVEV E1ti 1tOAU opyav1O"~O~ ~Evo~ 1tpO~ rnv xoworvuoiv 1;roitv, 11 ozofn EO"'tpo~tA.i1;E'tO 1tEPt~ ron. To Kpu'to~ 11PKEl'tO vn etvm opyav1O"~O~ 1tOA1't1KO~. T11V

ouotov rou, 'tllv 01KatOAoyirrv Kat 'tllv o"K01tt~O'tll'ta 'tll~ U1tUP~Ero~ rou 11PKEl'tO vn

rnv atO"SuvE'tat 'to Kparo; E1~ au'tiJv 'tau'tllv rrrv aU'toO"Uv'tiJP11- otv rou, Et~ 'tllv Sundrvurtv ron to"'tOP1KOU eutvcuevou ~1a~ U1tEp'tEpa~ E~ouO"ia~ ao"KOUJ!EV11~, 1tO'tE IN ovourm ron 0EOU, 1tO'tE IN ovouen rou HYE~OVO~ Kat 1tO'tE IN ovounrt ron Auo», Otu rrtv <PPOUP11O"tv rou Aao», Otu rnv aO"<puAtO"tv 'tll~ EVVO~OU 'tU~Ero~, OtU 'tllv 1tpay~u'troO"tv ron SEiou

• LE.: EvapKTliPloC; AOYOC; TOU cov ucprWIlTri TI1C; r£VIKric; nOAlwoAoyiac;, OTIC; 15 ho£KtlJ~pI11916. hoIlIJOOI£l.HI1K£ TO 1921 oro «APX£iov TU>V OIKOVOIJIKc.0V xcn KOIVU>VIKc.0V EmOTI1IJc.0V)} (TOIJOC; 1, oE"A. 128- 142). AvaoIlIJOOI£U£TOI ana TOV O£UT£PO TOIJO TU>V «NOIJIKc.0V M£A£Tc.0V» TOU A.I~c.0AOU, O£A. 155-171, A8riva 1958.

~tKaiou. IIEPav rourou OUOEi~ xotvrovnco; mcono~ EtmlPXE'tO Et~ 't11V nOAt'tEtaJdtv swourv.]

[AVEyvOOptO"EV on umXPXEt Kat oucovouucn ~roi) a~ia xroptO""'~ npoO"oxit~, xroptO""'~ pu9r..t.io"Ero~. AVEyvOOptO"EV on OUOEVO~ nOAl'tOU II 9EO"t~ EYtvEV at0"9ll'tOO~ KaAu'tEpa EK uovou rou YEYOVO'tO~ on stvm noAi't11~. AVEyvOOptO"EV on II OlKOV0r..t.tJdt avtO"O'tll~ unEpEKOpU<pOO- 9ll. AVEyvOOptO"EV on av OEV npOO"'ta'tEUO"fl EV 'tro OlKOVOr..t.tKOO ayoovt 'tOY a0"9EVEO"'tEPOV KtVOUVEUEt v' ava'tpani) nap' nurou. Kat, E~ 'to ~a90~ 't11~ O"UVEtOi)o"EOO~ 'tOU, iO"ro~ 'to Kperoc aVEyVOOpto"EV, on r..t.ia r..t.aKpuvi) auyi) uno~oomcEt

Et~ 'tOY anoo'ta'tov opi~oV'ta Kat on Eva~ VEO~ KOO"r..t.O~ O"Uv'tE9Etr..t.Ev0~ ano 'ta~ nEpt<ppovllr..t.Eva~ mlr..t.Epov KOlvrovtKa~ ouvar..t.E~ OEV efvm ani9avov va otaoEx9i) rnv O"<pptyooO"av EK nAOU'tOU Kat tax60~ nOAt'tEtaJdtv Kat KOtvroVtJdtv 'ta~tV 'tOU atOOVO~, 0 ozoto; EioE 'tOY 9piar..t.~ov 't11~ Kant'taAtO"n-

Jdt~ oucovoutcc.]

[H Ka90AtJdt ",i)<po~ Kat 'to nOAtnKOV KOtvO~OUAtoV E9Eropi)9llO"av r..t.llxaVtO"r..t.o~ aVEnapJdt~ ota va ucrvozoti) O"ll rnv a~iroO"tv 'tll ~ npoayroyi)~ 'tOU OlKOV0r..t.tKOU O"Ur..t.<pEpOV'tO~ trov 'ta~Erov. Au'to~ 0 KOlVO~OUAEU'ttO"r..t.O~ E9Eropi)9ll "'EUOO~, Kat au."

II tOEa 't11~ EevtJdt~ KUptapxt-

a~ <pEvaKll. Avrt EVO~ Movapxou-Einav-o Aao~ ota

rorv cucrnudrorv uurdrv EYKa9tO"'ta Et~ 't11V paxtv 'tOU nAll9uv ~aO"tAimcrov. Kat EVOO VOr..t.i~Et on ota 't11~ 'I'iJ<pou ron aO"KEi KUptapxiav, Ka't' ouoinv Ka'taAEinEt E~ rnv Ota9EO"tv 'tOU coerepurrou rn oiKata 'tOU, r..t.ll ota't11POOV Etr..t.i) 't11v unoxpEroO"tv v'

aUa~ll aU9Ev't11V ano KatpOU E~ KatpOVI • ~ton nro~ stvat ouva'tov II nOAtnJdt cvnzpootoneia va EnapKEO"ll O"i)r..t.Epov Et~ rnv EKnpoO"oo1tflO"tv trov ayrov~or..t.Evov Ka't' aUi)AroV 'ta~Erov, orov 0 KOO"r..t.O~ rrov O"Ur..t.<PEPOV'troV au'toov yiVE'tat OtapKOO~ nOAunAoKOO'tEpO~

Av£yvG>pIO£V OTI UnaPX£1 KOI OIKOVO~IK~ ~c.v~ o~io Xc.vPIOT~C; npOOOX~C;, Xc.vPIOT~C; pu8~io£c.vC;. Av£yvG>pIO£V OTI OUO£VOC; nOAiTOU 11 8tolC; tYIV£V olo8I1TG>C; KOAUTtpO £K ~OVOU TOU Y£YOVOTOC; OTI elvoi noAiTI1C;.

Kat at oucovouncot O"XEo"Et~ OtapKOO~ ouourorucdrrepui; IIoiov Kowoflousaov Er..t.nvEEt 'tOO"llV sumoroouvnv, OOO"'tE eu; rnv KflOEr..t.oviav 'tOU v' ano'tE90uv rn KOAOO"O"taia O"Ur..t.<PEpOV'ta, oou O"i)r..t.EPOV KtVOUV a'tor..t.a Kat r..t.a~a~ su; tAtyytOOOll O"'tpO~tAOV ayoovo~, ofmvo; II O"flr..t.aaia etvm Et~ 'ta~

o OIKOVO~IKOC; KOO~OC; elvcn

OUOIOOTIKG>T£POC; KOI £mr3AI1TIKG>T£POC; TOU nOAITIKOU.

Anoo£I~IC; OTI nOAU TOXUT£POV I1nAG>811 rrpoc TI1V ol£8v~

xorvcovlov 0 npG>TOC;, £VG> 0 O£UT£POC; ~tV£1 KOTa r3a8oc; OKO~11 £8VIKOC;.

AEn'tOr..t.EpEia~ rorv O"nYr..t.tairov Ka'taO"'taO"Erov; - Kat EnEt'ta 0 av9prono~ OEV aivm uovov noAi't11~. Ano 'tOU Roussean r..t.EXPt rou Hegel Kat ano 'tOU SaintSimon Kat 'tOU Proudhon r..t.EXPt ron Marx Kat ron Engels ostpn

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 30

<ptAOO"O<ptKOOV KllPUYr..t.a'trov anoKa'tEO"'t11O"E 't11V av'ttAll'lflV 't11~ unap~Ero~ xroptO"'ti)~ xorvorvtuc trov av9poonrov, 'tll~ oucovouuoj; xoworvtcc, II onoin EVEXEt KOO"r..t.OV O"Ur..t.<PEPOV'troV iotov, ouvar..t.tv wiav, Kat vouoo; E1tt'taKnKou~ wiou~. Ilcpc 'tOY nOAl'tllV unapXEt

o OlKOVOr..t.tKO~ av9prono~, 0 EnaYYEAr..t.a'tia~, 'to O"'tOlXEiov 't11~ oucovouuoj; xotvorvia~. Kat, aKpt~EO"'tEPOV Kat npayr..t.anKOO'tEpOV, 0 av9prono~ stvm npoo'tov EnaYYEAr..t.a'tia~ Kat EnEt'ta noAhll~. 0 OlKOVOr..t.tKO~ KOO" r..t.0~ e tvut o u o tnO"nKOO'tEpo~ Kat Ent~All'ttKOO'tEPO~ 'tOU nOAt'ttKOU. AnOOEt~t~ on nOAu 'taxU'tEpov llnAoo9llnpo~ rnv

OtE9vi) xowevtov 0 npoo'to~, EVOO 0 OEU'tEPO~ r..t.EvEt Ka'ta ~a90~ aKor..t.ll E9vtKO~.

Alla noo~ rots 9a llouva'tO v' evnnpooronsuon, r..t.E't11V apuoviav 't11~ EVtaia~ npOEAEUo"EOO~ 'tOU, 'to KOlvo~oUAtoV, 'tOY OlKOVOr..t.tKOV au'tov KOO"r..t.OV, 'tOY cnnpuooouevov ano 'tpaXEi~ ayoova~

E~OV'tOOo"Ero~; Av II nOAtnJdt xotveovin EVO"apKoovE'tat Et~ r o uc Ka9tEpror..t.EVOU~ nOAt'tEtaKOu~ 9Eo"r..t.OU~, OEV

OtKatoU'tat Kat II oucovouucn xotvroviu va EXll roue tOtKOU~ 'tll~; Kat nEpat'tEpro, a<pou 'to OtKOV0r..t.tKOV x Iv n r p o v s t v c t 'to

to"XUpO'tEPOV ota 'tllv a9proniVflv Spuornptorrrru Kat a<pou, Et~ rnv npayr..t.anxorqro, II KOlVrovtJdt 9EO"t~ rov OtKOV0r..t.tKOOV O"'tOtXEirov eivm EKEiVfl zou npoofnopi~Et rnv r..t.op<pi)v Kat 't11V

E~EAt~tv 't11~ nOAtnJdt~ Kotvrovia~, OEV 9a i)'to oiKatoV Kat EtAtKPtVE~ va xpror..t.an0"9i) r..t.E 'tOY xapaK'ti)pa 't11~ oucovouucj; KOlvrovia~ 'to Kpa'to~; - DXt Aomov nOAtnJdtv EK1tPOO"oonllO"tV ota rrrv uopqxootv trov nOAt'tEtaKOOV O"'tOlXEirov, aU'

1 R. Michels, Le partis politiques, yaM. EKO. 1914, KEep. II. Vandervelde, Le socialisme centre I' etot. 1918, pass.

OlKOV0I-lU01V. DXt 'tOY nOAiTllv EKAoysa Kat EKAOytl-l0V, aAAa 'tOY EnaYYEAl-la'tiav. Kat av npOKEt'tat Kat CO<pEAEi va Ota't11P11S" 0 aV'ttnpocrconEu'ttKO~ SEcrI-lO~, a~ opScoS" Et~ TIlV SScrlV TIl~ onusptvit~ BOUA"~ EV EnaYYEAl-la'ttKOV KOlVO~OUAtoV, E~ 'to onotov uvri v' aV'ttnpocrconeUcov'tat at nOAt'ttKai r.tEpiOE~ rou Aaou, S' cvnzpocrconEuOV'tat 'ta ota<popa

o u u o s p o v r u 'tCOV EnaYYEAl-lanKIDV 'ta~ECOV. Ka'ta 'tOY rmrov rpoxov av'ti

'tCOV cu I-l<PEPOV'tCOV rrov nOAt'tIDv 11 Entl-lSAEta V' aV"K11 Et~ 'ta~ 011l-locria~ un11pEcria~, co~ yvcopi~or.tEV cr"r.tEPOV au'ta~, Sa snpEnE v' ava'tES" au't" Et~ 'ta~ EnaYYEAl-la'ttKa~ OpyavIDcrE~ EKacr't11 ~ EVOta<pEpo I-lSV11 ~ 'ta~Eco~. H dtoiK11crl~ ou'tco

ron OlKOV0l-ltKOU ~iou TIl~ XIDpa~ Sa nEpwAS11 Ka'ta 't1-l"l-la'ta Et~ 't11V EnaYYEAl-la'ttKltV evnzpocrconEiav rrov nOAt'tIDv, Et~ rn crcol-la'tEia rmv, Nsov nAsYl-la OtotK11'ttKIDV ap I-l00to'tft'tcov, vsov crucr't11l-la aA11Sou~ anoKEV'tpIDcrEco~ Et~ TIlV ~acrtv 'tauTIlv EPEt()6I-lEVOV, S' uvnxerucr'tftcr11 'tOY onusptvov OtOlK11'ttKOV I-l11Xavtcrl-l0V. ]

[0 avSpcono~ rou atIDVO~ I-la~, zpo TIl~ npo'iouO"ll~ anocruvSscrEco~ TIl~

OlKOYEvEta~, npo 't11~ aVEnapKEia~ rou KOtVO'ttKOU SEcrl-l0U onco~ SEPI-lw" 't11V unap~iv rou, uovov EV'tO~ 't11 ~ EnaYYEAl-lan K" ~ opyavIDcrEco~ ovenptoxei enorov Kat I-l0VOV Otal-lscrou au't"~ Ouva'tat vn ~"O"ll EV'tOVID'tEPOV co~ a'tOI-lOV Kat co~ KOtVCOVtKOV cr'tOlXEiov. IIpo TIl~ npaYl-la'ttKOTIl'tO~ 'taUTIl~, "'t~ ~oa Ot' OACOV

'OXI AOmOV nOAITIK~V txrrpootorrnotv 010 TIlV jJOPCPCUOIV TCUV nOAITEIOKcbv OTOIXEicuv, OAA' OIKOVOjJIK~V. 'OXI TOV rroxirnv EKAOytO KOI EKAOYljJOV, OAAa TOV EnOYYEAjJOTiov.

'tCOV Sopu~COV TIl~ opacrEco~ Kat TIl~ OUVaI-lECO~, at SEcoP11'ttKai nvnpp"crEt~ zoiev O"lll-lacriav Sa EiXav; Ti EVOta<pspEt av 11 tOsa TIl~ E9vtKlt~ KUptapxia~ OEV crul-l~t~a~E'tat npo~ 'tOY 'tEl-laXtcrl-l0v TIl~ avnnpocrconEia~ Ka'ta 'ta~Et~ EnaYYEAl-la'tcov; A~iav SXEt I-l0VOV 11 ~co". Kat 11 ~co" aval-l<pt~oA.ro~ EupicrKE'tat npo~ 'to r.tEpo~ rorv tOEIDV nurdrv, 11 E<papl-loyft rorv ozokov Ka'tSKTIlcrE Kat Ka'taK'ta soa<po~ OtapKID~.]

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 31

[0 Proudhon copal-la'ticrS11 I-liav xotvorvtev onou OEV Sa unapX'1 Ku~SPV11crl~. Eu; 't11V SScrlV TIl~ Sa unapX11 I-l0VOV 11 OlKOVOl-ltK" opyavcocrl~. Eu; 't11V SScrlV TIl~ Sa unapX'1 crUl-lnAEYl-la crul-l~a'ttKIDv Ka'tacr'tacrEcov, Et~ 't11V SScrlV TIl~ nOAmKlt~ E~oucria~ Sa unapxouv at oucovouucct OUVaI-lEt~. Avt] rov KOlVCOVtKIDV 'ta~Ecov, anA.cb~ Sa

unapxouv at 'ta~Et~ rmv EnaYYEAl-la'tcov Ka't' EtOtKOrnru Epyacria~. Avri TIl~ nOAmKlt~ cruYKEV'tPIDcrECO~, Sa unapX'1 11 oucovouucn

anoKEv'tpcocrl~ .2]

[H E~SAt~t~ rou Kpurou; I-lE 'ta ~"I-la'ta 't11~ au'ta npocrnaSEi vn anav'tftO"ll Et~ rnv unptoorouov a~icocrlv rou O"llI-lEPtvOU avSpIDnou, 11 o mo iu tKE'tEUEt <pco~, EU11r.tEPiav, av'tiA.11'1'tV Kat

npoaycoyftv, ucereuet au'to rouro rnv EKnA"pcocrlv rou u'l'icr'tou O"Konou rou Kperouq: «EYEvE'tO usv 11 IIoAt'tEia ron ~11V EvEKEV, scr'tt 0' EvEKa'tou EU ~11V». ]

E1>xapuM"01>JL£ 1"~ EKooa£~ :E1"oxaa'tftGj 11a 1"l1V £1>YEV1K1lnapaxroPl1O"1') 1"l1Gj aO£laGj avaol1- JLOa1£1>al1Gj 1"01> napoV1"oGj K£lJLEv01>, 1"0 01[010 an01"£1..£1 JLEPOGj EVOGj £K1"EVEO"1"£P01> EPy01> n01> o EVola<p£pOJLEVOGj JLnopd va ava~l1'tfta£l £~, AI..t;avopoGj :EproI..oGj, IIpopA1]JLa1"a 1"01> 'EOV01>Gj Kal1"t)Gj Al1JLOKpa1"1aGj, £KO. :E1"OxaO"1"1]Gj, AO"va, 1972.

2 'leSE o).,OKAI1POV TO xcupiov EI<; Proudhon, Idee generale de la revolution au XIX slecle. Oeuvres completes, TO~. X, o. 259 err,

o nAo6TO~ TQV E9v6lv, TOIJ. A *

H tOtoKTIlcria nou SX,St 0 Ku8s uv8pcono~ O'TTtV spyaO'ia TOU, seooov aUnl anOTsAsi TO 8sJ.lEA.to Ku8s uUTt~ tOtoKTIlcria~, sivm Kat Tt mo tSPTt Kat anapa~iaO'TIl. H KATtPOVOJ.ltU TOU q>TCOX,OU av8pronou ~piO'KSTat O'TIl ouvaJ.lTt Kat TIl OS~toTTtTa TCOV x,sptrov TOU. To vc sJ.lnOOi~STat aUTo~ ano TO vc XPTtO'tJ.lonotEi aUnl TIl ouvaJ.lTt Kat OS~tOTllTa J.lE onoto Tpono 8scopsi np0crTJKOVTa, x,cop~ va ~AunTSt TOV O'uvuv8pcono TOU, O'UVtO'TU Ka8apTt napa~iaO'l1 aUnl~ TTt~ mo tEPTt~ tOtOKTTtO'ia~. AnOTSA.si J.lta q>avsPTt KaTanUTTtO'Tt TTt~ oiKatTt~ sAsu8spia~ TOO'O TOU sPyuTIl 00'0 Kat sxeivrov zou 80, TtTav otaTs8stJ.lsvot vu TOV anaO'x,oATtO'OUV. DO'o sJ.lnoOi~st TOV evo» vn spyaO'Tsi sxei onou 8scopsi O'COO'TO, auo TOO'O sJ.lnooi~st

TOU~ auou~ vn anaO'x,oATt-

oonv sKE1vou~ nou 8scopouv KaTauTtAOu~. H KpiO'l1nspi

TOU scv eivm KaTauTtAO~ vc anaO'X,oATt8si npsnst aO'q>aAro~ ve aq>s8si O'TIl OtaKpmKit sux,spsta exetvov TCOV SPYOOOTroV zou TO O'UJ.lq>spov TOU~ aq>opu. H npoO'notTtnl aycovia TOU v0J.l08sTll J.lTtnco~ Kat anaO'x,OATtO'OUV TO aKaTUAATtAO npoO'cono etvm npoq>avro~ TOO'O avupJ.loO'TIl 00'0 KatKaTamsO'nKit [0'.138]

Av8pconot TIl~ aUnl~ smx,stPTtJ.laTtKTt~ opaO'TTtPtOTTtTa~ (trade) ouvcvrdrvnn O'UX,Vu, aKOJ.lTt Kat yta OtaO'KSoaO'l1 Kat 'l'Ux,aycoyia,

aUu Tt O'UVSupsO'Tt KaTaATtYSt O'S ouvouroofn evevriov TOU oTtJ.loO'iou eire O'S KUnOtO TsX,VaO'J.la yta TIlV au~TtO"Tt TCOV TtJ.lrov. Etvm npuYJ.laTt aouvaTO vn napsJ.lnootO'TOUV aUTs~ Ot O'UvavnlO'St~ ota VOJ.lOU, 0 ozotoc siTs 80, J.lnopouO's vn sq>apJ.loO'Tsi SiTS 80, TtTaV O'Uvsnit~ npo~ TIlV sAsu8spia Kat TIl OtKatOcrUVTt· Ilnpon OJ.lCO~ 0 VOJ.lO~ Sev J.lnopsl vc sJ.lnoolO'st TOU~ av8pronou~ TTt~ aUTTt~ smx,StPTtJ.laTtKit~ opaO'TIlPtOTllTa~

Av8pcvnol Tile; aUT~e; ETIlXEIPIl~aTIK~e; Spocrnprornroc (trade) ouvovrcovrcn OUXvo, aKO~1l Kal Via olaoK£oaoll Kal 4Juxavcvvia, aAAo 11 oUVEUPEOIl KaTaA~VEI OE ouvoucoclc evovrlov TOU oll~ooiou EiTE OE xorroro T£xvao~a Via TIlV aU~1l01l TCVV nucov,

vn O'UVavTroVTat, 80, oq>StAS vn J.lTtv KWSt TlnoTs yta vc T~ OtEUKoMvst, Kat noM AtyOTSPO yta vc Tt~ Ka8tO'Tu avaYKais~ [0'. 145]

Ornv ot spyo06Ts~ (masters) SVroVOVTat yta vn nsptoploouv TOU~ J.lt0'80u~ TCOV spyaTrov TOU~, O'uvTt8co~ aVaAaJ.l~Uvouv J.lta oSO'J.lsuO'Tt Tt O'uvunTOUV utn O'UJ.lq>covia va J.lTtv oroO'ouv, J.lE TIlV anStATt OptO'J.lSVTt~ notvTt~, J.lSyaA.UTSpO ano Evav optousvo J.lt0'80. Errv ot SPyUTS~ O'UvsnpaTrev O'S J.lta aVUA0YTt EvCOO'l1 J.lS

Adam Smith

aVTiesTo o xo no , va J.lTtv anoosx,Souv, J.lS TTtV anStATt OptO'J.lEvrt~ notvit~, Evav OptO'J.lEvO J.ltO'So, 0 vOJ.lO~ So, TOU~ ruuopouoe nOAU aUO'TIlPu, svro sw TOU~ aVTtJ.lSTrom~s aJ.lSpoATtnTa, So, J.lETax,Stp~oTav TOU~ spyo06Ts~ J.lS TOV 10tO Tpono [0'. 158]

Ot SpyUTS~ sm8uJ.louv vu nupouv 00'0 TO Suvcrov nSptO'O'OTSPO svro Ot spyo06TS~ vn oroO'ouv 00'0 TO Snvutov AtyOTSpO. Ot nproTot

stvm OtaTSSStJ.lSVOt va svco80uv yta vn au~TtO'ouv TOU~ J.ltO'Sou~ TIl~ spyaO'ia~ svro ot OsUTSPot yta vn TOU~ J.lStIDO'OUV [0'. 83]

Ot uv8pconot npsnst nuvToTs va ~ouv ano TIlv spyacria TOU~ Kat 0 J.ltO'SO~ TOU~ npsnst vn snapKsl TOUAUX,tO'TOV yta TIl O'UVnl-

PTtcrTJ TOU~. Ot J.ltO'Sol npsnst snlO'Tt~ vn etvm O'Tt~ nSptO'O'oTSpS~ nSptnTIDO'St~ Aiyo J.lEyaAuTSpot ano TIl

O'UVnlPTtcrTJ TOU~, otaq>0pSTtKU So, E1Vat aouvaTo yt' auTOu~ vn SpS'l'OUV OtKOYEvSta Kat Tt q>UATt (race) aUTIDv TCOV spyaTIDv OSV So, OtapKsO'St nwco ano J.lta YSVtU [0'. 85]

To I6llJaTEio*

§ 250

H ayponlClj 'Ca~YI {Stand} EXEt ullEO'a crov enuro 't11~ 'to O'UYKEKptJ.1EvO yevtK6 't'Il~, oro onoio ~Et, O''t11V ouourorucomru 't'Il~ otKoYEVEtaK'i}~ Kat CPUO't1cft~ ~Oli}~ 't'Il~. 11 yeVZICIj 'tU~11 EXEt

orov npo0'8WptO'Il6 't'Il~ 'to YEVtK6 yta 'tOV emrro 't'Il~ Ol~ O'Kon6 't'Il~ 8paO''t11pt6't'1l'tu~ 't'Il~ Kat Ol~ E8acp6~ 't'Il~. To IlEO'ov IlE'ta~u rmv 8uo, 11 'tU~11 ron Ent't118Eulla'to~, stvm ouO't0l8cO~ O''tpallll~ npo~ 'to totaitepo Kat Ol~ EK 'tOU'tOU npOlnO"tOl~ O'E au'ti}v np00't8tU~Et 'to orouureto.

§ 251

H OpyUVOlO'11 't'Il~ Epyacria~ 't'Il~ aO''ttKi}~ KotVOlVia~ Sunpeitm O'U IlcpOlva IlE 't11v CPUO'11 't11 ~ t8tat'tEp6't11'tU~ 't11~ O'E nEptO'0'6'tEPOU~ KA.U80u~. Ka9cO~ exstvo 'to Ka9' smrrov 61l0w 't'Il~ t8tat'tEp6't11'ta~ anOK'tU unap~11

orov O'UVE'tatptO'Il6 Ol~ lCOIV6v, 0 IblO'CeX"C; O'Kon6~ non stvnt O''tpallJ.1EvO~ ornv t8tat'tEp6't11'tU rou O'UUall~avEt rov eeoro rou Kat 8paO''t'IlptOnotEhat 'tau't6xpova Ol~ yevtK6~, Kat 'to J.1EA.o~ 't'Il~ aO''ttK'i}~ xowevtcs; etvm, Ka'tu rnv

To OCUIJOTEio EXEI OUIJ<PCUVO IJE OUTOV TOV npOOOIOPIOIJO TO OIKOiCUIJO, uno rnv snorrrelo Tr,e; or,IJ0010e; E~ouoioe;, VO ETIlOIc0KEI TO OIKO TOU OUIJ<PEPOVTO rrou nEplKAEiOVTOI OTO EOCUTEPIKO TOU ... EV YEVEI VO orrocrnoka TO IJEAr, TOU cue; OEUTEPr,

OIKOyEVEIO ...

Ibzai'fepYl e1tlJe~z6'CY/'Ca 'tOU, IlEA.o~ rou oroucrstou, rou onoiou E'tO't 0 yevtK6~ O'Kon6~ ElVat EV'tEAcO~ UVylCelCpZptvOC; Kat 8EV EXEt xovevo nEpat'tEpOl eUpo~ an6 aU't6 zou EYKEt'tat 0''t0 EntTi}8Eulla, 't11V t8tu~ouO'a E1ttXElP11O'11 Kat 'to O'U IlCPEpOV.

§ 252

* ArroooOll OLa EAAr]VtKO:, AAoo, AappO:vou.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

uurov 'tOV npo0'8wptO'Il6 'to 8tKaiOllla, un6 rnv Enon'tEia 't'Il~ 8111l6O'ta~ E~ouO'ia~, va EnWtcOKEt rn 8tKU rou O'UIlCPEpov'ta nou nEptKAEiov'tat 0''t0 EO'Ol'tEptK6 'tOU, va EYYPUCPEt IlEA11 crUllCPOlva ue mv cvruceiuevucn t8t6't11'ta 't11 ~

8E~to'tExvia~ Kat 't11~

EV'tt1l6't'1l'ta~ 'tOU~ O'E evuv apt91l6 non npo0'8wpi~E'tat an6 rnv yevtK'i} O'UvucpEta Kat va IlEptllVU yta 60'0u~ uvrpcouv 0''t0 ccouursto npoO''ta'teUov'tu~ rou; an6 't~ E1ttIlEPOU~ O'UYKUpiE~ Kat

va IlEptllVU yta rnv EKnawEUO'11 nou 0811yEi 0''t11 tKav6't'1l'ta va avftKouv 0''t0

orouoreto - EV yevEt va uzoom-

pi~Et rn J.1EA11 'tOU Ol~ bEdJ'CePYl otKoyevEta, Ilta 9EO'11 nou napaJ.1EvEt mo anpo0'8t6ptO"'t'l1 yta rnv aO'nK'i} xotvrovte, 11 onoic stvm yevtK'i} Kat anollaKpuO'Il~ an6 rn u'tolla Kat 'tt~ t8tahEpE~ aVUYKE~ roue,

o E1tt't'll8EUlla'tia~ etvm 8tacpopE'ttK6~ an6 rov 11IlEPOlli0'9w

Epyo.Tll onro<; Kat ano exetvov non avayvtaptoueva, erot OOO"'tE 'to

stvm npo9uf.lo<; vn npoO"cpspEt f.lta f.lSAo<; EVO<; oroucrstou vn f.l11V SXEt

f.lEf.lOVrof.l~ 'tUxaia u1t1lPEO"ia. aVo.YK11 xcvevo nEpat'tspro

Exstvo; [0 EntTllOEUf.lana<;], non el;m7:epl1co UYfpMI yta vn EntOEi~Et

stvm 11 9SAEt vn yiVEt iuurtopac, rnv a~tom)V11 rou Kat 'tOY xnvo-

stvm f.lSA.o<; rou cuvermptouo» VtKO ~tonoptO"f.lO Kat TIl O"UV-r1lP11-

{Genossenschaft} OXt yta f.lta cr1l rou, on [011A.ao11] eivai taui.

ueuovouevn 'tUxaia anOKTIlO"11, ME rmrov 'tOY 'tpono etvm EniO"11<;

nUo. yta oA.6U11Po 'to EUPO<;, yta avayvroptO"f-lSvo on avllKEt O"E Eva

'to YEVtKOV rou tOtai'tEpou ~tono- OA.OV, 'to onoto stvm 'to iOto Eva

ptouou ron. - IIpOVOPla ro<; f.lSAo<; TIl<; YEVtKll<; xoworvtoc, Kat

OtKatOOf.la'ta rou oroucrstou Kat on EVOtacpspE'tat Kat K01tto.~Et yta

npaYf.lanKo. npovojno, Ka'to. rnv 'tOY avtOto'tEA.11 O"Kono au'tou rou

E'tUf.loA.oyia rou; otaKpi-

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 34

{Klassen}, npo.Yf.la f.lE 'to onoio O"uvosE'tat 11 011f.ltoupyia rou OXAoU (§ 244), rots OEV 9a npSnEt vc napa~MnE'tat ore 6.A.A.a aina (n.x. O"'tO on 11 EpyaO"ia OtapKoo<; yivE'tat 1ttO f.l11XavtKll) 0 KOlvmVIKO-11(hKOr; A.6yo<;, erot onro<; au'to<; sYKEt'tat o tu npo11You usvc. Xropiq vu stvm f.lSA.o<; EVO<; E~ouO"tOOO't11f.lSVOU {berechtigt} oro uurstou (Kat f.lOVOV ro<; E~ouO"tOOOTllf.lEvo Ko.n 'to KOtVOV ouvtorn O"rof.la'tEio), 'to

ueuovouevo o.'tOf.lO stvm

ITO OCUIJOTEiO fl r>0~8EIO rrou nOipVEI fl CPTc.0XIO XOVEI rnv Tl)XOIOTflTO TflC; onCUC; KOI TOV OOIKO TOnEIVCUTIKO TflC; XOPOKT~PO KOI 0 nAOlnOC;, OTflV l)nOXp£CUo~ TOl) £VOVTI TOl) Ol)VnOlpIOIJOU TOl), XOVEI rnv orrsootplc KOI TOV cp8ovo rrou rrpokoxel, ..

vovrm f.lE'ta~u rou; ro<; npo<; 'to on ru 'tEAEu'taia ano'tEAouv E~atpso"Et<; ano 'tOY YEVtKO VOf.lO m)f.lcprova f.lE 'tuXato't11'tE<;, EVOO exetvc e tvut f.lOVOV npocdtoptouot, Ot onoiot

sxow yiVEt m)f.lcprova f.lE vouou; Kat SYKEtV'tat O"'t11V

rpVUYf 7:11r; Iblal7:ep07:1'fr:ar; EVO<;

OA.ou· SXEt s'tO"t 7:1'fV 7:lpft 7:0V U7:1'fV 7:0,1;11 7:OV.

ouO"toooou<; u6.0ou TIl<; xowovta<;.

~'to ~a9f.lo au'to 0 9EO"f.lO<; rou orouetetou, f.lsO"ro TIl<; E~aO"cp6.A.t-

§ 253 0"11<; TIl<; nsptouofnq, avnO"'totXEi

O"TIlv EtO"ayroYll 't11<; YEropyia<; Kat

~'tO oroucrsto 11 otKoYEvEta OEV TIl<; a'tOf.ltKll<; tOtoKTIlma<; O"E f.lta

txel uovov ro ma9Epo TIl<; soacpo<; 6.A.A.11 O"cpaipa (§ 203 0"11f.l.). - Av

ro<; TIlV el;aurpw..IUYf rou Btonopt- ocpEiA.OUV vn ota'tunoovov'tat

O"f.lOU uno 'tOY opo 7:1'fr; IKaV07:1'fr:ar;, napo.nova yta TIlV nOA.u'tSAEta Kat

f.lta ma9EP11 neptoooia (§ 170), rnv f.lavia 't11<; O"na'to.A.11<; rov

nUo. EniO"11<; Kat rn 0'60 efvm En t X E t P 11 f.l a r t K 00 V 't a ~ E ro v

xropi<; 7:al;lKft r:lpft, f.lsO"ro TIl<; anOf.lOvrocr1l<; rou stvm nEptOptO"f.lSVO O"'t11V tOto'tEA.11 nA.EUpo. 'tau E1ttTllOEUf.la'to<;, 0 ~tonoptO"f.lO<; Kat 11 anOAaucr1l rou OEV ouvtcrouv 'tino'ta

'to oicdlep», ea npoonn- 911O"Et erot vc EntWXEt tnv avarvdunon r:ov f.lSO"ro rorv E~ro'tEPtKOOV EntOEi~Erov 't11<;

E1tt'tUxia<; rou O"'tO E1tt-r1lOSUf.lo. rou, E1ttOEi~Et<; non stvm Uvsu opirov, oton OEV A.af.l~UvEt xoopa Eva ~Etv m)f.lcprova f.lE rnv 'to.~11 rou, oton OEV Uno.PXEt 11 'to.~11 - Ka9oo<; O"TIlv aO"nKll xowovtc Uno.PXEt f.lOVOV EKEiVO 'to KOtVOV nou etvoi

O"UYKPOTllf.lEvo Kat avayvroptO"f-lSvo m)f.lcprova f.lE 'tOY VOf.lO - OEV f.lnopEi 011A.a011 vn E1ttWXEt yta 'tOY

KEilJEVO OE aYKuAE<; [] orrorsxd rrovroo npOOe~KI1 TI1<; EAAI1VIK~<; IJETOcppaOI1<; (A.A.).

euuro 'tOU EVaV 1tPOOl1KOV'ta YEVtKO 'tP01tO sOll1e;. - ~'t0 orourrreto T) ~0119Eta 1tOU 1taipVEt T) cp'tOOXta XavEt 'tT)V 'tUXatO'tT)'tU 'tT)e; 01t0le; Kat 'tOV UOtKO rcerervmruco 'tT)e; xapaK""pa Kat 0 1tA01l'tOe;, O'tT)V U1t0XPEOlcrll 'tOU evevn 'tOU O"UVE'tatpt0I-l0'O 'tOU, XUVEt 'tT)V U1tEpo\jlia Kat 'tOV cp90vo 1tOU 1tpoKaAEi - EKEiVT) O'tOV KU't0XO 'tOU, nurov O'tOUe; UAAOue;' T) ruuorrrm Aal-l~avEt 'tT)V aAT)911 'tT)e; avayvooptcrT) Kat nl-ll1.

§254

~'t0 oroucrsto EYKEt'tat Eva 1tEptaptcrI-lOe; 'tOU Aey0I-lEVOU rpVCTlICOV JUCfJ.lWpfJ.roC;, vn E~aOKEi KaVEie; 'tT)V E1ttOE~tO-

'tT)'tU 'tOU Kat vn a1tOK'tU E'tcrt

o,n l-l1topEi vc a1toK'tT)9Ei, I-l0VOV 0't0 ~a9l-lo 1tOU erot [mrro 'to otKaiOll-la] 1tpooOtOpiSE'tat 1tpOe;

'tT)V Ka'tE'09uvO"T) 'tOU EAAoyOU, OT)AaOl1 I-lE 'to v n a1tEAEu9EpoovE'tat, vn avayvOlpiSE'tat Kat vn E~aocpaAisE'tat a1tO 'tT)V iOla YVOOI-lT) xm mv 'tUXatO'tT)ro, 'tOV Wta Kivouvo Kat rov Kivouvo yta UUoue; Kat'tau'tOxpovc vc avop900VE'tat OE O"UVEtOT)"" opao'tT)ptO'tT)'ta yta Evav KatVO OK01tO.

§ 255

Qe; 1tpOe; rnv oucoveveic 'to oroucreto a1to'tEAEi rnv OE'O'tEPT), rnv EYKa9topuI-lEVTJ I-lEOa ornv aonKl1 xorvrovtu, lCOlVOJVllCO'f/(JUa1 pisa 'tOU KpU'tOUe;. H 1tPOO'tT) 1tEptAal-l~UVEt ne; onYI-lEe; 'tT)e; U1tOKEtI-lEVtKlle; tOtat'tEpO'tT)'tae; Kat 'tT)e; avnKEt!J.EVtKlle; YEVtKO'tT)'tae; OE ovrnwJ'f/ EVO'tT)'ta' T) OEU'tEPT) OI-lOle; [1tEptAal-l~UVEt] aU'tEe; ne; onyr.tf.e;, at ozote; Ka't' apXue; OtXUsov'tat O'tT)V aonKll xoworvia OE tOtat'tEpO'tT)'ta 'tT)e; aVUYKT)e; Kat

Qc; rrooc Trw OIKOY£VEla TO OCUI...IOTEio anOTEAEi rnv OEl>TEPI"l, TI"lV EYK0810pUI...I£VI"l 1...1£00 OTI"lV OOTIK~ xoivcovlc. KOIVCUVIKO- 1"l81K~ pi~o TOU KpOTOUC;.

'tT)e; a1toAauO"T)e; 1tOU eivm avaatoXfJ.(JPivrt rrrov efJ.v-co 'C'f/C; Kat OE fJ.rp'f/P'f/Pivrt OtKaUKll YEVtKO'tT)'ta, OUVEVOlI-lEVEe; I-lE EOOl'tEptKO 'tP01tO, E'tcrt OOO"'tE OE aml1 'tT) o"uVEvOlO"T) T) tOtai'tEpT) EUT)I-lEpia vn sivm otKaiOll-la Kat vn 1tpayl-la'tOOVE'tat.

H tspomtu 'tOU YUI-l0U Kat T) 'ttl-ll1 0't0 orouucsto etvm ot 0'00 onyr.tf.e;, rUPOl a1tO ne; 01tOiEe; 1tEptO'tPECPE'tat T) a1tOOtapyuVOlO"T) 'tT)e; aO"'ttKlle; KatVOlviae;.

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 35

IIpo(J(Jr,lC'f/,' Ornv O'tT)V VEOO'tEPT) E1toml1P9T)0<xv ra omucreto, rots au'to EXEt 'to VOT)I-la on 'to I-lEI-l0VOlr.tf.v0 U'tOI-lO OCPElAEt vn opovrtost a1tO I-l0VO 'tOU 'tOV eooro 'tOU. AKOI-lT) Kat <XV KaVEie; OI-lOle; 'to 1tapaoEx9Ei au'to, OEV aUUSEt, r.tf.00l 'tOU oroucrstou, T) U1t0XPEOlO"T) 'tOU !J.EI-lOVOlr.tf.vOU a'tOI-lOU vn CPpOV'tisEt yta ra 1tpOe; 'to sEtv'tOU. ~'ta OtKU I-lae; crUyxpova KPU'tT) at 1tOAl'tEe; EXOUV I-l0VOV zeptoptoueVT) ou I-lI-lE'tOXl1 one; YEVtKEe; U1t09EoEte; 'tOU KpU'tOUe;' stvm

OI-lOle; avaYKaio vc 1tapEXE'tat orov KatVOlvtKO-T)9tKO

av9POl1t0, EK'tOe; a1to rov tOtOlnKo OK01tO 'tOU, I-lta YEVtKl1 Spuo rnptornru.

Auto 'to YEVtKO, 'to onoto OEV 'tOU 1tpOOCPEPEt 1tuv'ta 'to crUyxpOVO KpU'tOe;, 'to ~piO"KEt 0't0 orouersto. Eioa!J.E 1tpOT)YOUr.tf.vOle;

on 'to U'tOI-lO Ka900e; CPPOV'tlSEt yta 'tOV snuro 'tOU O'tT)V aonKl1 xotvervic, opa E1tiO"T)e; yta UUOue;. AAAU aU'tl1 T) 1-lT) OUVEtOT)'tl1 avaYKato'tT)'ta OEV etvoi E1tapKlle;:

I-l0VOV 0't0 orouoreto Ka9io'ta'tat utu OUVEtOT)'tl1 Kat VOT)'ttKl1 KatVOlVtKll T)9tKO'tT)'ta. BE~aiOle; 1tPE1tEt 1tUVOl a1tO uuro ['to OOll-la'tEio] vc ~piO"KE'tat T) U\jIT)Al1 E1t01t'tEia 'tOU KpU'tOUe;, oton OtacpopEnKU 9a 0O"'tE01tatT)90'OV, 9a KAEtcr90'Ov O'tOV eooto rou; Kat

A'A'Ao Ko8' EOL>TO KOI 01' EOL>TO TO scurov, Kat 2. ['ITl crnYlllJ] 'ITl~

ccouorelo OEY EiYOI ~IO KAEIOT~ 1l0PCPlJ~ 'ITl~ YEVtKO'ITl'ta~, 1tOU

aL>YTExyiO: EiYOI ~o'A'AOY 111181Ko- o U v i o t n r a 1 o 't 11 v

rrolnon TOL> ~E~Oyc.u~tYOL> ETII- (01a)1l0pcprocr11, 'ITl~ 1l0PCPlJ~

TI10EU~OTOC; KOI 11 oyu4Jc.ua~ TOL> 'ITl~ vonon; ['t11~ OKelflf/~],

aE tyOY KUKAO, orroo KEpoi~EI f.lEcrro 'ITl~ o1toia~ 'to xvebua

OUYO~11 KOI TI~~. ro~ opvavtouevn OAO't11'ta

9a Ka'ta~u9tcr'tO'6v oe Eva a9AlO a1tO'tEAOUV EV YEVEl n~ OUO

cruV'tEXVlaKO cri>cr'ITllla. AJJ...a Ka9' crnyf.lE~ 1tOU stvm aKOIl1110Ea'tE~,

eooto Kat 01' EaU'tO 'to oroucrsto a1to n~ 01toiE~ npoepxeraz 'to

OEV stvm 1l1a KA.Elcr." cruV'tExvia: Kpa'to~ ro~ 0 aA.119lJ~ AOyO~ 'tou~. -

stvm IlaA.A.OV 111191K01toi11~ rou Au." 11 aVa1t'tU~11 a1to rnv af.lE~

ueuoveuevoo E1tl'ITlOEUlla'tO~ Kat K01VrovtKlJ 1191KO't11'ta OtallEcrou

11 aw'l'rocriJ rou os Evw KUKAo, 'tOU 01Xacrllou 't11~ acrnKlJ~

01tOU KEpoi~El ouvall11 Kat

nlllJ·

§ 256

o crK01tO~ rou oroucrstou ro~ zeptoptopevo; Kat 1tE1tEpacrf.lEvO~ EXEl 'ITlV aAlJ9Ela 'tOU - Ka9ro~ Kat 0 OtaXroPlcrllO~ 1tOU

stvm U1tapK'tO~ ornv uorovouucn K01vrovia~ 1tpO~ 'to Kpa'tO~, 1tOU

E~ro'tEP1KlJ 01a'ta~11 Kat 11 crXEnKlJ avaOE1KvUE'tat ro~ 0 aA119lJ~ A.6y0~

'tau'to'ITl'ta rou - orov Ka9' Eau'to 'tOU~, Kat 1l0VOV utu 'tE'tOla

Kat 01' EaU'tO vevixo oxoxo Kat aVa1t'tU~11, ouvtorn 'ITlV etaatnuo-

ornv a1t6A.u'ITl EVEPYO 1tpaYlla- Vllaj an6r5ez~f/ 'ITl~ svvoicc 'tOU

nKO't11'ta 'tOU' 11 crcpaipa 't11~ Kpa'tOU~. - E1tEl0lJ Ka'ta 't11V

acrnKlJ~ K01vrovia~ f.lE'ta~aiVEl ro~ 1t0 pstu 't11 ~ smornuovt KlJ ~

EK'tOU'tOU oro lCp6:r:o~. a1tOOE1~11~ 'to Kpa'tO~ Ellcpavi~E'tat

ro~ astoteleaua, Ka9ro~ 1tpOKU1t'tEl

II6A.11 xm u1ta19po~ - EKEiV11 11 ro~ aAf/()~~ A.6yo~, EKdv11 11

Eopa 'tOU ucrucou E1t1'ITlOEUlla'tO~ bzapeUOAapf/Uf/ xm EKdv11 11

xm 'tOU avacr'toxacrllOU 1tOU E1ticpacr11 aipovtai E~' Icou os

avaOUE'tat orov EaU'tO 'tOU Kat oueooima. Tt' uorov 'to AOYO ~V

Ka9icr'ta'tat Ka9' EKacr'tO~, au." 11 EVEPYO 1tpaYllanKo't11'ta 'to

Eopa 'ITl~ K01VroV1KlJ~ 1191KO'ITl'ta~ Kpa'to~ EV YEvEl stvm llaUov 'to

1tOU cr'ITlpi~E'tat orn cpu~ -, ru ttpdnov, EV'tO~ rou ozoiou Ka't'

a'tolla 1tOU OtallEcroAa~ouv rnv apxa~ 11 01KOYEVEta Ota-

aU'tocruv"'P11criJ rou; f.lEcrro 'ITl~ uopqxoverm os acrnKlJ xowovtc

crXEcr11 ~ npoq aAAa 01KallKa Kat sivm 11 iOla 1110Ea 'tOU Kpa'tOU~

1tpocrro1ta xm 11 01KOYEVEla 1tOU 01xa~E'tat os aU'tE~ n~ OUO

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 36

crnYIlE~' crnv aVa1t'tu~11 't11~ acrnKlJ~ xotvorvtcc 11 K01VrovtKO- 1191KlJ ouofn KEpO~El 'ITlV anezpf/ 1l0PCPlJ 't11~, 11 onolc 1tEPWXE1IlEcra 'ITl~ n~ OUO crnyf.lE~: 1. ['ITl crnYlllJ] 'ITl~ a1tElp11~ bzalCpzurf~ IlEXPl rou ev-eaotov-eivai 'ITl~ aU'tocruvEt011-

cria~, 'to ozoto stvut 01'

Ka91cr'ta 'tOV euuro 'tOU aVnKElf.lEV1KO Kat EVEpya 1tpaYllanKO orou; vouoo; Kat orouc (}eupov~, ~V vonuevn ~OUA11criJ

'tOU.

AnlOTA,MIEYTIKO EnENAYTIKO nporPAMMA (crroXOI ZOHI:»

Av jJllo'pgil"r,e;,

_________ 1~ __

vo 'O'V'OJjocrE"t£

'tU; e:n.,aUI~JIf,E<; aOIC;,

- -- - -,- - - - - - - - -- --

IIIIOpt:I'(,E HGII va '1:1«;

BIPoYtJ'01:,onolq,oS'tEl

Ms "to anOl:-CIlISU1[IKo-m£VSu'tIl<O TlpoypalJpa <<I"tOXOI Z(J,)~C:;», ovo~d~,ew Ka. npay~latorrou~ite: e:ae:ic; "tIC; wl6upfec; aac;.

Itl}v 1jpcin$ nBp01~. YIIl KliBE dubo ~ lIDO Eu:re,.lllJllloopy£ire tvov ~1c:rn3 ~ AoyopKlCJllo 11£ m &K6 mu 0v01lCl. Em:rr; ~ m: 1«J8ivavano IlIJlUlDI:. ~~:

• E~Ia.O!pOO £OEic; ~ cm6tE». qKI rtOcmll.«p& Un00611 y1v£m1 fJ ~rWOl'J I ~

• Auwcn!cnlfDl anoIapliK u.~ ano&6aa.w un:o lie; 1ro'tO!ltCl~I-; ptow tQ)V o~16mcrt(IjV CftVOliltllWV STl)oytHi tile; Tp4n$e; nG!pCIlWi;

• 1ih1O npoypappcn:lapO ~. IJlilviClra £Yrtl-l~ Via to Kt<pOACIIO nOli txa£ arevliU~1 ClE K6ti£ aWxo oa~

• ~""' 611:EaJK pt:ucn:61illJUl( Kal aupllnoxJje;; p£ nolU 1I1tcp6 1d!p61aIO

NEo arTotCI"'IG~IK6.m£V6tn)IK6 npOypolJ,IJo «I:'t6xOI z.c.,~Q}.

aOO 11') .... TpOn£~ 1II0u OnOY Enle¥'MEII: ... AHMlloyprEII.

TA AMOlBAIA KE4iMAlAAEN EXOYN ErlrYHMENH AflO4OIH

KAJ 01 nPOHroYMENEI AnOAOIEllAEN lI.lAICMAlZOYN Till MEMONTIKEI

~ 8011-802-803-804 vvww.piraeusbank,gr 5001«l'tcaUi1J0UI

TIPAnEZA nEIPAIOI

ACDIEPCMA: TO IVrXPONO KOINCNIKO KPATOI

TO KPATOI-npONOIAI ITHN IVrXPONH EnOXH

EXOUV O"UV'tEAECHEi, lOUlhEpa Ka'ta 'to OEU'tEPO it~lo"u rou 200u au:.Ova, O"TIlV Epyacrta, Tl')V 'tEXVOAoyia xm rnv napaycoytKit Ota01KaO"ia, EXOUV O"u~~aAAEl o-rnv avan'tU~11 SECOPll't1Kc:.OV npO~All~anO"~c:.Ov Kat aV'ttAit",ECOV Yla 't~ nOAmKE~ xm 'to Kpuro; - Ilpovotcc O"TIlV crUYXPOV1l EnOxit. Ka'tapxitv Ota'tUnc:.OVE'tal 11 aV'ttAll"'11 'tll~ ~E'ta~oAit~ 'tCOV KUptCOV O"'totxEirov O"TI') ~aO"ll

'tCOV ozokov 011~toUPyftSllKE

Kal ClVanWxSllKE 'to Kpa'to~ Ilpovotuc, O"'tllV onoia ~E'ta~oAit Sa npEnEt vn npoO"ap~OO"'toU~E. dllAaoit aUa~El 11 0"'tpaTllY1Kit TIl~ nAitpou~ anao"XOAllO"11~, aUa~Et 'to nEptEXOJlEVO 'tOU KUKAOU ~coit~ Kat EpyaO"ia~ 'tOU Epya~o~EVou (EK1taioEU-

0"11, EnaYYEA~a'tlKit opaO"'tllpiornro, nEpiooo~ mrvtn~11~), aAAa~El 'tEAO~ 11 aV'ttAll'1'11 Yla'tO pow xm TI') SEO"ll 'tOU O"uO"'tit~a'to~ K01VCOVtKit~ npoO"'taO"ia~. Ka'ta O"UVEnEta, 'tieE'tat 'to Epc:.OTIl~a noto~ Sa KaAU1t'tEl 't1~ K01VCOV1KE~ aVaYKE~, 'to Kpcro; - Ilpovotm; it Sa aVaAa~Et 0 Wto~ 0 aO"cpaAtO"~O~ ~po~ TI')~ Ka.AU'I'11~ Ola~O"ou TIl~ ayopa~; ~'t0 Kpdro; - Ilpovoun; zou yvcopiO"a~E TIlV avan'tU~it 'tOU Ka'ta 'tllV OtapKEta 'tOU 200u mdrvo, 11 crUVSEO"ll it'tClV 11 ~EyaAll E1t1XsiPllO"ll (cI>oPV't), 11 nAitpll~

anaO"XOAllO"11 (KEUV~) xm 11 avan'tU~11 KotVCOV1Kc:.OV nOAtnKc:.Ov. ~E opouc nOAmKit~ oncovoutcc 11 O"UVSEO"11 AlyO'tEPO K01VCOV1KO Kpa'to~ - nEplO"O"O'tEPll avan'tU~11, O"ll~aiVEt nEptO"O"o'tEPll napaycoyft, nEplO"O"OUPll Ka'tavaACOO"11, xsptcccrspu KEPOll, EVc:.O 11 crUVSEO"ll nEplO"O"O'tEPll KOlVCOV1Kit OtKatocrUV1l - KtV1l'tftPla ouva~11 'tll~ avan'tU~11~, o q uutvs t n s p t c c o r s p n napaycoyit, nEplO"O"OUPll Ka'tavaACOO"11,

ITO KPOTO<; - npOVOIO<; TTOU YVc.upiOOjJE Tr,V OVOTTTU~~ TOU KOTO Tr,V OIOPKEIO TOU 200u OIc.0VO, r, OUV9EOr, ~TOV r, jJEYOAr, ETTIXEipr,or, (CDOpVT), r, TTA~Pr,<; OTTOOXOAr,Or, (Ktuv<;) KOI r, OVOTTTU~r, KOIVc.uVIKc.0V TTOAITIKc.0V.

nE pro O"OU pn anaO"xo All 0"11, nsptccorepn avaKa'tavo~it rou napayo ~EVOU npo'iov'to~, Alyo'tEpa KEPOll. AU'tit rnv O"UVSEO"11 0 Mao"l~o ITa'tO"l (Welfare State, Ecliesse 1997) Tl')V anoKaAsi 'to «Sau~aO"'to ~EUyapcoun» ron CPOPV'tlo"~OU xm ron KEi}VO"1ClV10"~OU. Ka'ta O"UvEnEla, crft~pa Kat 0"'t0 ~EUOV onou ot 'tEXVOWytKE~ E~EAi~El~ Olacpoponototrv au'tftv Tl')V crUVSEO"ll, nota Sa sivm 11 vEa crUvSEO"11 nou Sa

TOl) flovvr] navay6nOl)AOl)

anO'tEAsi 'ta SE~EAla rou Kprrrouc - Ilpovotnq O"'tT)V crUyxpoV1l Enoxit; Au'tft nou SEAsl AlyO'tEPO KotVCOV1KO Kpa'to~ - xepiccorepn aVa1t'tU~11 it aU'tit noo SEAE1, nEptO"O"o'tEPll K01VCOVtKit SucmocrUV1l - KtV1l"'pla ouva~11 TIl~ avan'tU~11~;

Ano Tl')V ano'l'11 au." SECOpOU~E on eivm avaYKaio vn E~nwutiO"OU~E 'tll O"u~it'tllO"11 Kat 'tOV npO~All~a't1O"~o ~E ru SECOPll't1Ka

OUO"laO"'t1Ka O"'t01XEia 'tCOV E~EAi~ECOV Kat ~E'ta ~E 'ta OlaXE1plO"'t1Ka O"'tOtXE1a, EXOV'ta~ Ka'tavoitO"El O"E ~aSo~ 'tOU~ ~'taO"xn~a't1- O"~OU~ zou O"UV'tEAOUV'tat

oro napaycoytKO crUO"TIl~a xm 't1~ E1t10pao"El~ 'tOU~ O"TIlV Epyacrta Kat 'to Kparo; - Ilpovourc, Eno~co~, stvm avaYKll vn npo~All~an-

O"'tOU~E Yla 'tll «vsu crUVSEO"ll» zoo Sa EntAE~OU~E O"TI')V crUYXPOV1l Enoxit Kat n010~ Sa aivm 0

KEV'tP1KO~ O"'tOXO~: 'to welfare (Kpa'tO~ npOVOla~) it 'to workfare (unoxpEconKit EpyaO"ia); ME !lUa AOyta ot Eupcona'iKE~ KotVCOViE~ Sa EnlAE~OuV 'tll VEOCP1AEAEUSEPll EKOOXit it ~ap~apO'tll'ta 'tll~ VEOKAao"lKit~ SEcopia~ it 'tllv EYKaSwpuO"11 ~ia~ VE~ tcoppozia~ ava~EO"a oro «01KOVO~tKO» Kat 'to «K01VCOV1KO»; Ilox; Sa E~EASOU~E ano TIlV xpton: ~E cvnznpaSEO"ll oucovouicq Kat xoworvicc it ~E Tl')V O"U~cptAicoO"ll TIl~ otKOVO-

xm

~tKl1~ ~tOlcrt~O'nl'ta~ ~E 'tT'lV KotVOlVlKll anO'tEAEcr~a'ttKO'tT'l'ta; ~E OtaXEtptcr'ttKO EninEOO ea nsptoptcrouv ot napE~~acrE~ ~a~ ornv unEpacrmO"T'l rrov CP'tOlXOOV, aOUVa~OlV Kat KOtvOlVtKa anoKAEtcr~EVOlV, evcvrt rmv os KaAU'tEpO EtcroOT'l~anKO EmnEOO ~tO"eOl'tOOV, 11 T'I unEpacrntO"T'l rov onuepwev YEVEOOV ea yiVEt os ~apo~ trov ~EllovnKOOV YEVEOOV; BE~ata, T'I av'ttAT'I'IfI1 'tT'I~ ~'tE~EAt~T'I~ 'tT'l~ KpanKl1~ EUeUVT'I~ napOXl1~ UnT'lPEO"tOOV yta 'tT'lV ucovonoinon rorv KOtvOlVtKOOV avaYKOOV, crE EUeUVTl yta 'tT'lV aV'tt~E'toomcrT'l rou KotVOlVtKOU nvouvou rou KaeE urouoo, non avan'tucrcrE'tat 'tEAEu'taia, ano~aKpUVE'tat ano rouq xpouvmpepouevouc npo~AT'I~ancr~ou~.

Ilro crUYKEKpt~EVa, T'I av'ttAT'I'IfI1 au~ npOotaypacpet ~ia npoon'ttKll E~a'to~iKEUO"T'l~ 'tT'I~ napoX1l~ U1tTlPEO"tOOV yta KaeE a'to~o zou

EXEt avaYKT'l Kat OXt yta 'to crUVOAO rou nAT'leucr~ou Kat 'tT'I~ xotvorvtcc,

H npoonnKll au~, os opou; opyavOlO"T'l~ Kat xapaK~pa rov O"Ucr'tT'l~a'tOlV xotvrovt-

Kll~ npocr'tacria~, O"T'I~aiVEt ~ia cr'taOtaKll ~E'ta'tontcrT'l ano 'to AEYO~O crUcr'tT'l~a 'tT'I~ «EUPOlna'iKll~ rprsipou», 'to YVOlcr'tO Ol~ ~OV'tEAO Bismark (napOXl1 UnT'lPEO"toov yta rnv KaAu\I'T'I rrov KO tv oivi KO - acrcp aA t o r t KOOV avaYKoov rorv acrcpaAtcr~EvOlV) oro AYYAocra~OVtKO o uo r n uu Beveridge (KaAU'lfl1 EVO~ EAaXtorou Kat YEvtKEU~EvOU EmnEOou KotVOlVtKl1~ npocr'tacria~ Kat Ota~iOlcrT'l~, EVOO EKcppat,;E'tat 'tEAEu'taia orou; KOAnou~ 'tT'I~ EupOlna'iKl1~ Ent'tponl1~ «uiu ~OUAT'lO"T'I crUYKAtcrT'l~ rorv cr't0XOlV 'tT'I~ KotVOlVtKll~ npocr'tacria~ ornv EupOlna'iKll 'Eveon», ~E nporspmomro, rrrv eEcr~oeE'tT'IO"T'I rou EAaXtcr'tOu EtcroOl1~a'to~. H

lIop'toyaAia EXEt eEcr~oeE~crEt 'to EAaxtO"'to EtO"60T'I~a, ot aAAE~ XOOPE~ 0~0l~ yta OtacpopEnKou~ Myou~, OEV'tO eEOlpOUV avaYKaio. lIapallT'lAa 0~0l~ EXOUV SuminOled n' aAAE~ aVnAl1'l'E~ ot onoiE~ unoO"'tT'lpit,;ouv:

1) rnv EtcrayOlYll cr'totxEiOlV ayopa~ ern AEt'toupyia 'tOU Kpnroix- Ilpovotnc, ~E rnv evvota 'tT'l~ EYKaeiopucrT'l~ EVO~ «EAEyXO~EVOU av'tayOlVtcr~OU».

2) r nv av an'tu ~T'I 'tT'l ~ tOtOlnKl1~ KEpoocrKOntKl1~ opacr'tT'lpto'tT'l'ta~ oro KpcrocIlpovotnc (acrcpaAtcrT'l, uYEia, EKnaWEUO"T'I, npovota, un.).

H cr'tpa'tT'lytKll au~ avan'tUXeT'lKE

Mf. OAAO AOYIO 01 f.upU)ndiKte; KOIVU)vif.e; 80 f.nIAt~ouV Til Vf.OCPIAf.Af.U8f.PIl f.K60X~ ~ ~OP~OPOTIlTO Tile; Vf.OKAOaIK~e; 8f.U)pioe; ~ TIlV f.YK08i6puall uloc veoc roopoorrloc

OVOIJf.ao aTO ({0IKOVOIJ1KO» KOI

TO ({KOIVU)VIKO»;

tOtai'tEpa cr'tT'lv 'EKeEcrT'l 'tT'l~ lIaYKocr~ta~ TpanEt,;a~ (1994) T'I onofn ~E acpE'tT'Ipia rnv eEOOPT'lO"T'l on T'I ayopa stvct 0 aptO"'to~ rpozo; OpyavOlO"T'l~ 'tT'I~ xotvorvlcc; nEptopit,;Et 'tT'IV KpanKllnapE~~aO"T'I crnv unocr~pt~T'I rov O"UVeT'lKOOV Kat OPOlV O"UcrcrOOpEUO"T'I~ os OAoU~ roue 'tO~E~ 'tT'I~ otKOVO~tKl1 ~ Kat KOtvOlVtKl1 ~ t,;0l11~, O"U~nEptAa~~aVO~Evou Kat rou Kpnroix- Ilpovotnc,

D~Ol~, 0 1tUpl1va~ 'tT'I~ npo'taO"T'l~ 'tT'I~ lIaYKocr~ta~ TpanEt,;a~ sivm on avan'tUcrcrEt Kat EnEK'tEivEt 'tOY rporro opyavOlcrT'l~ 'tT'I~ ayopa~ os OAE~ 'tt~ AEt'toupyiE~ rou Kpnrou; - Ilpovotcc;

~E EninEOo EupOlna'iKll~ Emrponll~, Otamcr'toovou~E 'tT'IV nporpo-

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 39

nll crnv avaYKato'tT'l'ta npoonp~OYll~ roo Kperouc-Ilpovotnc, npOKEt~EvOU va E~acrcpaAicrouv 'tT'I ~tOlO"t~O'tT'l'ta rou, H npO'tponll aU'tl1 Ecrnat,;E'tUt KUpiOl~ crnv crcpaipa 'tT'l~ KUpta~ crUv'ta~T'I~ zou xpT'I~a'tooo'tEi'tUt ano 'to Kpntoq Kat 'tou~ Epyat,;o~EvoU~ - EpyOOO'tE~ Kat O"UvOtaXEtpit,;E'tat Kat ano 'ta 'tpia ~EPT'l KaeOO~ Kat 'tT'IV crcpaipa rrov O"U~nAT'lpOl~anKOOV napoxoov zou xpT'I~a'tooo'tstrut ano Epyat,;O~EVoU~ Kat Epyo06'tE~ Kat OtaXEtpit,;E'tut notovouc ano tou; EKnpocroonou~ roue,

To nEptEXO~O 'tT'I~ npo'tponll~, ornv usv npoo'tT'l crcpaipa avacpEpE-

'tat orov zsptopiouo 'tT'I~ xpT'I~a'tooonKll~ o"u~~E'tOX1l~ rou Kpcrouc, ornv OE OEU'tEPT'l crcpaipa avacpEpE'tat

cr'tT'l otaxdptO"T'l 'tT'I~ ano 'tOY tOtOlnKo xapdooxomxo rouso, OT'lAaOl1 n~ acrcpaAtcrnKE~ EmXEtpl1crEt~.

Mson oro nAaicrto rorv zpouvuespousvoiv nvrtAl1'l'EOlV napa'tT'lPEl'tat ~ia ano ~aKpuvcrT'l ano rnv

avaotavE~T'lnKll AEt'toupyia ron Kperouc-Ilpovoun; ~E napaAAT'lAO npoouvuro-

Atcr~O os OtaXEtptcrnKE~ pue~icrEt~.

~E EninEoo nOAt'ttKoov rou Kprirooc-Ilpovotcc zou Ecpap~ocr'tT'lxnv Kat Ecpap~ot,;oV'tat ano ru Kpa'tT'l - ~EAT'I 'tT'I~ EupOlna'iKll~ 'EVOlcrT'l~, 'to KUpto xapaK'tT'IptcrnKo rorv ~'tpOlV ano 'tT'I~ apXE~ 'tT'I~ OEKaEria~ rou 1990, avacpEpE'tat crnv avaotavo~l1 rrov nopOlv cr'to scorrepuco 'tou Kprrrouc - Ilpovoicc, ~ 'tT'l eEOOPT'lO"T'l on ot KotVOlVtKO-acrcpaAtcrnKE~ napoXE~ non EXOUV nEptO"cro'tEPO avaYKT'l rn a'to~a xa~T'lAOU EtcroOT'l~anKOU EmnEoou ea n~ xpT'I~a'tooo~o o uv o t acrcpaAtcr~EVOt U'l'T'lAO'tEPOU EtcrOOT'l ~anKou EmnEoou KaeOO~ Kat crnv ~iOlO"T'l ron EmnEOou trov napoxoov ron

Kpnrouc- IIpOV01a~ npOKEt~EvOU vn anaAAaYEl 0 Kpuruco; IlpobnOAOYtO'~O~ ano tt~ aV'tiO'T01XE~ K01VrovtKE~ OanUVE~.

Ano T11v uno'l'11 aUTIJ, anooEtKVl>ETat Ott 11 anOTEAEO'~attKOT11Ta rorv ~ETProV rtou EXOUV E<pap~OO'TEi rn TEAEUTaia xpOvta oru; XcbPE~ Tll~ E.E. etvor zeptoptO'~Ev11 Kat ~paxuxpOVta O'T11V O1KOVO~UCft O'<paipa Kat apV11TtKi) O'TllV K01VroVtKi) oouipu.

ME nua A.6yta 01 npO~A11~attouot rmrot KtVOUVTat KUpiro~ O'TOV u~ova KOO'TOU~ KpUTOU~IIpOV01a~ - aVTayroVtO'ttKOT11Ta T11~ oucovoutcc Kat 01 eenp~O~O~EVE~ nOAtTtKE~, OtanVEOVTat ano T11V na911ttKi) npoO'ap~oyft Tll~ Epyacria~ Kat TOU KpUTOU~ - IIpOV01a~ O'T~ TEXVOAOytKE~ Kat napayroytKE~ E~EAi~Et~, unoO'T11pi~ovTa~ OTt 11 O'Ta9Eponoi110'1l T11~ O1KOVO~ia~, 11 ~EATiroO'l1 TOU E1ttnEOOU aVTayrovtO'ttKOT11- Ta~ Kat 11 aVTt~Tcb1ttO'1l Tll~ aVEpyia~ etvm E<ptKTIJ ~ Tll ~EiroO'l1 TOU KOO'TOU~ EpyaO'ia~ (O'E xpit~a), ~E T11 ~EiroO'1l TOU npay~aTtKOU ~t0'90u (O'E Eioo~) Kat ~E rnv E1ttOElVroO'1l TOU Ent1tEOOU rov napoxcbv TOU KpUTOU~ - IIpOV01a~.

Eno~Evro~, 11 O'TpaTllytKi) stvm O'a<pit~: 11 aVEpyia 9a nvnuenomO'TEi ~ aU~l1O'1l rov xotvevucev cvtoonirerv Kat 11 EntAoyft non EXOW 01 Epya~o~01, crU~<prova ~E aUTE~ Tt~ aVTtAit'l'E~, sivm 11 EAaO'ttKOn0111~EY11 11 npootoptvr] Kat EUEAtKTll anaO'xoA11O'1l it 11 napa~ovft ornv avEpyia.

D~ro~, yta T11v nEpinTroO'1l Tll~ EAA11VtKit~ orxovoutuc, TO qxnvousvo Tll~ EntOEivroO'1l~ TOU EntnEOOU rrov napoxcbv TOU KpUTOU~-IIpoV01a~, Tllv TEAEUTaia OEKaETia, EXEt O'UVOOEUTEi TaUToxpova ~E T11v OUO'~EVit 9EO'1l TOU E1ttnEOOU aVTayrovtO'TtKOTllTa~ Kat TllV ~EiroO'1l TOU KOO'TOU~

Epyacria~ avu ~ovuoa npO'(OVTO~. IIapUAA11Aa, 0 'EAA11va~ Epya~o~Evo~ O'it~Epa unoxpEcbvETat vn EpyU~ETat KaTu 89% nEptO'O'oTEPO xpovo yta vn anOKTIJO'Et rn iota aya9u Kat un11pEO'iE~ O'E O'XEO'1l ~E TOV ~O'o eupmnuto O'UVUOEA<pO TOU. EmO'1l~, TO 20% rov Epya~o~rov O'TllV EMMa, nOAuanaO'XOAElTat, KUpta yta O1KOVO~tKOU~ A.6you~, EVcb aVTiO'T01XO nOO'OO'TO <paiVETat va E1tt9u~Ei rnv npoO'<puyft O'E nOAuanaO'xoA11O'1l O'E OEOO~EY11 EUKatpia. To 1/3 trov ~t0'9roTcbv npo~aivouv O'E unEproptaKit anaO'xoA11O'1l, KUpta, yta O1KOVO~t-

L£ srrlrrsoo EupU)ndiK~<; EnITpOn~<;, Srornorcovooue TIlV rrporporrn OTIlV ovovxorornro rroocoouovnc TOU KPOTOU<;npOVOla<;, npOK£ljJ£VOU va £~ao<paAioouv Til ~1u)OljJOTIlTO

TOU.

KOU~ AOyOU~ (INE/r~EEA~E~Y).

Ano T11V UnO'l'l1 aUTit, stvm aV11O'UX'lttKU Ta anOTEMO'~aTa rov npO~M'I'Erov yta rnv npooirnKi) TOU KpUTOU~ - IIpOV01a~ TOV 210 uuovo, a<pou ota<paivOVTat OAoEva Kat mo O'a<pit Ta O'T01XEia Tll~ K01vrovia~ rov 2/3.

ME a<pETllPia aUTu tn OEOO~Eva, anOOEtKVl>ETat Ott 11 EM11VtKi) oucovouin Kat xoworvto, EXEt aVttKEt~EVtKU avuYKll ano ~ia YEa O'TpaTllytKi) Kat Eva YEO ~Eiy~a OtKOVO~tKit~ Kat xoivcovuou; nOAtTtKit~, O'TOtXEia Ta ozoin a~ton010uv EVEPYllttKU ( EiTE ~E rnv ~iroO'1l TOU xpovou EpyaO'ia~ Xropi~ ~EiroO'1l rrov anoooxcbv yta rnv aU~l1O'1l Tll~ anaO'xoA11O'1l~, EiTE ~E TOV E~nAOUttO'~O T11~ xp11~aTo()6TllO'1l~ TOU KpUTOU~Ilpovotcc ~E ~Epioto ano rnv napayo~EV11 npoO'tt9E~EV11 a~ia,

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 40

KA.n.) rn YEa napayroytKU Kat TEXVOAOytKU OEOO~Eva yta TllV uvuuopqxoon Kat TOV EKO'UYxpOVtO'~O TOU KpUTOU~-IIpoV01a~. EtOtKOTEpa, O'E Ott uoopu ru; aO'<paAtO'TtKE~ EntAOYE~ nou unmrouvtut yta Tllv ava~op<proO'1l TOU O'UO'Tit~aTo~ xoweovucdrv aO'<paAiO'Erov ornv xcbpa ~a~, 9a npEnEt vc unoypa~~iO'OU~E OTt aUTE~ npEnEt vn EXOW 9EO'~tKO Kat Otap9prottKO xapaKTIJpa Kat 0Xl va anOTEAOUV EnavuA11'1'11 rov EtO'npaKttKcbv Kat aVanOTEA.EO'~attKcbv ~TProV, rov apxcbv Tll~ OEKaETia~ TOU 1990. 'ETO't, KEVTptKOi O'TOX01 rov aO'<paAt-

O'ttKcbv EnMYcbv 9a npEnEt va stvm 11 011~toUpyia rov KaTuAA11Arov npoun09EO'sov 011~toUpyia~ KE<paAataKOU an09E~aTo~ (O'UO'T11~aTtKit Kat ~aKpoxpOVta OEO'~EUO'1l noprov ~E TllV napoxfl ano TO KpUTO~ npo~ rnv K01VrovtKi) aO'<pUAtO'1l EVO~ «unOO'XEttKOU TiTAOU»

it ~E TOV xapaKTllPtO'~O Tll~ KOtvrovtKi)~ aO'<pMtO'l1~ ro~ «~TOXOU» O'E ~A.A.oVTtKE~

<pOpOA.oytKE~ EtO'npU~Et~) Ka9cb~ Kat 11 anOTponit E1ttOEivroO'1l~ rcov OEtKTcbv yitpaVO'l1~ (unOYEVV11- rucomro, yftpavO'1l TOU nA119uO'~OU), ol1~oypa<pia~ (O'XEO'l1 aO'<paAtO'~Evrov - O'UVTa~toUXrov), oucovoutcc (EO'ooa-oanavE~) Kat E1ttnEOOU napoxcbv (uccvoaotnon trov avaYKcbv).

H EniTEU~l1 aUTcbv trov xevrpucev O'TOXroV E~aO'<paAi~ETal ~E E~roaO'<paAtO'ttKE~ Kat EVooaO'<paAtO'ttKE~ napE~~UO'Et~.

~T11V npcbTll KaTllyopia nEptA.a~~avOVTat nOAtTtKE~ KaTanOAE~l1- 0'1l~ Tll~ aVEpyia~ Kat npocb9110'1l~ Tll~ anaO'xoA11O'1l~ Ka9cb~ Kat ~ia VEOU TUnou (EKTO~ ano rn EntOo~aTa) ol1~oypa<plKi) nOAtttKi). ~l1~EtcbVETat Ott 01 EntnTcbO'E~ Tll~ aVEpyia~ O'TllV K01VroVtKi) aO'<pMt- 0'1l stvm O'1l~aVTtKOTEPOU ~a9~ou an' aUTE~ rcov oUO'~EVcbv 011~0-

ypa<ptKrov E~EA.i~EroV. ~'tl1V OEU'tEPl1 Ka'tllyopia 1tEptAaf.l~avovrm 1tapEf.l~acrEt~ oe 1tEv'tE KUptE~ 1tAzuPE~ 'tOU crucrTf)f.la.'tO~ xotvo» vucdrv acr<pw..icrErov, 01tro~: a) OOf.lit Kat opjrrvoion 't11~ KOtVroVtKit~ acr<paAtcrl1~ (evozomoeu; 'taf.lEirov f.lE'ta a1to f.lEM'tll Kat avaAoytcrnKit 'tEKf.ll1piroO"ll), ~) OtoiKllO"ll rrov 'taf.lEirov (1tAEtO'lfl1- <pia rorv EK1tPOcrro1trov rorv Epyai;of.lEvrov Kat EPYOOO'trov

ro~ ~aatKrov XPl1f.la'tOOo'trov 'tOU~), y) XPl1f.la'tOOO'tllO"ll 'tll~ KOtVroVtKit~ acr<paAtcrl1~ (Eicr1tpa~l1 VOf.lOeE'tl1f.lEvrov 1t0Prov, cruVEnit~ Kat ouornf.la'ttKit Ka'ta~oAit 't11~ 'tPtf.lEPOU~ xpl1f.la'tooo'tl1O"ll~, vsot 1tOPot a.A.Aa oXt a1to aU~l1O"ll rmv stoeopdrv it E1ttOEivrocrl1 ron E1tt1tEOOU

rov 1tapoxrov), 0) 1tapOXE~ 'tll~ xotvorvuop; acr<pliAtcrl1~ (~EA'tiroO"ll 'tOU E1tt1tEOOU rov Ka'tro'ta'trov Kat ueoutorv opkov cruv'ta~Erov) Kat E) a1tO'tEAEcrf.la'ttKit a~to1toil1crl1 'tll~ KtVllTf)~ Kat aKiVll'tll~ 1tEptoucria~ trov rcustorv.

Etvm 1tpo<pavE~, on aU'tE~ ot E1ttAOYE~ ornv xropa f.la~, eO. cruf.l~aAAOUV cr'taOtaKa: O"'tl1v EYKaeiopucrl1 f.lia~ vEa~ cruveEcrl1~ uvcusou oro «OtKOV0f.ltKO» Kat 'to «xotvorvuco», O"'tl1v svicrxuO"ll

ron xotvrovucou xapaKTf)pa 'tOU Kpnrotx-Ilpovotnq, f.lE rnv evvour 'tll~ OEcrf.lEUaft~ ro u 1tpO~ KaeE YEvEa Epyai;of.lEvrov, EPYOOO'trov Kat YSVtKO'tEpa <pOpOAoyOUf-lSvrov, on eO. OtaVEf.lE'tat 'tf.litf.la 'tOU zpotovto; rou; zpoq 'tl1v 1tpol1You uevn YEvEa rorv Epyai;o usvrov. H svicrXUO"ll auTf) 'tOU KotVroVtKOU xapaK'titpa 'tOU KpaLOU~Ilpovoun; Ssv E~U1tl1PE'tEi f.lOVO cr'tOXOU~ KOtvrovtKit~ cruvoxil~ Kat OtKatOcr'6Vll~. E~U1tl1PE'tEi E1tiO"ll~ rrrv a~to1ttcrna Kat 'tll eEcrf.ltKit

cr'taeEpO'tl1'ta 'tOU iotou LOU Kpnrou; - Ilpovotnc, Kaetcr'trov'ta~ 'to cr'tl1 cr'6yxpoVll E1tOxil oucovoutKa ~trocrtf.lO Kat xotvorvtxn a1tO'tEAEcrf.lanKO.

ETTOIJ£VC0C;, r) aTpOTr)YIK~ elvcn coonc; r) ovepvio 90 OVTIIJ£TC0TTlaT£i IJ£ oU~r)ar) TC0V

KOIVC0VIKc.0V OVlaOT~TC0V KOI r) £TTIAOy~ TTOU £XOUV 01 £PYO~OIJ£VOI, aUlJepC0VO IJ£ OUT£C; TIC; OVTIA~ljJ£IC;, elvc: r) £AoaTIKOTTOIr)IJ£Vr) r) TTpoaC0pIV~ KOI £U£AIKTr) OTToaXOAr)ar) ~ r) TTOPOIJOV~ ornv oveovlo.

'Erot, Ka't' au'tov 'tOY 'tP01tO eO. 0l1f.ltoupYl1eOUV Ot avaYKaiE~ 1tpOU1tOeEcrEt~ EVEPYl1'ttKit~ cr'6i;EU~l1~ rou Kpdrou; - Ilpovota~ us roix; 1tapayroytKOU~ Kat 'tEXVOAOytKOU~ f.lE'tacrXl1 unrtcrf.lOU~ Kaero~ Kat f.lE ru; E~EA~E~ cr'tllv avEpyia Kat rrrv a1tacrXOAl1O"ll (VEE~ f.lOp<pE~ a1tacrXOAl1crl1~,

nOpOAAr)AO, 0 'EAAr)VOC; £PYO~OIJ£VOC; onueoc UTTOXp£c.0V£TOI VO £pyO~£TOI KOTO 89% rrsoicooreoo XPOVO YIO vo OTTOKT~a£1 TO ic5IO oyo90 KOI orrnoeolec a£ ax£ar) IJ£ TOV utoo £UPC0TTOio auvoc5£AepO

TOU.

E1taYYEAf.la'ttKit xwnrucorntu U1t.).

Mia 'tE'tota cr'tpa'tl1ytKit crnv cr'6YXPOVll E1toxil onuotvet on 11 avai;rooyoVllO"ll 't11~ oucovouice; Ssv eO. E1tt'tEUXeEi f.lE 'tllv U1to~aef.ltO"ll it rnv OtliAUO"ll 'tOU Kprrrou; -

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 41

Ilpovoun; nUa f.lE rnv ava~aef.ltaft rou a1to 'tllv Ka'tavOf.lit rov VEroV zoporv 1tOU 1tapayov'tat a1tO rnv aU~l1O"ll 'tll~ 1tapayroytKO'tll'ta~ Kat rnv XPitO"ll rov VEroV 'tEXVOAOytrov Kat croix 8'60 1tapayroytKOU~ cruV'tEAEcr'tE~. AuTf) 11 ava~aef.ltO"ll 'tOU Kpcroix; - Ilpovotuc, a1to'tEAEi 'to KSV'tptKO i;it'tllf.la orov 210 mdrvn yta 'tt~ xoworvie; f.la~, yta'ti 11 1tapaKf.lit LOU

copvnouoo, ro~ f.lOV'tEAoU opyavroO"ll~ 'tll~ 1tapayroYit~ Kat 't11~ xoivorviuc, OEV 1tPE1tEt vn OOl1YitcrEt 'tllv Epyacria os f.lia VEOU W1tOU crKAa~ta, 0l1Aaoit rnv

E~a'tOf.ltKEUf.lEVl1 crua~ta, aUa eO. 1tPE1tEt vn 'tl1v OOl1YitcrEt, f.lE 'tllv EyKaei-

Spuon SVO~ VEOU 1tPOW1tOU

oucovouuop; Kat xowrovuop; opyavroO"ll~, os 1tOAt'ttcrf.lO, yvroO"ll Kat a1tEAEUeEproO"ll.

H ENEPrOnOIHIH THI KOINONIAI nOAITON ITHN AIKHIH KOINONIKHI nOAITIKHI

H nEPlnTOIH THI IYNEPrAIIAI

TOnlKHI A YT0610lKHIHI KAI EKKAHIIAI

ENNOIOAOriKEI npOIEfrlIEII riA TON POAO THI KOINONIAI nOAITON HHN KOINONIKH nOAITIKH

H KpiCYll rou KPU'tOU~ 7tpOVOla~, yf:'(ovo~ yta 'to ozoto ucpiO"'ta'tat O"llJlEpa l..Lta "EK7tAllKnKij 01·.LOCProvia" ill Kat 11 O"'tpoCPit ornv ayopu, 7tOU a7tO'tEAouV 'to a7to'tEAEO"J.la 't11~ OtUPPll;l1~ 't11~ J.lE'ta7tOAEJ.ltKij~ ouvuiveorp; rou KOlVroVtKOU cptAEAeu9EptO"J.lOU Kat 'tll~

KEUVO"1avit~ oucovoutce; ill, O"l1J.la'tOOO'toUv 7tapUAAllAa

'tllV EV'tOVO'tEPll nnpouoin 7tAOUpaAtO"nKOOV 'tUO"EroV Kat aV'tlAit'l'Erov, J.lEO"a o ru 7tAaiO"1a 'tll~ O"uYXpoVll~ 7tpO~AllJ.lanKij~ 7tEpi KotvmVtKij~ IIoAmKij~. H 7tAoUpaAtO"'tlKit aV'tiAll 'I'll , 9EropEi

a7tapai'tll'tll 'tll ouvspyuotu KPU'tOU~ Kat tOtro'ttKij~ 7tpro'tO~OUAia~ oro O"XEOtaO"J.lO Kat 'tllV UAo7toillO"l1 7tpoypaJ.lJ.lu'trov KOlVroVlKij~ 7tOAmKij~, YEYOVO~ 'to

onoio E7ttCYllJ.laivEt rrtv avuYKll a;to7toillO"l1~ OAoU ron cpuO"J.la'to~ CPOPEroV, a'tOJ.ltKOOV Kat O"UAAoytKOOV, a7tO 't11V totronKij zporro~ouAia (KEpOOO"K07ttKij Kat J.lll), J.lExpt 'to KEV'tPtKO KPU'tO~, 't11V T07ttKij AmootoiK11CY1l it aKoJ.la

H nAOUpaAIOTIK~ aVTiAr}4Jr}, 8£u>p£i orrooolrnrn Tr} ouveovoclo KPOTOUC; Kal IOIU>TIK~C; rrpcoropooxloc OTO ox£olaol...lO Kal Tr}V uAonoir}or} rtoovoouporcov KOIVU>VIK~C; noAITIK~C;.

Kat oprousvu "u'tU7ta KOlVroVlKU oiK'tUa" ill. Ilpoxemn ol1Aaoit, yta J.lta 'tOJ.lit ern uaO"O"1KU OtAit J.lJ.la'ta 'tll ~ xotvrovucf ~ 7tOAmKij~ Kat 'tll~ tOEoAoyia~ 'tOU Kpnrou; Ilpovotuc, 07tro~: 11 a'tOJ.ltKit it O"UAAOytKit ~uO"l1

rubpyo<; L\ieUu<; Iro<lVV11<; Y <puV'tOXOUAO<;

avnJ.lE'tOO7ttO"l1~, 'to 9EO"J.ltKO it U7tOAEtJ.lJ.la'tlKO 7tpo'tU7tO, 11 KaAU'I'1l avaYKoov J.1.EO"a a7to 't11v KpanKij 7tapEJ.l~aCYll it 't11 AEt'tOUpyia 't11~ EAeU9EPll~ ayopu~, J.lEO"a a7to Eva eupu 7tEoio avaotup9pro- 0"11~ 'tll~ O"XEO"l1~ Kpnrouq -

IOtro'ttKOU TOJ.lEa, J.lE moxo 't11 011J.ltoUpyia mo EUEAtK'troV

O"XllJ.lU'trov, a7tapai'tll'trov O"n~ O"l1J.lEPtvE~ o"uV9itKE~ PEuO"'to'tll'ta~ Kat VEroV KOlVroVtKOOV 7tPO~AllJ.lU'trov. IOtai'tEPll EJ.lcpaCYll OiVE'tat

crnv a7toKEv'tProO"l1 rmv U1t11PEO"100V, 't11v aVU7t'tU;l1 't11~ KOlVroVtKij~ EpEuva~ Kat 'tOY EKO"UYXPOVtO"J.lO 't11~ OtoiK11CY1l~, J.lE

O"'tOXO 't11v a7tocpuyi} O"7ta'taAll~ Kat 't11V 7tapallllAll 7tpooo911CY1l 't11~ EVEPYOU O"UJ.lJ.lE'tOXit~ rrov 7tOAt'tOOV, oro O"XEOtaO"J.l0 Kat 't11V UAo7toillCY1l 7tpoypaJ.lJ.lu'trov ill. 0

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 43

crUyxpOVO~ xpovouncx; nA,OUpaA,10}lO~ A,OlnOV, xapaKTIlpi~E'tat ano Ev'tOVO EVOtaCPEPOV yta TIlV xoworvucn CPPov'tioa zou napEXE'tat 101al'tEpa orn nA,aiO"la TIl~ 'tonlK1l~ K01VOTll'ta~, 't11V ava~iroOll " EVouva~roo11 rrov eEO~WV EeEA,OVnK1l~ npoocpopa~ xm rov lolronKwv ~11 KEpOOO"KOnlKWV npro'to~OUA,lWV, KaeW~ xm TIlV KaA.A.WPystu ~opcpwv aU'to~O"eEla~, aA.A.11A.EyyU11~ Kat o"uVOX11~, ~EOa O'tOV xowevuco 10't0. Msou orn nA,aiO"la aU'ta yiVE'tat oacpE~, on 0 zeptoptouo; 'tOU KpanKOU napE~~ano~ou nou olacpaivE'tat criI~Epa evrovn Kat O'tOV rousn rov K01VroV1KWV U1t1lPEO"lWV ill, ro~ anO'tEA.EO~a nOA,lnKWV Kat K01VroV1KO-01KOVO~lKWV mEoErov npo~ TIlV Ka'tEu9uvOll TIl~ opaonK1l~ ~EiroOll~ rrov npoypa~~a'trov xm U1t1lPEO"lWV 011~00"la~ zpovotr«; ill, OEV evnuermni~E'tat ~ TIl ~E'tacpopa rov av'tio'totXrov A.ElTOUPytWv O"TIJV ayopa. H EVaA.A.aKnK1l MOll ~piO"KE'tat 0TllV K01Vrovia rov nOA,l'twv" TIlV Svvota TIl~ xotvomrc; III

Em'taKnK1lnpO~aA.El11 avaYKll EVO~ EVVOlOA.oylKOU npooolOpl0~OU 't11~ Koworvtoc rov IIOA,l'tWV ill, 10tal'tEpa ~E'ta 't11V napaooX11 'tOU pOAoU TIl~ orov rousn TIl~ KotVroVlK1l~ noA,mK1l~. IIapa 'to YEYOVO~ on 11 Svvota 't11~ xotvrovtce; rrov nOA,l'tWV OEV EXEl aKo~a nA,"pro~ OlEUKP1VlO'tEi I2l, ea ~nopouoa~E va nou~ on 11 xotvrovic trov nOA,l'tWV (civil society), stvm Eva crUVOA,O notK1A.roV ~11 KU~EpV1lnKwv eEO~WV apKE'ta lOXUPwv WO'tE vn avno'tae~~ouv 'to Kpa'to~ Xropi~ vn 'to E~nooi~ouv vc aOK1loEl 'to p6A.o 'tOU, aA.A.a Kat xropi~ vn OtaeE'tEl ouva'tOTll'tE~ aU'toppUe~lOll~ ilill.. ea ~nopouoE EniOll~ vn npoofitopurret ro~ 'to 't~,,~a TIl~ K01Vrovia~ zou xetrm ~'ta~u 'tOU 011~00"l0U xwpou xm TIl~ otKOYEvEla~, zou A,El'tOUPYEi 0't0 xwpo 'tOU tOlronKou KatOXl 'tOU 011~ocriou olKaiou illl I:uvoEov'ta~ rnv napanavro npoonaeEla EVV010A,OY1K1l~ npooEYY1Oll~ TIl~ KOlvrovia~ rrov nOA,l'twv, ~E rnv Ka'ta'ta~11 rrov CPOPEroV napoX11~ un11PE01WV KotVroVlK1l~ npoo'taoia~ OE 'tEOOEP1~ roust; .Ll2lonro~ napouO"la~ov'tal orov nivaKa nou aKoAoUeEi, 0 pOA,O~ TIl~ Kotvrovia~ trov nOA,l'twv orov 'to~Ea TIl~ K01VroV1K1l~ nOA,mK1l~, yivE'tal zeptocotepo oacp"~.

lo~ToJlta~

- ~11~00"l0~ To~a~

- KpanKE~ Y 1t1lPEoiE~

- O.T.A. A' Kat B' ~ae~ou

- N.II.~.~.

2o~ToJlta~ -Ayopa

- KEpOOO"KOmKO~ TO~Ea~

30~ TOJlta~

- IOlronKo~ ~11 KEpOOO"KOmKO~ TO~Ea~

- EW110ia

- EeEA,OVnKE~ OpyavwoE~

- N.II.I.~.

4o~ TOJlta~

- cDOPEi~ aU'to~O"eEta~

- A'tUna oiK'tUa cppovnoa~

TI1)"(1]: II. I:'taeonouAo~ (1999), OEA,. 204

ME OEOO~EVa ru napanavro O't01XEia, efvm ~E~ato on 0 p6A.o~ TIl~ K01vrovia~ rrov nOAt'tCov 0't0 6A.0 cr6oTll~a xotvorvuop; opovrt-

O1KOYEvEta~ Kat ayopa~, aUa OWtoOUEt Ero~ tn opur au'tow rov rouerov (n.X.11 unap~l1 EeEAOV'tIDV orn KAIIH rov 011~rov) 00. To

oa~, svtncoerm orov rptro rouso, YEYOVO~ au'to, Ota~op<pIDVEt YEa

~E totahEP11 E~<pao11 o mv Ka'tEuSuVO"ll rou EeEAOV'ttO~OU. I:E OXE'ttKll Epeuva 't11~ 'EvroO"ll~ IIoAt'tIDv yta rnv IIapE~~aO"ll Il.3J, o EeEAOV'ttO~O~ xapaKTIlPisE'tat ro~ 'to "KPU<pO xapn TIl~

Kowrovtcc rov IIoAt'tIDv, 'to onoio npoo<pa'tro~ oEixvouv va EXOUV aVaKaAU'I'Et'tOOO 11 Euprona'iKll 'Evoion 000 Kat tn ESvtKa Kpa't11". I:TIlV iota speovo, smonuctverut 'to EV'tOVO EVOta<pEpov rrov xpcrdrv va npooEyyioouv 'tOY ~11 KEpOOO"KOntKO Kat EeEAOV'ttKO rouso, KaeID~

Kat 11 totahEP11 EVaoXOA11O"ll TIl~ Euprona'iKll~ 'EvroO"ll~ ~E 'tOY "Tpho To~Ea". H totahEP11 ol1~aoia rou rpirou rouso, non 'tau'tisE'tat 0XEOOV ~ 'to p6A.o 't11~ Kotvrovia~

rrov nOAt'tIDv etvm ol1~Epa aOta~<pto~l1't11T1l il..1l Kat avayvropisE'tat KaeOAtKa Kat ano TIlV EU11vtKllnOAt'tEial1.2.

'Eva ano rn xapaK't11Pto'ttKa 'tOU EeEAOV'ttO~OU O't11V EUaoa, efvm ott OEV Ka'taAa~~avEt uovo 'tOY EVOta~Eoo XIDPO ~E'ta~u Kpa'tou~,

notorucd Kat OO~tKa xapaKTIlptO'ttKa 't11~ napE~~ao11~ 'tOU AEyO~EVOU rptron rouse Kat npooOtopiSEt ru OXt nana ~EKaeapa optc 'tOU p6A.ou TIl~

napa TO YEYOVOe; OTI 11 Evvoia Tile; KOIVU)viae; Tu)V nOAIT<:0V OEV EXEI cxouo nA~pU)e; OIEUKPIVIOTEi, 9a IJnopOUOalJE va nOUIJE OTI 11 xorvcovlc Tu)V nOAITWV (civil society), dvcn Eva OUVOAO nOIKiAU)V IJIl Kur3EpvIlTIKWV 9EOIJWV coxerc IOXUPWV WOTE va aVTIOTa9lJi~ouv TO xooroc xU)pie; va TO ElJnooi~ouv va aOK~OEI TO POAO TOU, aAAa Kal xU)pie; va ola9trEI Sovcrornrsc aUToppu91JIOIle;.

xowrovtce; rorv nOAt'tIDV omv napom xotvrovuop; <ppovnoa~ Kat YEVtKO'tEpa OE OAOKA11PO 'to <pao~a E<pap~or1l~ TIl~ K01VroVtKll~ noAt'ttKll~. E1tt~aUe'tUt A01nov 11 Ka't11yoptonoi11O"ll rrov ~OP<PIDV EeEAOV'ttKll~ opaO"ll~ Kat ~aAto'ta ~E KptL1lptO TIl sIDoa npay~a'ttKOTIl'ta Kat OXt anAa Eva eEroP11'ttKO nAaiO"to. ME a<pETIlPia aU'tE~ 't~ napa't11pl1oEt~, napa'tteE'tat

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 44

aKoAouero~ 11 KaTllyoptonoi11O"ll, onro~ napouO"tasE'tat ern oXE'ttKll Epeuva TIl~ EvroO"ll~ nOAt'tIDV yta TIlV IIapE~~aO"ll:

1. E9E1..oV't"lKt~ OpyavIDo"E~ - OJLaOE~ 1tapox1\~ 'V1t11PEO"lIDV O"E 'Tpi'To'V~

IIEptAa~~avEt 'tt~ "KAaoO"tKE~" EeEAovnKE~ opvuvdicsu; Kat

o~aOE~. Ilpoxemn yt' aU'tE~

non ano'tEAouv'tat 0't11 O"Uv'tptn'ttKll rou; nAEto'l'l1- <pia ano EeEAOV'tE~, Xropi~ KaeOAOU 1\ ~E EAaXto'ta a~Et~O~Eva o'tEAEX11. Ta Ki>pta xapaK't11Pto'ttKa 'tOU, etvm on napEXOuv U1t1lPEoiE~ OE rptroix, KaeID~ Kat 11 'tontK1\ 11 nEpt<pEpEtaK1\ aK'tiva opaO"ll~ 'tou~.

2. OJLaOE~ a'V'TOpo1\9Ela~ I:'t11V Ka't11yopia aU't1\ evreocovnn Ot opyavIDoEt~ nou Ki>pto ~EA11~a roue efvm 11 EnlAUO"ll npo~A11~a'trov,

~oro TIl~ aU'to~Ol1eEta~ ~E'ta~u

trov ~Arov roue, Ta iota rn ~EA11 OUVl1ero~, OUVOEOV'tat ~E ~ta KOtv1\ nae11O"ll, avaYKll 11 E1ttoiro~11. Ot OpyavIDOE~ aUL1l~ TIl~ KaTllyopia~, OE ~tKpO'tEPO ~ae~o xapaKTIlPisOV'tat ano TIlV napom ~Ol1eEta~ npo~ rpirouc, EVID napaU11Aa E~<pavisE'tat Kat 11

AEt'toupyia 'tOU~ ro~ 01£KOt1crJ'ttKO~ - O"UVOtKaAtc}"'ttKO~ q>OpEa~, a1tEvaV'tt 0"'t0 Kpa'tO~.

3. AtE9vd~ opyavIDoE~ - AiK'TUa 1tapOX1]~ 'V1t1)PEOtIDV IIEptAa~~avEt otE9v1]~, ~T'I KU~EPVT'l'ttKE~ opyavroo"E~, 1tOU EXOUV 1tapapnl~a'ta crnv EAMoa. Tu 1tapap'tit~a'ta trov OtESvroV opyavroO"Erov aO"1ta~ov'tat 't~ Wl£~ YEVtKE~ apXE~ ro~ npoq 'tOU~ o"K01tOU~ xm rov 'tP01tO AEt'tOUpyia~, ~E 'tt~ ~T'I'tPtKE~. .Ata'tTlPOUV o~ro~ Ka1tOlO ~a9~0 aVE~ap'tTlO"ia~ Kat mnovoutoc, 1tOU 'tOU~ Em'tpE1tst vu nporrup ~o~ov'tat o ru OEOO~Eva Kat ru tOtai'tEpa xapaK'tT'lPtO"'ttKa Ka9E xropa~ Kat va KaAU1t'tOUV 'tt~ avaYKE~ O"E E9vtKO E1ti1tEOO.

4. AtE9vd~ opyavIDoE~ - AiK'T'Va otalPoprov EVOtalPEpOV'Trov Ilpoxsnrn yta Opyavroo"E~ 1tOU EXOUV rn xapaK'tTlPtO"'ttKa rov 01£SvroV opyavroO"Erov. IOtat.Epo xapaK'tT'lPtO"'ttKO rou; etvoi, on KUpto~ it a1tOKA.EtO"'ttKO~ A.6y0~ cruYKPO'tTlcrit~ roue, OEV stvm T'I KOlVroVtKit opovrtdo, 00"'t00"0, EXOUV a~tOAOYT'l opaO"T'l Kat o' uorov 'tOY rouse. 0 ~a9~0~ Kat T'I EV'taO"T'I KtvT'l't01toiT'lO"it~ roue, Otaq>Epouv a1to opjrrvoxm O"E opyavroO"T'l.

5. M1) K'VPEPV1)'TtKt~

opyavIDOEt~ otalPoprov EVOtalPEpoV'Trov

IIEptA.a~~avEt opyavroo"Et~ 1tOU Ka'ta KUptO A.6yo EXOUV Otaq>opE'ttKit a1toO"'toAit a1to rnv KOlVrovtKit opovrtd«, aAAa 1tapaAAT'lAa cru~~E'tEXOUV it opvovdrvouv (os AtyO'tEPO it 1tEPtO"O"O'tEPO 'taK'ttKit ~aO"T'I), opao"Et~ xotvrovucrp; aUT'lAEyyUT'I~. AKO~T'I, 1tEptA.a~~aVEt Kat aU'tE~ 1tOU cruvoua~ouv 'tOY 1tOAmO"~o ~ 'tTl q>tA.av9pro1tia.

6. 0P1)OKE'V'TtKOi a6ll0y01 Kat 1tpro'TopO'VAiE~ (Op90oo;1) EKKA.1)oia, allE~ XptmtaVtKt~ EKKA.1)oiE~ Kat AOYJla'Ta, allE~ 9p1)OKdE~)

~' aUnl rnv Ka'tT'lyopia, EV'taO"O"ovrm q>tA.av9pro1ttKE~ Opyavroo"E~ 1tOU stvut a~EO"a it E~~EO"a O"UVOEOE~EVE~ ~E 9PT'lo"KEiE~, EWT'lmaO"'ttKa topu~a'ta Kat ot 01toiE~ 1tAatO"trovov'tat a1to E9EAOV'tE~. IIEptAa~~avoV'tat E1tiO"T'l~, a'tU1tE~ opao"Et~ allT'lAo~oit9Eta~ Kat allT'lAEyyUT'I~, ora 1tAaima au'trov rov EWT'lmrov, .Aoy~a'trov it Kat 9 PT'lO"KEtroV.

7. l;VA.A.oyot Kat 1tpro'TOPO'VAiE~ oi1tAa mo Kpa'TO~

Ilpoxsnrn yta Kpa'ttKou~ oopek; 1tOU 1tAatmrovov'tat a1to E9EAoV'tE~. H O"U~~E'tOXit r oiv E9EAOV'troV ~1topEi va efvm Et.E

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 45

a'tU1tT'l, 'taK'ttKit it 1tEptO"'tamaKit, Et.E mo opyavro~EYll Kat 9EO"~tKa Ka'tOXUPro~.

8. l;vlloy01 Kat 1tpro'TopO'VAiE~ Oi1tAa o'T1)v To1ttK1] A'V'TOOtoiK1)- 0"1)

H Ka'tTlyopia aUnl, 1tEptA.a~~aVEt 'tt~ U1tTlpEO"iE~ Kat rn 1tpoypa~~aru 'tT'l~ aU'tOOtoiKT'lO"T'I~ 1tOU 1tAatmrovov'tat a1to E9EAOV'tE~. y 1tapxOUV rpeu; ~Opq>E~ E9EAoV'ttKit~ opaO"T'I~:

a) a'tU1tE~ o~aOE~ E9EAoV'troV, 1tOU 1tAatO"trovouv U1tT'lpEO"iE~ Kat 1tpoypa~~a'ta 'tTl~ aU'tootoi1crJO"T'I~,

~) 9EO"~09E'tT'l~EVE~ o~aOE~ E9EAOV'troV. H 'tU1ttKit ~opq>it, ~1topEi va EXEt Et.E 'tT'l ~opq>it E9EAOV'ttKOU crulloyou, Et.E v' a1tO'tEAEi VO~tKO 1tpoO"ro1tO 'tTl~ 'tomKit~ aU'tootoi1crJO"T'I~,

y) E9EAOV'ttKit opaO"T'l aUT'lAO~OT'l- 9T'1'ttKOU xapaKnlpa. Ilpoxemn yta rn ~EAT'I EVO~ 1tpoypa~~a'to~ it 9Eo"~OU (1t.X. rn ~EAT'I rov KAIIH) .

9. 'EK'TaK'TE~ opaoE1~ yta tK'TaK'TE~ aVa'YKE~

Ilpoxetrm ym xwnroaouiceu; 1tapoxit~ ~oit9Eta~, O"E 1tOAt.E~ 1tOU uq>iO"'tav'tat ru; cruVE1tEl£~ EK'taxrcov YEYovo'trov. H xrvrrroaotnon trov E9EAOV'troV efvm 'tUxaia Kat

anpOO"010pHHll. Auvrrcuco] S9SAOV'tE<;, I-1nopsi vn etvm 61..01 01 nOAt-tS<;, evo 'to I-1Eys90<; aV'tanOKp1O"TJ<; yta rnv napoX1l ~Olt9S1a<;, n01KtAAS1. Bolt9s1a napEXOUV eire I-1SI-10vOOI-1EVa a'tOl-1a, eire arons<; Ka1 roxaiE<; Ol-1aos<; nOA1'tOOV, zpocespovrc; XPltl-1a'ta, uA1Ka aya9a It spyacria.

10. MTI KEPOOO"K01t1KU tOpvJ.1a'Ta IIsptAal-1~IlvS11-111 KSpOOO"KO-

n1Ka 10p'Ol-1a'ta 101oo'tlKlt<; npOO'to~ouAia<;, nou Spuomptonmouvrm orov 'tOI-1E<; 'tl'J<; K01VOOV1Klt<; cpPov'tioa<;. ~' aU'tltv sV'taO"O"ov'ta1 'ta 10p'Ol-1a'ta nou eire napEXOUV npOV01aKE<; U1tTJPscris<; aU'ta Ka9' aU'ta, etre Ota9E'tOUV OOOpSE<; O"S aUou<; eopst; (s9sAovnKO'O<; Ka1 xpunKO'O<;), KOlVOOVlKlt<; epovrtoa<;.

11. AiKTUa Kat 1tpoYPUJ.1J.1a'Ta 'TTl ~ E'V pC01taiKtl~ 'Ev CO O"TI ~ H Eupoona'iKlt 'Evmon, O"xs01a~sl, XPlll-1a'tOOO'tEt Ka1 a~10AoyEt npoypal-1l-1a'ta K01VOOV1Klt<; cpPov'tioa<;. EniO"ll<;, 0lll-1lOUpysi oiK'tua 1-111 KU~SPVll't1KOOV opyavooO"soov (M.K.O.). Avaeepovrm rpeu; rpozot sviO"XUO"TJ<; Kat svspyonoillO"ll<; rou S9SAOV'tl- 0"1-10'0: a) XPlll-1a'tOOO'tl'JO"TJ npo-

ypal-1l-1a'tOOv O"S K01VOOV1KE<; OI-1IlOS<; nou XPlt~OUV ~Olt9S1a<; (n.x. "~paO"ll unEp rov a'tol-1OOv I-1s S101KE<; avaYKs<; HELIOS II"),

~) npoypal-1l-1a "Eupoona'iKlt E9sAOVnKlt Y1tTJPsO"ia" yta VEOU<; (European Voluntary Service). SsKiVTJO"s 'to 1996 Kat r.tEXP1 'to 1997, EAa~av I-1EPO<; 1.142 VE01 Eupoonai01, ano 18 EOO<; 25 erdrv, H

ATTO TO TTOPOTTOVc.v Ol)OT~IJOTO TTOl) Ol)IJIJ£TtXOl)V ETTiO'1IJO OTO TTPOVPOIJIJO ESSPROS, TO IJOVO TTOl) EivOI Ol)VOTO vo EVTOX90uv

OT'1V KOT'1VOPIOTTOi'10'1 TTOl) TTpOVIJOTOTTOI~9'1KE OTTO T'1V tPEl)VO T'1e; Evcocnq nOAITc0V VIO T'1V noptlJ~OO'1 KOI TTOl)

Ol)VOOOl)V IJE T'1V EVVOIOAOVIK~ TTPOOtVVIO'1 T'1e; xorvcovloc; TTOAITc0V, EivOI '1 TOTTIK~ Al)TOOloiK'10'1, '1 EKKA'10iO KOI 01 1J'1 Kl)~EPV'1TIKte; OPVOVc00EIe;.

EAAllOa I-1EXP1 'to 1998, sixs unoosx9Ei 80 S9SAoV'tE<; (SK 'tOOV onofrov 50 O"S npoypal-1l-1a'ta K01VOOVlKlt<; CPPov'tioa<;), svoo 55 'EUllVS<; O"Ul-1l-1s'tsixav O"S rmootnAE<; IiUrov xoopoov - I-1SAOOV (30 SK 'tOOV oaokov O"S npoypal-1l-1a'ta K01VOOVlKlt<; CPPov'tioa<;),

y) Olll-1lOupyia supoona'iKoov 01KroooV 0l-1aooov aU't0~Olt9S1a<;

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 46

Kat napoX1l<; K01VOOVlKlt<; opovrtoa<; (n.x. Eupoona'iKo Forum Y1a a'tol-1a I-1s S101KE<; avaYKs<;).

12. IOtco'T1Ktl 1tPCO'Topo'Vl..ia Tu 'tsAEU'taia xpov1a, 0 101oonKo<; 'tOI-1Ea<; O"UVSlO"CPEPS1 I-1s noAAo'O<; rponou; 0"'t0 crUO"'tl'Jl-1a K01VOOVlKlt<; cppoV'tioa<;. 01 opao"Sl<; rou Sev efvm nllv'ta O"UO"'tl'Jl-1a'ton0111I-1Evs<;,

01a9E'tS1 01-100<; emxorvrovuncf uccvorrrm Ka1nOAUl-1ltxavs<;

1-10PCPE<; EVtO"XUO"TJ<; u1tTJpsO"lOOV K01VOOVlKlt<; cppovrioa<;. Ilupurnpe+rut sniO"ll<; olS'OPUVO"ll I-1s'ta~'O 'tOOV O"XEO"SOOV ayopa<; Ka1 S9SAOV'tlKOOV npoo'to~ouA100V, I-1S sup'O'tsps<; O"Uvspyacris<;. AKOl-1a Kat av

1crx;UOUV 01 emxptosu; on 01 SVEpyS1E<; 'tOOV sn1XS1PltO"Soov EXOUV 00<; O"'t0XO rou; rnv El-1l-1SO"ll OtaCPltl-110"1l It

cpopoanaAAaylt, OSV 01acpopon010'OV'tat rn anO'tSAE-

~uvoua~ov'ta<; rnv mo navoo Ka'tl'JyoplOnoillO"TJ, I-1S rc O"'t01xsia rou Eupoona'iKo'O ~uO"'tltl-1a'to<; OAOKAllPOOI-1EVOOv ~'ta'tlO"'tlKOOV K01VOOV1Klt<; Ilp o o r c o Iuc (European System of Integrated Social Protection Statistics - ESSPROS), 'to ozoto etvm Eva

Evap~OVto"~EVO O"uO"'t11~a nou napEXEt Eva ~O"O avaAUO"ll~ Kat crUYKPtO"ll~ rrov xp11~anKOOV pOOOV KOtvOlVtK11~ xpocructuc, O"E EupOlna'iKo Kat OtE9vE~ EninEOO, E~aYOU~E xp11O"t~a O"U~nEpaO"~atn Ol~ npo~ 'to p6A.o 'tll~ KOtvOlVia~ nOAt'tOOV Kat EtOtKO'tEpa 't11~ TOntK11~ AU'toowiK11O"l1~, 't11~ EW11O"ia~ Kat rov M.K.O., 0"'t0 YSVtKO'tEPO crUO"'tll~a KOtvOlVtKll~ cpPov'tioa~ Kat npoO"'taO"ia~. BaO"tKll ~ovaoa O"'tll ~EOoooAoyia 'tOU ESSPROS, etvoi 'to crUO"'tll~a 11 npoypa~~a xoworvuoj; npoornO"ia~. n~ np6ypa~~a KOtvOlVtKll~ xpooructuc, Bsropetrut Eva aVE~ap'tll'to crUVOAO xcvovorv, non unoO"'t11pi~E'tat ano ~ia 11 nEptcrO"o'tEPE~ ~OvaoE~ Kat OWnEt 't11 XOP11Y11O"l1 KOlVOlVtKOOV napoxoov Kat 'tll xp11~a'to86'tllcr1l roue, I:E KaOE Kpa'to~ - ~EAO~ 'tll~ E.E., rn npoypa~~a'ta KOtvOlVtKll~ npoO"'taO"ia~ Otacpoponowuv'tat, avaAoya ~E rnv opyevoion 'tOU KotVOlVtKoaO"cpaAtcrnKOU 0"U0"'t11- ~a'to~ ill}. I:'tllV EAMoa crU~CPOlvc ~ rn O"'totXEia 'tOU ESSPROS, otaKpivov'tat rn E~11~ 11 O"Um1l~aro:

1. Ta TaJLEia K01VCOV1K1]~ AO"<paA\(r1)~

2. H K01VCOV1K1] aO"<paA10"T) TCOV (1)JLoO"icov'V1tall1]J..rov

3. H 1tpoO"TaO"ia T1)~ a1taO"XOA1)- 0"1)~

4. H O"TEYaO"'t1K1] 1tpoO"TaO"ia TCOV JL10"9coTcOV

5. To E9v1KO l:.vO"TT)JLa Ka1 Ta A011ta O"'VO"T1]JLaTa YyEia~

6. 01 Opjuvieuot T01t1K1]~ A'VT0010iK1)0"T)~

7. 01 E1taYYEAJLaT1Kt~ O"'VlloytKt~ O"'VVTa;E~

8. 01 'V1tOXPECOT1Kt~ 1tapoxt~ EPyOOOTcOV1tpo~'V1tall1]J..o'V~

9. 01 A011tt~ K'VPEPV1)T1Kt~ opao"E1~ K01VCOV1K1]~ 1tpoO"'taO"ia~

10. Ta 1)JL1- a'VToVOJLa 10pVJLaTa 1tpOV01a~

11. H EKKA1)O"ia Ka1 01 JL1) K'VPEPV1)T1Kt~ opyavcOo"E1~.

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 47

Ano ra napanavOl O"UO""'~a'ta non o"u~~'tEXOUV EniO"ll~a 0"'t0 npoypa~~a ESSPROS, ra ~ova non etvm ouva'to vn sv'taxOouv O"'t11v Ka't11yopwnoi11O"l1 non npay~a'tonOt11011KE ano rnv Epsuva 'tll~ 'EVOlO"ll~ IIoAt'toov yta rnv IIapE~~aO"ll Kat non O"UvaSouv ~E rnv EVVOWAOytK11 npoO"EY'YtO"l1 't11~ xotvrovtuc nOAt'toov, etvm 11 To1ttKll AU'toowiKT)0"ll, 11 EW11cria Kat ot ~11 KU~Epv11nKE~ opvuvdio etc. Aa~~avov'ta~ UnO'l'l1 'to 110tKO uno~aOpo 'tOU EOEAovnO"~ou Il.8l, 'to YEYOVO~ on Eva ano rn ~EyaM'tEpa npO~A11~a'ta 0"'t11 OtaOEO"ll KOVOUAiOlV xotvorvuop; npoO"'taO"ia~, stvm 'to unEp~OAtKO OtotKT)nKO KOO"'tO~ il.2l Kat 11 EAAEt'l'l1 anoKEV'tpOlO"l1~ nou avaOEtKWEt 'to POAO 'tll~ To1ttKll~ AU'toowiKT)O"l1~ aAAa Kat 't11~ 't01ttKll~ KotVO'tll'ta~ yEvtKo'tEpa I2..Ql, KanOtE~ aVE~ap't11'tE~ OEOlp11nKE~ npoo"Eyyio"Et~ Ull, KaOoo~ Kat 'to on ot ~11 EW11O"taoruco» xapaK't11pa EOEAovnKE~ o pj cv e e e u; O"E c p x e r e c nEpt1t'tooo"Et~ OSV napouO"ta~ouv O"UvEXEta O"E ~aOo~ xpovou [22] Kat O"E optousve; nEpt1t'tooo"E~, nEpa ano 'to on a~cptO"~l1'tEhat 0 p6A.o~ 'tOU~ Ol~ "~11 KU~EPVT)nKOOV" , AEt'tOUpyouv aKo~a Kat aV'taYOlvtO"nKa npo~ rnv T01ttKll

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 48

Au,tOOtoiKllOll [23], stvm ouva'to vn 0011Y'1S0U~E oro O"U~nEpacr~a, on 11 O"UvEpyacria 'tlJC; TomKiIc;Au'toOl0iKllcr11C; Kat 'tlJC; Em11criac;, orov 'to~a 'tlJC; K01VroV1KiIc; <ppov'tioac; etvoi lolai'tEpa Oll~avnKiI Kat roc; EK 'tOU'tOU, 0 pOAoC; KaSevoc; ano tn O"Ucrnl~a'ta aU'ta ~Exrop1O"'ta, aUa Kat rrov npounoSEcrErov Kat rov ano'tEAEcr~a'trov 't11C; O"UvEpyacriac; 'tOUC;, Sa npEnEl vn ano'tEAEcrEl 'to uvnxetusvo crXEnKiIc; Epeuvac;. IIpoC; aUnl rnv Ka'tEUSuvOll UUrocr'tE, K1VEi'ta111 napoucra ~AE'tlJ.

ill BA. e. ~ClKEMClponouAoU, AVClST]'troV'tCl~ 'to YEO K01VCOV1KO Kpa'to~, 0"'t0 "H IlE'tClppu91l10"T] ron K01VCOV1KOU Kpurouc" rou. A', EKO. Kpmxn, 1999, o"EA. 23. ill BA. K. ~nClVou, illOiKT]O"T] IIoAhE~ KCllilT]1l0KPCl'tiCl, EKO. IIClnClsitO"T], 2000, O"EA.446. ill BA. O. ~'tClO"lVOnOUAou, ''tUnCl OiK'tUCl CPpOvriOCl~ xm crUyxpovo~ zpovounco; nAoUPaA10"1l0~, EKAOrH AnpiAlO~ - Ma'io~IOUVlO~ 1992, O"EA.ll O. ill BA. O. ~'tClO"lvonouAou, on.n. (O"T]Il. 2), o"EA. 110 En. ill BA. II. AA'taVT] (En11l.), ME'ta~ClO"T] os n; 01 Em1t'troo"E~ 'tT]~ 10tro't1KOnoiT]0"T]~: ~'tT]V AVCl'tOA1Kij Eupro1tT] , O"'tT]V EupconCl'iKij 'EVCOO"T], om BaAKaVlCl xm nClpClnEpCl, KOINQNIKH Epr~IA OK't.-NOE.-ilEK. 1995, o"EA. 235 En. [QJ BA. il. ICl'tpioT], To Kpa'to~ IIpOV01~: H nClyKoO"Il1Cl npoon'tlKij, KOINQNIKH Epr~IA OK't.-NOE.-ilEK. 2000, o"EA. 234. ill BA. K. ~nClVou, on.z. (O"T]Il. 1), O"EA. 517 En. Ttn to pOAo 'tT]~ K01VO'tT]'tCl~, ~A. KCllil. ilT]IlT]'tpaKou, «K01VO'tlO"Il0~»: 'to ClJ.lEP1KClVlKO unoKCl'taO"'tCl'to ron 0"00"lClA10"1l0U; ~UyxpOVT] 0T]1l0KpClnCl xm ClV01X'ti) xowevte, To BitIlCl, 26.11.2000, O"EA. 18, KCl9ro~ xm X. IIClnCl06nouAou, K01VO'tlKij Clvan'tUST] O"'tT]V Kunpo, 0"'t0 K01VCOV1KE~ Y1tT]PEO"iE~ O"'tT]V TomKij AU'tOOlOiKT]O"T], EKO. ~.K.A.E.IT.E.il.K.N.A., 1993, O"EA. 207. En. ill Ttn nEplO"O"o'tEPCl O"E O"XEO"T] us rnv EVVOlOAOytKij npoo"EyytO"T] 'tT]~ Kowovice; IIOA1'troV, ~A. xm N. MousEAT], Tt sivct T] xowevto rcov nOAl'trov, To BitIlCl, 14.12.1997, O"EA. 23, KCl9ro~ xm il. ~co'tT]pOnOUAou, EW010AOytKE~ 01EUKPlvfto"El~ ytCl 'tT]V Kowevto IIOA1'troV xm II. BClO"tAOnOUAou, Tt stvm KCll 'tl 9EAsl T] Kowevto IIOA1'troV, 0"'t0 http://www.paremvassi.gr [2J BA. A. MClKPUOT]llit'tPT], AVClST]'troV'tCl~ rn «OUVClIlT] rcov EAEU9EPCOV AClroY» - Kowevto IIOA1'troV it xowevto nov K01VO'ti)'tCOV;, To BitIlCl, 26.11.2000, O"EA.18. UQ1 BA. Em. Gellner,H Kowevto IIOA1'troV KCll 01 ClvrinaAoi 'tT]~, EKo. IIClnClsitO"T], 1996, o"EA. 19. Ul1 BA. r.B. ilEP'ttAit, H K01VCOCPEAit~ opaO"T] 'tT]~ KOlvcoviCl~ nov nOAl'trov, To BitIlCl, 24.12.2000, o"EA. 38. IUl BA. II. ~'tCl90nouAou, K01VCOVlKij IIpOV01Cl - 1l1Cl YEV1Kij 9EroPT]0"T], EKo. 'EMT]V, 1999, O"EA. 201 En. LUI BA. 'EVCOO"T] IIOA1'troV ylCl 'tT]V IIClPEIl~ClO"T], ClVClKOivcoO"T] - H Kowovto rcov ... E9EAoV'trov, 0"'t0 http://www.paremvassi.gr/volunteers.htmIHl BA. O. ~'tClO"lVOnOUAou, ~UyxpOVE~ 'tao"El~ O"'tT]V K01VCOVlKij IIPOV01Cl - 0 pOAo~ ron E9EAoV'tlO"lloU, EKAOrH IouA.-Auy.-~En't. 1995, o"EA. 265 En. ~ BA. Ynoupvsto YYEiCl~ xrn IIpOV01Cl~, IIOAtnKij O"'tOV 'tOJ.lECl 'tT]~ IIpOV01Cl~, 0"'t0 http://www.ypyp.gr/GR/welfaregr/start.htmKCllN.2646/16.10.1998 ... Avan.tUST].touE9vlKoU~ucr.tftIlCl.t0~ K01VCOV1Kij~ <DpOV'tWCl~ xm aME~ 01Cl'taSE1~" <D.E.K. 236/A/20.10.1998, ap9po 12, J.lE 'to onoio npo~AEnE'tCll T] crUO"'tClO"T] 0"'t0 Yaonpveio u v e t u c & IIpOV01Cl~, ClvEsap'tT]'tou TllitIlCl'tO~ Avan'tuST]~ E9EAov'tl0"1l0u. UQ1 BA. 'EVCOO"T] IIOA1'troV ytCl 'tT]V IIClPEIl~ClO"T], on.a, (O"T]Il. 13). U11 BA. E9vlKij ~'tCl't1O"'t1Kij Y1tT]pEO"iCl 'tT]~ EMaoCl~, K01VCOV1Kit Ilpooruotu O"'tT]V EAAaoCl ilClnavE~ xut 'EO"OOCl - 'E'tT] 1990 1998, 2000, o"EA. 7 En. U81 BA. B. KaM1ClKIlIlVTJ, ME9000AoytKa nporspu 'tT]~ nOlIlClV't1Kij~, EKO. MuyooviCl, 2000, O"EA. 96 En. ll21 BA. 01KOVOlllKij xm K01VCOV1Kij Emrpom] (O.K.E.), rvrollT] npco'to~ouAi~ Clp19. 41, "H <D'troXE1Cl O"'tT]V EMaoCl", 13.7.2000, 0"'t0

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 49

http://www.oke.gr/greeklgnomi4110ke41.htm [20] BA.I1. Ia'tpioTJ, 07t.7t. (crTlll. 5), O'EA. 238. I£U BA. 0. Ka'tO'avE~a, 0 pOA.oc; Kat TJ O'TJllacria 'tT)C; 'tpi'tT)C; TJAtKiac; 0"tTJ cr6yxpOVT) oucovouto, «Zom1C1)c; crTlllacriac; stvct E7ticrTlC;···O POAOC; 'tT)C; Tom1C1)c; A1.>'tootoiKTJcrTlC;, 'tT)C; EWTJO'iac;», O''tO

http://www.katsanevas.gr/artic1es/articlestritihlikia.html[22]BA.B.KaMtaKIlav....07t.7t.(crTlll.18).0.sA.. 97 Kat 109, KaeroC; Kat Roy Panagiotopoulou, The notion of voluntarism in modem Greek society and the challenge of the Olympic Games, EtO'irYTJcrTl oro ~UIl7tOO'tO IlE eElla Volunteers, Global Society and the Olympic Movement, Lausanne 24 - 26 ~ovemberI999,0''to http://www.blues.uab.es/Olympic.studies/volunteers/panagiotopoulou.html[23]BA.~OPROFIT.GR.OtIlTJKU~EPVT).ttKEC; OpyavroO'Etc; ... , «ot IlTJ KU~EpVT)nKEC; OpyavroO'Etc;, ceroppoeoov 7tOpOUC; 7tOU OtacpopE'ttKa ea Ka'tEATJYav (}"ttc; 't07ttKEC; KU~EpvfJO'Etc; ... », oro http://www.noprofit.gr/pressI96.htm

EKKAHl:.IA: IIOPEIAIIPOl:. TH l:.YNTHEH KOINflNIKHl:. IIPONOIAl:. KAI CIlIAAN0PflIIIAl:.

Av Kat TOO'O 1') npaKTtKT), 00'0 Kat 1') ~t~Atoypaq)tKT) avayvcOptO'T) TOU pOWU TT)~ EKKA1')O'ia~ Kat TOW EV yEvEt EKKA1')maO'TtKcOV CPOPECOV O'TOV TO~Ea TT)~ KotVCOVtKT)~ nOAtTtKT)~ 9ECOPEiTat OEOO~ ill , 1') aKpt~it~ OpUO'T) TT)~ stvm ~auov avE~Epe6VTJTT) ill . To YEYOVO~ aUTO OCPEtAETat TOO'O O'E P1')TE~ euaYYEAtKE~ E1ttTaYE~ «~1') YVcOTCO 1') aptO'TEpU con Tt notei 1') OE~tU O'OU» ill , 00'0 Kat O"tT)V yEVtKOTEP1') O'TUO'T) TT)~ EKKA1')cria~ npo~ TO ~itTT)~a ill, nou OEV 9a npEnEt ~taO'TtKU Kat xcop~ O'E ~u90~ ~EMTT) va xapaKT1')p~ETat «EVOOO'TpEcpEta» ill . BE~ata stvm aAit9Eta, OTt OptO'~EvE~ ~9000AOytKE~ OUcrxEPEtE~ zou avmcUnTouv Myco T1')~ tOto~opcpia~ zou napoumU~Et 1') OtotKT)TtKT) O'UYKPOT1')O'T) TT)~ Op90oo~1')~ EKKA1')cria~ O"tT)V EUuoa (EKKA1')O'ia TT)~ EUuoo~, NEE~ XcOPE~, H~taUTovo~1') EKKA1')O'ia TT)~ KpitTT)~, M1')TpOnOAEt~ ~COOEKavftO'OU, Ayto Opoq) [Ql , O'U~~auouv O'T1')V nEpatTEpro mYyXUO'T). IIUvtco~, 0 pOAO~ TOU "EniO'T)~ou stuipou" TOU KpUTOU~, nou avaTi9ETat O'T1')V EKKA1')O'ia yta 9E~aTa «KotVOU EVOtacpEpoVTO~», onco~ 1') cppovTwa yta T1')V «nEpi9aA'I'tv TCOV OEO~COV EV yEvEt npoO'TaO'ia~», ano TOV KaTaO'TaTtKO XUpTT) TT)~ EKKA1')O'ia~ TT)~ EUuoa~ ill , cpaiVETat vn avayvcopi~ETat ~ O'UvEnEta ano TT)v nOAtTEia ill, av Kat ~auov 1') avayvcOptO'T) aUTft napa~EvEt O'E 9ECOP1')TtKO EninEOo.

H EKKA1')cria, KaTU TT)V uO'KT)O'T) TT)~ opaO"tT)ptOTT)TU~ TT)~ it KaAUTEpa TT)~ otaKovia~ TT)~ ill, KaM1tTEt Eva eupuTaTO nEoio pOAcoV, ~E acpET1')pia TT) VO~tKT) TT)~ npOO'C01ttKOTT)Ta (N.II.~.~.), nou EnEKTEivETat ~EXPt Ta wpu~aTa, Ta orouurato, Tt~ EVcOO'Et~ npoO'cOncov it aKo~a Kat rn UTUna KotVCOvtKU OiKTUa. 'ETm, 1') OpUO'T) TCOV TU1ttKcOV it Kat UTUncov npCOTO~OUAtcOV TT)~ EKKA1')O'ia~, EVTUO'O'ETat ~EO'a O'Ta nAaima TOU EVVOtoAoytKOU npoO'OtoptO'~OU TT)~ Kotvcovia~ TCOV nOAtTcOv. ~o~apo E~nOOto O'TO O'T)~Eio aUTO, cpaiVETat vn sivm ~OVO 0 xapaKTT)ptO'~O~ TOO'O TT)~ EKKA1')O'ia~ TT)~ EUuoa~, 00'0 Kat TCOV Ent~Epou~ VO~tKcOV npoO'cOncov TT)~ (1. M1')TpOnOAet~, 1. Naoi, 1. MOVE~, K.An.), co~ N .II.~.~., Ka9cO~ Kat TO OTto KaTaO'TaTtKO~ XUpTT)~ TT)~ EKKA1')cria~, eivm VO~O~ TOU KpUTOU~ il.Ql. AuO'T) O'TO ~itTT)~a aUTO, 9a ~nopOUO'E vn OcOO'Et 1') XopitYllO'T) ~ta~ VEa~ VO~tKT)~ npoO'contKOTT)Ta~ O"tT)V EKKA1')O'ia

Kat n~ opywOlnKE~ unOOtatpEcrEt~ TIl~, f..lE TIlV EtcrayOlY11 ~ta~ 'tph11~ Ka't11yopia~ sui generis VO~tKroV npocrronOlv, rov Eru11crtacrnKrov VO~tKroV npooronrov illl. Au'to alJ.rocr'tE ~11'ta yta 'tOY eeoro TIl~ Kat 11 Ka90AtKiJ Eru11cria ornv EUllOa .[1lJ. , aV'tanOKptVO~EV11 Kat oru; anO'l'E~ 't11~ nEpi Eru11- cria~ Ol~ 0Ew9prontvou opjuvtouou, IIapa rn EpOl't11~anKa zou ~nopEi va

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 50

au'to, npocr<pEpE'tat yta nEpat'tEpOl OtEPEUV1lO"ll Kat E~~a9uvO"ll, rocr'tE OU'tE 11 emornuovucf xotvomru va 9EOlPEi TIlV q>tAav9pOlma Kan 'to ~EnEpacr~Evo Kat avaxpoVtO"nKO - YEYOVO~ nou 9a anO'tEAoucrE 'tpaytKO Aa90~ - OU'tE 11 Eru11cria va uno~a9~i~Et 'tOY pOAo TIl~ "KOcr~tKiJ~" KotVOlvtKiJ~ zpovotcc; AA.A.Olcr'tE, ot w9pOlnoAoytKE~ apXE~ 'tOU Xptcrurvt-

ouou Kat 11 ano TIlV nicrTll

'ETOI, 11 6paOll TC0V TUTTIKWV ~ KOI aTUTTC0V TTpC0TO~OUAIWV Tile; EKKAIlOiOe;, £VTaOOETOI ueoo OTO TTAOiolO TOU £VVOIOAOYIKOU TTpoo610PIO~OU Tile; KOIVC0Vioe; TC0V TTOAITWV.

aValcU'I'0UV ano ~ta 'tE'tota pu9~tO"lll1.B , 11 011~toUpyia EKKA11crtacr'ttKrov VO~tKroV xpocdmrov, cpaivE'tat va stvm aUnl nou E~acrcpaA.i~Et ornv Eru11cria, 'to EUpU'tEPO ouva'to nEoio avan'tU~11~ TIl~

otaKovia~ TIl~ Kat orov 'to~a TIl~ KotVOlVtKiJ~ noAmKiJ~·

'Eva aKo~a ~"TIl~a avacpoptKa ~E rnv napE~~aO"ll TIl~ Eru11cria~, nou cru~~aUst O"'t11v EUEt'l'1l

xuruvonon; Kat crnv EmcpuAaK'ttKo't11'ta yta ouvepyuote, stvm Kat 0 EVVotOAOytKO~ zpoodtoPtcr~o~ TIl~ cptAaV9pOlnia~ Kat 11 avnOtacr'toA" 't11~ npo~ rou; opou; KotVOlVtKiJ zpovotn, KotVOlVtKiJ CPPov'tioa, xpocrcotc, K.An. I:uXVa Kat ano noUE~ nAEUpE~, ot opot rmrot napoucrta~ov'tat OXt anAro~ Ol~ ~11 crUYYEVtKOi, aAAa oe opioueve; aKpaiE~ nEptn'trocrEt~ aKo~a Kat Ol~ aV'ti9E'tot I1.1l . To 9E~a

anoppEoucra ayan11, ano'tEAouV rnv KtV1lnlPta ouva~11 avan'tu~11~ 't11~ KOtvOlVtK"~ xpovotuc. H cptAW9pOlnia nou 1t1lya~Et ano 't11 Xpumrrvucn Kocr~09-

eropto, f..lE 'tOY naYKocr~tO Kat navw9prontvo xapaKnlpa TIl~, ~aKpta ano cpuAEn-

KE~ " onotEcro"no'tE auE~ otaKpicrEt~, ano'tEAEi TIl ~OlnKiJ EV'tEAEXEta TIl~ f..lE'ta Xptorov KotVOlVtKiJ~ zpovotc; l1.2 .

TEAO~ 9a npEnEt va 0"ll~Et0l9Ei, on 0 xropo~ 't11~ KOtvOlVtK"~ ~Ept~Va~, Eva~ xropo~ Ka90AtK"~ npocrcpopa~ Il.Ql , zpootpepenn Ka'tE~oxflv yta TIl cruvEpyacria npOl'tapXtKa rov Xpurncvucdrv Eru11- ouov Kat ~oy~a'tOlV (Op90oo~ia, Ka90AtKtcr~o~, Ilporecruvnouoq), nUa icrOl~ aKO~11 Kat yta ~ta EUPU'tEP11 ota9p11crKEtaK" cuvspvcoto Ll1l .

ill BA. A. IIu'tpa, K01VroVK'fJ IIoAtnKiJ, EK~. Aoot I:uKKouAa, 1974, creA.. 346 E1t. « ... 9a 1tPE1tEl vn U1tO~vfJcrro~ ... TIJv 1tapoucrtav rorv EKKATjmrov Etc; TIJV uO"KTjmv KotvroVlKiJe; 1tOAtnKiJe;. Eu; oplcr~Evae; xropae; m xplcrnaVlKat T] UMal EKKATjcrtal 9EroPOUV't<l1 roe; <popEie; ~TjJlomou ~lKatOU, Etc; uUue; ~E U1tUYOV't<ll Etc; 't<le; ~la'tuSEtc; 1tEpt l~pUJlU'trov T] crroJla'tEtrov. IIuV'troe; Tj O"UJlPOAT] rorv EKKATjmacrnKrov xm 9PTjcrKEU'tlKroV BY YEvEl opynvdioecov stvm crT]JlEPOV Atav O"TJJlavnKiJ, aSlOAOytKroe; ~E papucrT]Jlav'tOe;, A.6yro rmv 1tPOEPxOV'troe; av9pro1t1O"'tlKrov eA.aTIJptrov U1tO rorv onoiorv 1tporo90UV'tal ot O"UJl1tpUTIOV'tEe; T] 1tapEXOV'tEe; ru J.LEcra acrKiJcrEroe; KotvroVlKiJe; 1tOAtnKiJe; ~la rorv EKKATjmacr'tlKrov xm 9pTjO"KEU'tlKroV OpyavrocrEroV», Ka9roe; xm f. LlteUa, H O"UJlPOAT] TIJe; EKKATjmae; TIJe; EUu~ae; crTIJ ~laJlOp<proO"TJ ron KpU'tOUe; 1tpOvotae; Kat Tj O"UJlJlE'toxfl TIJe; O"'tO

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 51

aUO"'tT]~a KOtVCOvucf]c; cppoV'tioac; (The contribution of the Greek Orthodox Church to welfare state formation and its role in Social Care provision), O"'tO 10 Lll£9vEC; L'l>VEOPto H Kotvorvucn IIOAtnKf] ornv EAAaOa xci mv Etlpco1taiKf] 'EVCOO"TJ, EmO"'tT]~OvtKf] Ennpefn KotvcovtKf]c; IIOAtnKf]c; Kat T~,,~a KotvcovtKf]c; LltoiKTjO"TJC; Ll11~KPt'tEiotl Ilnvemorrjulou ®PIlKTjC;, Kouorrrvi], MllwC; 2001, O"'tO http://www.hellenic.social-policy.org ill BA. O. L'tamV01tOUAOtl, Avaotlip8pcoO"TJ nov 1tPOO"C01ttKroV KOtVCOvtKroV tl1t1lPEmrov. H E1ttKatpO'tT]'ta 'tT]C; aVE1tiO"TJ~11C; cppovtiOac; Kat ot mYyXPOVEC; Ota1tAoKEC;, O"'tO II. rE'ti~11C; - Ll. rpllf3ap11C; (emu.), KOtVCOVtKO Kpll'toc; Kat Kowevuoi IIOAtnKf] - H cnYyxpOVll1tpof3A11~a'ttKf], EKO. ®E~Ato, 1993, O"u.294, «E~iO"otl aVE~EpEUVll't11 stvct 11 O"TJ~Ptvf] OPIlO"TJ 'tT]C; Em11O"iac;, oX! uovo ~O"a O"'ta tOpU~a'ta rn onofn AEt'tOtlPYEi, aAA6: Kat ern 1tAaima 'tT]C; EtlPU'tEP11C; op8000~11C; avtiA11'1f11C; yta rn otaKovia. Av Kat stvm 0 mo a1tOKEY'tpCO~OC; 8Eo"~OC; Kat 0 ~OVOC; ~E O"tIyKpO'tT]~ cptAoO"ocptKf] f31lO"TJ yta rnv 1tapoxfJ CPPov'tWac;, 11 o'I>Va~tKf] 'tT]C; OEY EXEt a~t07tot118Ei yta rnv avIl1t'ttl~11 EYOC; aUyxpovotl1tAatcriO'll1tpovotac;».

WMa't8. 6, 3.

ill BA. II. L'ta801tOtlAOtl, Koworvucn Ilpovoto - ~ta YEvtKf] 8EroP11O"TJ, 01t.1t. (O"TJ~. 12), o"u. 224, «rEYtKIl 11 Em11O"ia OEY 1tapOtlmll~Et OU'tE otacp11~~Et 'to 1tpOVOtaKO EPYO 'tT]C;, E1tEtO" KIl'tt 'tE'tOto avtlKEt'tat O"'ttC; apXEC; 'tT]C; yta 'tT] cptAav8pco1tia», Ka8roc; Kat M. BaO"tAEiotl, «M11 'tpaycooEiv rnv sunouev», O"'tO http://www.epnet.grISaints/Greek/024.htmillBA.EtO"TJ.Y11.ttKf].EK8EO"TJv.2646/1998 .. Avll1t.ttl~11.tOtlE8vtKouLtlm.fJ~a.t0c; KotvcovtKf]c; <Dpov'twac; Kat 6:AAEc; Ota'tIl~Etc;", KroOtKac; NO~tKOU B,,~a'toc;, 'to 10, OK't. 1998, o"EA. 1915.

[QJ Fur 1tEPtO"O"o'tEpa O"X,E'ttKIl ~E atl'to 'to ~"'tT]~a, f3A. I. Kovt15IlP11, ®E~UtroOEtc; Ota'tIl~Etc; nov O"XEO"ECOV Kpll'totlC; -Em11criac;, EKO.AV't. LIlKKOtlAa, 1999.

ill BA. v. 590/27.5 .1977 "IIEpi ron Ka'taO"'ta'ttKoU Xdpron 'tT]C; Em11criac; 'tT]C; EAAtiooC;" <D.E.K. 1461 A/31.5.1977, Ilp8po 2. 00 BA. v.2646/1998, 01t.1t. (0"11~. 15), Ilp8po 8, ~E 'to ozoto 11 Em11O"ia 'tT]C; EUlloac; O"tI~~'tEXEt E1tiO"TJ~a O"'tO E8vtKO LtI~f30UAto Kowovuoj; <DpoV'tioac;, Ka8roc; Kat v. 2082/16.9.1992 "AvaotopyllvcoO"TJ 'tT]C; KotvcovtKf]c; Ilpovotoc Kat Ka8ttpcoO"TJ VECOV 8Eo"~V Kowevuoj; Ilpooruotac" <D.E.K. 158/A/21.9.1992, Ilp8po 3, us 'to ozoio 11 Em11O"ia 'tT]C; EUlloac; O"tI~~E'tEXEt E1tiO"TJ~a O"'tTjV LtI~f30tlAEtI'ttKf] Em'tpon'f] KOtVCOvtKroV Y 1t08EO"ECOV, nou Ka8tEprovE'tat us 'to VO~O atl'to.

[2J BA. A. A'Y'YU01tOtlAotl, Em11maO"'ttKf] Ioropfn - Ioropto rcov oo~rov OtotKf]o"ECOC; Kat ~co"C; 'tT]C; Em11criac; 'tT]C; EUllooC; (EtKOO"'tOC; atrovac;), EKO. Aqxov KtlptaKio11, 1998, o"EA. 131 E1t.

llill BA. 01t.1t. (O"TJ~. 45).

lll1 BA. I. KOvtOIlP11, Em11maO"'ttKIl ''taK'ta, EKO. AV't. LIlKKOtlAa, 2000, o"EA. 117.

[UJ BA. Ll. LaAaxa, LltoiKTjO"TJ Kat 0pYIlVCOO"TJ 'tT]C; Ka80AtKf]c; Em11criac; - LXEO"EtC; Em11O"iac; Kat 1tOAt'tEiac; Ka'tll rnv Ka80AtKf] Em11O"ia ~E tOtai'tEP11 nvooopu ornv EUlloa, O"'tO ®. Kovti011 (emu.), 0 Ka80AtK!0"~OC;, EKO. EU11vtKIl I' pll~~aro, 2000, o"EA. 265 E1t. LU1 BA. E. B~EAotl, Ot O"X,Eo"EtC; KPIl'tO'llC; Kat Em11criac;, EKo. IIapa't11P11't'i]c;, 2000, o"EA. 199 E1t. [l£ Ttn 1tapIlOEty~a O"'tO Em11maO"'ttKo11~EPoA6yto 1totl1tapO'llmll~E'tat O"'tO OtaOiK'ttIo, 0"'ttC; 27 Iouvtou, 11~pa ~vf]~11C; ron Ayiotl La~'I'COV, avacpEpEt: «Av OEY tl1tIlPXEt cptAav8pco1tia ornv KOtvCOVtKf] 1tpovota, 'to'tE 1tpOKEt'tat yta KOO"~tKf] KiVllO"TJ Kat 1tOAtnKf] O"Kom~O'tT]'ta. H Em11O"ia yta 'tT]V 1tEPi8aA'I'11 rcrv EYOEroV OEY ~EPEt KOtVCOvtKf] 1tpovota, nUll cptAav8pco1tia» Kat O"'ttC; 24 OK'tcof3piotl, avacpEpEt: « ... K! oX! va aO"X,oAou~E8a OtapKroc; ~E rnv o,,8EY oPYIlVCOO"TJ 'tT]C; cptAav8pco1tiac; Kat va 'tT]V

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 52

j.I£'ta'tpEn01>j.I£ <ITI1 A£'yOj.l£Vl1 OOKOtVroVtrit npovotaoo», 0"'t0 http://www.tlPnet.gr/Saints/Greek/june27.htm EYro 0"'t0 O. L'taO"lVOnOUMm, on.z. (0"111J.. 14), o"EA. 267, ota~aS01>IJ.E: «H tOEoAoytrit 'tau'tlO"11 j.I£ 't~ apXE~ 't11~ <ptAav9pronta~ OEY <patVE'tat nMov va EnapKEt».

021 BA. L. Moupoinca, To KOtVroVlKO EPYO 't11~ Eru11ma~ Kat 11 Aria <DtAo9E11, EKo. LM. <DtA09E11~, 1997, o"EA. 16 En. [lQJ BA. B. <DEtoa, H 9EO"IJ.trit IJ.€ptlJ.va 'tTI~ Eru11O"ta~ 0"'t11 ~1>saVnvilnEptOOO yta 'ta a'tOlJ.a IJ.E EtOtKE~ aVaYKE~, 0"'t0 Eru11- oin Kat a'tolJ.a us EtOtKE~ avaYKE~ - Ilpmcnxn A' EKOTJAroO"11~ 't01> EPE1>V11'tlKOU npoypalJ.lJ.a'to~ "0p11O"KE1>nrit AyroyiJ Kat KOtVroVtrit Ma~l1 A.M.E.A:·, EKO. AnoO"'toAtrit AtaKOvta 'tTI~ Eru11O"ta~ 'tTI~ EMaoo~, 1999, o"EA. 47 «H 9wAoyfa Kat 11 KOtVroVtrit IJ.EptlJ.Va nov IJ.EyaAroV Ilrrreporv 'tTI~ Eru11O"ta~ (M. A9avamo1>, M. BaO"tAEto1>, Imevvou XP1>O"oO"'tOIJ.01>, x.u.), O"UVEOEav rnv "xowevtev 'tTI~ mO"'tEro{ IJ.E rnv EV't'UnroO"tarit avan't'U~l1 't01> ··O"UVOEO"IJ.01> 'tTI~ aya1tl1~" Kat 'tTI~ K01VroVtrit~ IJ.€PtlJ.va~ 0X1IJ.0VO yta 't01>~ xptcrnavou~, aMa Kat yta rou; 1J.11 XPtO"'ttavou~ nOAhE~ 'tTI~ nEplOxiJ~ roix».

il11 BA. E. BapEAM, AtaxptcrnaVlKa Kat Op9000~a, Ta1>'to'tTI'ta, 16.3.2001, o"EA. 20, «L'tOV K'Up{ro~ otaxptO"navtKO xropo, EntO"11IJ.Ot Kat a't'UnOt OtaAoYOt EIJ.IJ.EvO'UV 0"'tTI o'UVa'tO'tTI'ta EYtata~ OtaKOVta~ Kat OtKOOOlJ.oUV rnv 9wAoytrit crl>YKAt- 0"11 ... L'UValJ.a, nEptO"'taO"laKE~ TJ opyavrolJ.EvE~ O"UlJ.npa~Et~ us 'tl~ YEhoVE~ IJ.OV09EicrnKE~ 9p11O"KdE~, KaMtEPYoUV 'tTl o'UVa'to'tTI'ta K01vi1~ npoO"<popa~ npo~ 'tOY naO"xoV'ta Kat O"'tEAVO'UV orov ayvroO"'ttK1O"..., nEptyupo, IJ.TJwIJ.a crUlJ.1tV01a~ O"E 9ElJ.a'ta 119trit~ Kat avEK'tlKO'tTI'ta~ ... »,

EIIIAOrOI;

o crrU.lEptVOe; E9EAovTIte;, OEV etvot anAO, KanotOe; nou acrxoAEi'tat IlE OOaya90EpyiEe;"". 0 E9EAovTIte; stvm mn Svae; noAi'tlle; nou OEV EntSullEi vn EKX,roPEi oro Kpa'tOe; 'tfl Otldt rou su9UVfl ill . H napaooxtl auTIt, Em~auEt VEEe; O"UvEpyacriEe; Kat npro'to~ouAiEe; orov 'to~Ea 'tfle; KOtvrovtldte; <ppov'twae;. H anOKEV'tpro'ttldt oo~it 'tfle; Emllcriae;, nou O"UvaOEt IlE auTIt 'tfle; Tomldte; AU'toOtoiKflcrlle;, 11 ouva'tO'tll'ta a~EO"fle; npocr~aO"fle; orov nOAi'tllKat 0 O"UVExOOe; au~avO~EVOe; powe; roco 'tlle; T.A. ooo Kat 'tfle; Emllcriae; xm nov EV ySvEt 9PllO"KSU'ttKOOV opyavoocrErov OtESvOOe; ill , npocrOtopisEt rn cruvExooe; Stsupuvouevu opto O"UvEpyacriae; rmv ouo au'toov 9Ecr~OOV.

H Emllcria Kat 11 Tontldt AU'toOtoiKflcrll stvat

SvvOllie; o"uVOOVU~Ee; ~E 'tllv xoworvic ill Kat napw..AllAa ~aO"tKoi stuipot ornv otKo06~llO"fl 'tfle; Svvotae; 'tfle; xoworvtce; rorv nOAt'toov, 0 powe; 'tfle; onoiae; cr'tfl crUYXPOVll npay~a'ttKo'tll'ta, yiVE'tat 01.0 Kat zspiooocepo oputoc, H xoworvic nOAt'toov o~roe;, OEV unops] vn aivm Eva a9potcr~a ~oVaXtKOOV av9poonrov, ~ovaX1Koov otaopo~oov. H xotvcrvin nOAt'toov anat'tEi aAAllAsyyUll, nOAmcr~tldt ava'taO"fl, crE~acr~o ron av9poonou Kat rorv OtKatro~a'trov ron. H xotvcrvin nOAt'toov, OEV ~nopEi napa vu o"uYKpO'tEi'tat ano ~EAllnou Ota1tVEov'tat ano aA'tpOutcr~o, nou crKEn'tov'tat K'Upiroe; rt ~nopouv vn npootpspouv Kat OXt ~OVO nroe; ~nopouv vn ro<PEA1l90uv ano rouq aUoue;.

~'tTlV xowevtc aunt, 11 Aoyucit 'tTl~ TontKft~Au,tOOtoiK11011~, aJ..J...a KUpiro~ 11 EKKA11oia, EXEt oiyoupa 'tTl OtKft 'tTl~ ~EyaA11 covsicoopu, nou ouvioretm rooo O'tO EninEOo 'tTl~ 9Erop11nKft~ 9E~EAiroO"ll~ 't11~ EvvOla~ 'tTl~ npoocpopa~ Kat 'tTl~ KOtvrovtKft~ otaKovia~ (O"UUoytKft~ Kat a'to~tKft~), 000 Kat oro npaKnKO EninEOo EVEpyonoi11011~

'troy ~EAWV nou O"UYKpo'tOUV 't11V xoworvic 'troy nOAt'tWv Kat zou cru; nEptO"oO'tEPE~ nEpt1t'tWoEt~, ano'tEAoUv nap6.U11Aa Kat ~EA11 't11~ "xotvrovtuq mordrv", nou stvm nprorio r ro ; 11 EKKA11oia.

AUroO'tE, OSV stvm ouva'tonapa va napaoEx90u~, nro~ ot ouo aU'tE~ tOtO'tTl'tE~ EVUnapxouv 'tau'toxpova

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 53

oanavwv KOlVrovtKft~ npootnoiuc, K.a., OXt uovo OSV nEptopi~Et 'to POAO 'troy uno ~EAE'tTl CPOPEroV, aUa aV'tteE'ta 000 npoxropouv aU'tE~ ot OtaOtKaoiE~, yivE'tat E~cpavEO"'tEp11 11 avaYKllnEpat'tEpro avan'tU~11~ 't11~ KOlvrovia~ 'troy nOAt'tWv Kat 'tOU E9EAovnO~OU, orov 'to~a 'tTl~ KOlVrovtKft~ cpPov'tioa~ Kat OXt

~OVO. BE~ata, 'to YEYOVO~

au'to, unOOEtKVUEt 't11V avaYKll yta ~ta crUv9E'tTl Kat 011~tOUPytKft OtE9vft O"UvEpyaoia, 'troy CPOPEroV 'tTl~ 'tomKft~ aU'tootoiK11O"ll~ 'troy Kpa'twv - ~EAWV ~E'ta~u 'tOU~, 'troy EKKA110tWV 't11~ Eupwn11~

~'ta~u 'tOU~ ill Kat OAroV ~a~i, npo~ 'to OKono 'tTl~ ano'tEAEo~anKo'tEp11~

o OrU..JEpIVOe; E9EAOVT~e;, OEV dvo: aTIAO KOTIOIOe; TIOU aOXOAEiTal IJE laya90EpyiEe;". 0 E9EAOVT~e; elvoi me tvae; TIOAiTI1e; TIOU OEV ETII9UIJEi va EKXCUPEi OTO KpOTOe; Til OIK~ TOU Eu9uvl1.

Kat OSV etvm ouva'to va 9EroPTJOOU~ on KanOlO~ Ka'ta rnv onOla KOlVroVtKft Opao'tTlPtonoi11oTJ 'tOU anEKOUE'tat KanOla~ EK 'troy 0'60, avaAoya ~ 'tOY Xwpo orov onoio Spuornptonotetnn OE KanOla OEOO~~ XPOVtKft O"UYKUpia.

Ta YEa oEoo~a nou 011~toUpyouv'tat ano 'tTl o"uVEXW~ OtEUPUVO~EV1l EupronaiKft evonotnon, onro~ stvm 11 npoona9Eta svcpuovtorp; 'troy KOlVrovtKWV nOAt'ttKwv 'troy Kpa'twv - ~EAWV, 11 Ecpap ~oyiJ KOlVWV OEtK'tWV ~E'tP11O"ll~ Kat cnmcruop; a~tonoi11O"ll~ 'troy

napE~~acriJ~ roix, zou ~E 'tTl oEtpa 'tTl~ npoun09E'tEt rnv unap~l1 ~l1~a'trov yta aU11A.oyvropt~ia, aU11AoKa'tav011O"ll Kat napa~ptO"~o 'troy otacpopwv non osv oXE'ti~ov'tat ~ 'tTl Suncovtc aya1t1l~ Kat xotvorvuop; aJ..J...11AEyyU11~. Av Kat 11 E~nEtpia Ka'taOEtKVUEt on 'tE'tOla ~TJ~a'ta yivov'tat omv EUaoa ~ noM apyou~ pu9~ou~, stvm ~6.Uov ~E~atO nro~ n aopstn aunt,ano'tEAEi~ovoopo~o.

ill BA. M. Messu, cI>'troXEta Kat a7tOKAEtO"IlO<; 0"'tT] faUla, oro Francois-Xavier Merrien (smu.), Face ala pauvrete, EKo. Krrmpn, 1994, o"EA. 190.

ill Etvm xapaK'tT]ptO"'tlKO on O"'tt<; H.IlA. 0 Ilposopo; Mnou; a7tocpUO"lO"E va EKXroPitO"Et 'tT]V UO"KTJO"1'J xoworvucdrv AEt'tOUpytrov rou KPU'tOU<; O"E EKKATjo"lE<; Kat 9pTjO"KEU'tlKE<; Opyavroo"Et<;, EKXroproV'ta<; 7tapaMTjAa Kat ru av'tlO"'tOlXa KOVOUAta,

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 54

aMroCJt"E «11 tOEa TIle; ava9EOTIe; J..Et't"OUpyubV 'tOO K01VroVtlCOU Kp(l'tOUe; one; 9P11O"KSU'tlKEe; opyavrooE1e;, EXE1 KEpl>ioE1 El>acpOe; ru 'tEJ..EU'taia xpoVla», Kn911IlSP1vr1 31.1.2001, CJt"0 http://www.kathimerini.grToI;TJTIlllaau.to ~E~a1a l>sv stvm KatVOUPlO 0't1e; H.IlA., 01tOU 11 O1l00"1t0vl>1aKiJ KU~EPV'flOTlIlE IlSYaA11l>10'taK'tlKoTll'ta Ka11tOUTJ Ka9uCJt"EP11OTl E1crTJJ..9E 0't0 xropo TIle; K01vrov1KiJe; 1tpOV01ae;, orov 01tOiO 01 9P11O"KSU'tlKEe; Ka1 E9EJ..OYnKEe; opyavroOE1e; l>1al>palla't10av 1tpro'tapllKO pOAo, !.1EXP1 'to 'tEJ..Oe;TIle;l>EKaEnae;'tOU 1930, BJ... Kat II. I:'ta901touJ..oU, 01t.1t. (0111l. 12), OEJ... 148.

ill BA.E1tE O"XE'tlKa Ka1 ru O"UIl1tEpaolla'ta rou lou IIavEUTJVloU I:uvEl>piou Ll11IlO'tlKiJe; MEp1IlVae; 1tOU 1tpaYlla't01t01TJ9'flKE ornv Ilrrrpu 'to NOEIl~P10 ron 2000 IlS 9EIla TIl O"UvEpyaoia T01t1KiJe;Au't0l>10iK'fl0Tle; Ka1 TIle; EW11criae;, 0't0 http://www.i-mpatron.gr/newsl/symperasmata synedriou 01.html

ill H YEa au'tfJ 1tpaYlla'tlKOTll'ta, U1toypalllliSE'ta1 IlS oaCPTJVE1a, rooo 0TllV K01vr1 LlTJAroo11 rou IIa1ta IroaVV'fl IIauJ..ou B' Ka1 rou ApX1E1t1O"K01tOU A911vrov XP10't0l>OUJ..ou, svomov rou BTJlla'tOe; 'toUA1tOCJt"OAoU nov E9vrov IIauAou (4 Mniou 2001), ~J... 1tEPlOl>1KO EW11oia, 'to 5, Ma10e; 2001, OEJ... 386-387, 000 Ka1 0"'t11 Xnpm I:uvEpyaoiae; 'trov Eupro1taiKrov EW11O"lrov, 1tOU u1toypaCP11KE a1to Kn90J..1KOUe;, Op9006~oue; Ka1 Ilporeomvre; 0't0 I:'tpao~oUpyo, CJt"tc,; 22 A1tptAiou 2001, ~J... "Op90l>0~ia & EU11VlOIlOe;" E1l>1KO Ev9E't0 TU1tOUTIle; Kup1aKiJe;, 15.7.2001, OEJ... 2-3.

* A1tO'tEAEi !.1EPOe; 1l1ae; EK'tSVECJt"EP11e; Epsuvae; 1tOU l>sv sfvm Suverov, J..Oyro ron 1tEPlOP10IlEvOU xropoo 1tOU l>1a9E'tE1 'to 1tEPlOl>1KO, va l>l1IlOOlEU'tEi OJ..OKA11P11.

EUXaP1CJt"OUIlE 'to fpacpEio TU1toU TIle; APX1E1t10Ko7tiJe; A911vrov yta TIlv SUYEVlKiJ 1tapaxroP11OTl ron KE1IlEvOU. 0 SVl>1- acpEpOIlEVOe; Il1tOPEi va aval;11'tfJoE1 OJ..OKA11PO 'to KEillEVO ornv 1tapaKa'tro l>tEU9uVOTI: http://www.ecclesia.gr/greek/HolySynod/commitees/welfare/Welfare-0003a.htm

OI-JlAia TOU T. np6l9unoupyou TI1~ Ioul1Sia~ Goran Persson OTI~ 30 lavouapiou TOU 2007 OTI1V A9~va, IJt 9£lJa:

«To IOUI1SIKO 1J0VT£Ao)). *

AyamTtOi: 'to IIpco9unoupYE Krocrm ~T)J.li'tTt. MEA.T) 'tT)~ 1CU~EPVTJO"T)~ Kat 'tOU KOlVO~oUA.iou,

MEA.T) 'tOU Outsou IIpo~A.T)J.lancrJ.lou Y1a rov EKcruyxpovtcrJ.l6 'tT)~ Korvrovtuc Ejorpooronot 'tOU EntXEtpT)J.lanKOU K6crJ.lOU Kat 'tT)~ xowrovtce; 'tCOV noA.t'trov, ~UJ.lJ.lE'tEXOV'tE~ orqv EKOfIA.cocrT),

Etvm nJ.lll Y1a J.lEva nou EiJ.lat qnA.O~EVOUJ.lEV6~ cra~ an6'1'E,

Mon sT)~9T)KE va J.ltA,llcrco yta 't~ 9EJ.lEA.troOEt~ apXE~ 'tOU ~OUT)OtKOU J.lOV'tEA.ou Kat 'tOV 'tp6no zou EntM~aJ.lE vn OlKOOOJ.lllcrOUJ.lE 'tT)V xowrovtn J.la~.

eO, 'to Kavco J.lE rrrv EJ.lnEtpia nou anEK'tT)cra Ka'ta 'to, 12 xp6vta non llJ.l0UV Ynoupy6~ OtKOV0J.ltKroV Kat IIpcoeunoupy6~ 'tT)~ ~ouT)oia~.

H ~ouT)oia E~E'tasE'tat cruxva co~ Eva EVOtacpEpov J.lOV'tEA.O, yt' au'tou~ non avaST)'touv KaA.E~ npaK'tlKE~ cr'tT)V OtKOVOJ.ltKll avan'tU~T), crov aV'taycovtcrJ.l6, ornv napaycoY1K6'tT)'ta Kat 'tT)V npovotc.

AA.A.a utu OEKaE'tia nprv, T) ~ouT)oia avnJ.lE'tconts6'tav 'tEA.Eico~ Stuooperucn - co~ aVTJcruXllnK6 cpatv6J.lEV0.

Aoetov, Ent'tpE'I''tE uou vn J.ltA,llcrco yta 'tOV EKcruyxpOVtcrJ.l6 - aA.A.a EniO"T)~ yta'tov J.laKpU Kat OUcrKOA.O rporro J.lE'ta~aO"T)~ an6 'tT)V KpiO"T) cr'tT)V u v u n r u c n .

Kupie; Kat riptOl

Ornv 'to IIayK6crJ.lto OtKOVOJ.ltK6 <l>6pouJ.lnapoucriacrE n~ 'tEA.EU'taiE~ rou EKnJ.lllcrE~ Y1a rov cvmycoVlcrJ.l6 ornv nayK6crJ.lta OlKOVOJ.lia, Ka'ta KanOlo 'tp6no EOCOcrE'tT)V anav'tT)O"T) :

~'tT)v A.icrm rorv OEKa KaA.u'tEpcoV xcoprov ~A.EnOUJ.lE 'tl~ rpsu; ~KavolVa~tKE~ XroPE~ - 'tT)v <l>tA,avoia, 'tT)v ~ouT)oia Kat 'tT)V ~avia.

H ~ouT)oia Ka'tEiXE 'tT)V 'tpi'tT) 9EcrT). Ilspuot aVE~llKaJ.lE Kat ~EnEpacraJ.lE 'tl~ HVCOJ.lEVE~ nOA.t'tEiE~ nou EnEcrav an6 'tT)V npro'tT) ornv EK'tT) 9EO"T).

~E J.l6A.t~ OEKa xp6Vla J.lE'ta'tpanllKaJ.lE an6 xropa zou Bpioxotuv os KpiO"T) os J.lta an6 'tt~ 1tl0 av'taycoVtcr'tlKE~ XroPE~ ron xoouou,

• <l>E'tO~, Y1a OEKa'tT) xpOVta ornv crEtpa, EXOUJ.lE nAE6vacrJ.la orn 0T)J.l6crta EcroOa

• Ka'ta 'tT)V OtapKEta trov 12 'tEA.Eu'taicov enov, EixaJ.lE J.lta aU~T)crT) 'tT)~ anacrx6A.T)0"T)~ navco an6 400.000 9EcrEt~.

• IIE'tUxaJ.lE rov cr't6xo J.la~ Y1a zooooro anacrx6A.T)0"T)~ xovrd oro 80%

• H aVEpyia EA.a't'trovE'tat J.lE 'taXE~ pu9J.lou~. To, 'tEAEu'taia cr'tancrnKa mOlXEia OEixvouv on an6 rov ~EKEJ.l~PtO ron 2006 'to, EninEOa 'tT)~ avOlX~~ aVEpyia~ Eivat4,4%

• Ka'ta rnv OtapKEta rrov nspccrJ.lEVCOV oEKaEnrov EtxaJ.lE

U'l'11M'tEPO nooooro avan'tU~T)~ rooo an6 rnv EE ooo Kat an6 rou OO~A. 0 J.lEcrO~ opo; J.la~ ll'taY 3%.

• To zooooro avan'tU~T)~ Y1a 'to 20061lmv 4,4%. H np6yvcoO"T) yta 'to 2007 Eivat3,5%

• Ilepdouue an6 Eva EAAEtJ.lJ.la oro E~CO'tEPtK6 J.la~ EJ.lnOptK6 tcrosuytO cs Eva cnunvruco nAE6vacrJ.la.

• EXOUJ.lE xaJ.lT)M Kat crm9Ep6 nA.T)9coptcrJ.l6 Kat av.aycoVtcrnKa emroxto, Ka'tco an6 'to, YEpJ.laYtKa EninEOa

Ornv 'ton09E't1l9T)Ka Y noupy6~ OtKOV0J.ltKroV 'to 1994, T) xropa EiXE nEpacrEt an6 'tpia xp6vta OtKOVOJ.ltKll~ UCPEcrT)~ Kat Ot apt9 J.loi ll'taY noA.u OtacpopE'tlKOi:

• To 0T)J.l6crto XPEO~ EiXE OtnA.acrtaorst Kat aV'tlcr'tOlxoucrE oro 84% rou AEII (crllJ.lEpa ~picrKE'tat oro 40%)

• To, 0T)J.l6crta OlKOVOJ.ltKa J.la~ Bpicxovruv os J.lia an6 n~ XEtp6'tEPE~ cr'ttYJ.lE~. To, EllEiJ.lJ.la'to, ll'tav navco an6 'to 10% rou AEII

• To, Ka'taYEypaJ.lJ.lEva u'I'11A.a E1tl't6Kla npOKaA.oucrav J.lapacrJ.l6 cr't~ EnEVoucrEt~ Kat 'tT)V napaycoY1l (500%)

• H oucr1tlcr'tia rorv ~EvCOV anEvavn ornv croUT)OtKll oucovouta ll'taY Ev'tOVTJ

• H unap~T) rou crOUT)OtKOU

*TTJV OlltAia npoAOytO"E 0 npc:OTJv IIp(Oeu1toupy6~ Kc:O(}"[a~ ~TJlli'tTJ~

~OV.EAOU ~.av E~ap~~~ ano KE<paAata zou oavE1'So~a<nav ano .~ OtEevEi~ ayopE~ KE<paAairov.

Ilop' oAa au.a XPEta(HllKaV o~ro~, Aiya xpovta yta vn E~t(mppO~O'OU~E rov npoijnoAoytO'~O. EmAE~a~ ~ta «~iata» O'.pa~ytK~ yvropisov.a~ on 9a ~.av Enroouvll Kat 9a ueiorvs n~ m9avo~.E~va EnaVEKAEYOU~.

A').)..a npoxrop~O'a~E. I1EY un~pXE null AUO'Tl. Eva EUnpEnE~ Kat oiKato Kpa.o~ E~ap.a.at ano Eva EAEYXO~EYO npoijnoAoylO'~o. H E~mmoaUVTl 0'.0 Kpa.o~ npovota~ 9a KAovlt;omv rrv 0 KOO'~O~ apXtsE vn npo~All~a.isE.at yta ro Ka.a zooo ~nopou~E vn .0 av.E~ou~ ~ 0)(1.

AUa EXOU~E KAEiO'Et O'~~Epa au.o .0 9At~EPO KE<paAatO ~~ O'OUllOtK~~ icroptcc; Ei~aO'.E ~ava EAEU9EPOl vn KtVll90u~E npo~ ru E~npo~, npo~ xnrEUeuVO'Et~ nou E~i~ EmAEyOU~.

H ~ll.Epa uou ~ou EOroO'E Kano.E ~ta nOAUn~ll O'U~~OUA~ non toxUEt aKo~ll O'~~Epa: no.E ~llv O'na.aAa~ xp~~am zou OEY EXE~! Au~ II O'U~~OUA~ ~E Ka900~YTlO'E ro~ Y noupyo rrov OtKOVO~tKroV Kat IIproSunoupyo.

I1EY 9EropEhat unEU9uVTl O'.aO'Tl yta Ka~ia KU~EPVTlO'Tl vc au~avEt .0 Oll~OO'to XPEO~, OEY OtKatou.at Ka~ia KU~EPVTlO'Tl vn aVaAa~Et rnv EU9uVTl ~~ OtaKU~EpVTlO'Tl~ ~~ xropa~ Xropi~ rnv 9EAllO'Tl ~ ~ ouva~ll yta .~ anapai~.E~ aUa ouO'apEO'.E~ ano<paO'Et~ zou E~aO'<paAisouv ~troO'l~o~.a ern Oll~OO'la OlKoVO~tKa.

ea unoO'~ptsa on II oucovouiu etvm EUKOAll uv ownE.at ano au~ rnv apX1l. H OUO'KoAia ~piO'KE.at ornv avas~~O'Tl EY.OA~~ ano .0 KOlVO~OUAto Kat ano rov KOO'~O yta rov onoto npEnEt vn yivouv Ot aUayE~.

Ilro.; EnuEux9llKE Aomov II avaKa~~ll .ll~ O'OUllOtK~~

oucovoutoc;

Y napxouv nolli~ E~ll~O'E~. ea nEptypa~ro, EY ouvrouio, KanOlE~ anoau.E~.

ME.a rnv aUa~ .ll~ KU~EPVTl- 0'Tl~, ~.av anapai~.o vc ~aAou~E ru oll~oO'ta OtKOVO~tKa 0'.0 O'roO'.O Spouo ~ yp~yopo Kat ano<paO'lO'nKo rpoao, To Kava~E ~E rnv ~0~9Eta ~~ aU~llO'Tl~ rov qioprov Kat ~~ nEptKO~~ rov oanavrov.

Au.a ru ~.pa anoKa.EO'.llO'av rrtv sumoroouvn rrov ~Evrov, ~0~9llO'av O'~V nEptKOn~ navro ano .0 ~tO'o rev emroidov Kat ornv ota<puAa~ll rou Kpa.au~ npovota~.

rAt.roO'a~ ano rov nAll9roplO'~0 crnv oucovoutu. AKO~ll Kat O'~~Epa 0 nAll9roptO'~0~ etvm xa~llM~-~6At~ 1,6%.

Av.o ro nEruxa~E ~EO'ro rorv ~ovaot~~ unEU9uvo.llm~ non EnEOEt~av Ol EKnpoO'ronot rmv EpyaSo~Evrov EntOtroKov.a~ unEU9uvE~ O'U~~aO'Et~ EpyaO'ia~. Ano .O.E o~ro~, ot ~t0'9ro.oi EXOUV Aa~Et OUO'laO'nKE~ npay~anKE~ aU~~O'Et~, xapll 0'.0 xa~llAo nAll9roptO'~0.

Ev.ax9~Ka~E ornv Euprona'i~ Evoxm, Ei~at EY.EAOO~ nEnEtO'~Evoc on xrop~ ~v KlVTlO'll av.~ OEY 9a EiXE EmKpa.~O'Et .0 ioto KaAO KAi~a oru; EnEYOUO'Et~ Kat rnv napayro~. Ttn ~ta avOlX~ Kat aUyxpoVTl xropa orrv ~v ~oulloia, II Ev.a~~ ~a~ ornv EE ~.av anoAU.ro~ anapai~~.

E<p up uo o uu.e all ~avnKE~ otap9pronKE~ aAAaYE~ crnv OlKOVO~t~ noAm~.

H O'OUllOt~ KEY.pt~ TpanEsa EytVE aVE~ap~~. EtO'ayaya~E ~ta YEa Oll~OO'toVO~t~ nOAm~ ern Oll~OO'la OlKoVO~tKa zou O'u~nEptAa~~avE nAa<pov O'n~ oanavE~ yta noUa xpovta.

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 57

KuptE~ Kat K'6ptot,

EnEAE~a vn napa9EO'ro au.a rn YEyovo.a yta.i apKE.E~ <pOPE~ unoO'.llpisE.at on XroPE~ ~E EK.E.a~EvE~ Oll~OO'lE~ oanavE~, onro~ II ~oulloia, OEY ~nopouv vn Ka.aO'.ouv ano.EAEO'~anKa Kat ~ EntroX11 avanro~ll E9Vll.

00'0 ~aAu.EPll etvm II avaotavo~~ O'E ~ta xowrovtu .00'0 AtyO.EpO, MYE.at, on Ol av9pronOl 9EAOUV vn EnEvouO'oUv ornv EpyaO'ia .ou~. Y noO'~piSE.at on Eva~ sxrsruusvoc Oll~OO'tO~ .0~Ea~ Kat u~Aoi <poPOt napaKroAUOUV ~v npoooo Kat ~v avanro~ll·

Y no O'.llpiSro 0'9Evapa on II avanro~ll O'~V ~oulloia Ka.a n~ .EAEU.aiE~ oEKaE.iE~ anEOEt~E on o O'UUoylO'~O~ au.o~ stvm Aa90~.

Ilnpu rou; U~AOU~ ~a~ <popou~, EXOU~E U~llAo.Epa EninEoa EpyaO'ia~ ano n~ zeptocorepe; aAAE~ XroPE~.

IIapa n~ u~M~ ~a~ Oll~OO'lE~ oanavE~, Eixa~E ~EyaAu.EPll OlKOVO~t~ avanro~ll ru nponyou~EYa 10-12 xpoVla ano .0 ~O'o opo rov xroprov ron OO~A.

IIapa .0 ~YEeO~ rou Oll~oO'iou .0~Ea ~a~, OtaeE.OU~E Eva Suvujnxo Kat EnEK.EtVO~EVO EntXEtPll~anKo .0~Ea zou av.ayroviSE.at Em.uxro~ O'n~ naYKoO'~tE~ ayopE~.

Ka.a rrtv ano~ uou, 0 mo O'Tl~avnKo~ napayov.a~ avanro~ll~ OEY etvm ro U~o~ rov <poprov, aUa 0 rpozo; ~ rov ozoio Em~aAAov.at Kat EtO'npanov.at.

To mo O'Tl~av.tKO npay~a stvm nro~.a EO'ooa xpllO'l~OnOlouv.at.

KuptE~ Kat Knptot,

OAE~ Ol ~to~llxaVtKE~ XroPE~ EntOtroKouv KanolOu Eioou~ KOlVroVt~ nOAm~, unapxouv o~ro~ Ota<popE~ O'n~ nporepmo~.E~ Kat orov ~ae~o <ptAooo~ia~

nou osiXVS1 II Ku9SI·tiu ytu vc rnv UAonOlT)crsl.

Onox; rn ~sx,ropisro syoo, unapx,ouv rptu ~SX,roPlcr'ta K01VroV1Ka 1l0V'tEA.U zou XPllmllonOlouv'tat crT)llspu o rov uvun'tuYIlEvo xoouo:

• 'to qnA.sA.Eu9spo Kat KU'tSUSuVOIlEVO uno rnv uyopa 1l0V'tEAo, 'to onoto O"UVUV'taSl Kuvsic; os x,oopse; onroe; 01 HIlA, 'to Hvmusvo BUcr1A.El0 Kat II Aucr'tpaA.iu.

• To O"UVTIlPllnKO 1l0V'tEA.O, 'to onoio KUP1UPX,Ei crne; x,oopse; TIle; llnslpronKi)e; Eupoo1tlle; onroe; II ruUiu, II I'epucvia Kat II I'tUA.iu Kat'tEAoe;

• 'to YEVlKO xoworvuco 1l0V'tEAo, nou mo SUOlaKP1'tU sKnpocrronsirut uno rnv ~OUlloiu Kat ne; UnOAo11tSe; O"KUV01VU~lKEe; x,OOpse;.

To YEV1KO KOlVroV1KO 1l0V'tEAo - Y1U 'to onoio 9u 1ltA.T)crro crT)JlEpU - EX,Sl 1l1U crSlpa uno 'tUnlKa x,upuKTIlPlcr'tlKa:

Etvm xpoouo os OA.OUe; rou; noA.i'tse;, eivm U'IfTIA.OOv npooluypu<poov KUl nupEx,sl KUA.T) 01KOVOlllKT) KaA.U\jlll o r«; nsp11t'toocrsle; ucr9Evslue;, uvspyiue; T) spyunKou u'tUx'T)llu'toe; EVOO IlSP11lVa ytu roix; llA.1K1roIlEvOUe; KUl ne; OlKOYEvSlEe; ps nUl0la.

Toco 01 u1tllpscriEe; zpovoia; Kat KOlvroV1KT)e; ucr<paA.1crlle; - ooo <lUse; 1l0p<pEe; unocr",p~lle; orn VOlKOKUPla - unsuWvov'tUl crs OA.OUllPO rov nA.ll9ucrll0 Kat 0X,1 1l0VO orou; X,UllllA.OlllO"90ue; Kat oru; mo sunu9sie; 0 llaOse;.

H KOlVrovtKi) Ucr<paA.S1U ~ucriss'tat crnv upxil TIle; «unOOA.E1Ue; rou IllO"90u oou». Au'to cnuotvet on Ilnopsic;, npaYIlUn, vc 01UTllPT)crSle; 'to oucovouuco oon smnsOo o'tuv x,acrsle; TIlV spyucriu oou, upprocr'tT)crsle;, nEcrsle; 9UllU spyunKou U'tUxilIlU'tOe; T) o"uV'tU~loOoTll9sie;.

To YSV1KO 1l0V'tEA.O snicrlle;,

nupEx,sl rnv KUA.u'tSPll UVU01UVO- 1lT) rov zoprov, Ils'tU~u U'IfTIA.Olllcr9rov Kat X,UllllA.Olllcr9rov, uytoov Kat Ucr9EVOOV nOA.l'tOOv, JlE'tu~u mrrdrv nou EX,OUV OOUA.StEe; KUl rov UVEPYroV, JlE'tu~u rov 01U<pOpS'tlKOOV YEVSOOV.

01 01U<pOpEe; ora OlKOVOlllKa sninsou Ils'tu~u trov VOlKOKUPlOOV IlS1OOVOV'tat 0PUIlUnKa O'tUV 0A.Ee; 01 01ucr'tacrsle; 'tlle; KOlvroV1Ki)e; noA.tnKi)e; Kat TIle; <popOA.OYllO"fle; A.UIl~aVOV'tat uno'IfTI. Etvm smO"fle; EvUe; 'tponoe; vn 01UTllPll9si II x,oopu EVroIlEvfl, vn Ils1ro90uv 01 xotvrovtKEe; EV'tacrStc;.

To 1l0V'tEA.O sniO"fle; npoun09E'tsl U\jlllA.T) unucrxOA.llcrll. To vn EX,Stc; noA.u xocuo vn spyaSS'tUl uno'tsA.Ei uKpl~ooe; 'to 9SJlEA.l0 ron YEV1KOU KOlVrovtKOU O"Ucr"'llu'toe; Ilue;.

IIOlU stvm Ao11tOV 'tU npo'tspT)lluru ron YSV1KOU K01VroV1KOU 1l0V'tEA.OU;

eu T)9sA.u vn sn1crllllavro, EV covrouto, KanOlU uno rn onuovrucorepo.

Etvm omoro Kat OiKatO, scooov 01..01 UnOA.UIl~avouv rc xotvorvncc uyu9a, EVOO 'to 1l0V'tEAo ~Oll9aSl ornv uVU01UVOIlT) IlEcrU ornv xowevtc.

Eivm ucr<pUA.Ee; KUl cr'tU9spo, sooo ov cruvsnaYS'tUl roc o 01KUlOOIlU'tU ooo KUl unoxpsoocrstc; Y1U rou; noA.1'tSe;, EVOO nupEx,sl OlKOVOlllKi) npocr'tucriu unEvuv'tl orn unpO~A.sn'tu O"UIl~aV'tU.

IIPOcr'tU'tEUSl rou; 1t10 SUaA.ro'toue;, soooov 'to 1l0V'tEA.O uU'to nupEx,sl nsplcrcrO'tSpoue; nopoue; Y1U UVU01UVOIlT) O"UYKPtnKa Ils rn <lUu 1l0V'tEA.U - ytu 'toue; A.1YO'tSpO sunopoue;, Y1U nupaOS1YIlU.

IISplOpiSSl rnv ypU<pSlOKpunu Kat ne; 'tunslVronKEe; npUKnKEe;, scooov ~ucrisS'tat crs 1l1U noA.u nsptoptousvn XPT)O"fl OOK1IlUcrIlEvrov JlE90orov.

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 58

AU~aVSl TIlV uno'tSA.scrIlUnKOTll'tu TIle; 01KOVOlliue; seooov 0"U1l~<lUst ornv JlEiroO"fl rorv snln'tOOcrsrov 'tlle; nsp19roplOnoillcrlle; KUl nsplOpisSl ne; s1t1n'toocrsle; rou <PUlVOIlEvOU TIle; «OlatoovlO"fle; TIle; <p'toox,Stae;» Y1U rou; X,UllllA.Olllcr90ue;.

ne; ~ocrluA.8lllloKpaTlle;, unoO"'tllpisro on II YEV1Ki) KOlVroV1KT) nOA.l't1KT) crull~aA.A.Sl o mv cr'tu9spoTll'tu KUl rnv O"Uvoxil ornv xowevtc Ilue; Kat on EVlcrxUS1 TIlV U'tOlllKi) SA.EU9spiu Kat UVS~UPTllcriu.

Ynocr'tllpisro snicrlle; on 'to 1l0V'tEA.O uuro oOllyEi o rov SKO"UYXPOVlO"Il0, IlS rsroto 'tpono oocr'ts Ku9lO"'ta rrrv xowovto Ilue; UV01X,'tT) cr't1e; UA.A.UyEe; KUl uno'tsA.Ei 'to KA.EtOi ornv s~EA.l~ll Kat rnv UVan'tU~ll.

Enl'tpE\jI'tS uon vu nupu9Ecrro KanOlU nupuosiYIlU'tU Y1U rnv ~OUlloiu:

01 Ollllocrlse; snsvoucrSle; os nUl01KOUe; cr'tu91l0ue; OEV yivov'tat 1l0VO ytu VU Snl'tpE\jIOUV ore nUtOla vn ~SK1vi)crouv uno 1l1U crrocr." u<pSTIlPiu ornv sroT) roix, uUa yiVOV'tat sniO"fle; npOKS1JlEvou vn o09si II OUVU'tO'tll'tU Kat croix 0'60 yovEie; vn unucrx,OA.ll- 90uv os 1l1cr9ro." spyucriu.

EWEU uno rn OEKU natOla ornv ~OUlloiu ~piO"Kov'tat os ollllomou; nut01KoUe; cr'tu91l0ue;. Au'to O"fllluivSl on EX,OUJlE sniO"fle; EvU uno rc U'IfTIA.O'tspu nUYKocrlliroe; sninsou unucrx,OA.ll crll e; rrov YUVatKOOV.

AU'to eivm O"fllluvnKo ytu TIlv oucovouucf UVan'tU~ll. Kat stvm Kan Y1U 'to onoio sillucr'tS nspT)<puVOl.

AvnA.UIl~aVOIlUl ne; ollllomSe; snEVO'6crsle; ornv sKnuiosuO"fl roe; 1l1U KOlVroV1KT) snEvoucrll zou snl'tpEnsl orov snlx,slPllllunKo 'tOIlEU vu npocrA.UIl~aVSl KU't<lUllA.U S101KSU IlEvO npocrro1t1KO.

~rH.l10UPYIlo"(lf..lE Ka'ta rc 'tEAEU'taia 10 xpovta navro ano 100.000 VEE~ SEcrE~ ern KoMyta Kat ru naVE1ttcr'titf..lta TIl~ l:ou118ia~. Ot crOU1180i cpotTll'tE~ 8EY nA11ProVOUV 8i8aK'tpa. To crucrTllf..la EYicrXUO"ll~ rorv crnou8rov eivm YEVVat08ropo. o cr'toxo~ f..la~ stvm Eva~ f..laS11't"ft~ crou; 8'60 vn nEpacrEt crnv avro'ta't11 EKnai8EUO"ll.

H l:ou118ia stvm f..lta ano n~ AiYE~ XroPE~ orov xoouo, f..la~i f..lE 'to lcrpaitA zou EnEY8'6Et O"'t11v EpEUva - cruvoAtKa EnEY8uEt mrvm ano 'to 4%'touAEIITIl~·

AUa 11 avro'ta't11 EKnaWEUO"ll Sa nEWXEt rov cr'toxo TIl~ f..lOVO av 8taSE'toUf..lE EnapKit flaSf..lo 8topa'ttKOTll'ta~ romE va Ka't"UAaBouua on 11 Enof..lEv11 YEVta EPEUV11'trov stvm 'ta nawta non critf..lEpa flpicrKov'tat oro 811f..lOnKO it aKOf..la KaAu'tEpa oro V11ntayroyEio.

Min xropa nou ava~11'tEi rov EKcrUYXPOVtcrf..l0 npEnEt vu EnEY8ucrEt os aU't"E~ 't~ VEaPE~ 11AtKiE~.

Ilox; aUtro~ va otK080f..litcrEt f..lta tKavit xpioum f..la~a yta rnv aVa1t't"U~11 Kat rnv notOTll'ta TIl~ EpEuva~ Kat 't11~ avro'ta't11~ EKnaWEUO"ll~; Ilox; vn 811f..ltOUPyftcrEt onppon qiorrnrdrv npo~ ru naVE1ttcr'titf..lta;

E1ttnMov, ot 811f..lOcrtE~ EnEY8ucrE~ oe nOAt'ttKE~ nou uoopouv ornv ayopa Epyacria~ napEXouv ru anapah11'ta f..lEcra orouq aVEpyou~ romE vn f..lnopouv va av'tayrovtorouv yta 't~ VEE~ SEcrEt~ Epyacria~ Eni Ioou; opou; f..lE onotav8itno'tE liUo.

Ooo KaAu'tEpa EK1tat8EUOV'tat ot aVEpyot'tocro EUKoM'tEpa Sa efvm yta 'tOU~ Epyo86'tE~ va npocrAaBouv Ka'taU11Aa E~EWtKEUf.!EvO npocrro1ttKO.

Au'to ano'tEAEi f..lta oucrtro811 npOUnOSEO"ll yta rnv 8ta'titP110"ll 'tOU nA11Sroptcrf..l0U oe xaf..l11Aa

EninE8a.

Ot 811f..lOcrtE~ EnEv8ucrEt~ oro crucrTllf..la KotVroVtKi}~ acrcpaAtO"ll~, onro~ n.x. KaAou Ent1tE80u anO~11f..ltrocrEt~ crn~ nEpt1t't"rocrE~ aVEpyia~ it acrSEvEta~, xrrvet 'tOU~ avSpronou~ va VlroSOUV acrcpaAE~ ern f..lEcr11 f..lta~ aAAayit~ Kat f..lnopouv vn ano'tEMcrouv f..lta YEcpupa f..lE't"U~u ron naAtou xm rou VEOU.

H npovota yiVE'tat E't"O"t 811f..ltoUPyt-

Ki}.

Av 0 xoouo; VlroSEt avacrcpaAEta, 8EY Sa SEAEt vn EnEY8ucrEt crE npaYf..la'ta nou nporoSouv rnv avan't"U~11 f..laKpOnpoSEcrf..la - va aUa~Et spjuoto, va ~EKtvitcrEt f..lta a'tOf..ltKi} EntXEip11O"ll, vn f..lE'taKoutoet os YEO crnin it aKOf..la Kat va CPEPEt Eva YEO nat8i oro xoouo.

l:itf..lEpa, etvct napa noUoi ot Eupronaiot nou flMnouv 'to aupto ro~ anEtAit. Au't"ft stvm icrro~ 11 f..lEYaAU'tEP11 8tacpopa f..lE'ta~u TI1~ Eupron11~ Kat 'trov tcrxuprov ava8uof..lEYrovayoprov.

Av 0 KOcrf..lO~ flMnEt 'to aupto onv f..lta anEtAit, Sa yupicrEt TI1v nAaTl1 rou oro f..lEUov.

H 811f..locrta npovotn uvnnpocrronEuEt rnv acrcpaAEta zou anat'tEhat yta vn yiVEt an08EK't"ft 11 aUayft.

AUa 11 811f..locrta zpovotc roorooo, 8EY sivm 8ropEav. ~EY unapxouv 8roPEav xotvorvucd 8tKatrof..la'ta - onot08itno'tE xowevuco f..loV't"EAo Kat av EntAEYEi.

Ynapxouv AOt1tOV 8tacpopa f..lov'tEAa xp11f..la'to86't11cr11~ rrov xotvrovucdrv cuomunrorv cr't"t~ 8tacpopE~ XroPE~.

Kanota f..lov'tEAa flacri~ov'tat Ka'ta K'6pto Myo oro av'ti'ttf..lo zou 8ivE'tat yta 't"U 8tacpopa xotvrovucn ayaSa. Exouv Of..lro~ f..lta flaSta 8tacrnacrnKi} Eni8paO"ll ECPOcrOV 11 npocrflacr11 't"OU xoouou cr'ta KotvroVlKa ayaSa E~ap'ta't"Ut ano

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 59

TI1v 8uva'toTl1'ta rou; vn nA11prooouv,

Y napxouv EniO"ll~ liUa f..lov'tEAa non nEptAaf..lflavouv Eva f..lEi~ov cr'totXEio acrcpaAEta~ nou cruV8EE'tat f..lE'tOV Epy080Tl1.

To npOflA11f..la E8ro stvm on 0 KOcrf..lO~ non yta 8tacpopou~ Myou~ EiVat EK'tO~ ayopa~ Epyacria~ 8EY KaAUn'tE'tat nAitpro~.

To crou118tKO f..lOV'tEAo XP11f..la'toSotsitm KUpiro~ ano rou; oopoxoyOUf..lEYou~.

H anocpacr11 aU'tit eivm aKpro~ WEOAoytKi}.

Eva xotvorvtxo crucr't11f..la nou XP11f..la't080'tEhat ano TI1v cpopoAoyia flacr~E'tat crnv nEnoi911O"ll on Kanota xowervucd ayaSa stvm rooo O"llf..lav't"tKa yta rov KOcrf..lO non npEnEt vn UV't"tf..lE'tron~ov'tat ro~ KotvroVtKa ayaSa. ea npEnEt va npocrcpEpOV't"at f..lE flaO"ll TI1v ava'YK11 Kat oX1 TI1V 1KaV0Tl1'ta nA11prof..lit~ 'tou~. ea npEnEt va stvm xpoonu yta 6Aou~ Kat oxt f..lOVO yta KanOtoU~.

Av av't"tKa'tacr'titcrouf..lE roue oopou; f..lE aAAE~ EntAoYE~ xp11f..la'to86't11cr11~, ntSavov vn 80uf..lE 'to xowevuco f..lOV'tEAo va aAAa~Et xapaK'titpa Kat vn f..lE't"U'tpEnE'tat os Eva ano aU'ta 't"U AtyO'tEpo cptA68o~a xotvorvucd f..loV't"EAa.

ncr'tocro, 11 K'6pta 8tacpopa f..lE'ta~u TI1~ cpopoAoyia~ Kat rorv aAAroV 'tponrov xp11f..la'to86't11cr11~ 't11~ xpovoue; stvm 11 ava8taVEf..l11nKi} Eni8paO"ll rov ooporv.

OAOt nA11ProvOUf..lE cpopou~ aVE~ap't"ft'tro~ ron nocrE~ xotvrovtKE~ U1t11PEcriE~ XP11crtf..lonotouf..lE npocrro1ttKa. Ka'ta cruvEnEta Eva xoworvnco crucrTllf..la nou flacri~E'tat crnv cpopoAoyia 0811yEi crnv ava8tavof..lit f..lE'ta~u rorv 8tacpopov 0f..l6;()rov ron nA11Sucrf..l0u.

To va nA11provEt~ 'to cvrtnuo yta KaSE KOlVroVtKO ayaSo 8EV

cru~~WJ..sl Ka'ta rov ioto rporro crnv E~icrcoO"11. H xpll~a'to06TllO"11 ~ecrco 101CO'tlKit ~ acr<paAEla~ YEV1KW~ aU~aVEl 't~ O1KovO~lKe~ Kat K01vCOVlKe~ avlcrOTll'tE~.

A)..)"a 01 <pop01npenEl, ~E~aico~ vn etvm crXEolacr~ev01 ~E 'te'toto rpoao Wcr'tE vc rovevoov rnv Epyacria Kat TllV napaycoyft.

Au'to lcrxUE1 tOlat'tepco~ os evav naYKocr~ton0111~evo KOcr~O onou o crXEolacr~o~ ron Ka9E a'tO~lKOU oopou ~nopEi vn eXE1 9EnKe~ Kat apVll'tlKe~ cruvenE1E~ o rnv O1KOVO~lKft avan'tU~l1.

~TllV ~oulloia KavOU~E cruVEXE~ aAAaye~ oro <P0POAOY1KO ~a~ crUO"'t11~a - aUa xcopi~ va anoouva~wcrou~E 'to cruVOA1KO <popoAoY1KO Elcrooll~a nou sivm anapairnro yta rnv unocr'titp~l1 rou KOlVCOVlKOU ~a~ crucr'tit~a'to~.

II01E~ efvm Aotnov O1npouitcrEl~ Yla 'to ~eUov rou crucr'tit~a'to~ ~a~;

Kan0101 AevE OnllnaYKocr~tonoi- 110"11 9a E~nooicrEl Tllv ~oulloia vn aKoAou9itcrEl n~ xoworvucs; Tll~ Enlolw~El~. ea anav'toucra os au'tou~ on 01 xoworvucs; ~a~ E1t101W~E~ stvm 11 anavTllcrll orov crll~EP1VO naYKocr~ton0111~evo KOcr~O.

Ynapxouv mo-ro c o ~aupa crUwE<pa orov opisov'ta.

ea ava<pEp9w EV ouvrouln crE 'tPE~ npouitcrE~, non lcrxUOUV yta oAa ru KOlVCOVlKa ~ov'teAa, aUa icrco~ xapaK'tllpisOUV ~E mo EUOlaKP1't0 'tpono 'to YEV1KO K01VCOVlKO ~ov'teAo Tll~ ~oulloia~:

Ilpdrrov Kat O"11~avnKO'tEPO, ~la ano n~ ~EyaAU'tEPE~ anEtAe~ yta eva ano'tEAEcr~anKo ~ov'teAo eivut 11 anoouva~cocrll rrov ol1~ocricov 01KOVO~lKWV. To eUE1~~a otn 011~00"la O1KOVO~lKa eXE1 co~ ano'teAEcr~a 11 xpll~a'to06TllO"11 rov opacrTllPto'tit'tcov rou 011~00"l0U 'to~ea vn yiVE'tat ~E OavElcr~O.

Orov eva 61..0 Kat au~avo~o nocro 'tcov EcrOOCOV 'tcov <popcov xpllO"l~ono1Ei'tat yta vn KaAu<p9Ei 'to eAAE1~~a au'to, rors rprotomrn rou Kpa'tOU~ xpovoic; naOXE1. H 011~00"la unocr't'ftPl~l1 oro Kpa'tO~ npov01a~ <p9ivEl - Kat Ka'ta riPl0 Myo EK ~epou~ rov 1t10 eUnopcov o~aocov.

K1VOUVEUOU~E e'tO"l O~CO~ vn Ka'taAit~ou~E crE ~la Ka'tacr'taO"11 onou EK'tE'ta~E~ <POPOAOY1Ke~ ~E1WcrEl~ anat'touv'tal co~ av'taAAay~a yta 101conKe~ xotvorvuce; McrEl~.

ea OOU~E rots ~la «EnavamaO"11 rov nAoucricov» Ka'ta ron YEVlKOU K01VCOV1KOU ~ov'teAou. Tu AlyO'tEPO Eunopa ~eAll 'tll~ xotvrovtuc 9a uz o o ep ouv zspuroorepo ano ~la 'te'tota E~eA~l1·

Ttn amo rov Myo, sivm O"11~avnxo on ~la av001Kft nopsic Tll~ oucovoutcc 9a napaYEl eva EninEoo oanavwv zou OEV 9a ~nopEi vn 01a'tllP119Ei Ka'ta TllV U<PEO"11.

IIpenEl vn Ei~acr'tE nav'ta npOE't01- ~acr~evot vu Elcrnpa't'tou~ roix; eopou; zou anat'touv'tat Wcr'tE vc xpll~a'tOoo't119Ei 11 <plA60o~l1 KOlVCOVlKft ~a~ noAmKft. Kat yta amo rov AOYo, npenEl navco an' oAa vn 009Ei npo'tEpatOTll'ta orov aywva Yla U'l'l1Aa nocrocr'ta anacrxoAllO"11~·

Ka9E unEu9uvll Ku~epvllcrll npenEl vn 01aTllPEi eva av01X'to 01aAoyo ~ roix; nOAi'tE~ Tll~ navco oe au'to 'to sit'tll~a. Tt ~nopou~E vn Ka'ta<pepou~E vn E<pap~ocrou~E Ka'ta Tllv 911'tEia au'tit; Ilooo ~aKPla ~nopou~ vn na~; Ilox; EntAeyou~E n~ npo'tEPato'tll'te~ ~a~;

H anpocrEK'tll 01aXEiplcrll rorv 011~OcrlCOV 01KOVO~lKWV unoVO~UEl ra 9E~eAla Tll~ K01VCOV1- Kft~ noAmKft~·

deU'tEPOV, ~la aUll npOUllO"11

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 60

non avn~E'tconiSouv tn K01VCOV1Ka crucr'tit~a'ta sivm 11 npocrAll'1'11 ~la~ vea~ YEVla~ anacrxoAOu~EVcov orov K01VCOV1KO 'to~a.

~n~ nEplcrcrO'tEPE~ XWPE~, 01 yuvaiKE~ KUplapxouv oro EpyanKo ouva~lKO ttov oxoAEicov, Tll~ uyEia~ xnt rmv K01VCOV1KWV U1t11PEO"lWV. Tnv iOta crny~it - Kat icrco~ yt' rmrov aKpl~w~ rov Myo - 01 ~lcr90i rou 011~ocriou etvm xa~l1M'tEp01 ano au'tou~ ron t01CO'tlKOU 'to~a.

Au'tO stvm npo~All~a crit~Epa - xut 9a e ivut eva uxcuu ~yaAu'tEpo npo~All~a aUplo.

Av 01 O"11~EplVe~ YEVEe~ am9avovrm on 11 Epyacria oro ol1~ocrto OEV uvrunoxptvsrm crn~ anat'tOU~E~ npoun0gecrEl~, rots 9a yupicrouv rnv nAa'tll rou; os au'te~.

Kat nv 'to 011~00"l0 cvnuenontost oucrKoAiE~ cr'tl~ npocrAit'l'El~ ucovdrv mEAEXwv, 'to'tE lln01OTll'ta rrov K01VCOV1KWV unllPEcrlWV ~aKponp09Ecr~a 9a anEtA119Ei - Kat ~asi ~E au'tit, 'ta 01KatW~a'ta trov nOAl'twv Yla n01o'tlKft natOEia, uYEia Kat K01VCOVlKe~ u1t11pEcriE~.

Y napxouv Kanota ge~a'ta zou npenEl vn avn~E'tconicrou~E orov 'to~ea au'to.

Ano Tllv nAEupa Tll~ ~oulloia~, Eival ~EKa9apo ott 0 ol1~Ocrto~ 'to~ea~ anO'tEAEi 'to Ka'tw<pAl ~la~ aUayft~ YEVEWV. 0 ~ecro~ opoc llA1Kia~ 'tCOV 0"11~EP1VWV unaUitACOV Eivat crXEnKa 'I'11M~. Aoyco llA1Kia~, noUoi ano mrrot 9a exouv cr'ta~a'titcrEl vn EpyaSOV'tat ~XPl 'to 2020.

Ttn rov Myo au'to, etvm sconKft~ crll~acria~ vn 011~lOUPY1190uv EUvo'iKe~ cruV9itKE~ Epyacria~ oro ol1~ocrto rouse,

Amo 011~10UpyEi anat'titcrEl~ Yla n~ i01E~ gecrEl~ Epyacria~ - vn etvat acr<paAEi~ Kat nAitpou~ anacrxoAll- 0"11~.

~111 . .l10UpYEi ana1nlO'E1e; Y1a 'to nEp1EXOflEYO 'tlle; EpyaO'iae; - 01 Epya~oflEv01 Sa npEnE1 vn Epya~ov'ta1 O'E evav EY81acpEpov'ta xmpo EpyaO'iae; nou vn roix; napaK1vEi Kat Sa rou; En1'tpEnE1 vn E1tTJpEaO'ouv 'to EpyaO'1aKO rou; nEp1~aUov .

~l1fl10UPYEi anatnlO'Etc; yta 'ttc; O'UVSitKEe; Epyacriae; - 01 avSpron01 Sa npEnE1 va flnopouv vn ~OUV ano rou; fl10'SOUe; rou; Ka10X1 va efvm aVaYKaO'flEv01 vn EXOUV fl1a O'E1pa ano EpyaO'iEe; npoxeuisvou va flnOpEO'OuV vn aV'tEnE~EASoUV oru; npoO'romKEe; roi»; aVaYKEe; Kat O'E au'tEe; 'tTJe; O1KoyevE1ae; roix.

Av 11 xowovte 8EY Ka'tacpEpE1 va npoO'cpEpE1 orou; VEOUe; 181at'tEproe; KaMe; O'UVSitKEe; EpyaO'iae;, Sa apvllSouV vn spjuoroov oro 811flOO'lO'tOflEa.

AUTO Sa it'tav fl1a apvllnKit E~EA1~11 Y1a KaSE xmpa nou ayrovi~E'ta1 va anoK'titO'E1 eva K01VroVlKO Kpa'tOe; O'Kav8lVa~lKou wnou.

Tptm Kat 'tEAEu'taia 11811floypacp1- Kit npOUllO'TJ·

o npoO'MKlflOe; xpovoe; ~roite; orov aVEn'tUyflEvo KOO'flO Sa O'UVExtO'E1 vn au~avE'ta1.

To YEyovoe; on nE'tuxaflE vn opyavmO'ouflE ne; xotvrovie; flae; mO''tE va flnopouv va ~itO'ouv nEp10'0'0'tEPO, ano'tEAEi Spiafl~o Y1a'tTJVavSprono'tTJ'ta.

Au'to ano flOVO rou 8EY ano'tEAEi npo~Allfla ocov acpopa rnv XPllfla'toM'tTJO'l1 rou K01VroV1KOU flae; O'UO''titfla'toe; oro flEUOV. 01 flEUovnKEe; YEVlEe; llA1K1roflEvrov Sa stvm mo UytEtc; ano ne; O'TJflEp1- VEe;.

O'tav avacpEpoflaO''tE 0''tTJ 811flOypacp1Kit npOUllO'TJ yta 'to Kpa'tOe; npov01ae;, sivm 0 ap1SflOe; rorv llA1KlroflEvrov O'E KaSE 8E80flEvTJ O'nYflit nou ano'tEAEi rnv npoull- 0'11·

Ano 'to 2010 Ka1 KUpiroe; ano 'to 2020 Kat flE'ta Sa npaYfla'ton0111- Souv OUO'1aO''t1KEe; aUaYEe; O"tTJv llA1aKit crUVSEO'TJ ron nAllSuO'flOU't00'0 O''tTJv ~ou118ia 00'0 Ka1 O'E <lUEe; ~10flllxaVlKEe; xmpEe;.

MOA1e; 11 YEY1a rou '40 anatnlO'E1 cpPov'ti8a Ka1 11 YEY1a rou '60 O'Uv'ta~1080'tTJSEi, roea 11 crUVSEO'TJ ron nAllSuO'flOU Sa aPxtO'E1 vn ueicrenn O'TJflaVnKEe; aUayEe;.

TO'tE eivm nou 11 811floypacp1Kit mEO'TJ O''tTJv oucovoulc Sa apxiO'E1 va yivE'ta1npaYflanKa atO'Sl1nl.

ME aAAa AOyta, A1yO'tEp01 cpoPOAOYOUflEY01 Sa npEnE1 va O''tllpi~ouv Evav au~avOflEvo nAllSuO'flO O'UV'ta~lOUXroV, EYm O'Uyxpovroe; Sa au~avov'ta1 Ka1 rn ~apll O'UVnlPllO'TJe; rou EYEPYOU nAl19uO'floU.

H E~EA~l1 aUnl anoK'ta 181ai'tEpa O'o~apo xapaK'titpa ano 'to YEYOVOe; on 0 xpovoe; EpyaO'iae; o up p ucv o ve r u i OAO Ka1 nEp10'0'0'tEPO - VE01 avSpron01 flnaivouv O''tTJv ayopa EpyaO'iae; OAO Kat apYO'tEpa, Kat nOAAoi stvm miroi zou EYKa'taAEinouv nporopa rnv EpyaO'ia roix, yta napa8E1Yfla flEO'ro rou O'Ucrnlfla'tOe; nporoPlle; O'UV'ta~lOM'tTJO'TJe;.

o EYKa1pOe; npoypaflflanO'flOe; anevavn O''tTJv E~EA1~11 aUnl efvm anoAU'troe; anapai'tll'tOe; yta 'tTJv XPllfla'toM'tTJO'l1 'tTJe; xoworvuoj; nOAmKite; O''tO flEAAoV.

~'to nAaiO'1o au'to, 0 KaSevae; zou En1Su flEi va 81acpuAa~E1 'to 811flOO'lO O'UO''tllfla xpovotuc npEnE1 va EpyamEi O'E fl1a O'E1pa 81acpopE't1Ka EmnE8a.

IIpEnE1 va EpyamouflE flE O''t0XO rnv rovoon 'tTJe; avan'tU~l1e; Kat vn 811fllOUPyitO'OUflE nEp10'0'0'tEpEe; SEO'E1e; EpyaO'iae; mO''tE va aU~l1SEi o ap1SflOe; trov CPOP0A,oyOuflEvroV.

IIpEnE1 va 81aO'cpaAiO'oUflE 0't1 01 SEO'E1e; Epyacriae; 't00'0 0''t0 811flO- 0'10 00'0 Kat orov w1ronKo 'to flEa Sa eivm zpooupuoopsve; Ka'ta

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 61

'tE'tOlO 'tpono nou vn Enl'tpEnOUV croix; mo llA1KlroflEvOUe; unaUitAOUe; vn Epyamouv aKoflll Aiya xpov1a.

IIpEnE1 vn O'uvEXiO'ouflE rrtv avan'tU~l1 rorv Spcornpionrnov rou 811flOO'iou Ka'ta 'tE't010 'tpono mO''tE 01 CPOP01 vn XPllO'1flOn010Uv'tat flE an080't1KO Kat anO'tEAEO'flanKO'tpOno.

IIpEnE1 va 811fllOUPyitO'OUflE ~lmO'1fla O'Uv'ta~1080nKa O'Ucrnlfla'ta zou va npoO'apflo~ov'tat KaAu'tEpa crnv oucovouucn avan'tU~l1·

IIpEnE1 vn npoO''ta'tE'I'OUflE ru; EUpU'tEpEe; CPOpOAOytKEe; ~aO'E1e; Kat va avanro~ouflE eva CPOpOAOytKO crUO''tTJfla zou va Eyyua'ta10't1 11 flEUovnKit XPllfla'toM'tTJO'l1 rou K01VroV1KOU O'UO'nlfla'tOe; E~aO'cpaA~E'tat.

KUp1Ee; Ka1 K'6P101,

To KOlVroV1KO flOV'tEAO O'Ufl~<lUE1, Ka'ta flEYaAO flEpOe;, O''tll 81afloPCProO'l1 fl1ae; O'UYXPOVlle; xotvorvtac, aAAa 11 crUYXPOVll xowevtc xapaK'tTJpi~E'tat EniO'TJe; ano ne; EnMYEe; non yivov'ta1.

01 811fl0O'1Ee; EnEY8uO'E1e; orov 'to flEa 'tTJe; naw1Kite; flEp1flvae; Kat O''ttc; npOO'j(OA1KEe; un080flEe; 8EY ~011S0UV O'E 'tino'ta anoAU'troe; av 8EY unapXE1 0''t0 flEUOV KaSapo o~uyovo yta va avawEUO'OUV 'ta naW1a flae;.

Ornv Eytva IIproSunoupyoe; rou 1996, SEO'aflE roe; O''t0Xo O'ne; npoypaflflanKEe; flae; 811A.ffiO'E1e; rnv npOmSllO'TJ EYOe; Ilpuotvou K01VroV1KOU Kpnrouc.

IIP1V ano 12 XPov1a O'XEMv KavEvae; 8EY O'U~l1'tOUO'E roue Klv8uvoue; non uvnapootonsoe yta 'to nEp1~aAAov 11 unEpSEPflavO'TJ rou nAavTt'tllnou EiXE ~EKlvitO'E1. ~itflEpa 01 u1flanKEe; aUaYEe; ano'tEAouV iO'roe; 'tTJv flEYaAU'tEPll anEtAit yta 'tll ~roit flae;.

Ttn ~a 'to 9E~a rou nEPt~aA.A.oV'tO~ stvm npona an' oAa 9E~a TJ9tKO.

Kotvn ~a~ anocr'toAi) stvm vn npocr'ta'tE'I'ou~E rov nAavit't"TJ Kat va 'tov a~i)crou~E crE KaAu'tEPTJ Ka'tacr'taO"TJ ano aU'ti) nou rov UTJpovo~i)cra~. Ta nailita ~a~ Kat 'ta f:'{Yovta ~a~ 9a ~a~ 9EOOpi)oonv unEU9uvou~ yt' au'to.

~'t"TJ ~ouTJoia, TJ npooTJv ~ocrtaAOTJ~oKpanKi) KU~EPVTJO"TJ EiXE 9EcrEt oo~ cr'toxo vu anooEcr~EU'tEi TJ xoopa ~a~ ano 't"TJV aVaYKTJ yta nE'tpEAato EOO~ 'to 2020. Au'to ano'tEAEi ~ta ~tA600~TJ npouTJO"TJ, EtOtKo'tEpa orov 'to~Ea rcrv ~E'ta~opoov, stvm nav'too~ Kan E~tK'tO.

H ~EUOV'ttKi) cr'tpa't"TJytKi) yta 't"TJV EVEpYEta npEnEt vn ~acrisE'tat os Ka9apE~ Kat avavEoocrt~~ 1tTJYE~ EVEpYEta~. To ~tOAoytKa KaUcrt~a - TJ a~tonoiTJO"TJ 't"TJ~ croOta~ non oou ano~EpouV rn K't"i)~a'ta Kat rn MO"TJ oou, ano'tEAEi O"TJ~avnKo 't~i)~a 'tTJ~ AUO"TJ~ oro EVEpYEtaKO npo~ATJ~a nou 9a avn~'toonicrEt TJ nEptoxil ~a~ oro ~EUOV.

~i)~Epa ~AEnou~E nOAAou~ oi)~ou~ 'tTJ~ ~ouTJoia~ va EnEVOuouV o e EpYOcr'tacrta Biousptou npOKEt~EVOU vn Evtcrx6crouv 'to OTJ~ocrtO crUcr't"TJ~a ~E'ta~opoov ~E Kaucrt~a Kat EVEpYEta. BASnou~E aypO'tE~ non nooAouv rnv croOta rou; yta rnv OTJ~toupyia xuuotuorv nvrf rpootprov,

Au't"i) efvm TJ Ka'tEUSuVO"TJ non npEnEt vn aKoAou9i)crEt ~ta xoopa nAoucrta oe aypou~ Kat oacrTJ.

AUa unapXEt Kat auo~ Eva~ 't"O~Ea~ Ka9apoov Kat cvevsdxnurov nTJYoov EVEpYEta~ nou npocr~EpEt ~EyaAE~ EUKatpiE~ rooo ornv ~ouTJoia ooo Kat O"'t"TJV EAAaoa: ava~EpO~at cr'tTJV atOAtKi) EVEpYEta.

Ent'tpE'I''tE uou vn ooocroo utn tcr'toptKi) npoonnKi) oro 9E~a. To 1850 - nptv OTJAaoi) ano

svnutcn atoova uni)pxav nEpinou 500.000 aVE~o~uAOt orqv EupoonTJ. ~i)~Epa 0 iOto~ apt9~0~ unEpcruyxpovoov cr'tae~oov napayooyi)~ atoAtKi)~ EVEpYEta~ ea EnE'tpEnE napayroyi) avtimotX'l ~ 't"TJv E't"i)crta cruVOAtKi) si)'tTJ crTJ EVEpYEta~ crnv EupoonTJ·

Ioox; vn ~TJv ~'tacrOU~E ~XPt EKEi, aAAa ~aivE'tat on unapxouv 'tEpacrnE~ ouva'to'tTJ'tE~ ornv atOAtKi) EVEpYEta.

Ei~at xapou~o~ non ~ASnoo rnv EUaoa vn EnEVOuEt os au't"i) 't"TJv ~op~i) oo~ AUO"TJ yta n~ ~EUovnKE~ EVEpYEtaKE~ 't"TJ~ aVayKE~ - au't"i) Eivat TJ croocr't"i) Ka'tEuSuVO"TJ non npEnEt vn aKoAOUeTJeEi.

KuptE~ Kat riptot,

Ot EnEVoucrE~ zou EytVav cr't"TJ ~ouTJoia Ka'ta 'ta OEKa 'tEAEUmia x,povta crE AUcrEt~ ~tAtKE~ npo~ 'to nEpt~auov 'toopa apx,isouv vc ano~Epouv Kapnou~.

Bptoxoucors oro ~'tai~to ~ta~ O"TJ~avnKi)~ E~EAt~TJ~·

Min ano 't~ nOAAE~ EntXEtpi)crE~ crnv ~ouTJoia nou ano'tEAouv E1tt't"UX'l~EvO napaOEty~a a~tonoiTJO"TJ~ 'tE'totOOV ~op~oov EVEpyEta~ etvat TJ E'tatpEia «Deltawind», Ilpoxsnrn yta ~ta erntpefn nou 'to 2006 EAa~E ~ta napaYYEAia ano 't"TJv Kiva yta Ka'tacrKEui) EyKamcr'tacrEOOV atoAtKi)~ EVEpYEta~ U'l'OU~ 30 EK. EUPOO nspbrou,

~i)~pa au't"i) TJ ermpeic EUTJ~EPEi, npoccspst npocrneE~EVTJ a~ia oru; nayKocr~tE~ npocrnaeEtE~ zou yivov'tat yta 't"TJV cvnrpom] rrov Ut~anKoov aUayoov, OTJ~toupYEi eEcrEt~ Epyacria~ Kat Etcrooi)~a'ta.

NEE~ ~tAtKE~ npo~ 'to nEpt~auov 'tEXVoAoyiE~, EnEVoucrEt~, avan't"U~TJ, eEcrEt~ Epyacria~ - oAa aU'ta etvm 't~i)~a ~ta cruYXPOVTJ~ Kotvoovia~ Kat EVO~ crUyxpovou rpozou crKE'I'TJ~.

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 62

AUa OEV npocr~Epov'tat OOOPEav! H E~nEtpia uou ASEt, on TJ ayopa OEV EntAUEt ano ~OVTJ 'tTJ~ au'to 'to npo~ATJ~a.

Anat'tEhat ~ta nOAtnKi) TJYEcria - non E1tteU~Ei vc XPTJcrt~onotEi cruyxpovoo~ oo~ EpyaAEia 'tTJ ~opoAoyia Kat n~ E1ttOO't"i)crEt~ - oocr'tE vn aUa~Et rnv voorponic rrov EntXEtpi)crEOOV Kat rcu KOcr~OU.

Aa c t r o uv r u t OTJ~OcrtE~ EnEvoucrEt~ Kat vououectc.

Aamroovrm aVE~aP't"TJ'tE~ apXE~ non ea EASYXOUV on Ot cr'tOXOt rov EnEVoucrEoov Kat 't"TJ~ vo~09Ecria~ uAonotouv'tat.

EAnisoo, TJ ~ouTJoia ~ rnv vEa KU~EPVTJcri) 't"TJ~ vn cruVEx,icrEt vc EnEVOUEt crE ~tAtKE~ npo~ 'to nEpt~auov AucrEt~. 0 'to~Ea~ au'to~ efvm i)OTJ Eva~ ano roi»; 'taxu'tEpa avan'tucrcro~Evou~ E~ayooytKou~ 'to~i~.

KuptE~ Kat Knptot,

H OTJ~ocrta KotVOOVtKi) nOAtnKi) - i) 'to ~OUTJOtKO ~ov'tEAo, nv npOn~a'tE - E~aKoAoueEi va sivm crUrx,povo Kat cr'tpa~~Evo npo~ 'to ~Uov.

Env eEAou~E 0 KOcr~O~ vn evorepvioret 'to KatvOupyto ~E EVeOucrtacr~o, EaV eEAoU~ vn ~a~ ooeEi TJ EUKatpia, aKo~a Kat oruv ot nteaVO't"TJ'tE~ stvm nsptoptcr~EvE~, 'to'tE TJ KOtVOOVtKi) acr~aAEta eivm SOO'ttKi)~ O"TJ~acria~.

Env eEAoU~ 0 KOcr~O~ vn ~TJv ~o~a'tat 'to ~A.A.oV, 'to'tE Eva EK1tatOEUnKo crUcr't"TJ~a avotX'tO crE OAou~ sivm 0 opo~o~ nou npEnEt vc aKoAouei)crou~E.

To crOUTJOtKO ~ov'tEAo ~a~ OiVEt't"TJ ouva~TJ vn 'I'a~OU~E yta VEE~ EntAoYE~ zou ea evorepviorooue.

I't' au'to eEOOpEhat cruyx,povo.

EuXaptcr'tOO KUpiE~ Kat riptot!

CDAKEAOI: VriEINH ZCH KAI TA OPIA THI EAEV0EPIAI

H APXH THI EnlEIKEIAI KAI TA OPIA THI KANONIITIKHI PV0MIIHI

H

E1t1EiKEtm; Ka'ta TIl m>YKPO't'l1CIT] , . .ltm; KUVOvtO''tuCrle; pUSJ..LtCIT]e; i] 'to O'X'lJ..Lu'ttO'J..LO J..LtUe; noA.t'ttKije; SECIT]e; m>vtO''ta J..LEi/;ovu npotepmomm 't'I1e; uuO'tKije; EA.A.TtVtKije; <ptA.oO'o<piue; uA.A.a KUt 'tTte; VEO'tEPTte; OtU<pro'ttO''ttKi] e; <ptA.OO'O<ptKi] e; nupaOOCIT]e;. Ilopon Tt <ptA.oO'o<ptKij UUTrl upm EXEt KUpiroe; roe; f3aCIT] 't'I1e; 'to O"XE'ttKtO'J..LO, 't'I1v avuyvooptO'Tt OTtA.uoi] on Evu <ptA.OO'O<ptKO i] nOA.t'ttKo crUO''tTtJ..Lu tOEOOV uouvu'tEi vn uno<puvSEi J..LE nEtO''ttKo i] opionxo rpozo O'XE'ttKa J..LE 'to 'tt stvm «orocro» Kat 'tt «A.aSoe;», roorooo, Tt iotu Tt upm KUSUUTrl uno'tEA.ei nUpUOEKTrl TtStKij u~iu.

A<poPJ..Li] ytu 'tTtv uVU'lfl1- A.a<PTtO'Tt reroicov SEroPTt'ttKOOV SEO'EroV Su J..LnopouO'E vn unnrsMO'Et 0 crUyxpovoe; Ot6:A.oyoe; rUpro uno tu OtKatOOJ..La'tU optousvorv «J..LEtOVO'ti] rrov», Ot onoiEe; m>YKpo'touv'tat roe; 'tE'tOtEe; OXt 0''t'I1 f3aCIT] <pUA.e'ttKOOV, E9vo'ttKOOV i] Kat KOtVroVtKO-OtKOV0J..LtKOOV OtUqiopdrv, aUa 0''t'I1 f3aO'Tt OptO'J..LEvorv KUSTtJ..LEptvOOv roue m>VTtSeuov onroe; 'to Ka1tvtO'J..Lu i] Tt

Otu'tpo<pi] roue. H O'uYXPOVTt SE'ttKtO''ttKij EntO'TrlJ..LTt 't'I1e; J..LE'tPTtO'Tte;, ron nEtpaJ..Lu'toe; Kat 'tTte; EnaA.i]SEUO'Tte; EXEt OOOO'Et upKE'ta O''totXEiu'tte; 'tEA.eU'taiee; OEKUE'tiEe; nou OEixvouv npoe; 't'I1v KU'te'6SUVO'Tt Kat 'to unOOEtKVUOUV sviors, nroe; UKOJ..LU Kat ot opuO''tTtPtO't'l1'tEe; KanolOu ornv tOtro'ttKi] ron otpuipn unopcuv vu EXOUV E1t1n'tOOO'Ete; O''t'I1/;roi] Kat 'tTtv uYEiu KanotOU UUou. ~'t'I1 f3aO'Tt mrrdrv reov OtU1ttO''tOOO'EroV OptO'J..LEVOt unat'touv uno 'ta opyuvu 't'I1e; O'UV'tE'tUYJ..LEVTte; noA.t'tEiue; 'tTt pUSJ..LtCIT] 'tTte; tOtro'ttKije; O'<puipue; 'trov u'tOJ..Lrov nou npoO'f36:A.A.ouv OUVTt'ttKa 't'I1 OtKij rou; /;roi] J..LE UUTrlv'tOUe;'t'I1opaCIT].

Tn E1t1XEtpi]J..La'tU ytU 't'I1 O'UyKp o'tTt O'Tt J..L tUe; 't E'tOtUe;, OJ..LOA.OYOUJ..LEvroe; EA.A.oyTte;, unui't'l1CIT]e; J..Lnopouvvu xroptO''touv O'E Suo Ku'tTtyopiEe;: u) oru E1t10''tTtJ..LOvtKa Kat (3) orn TtStKOnOA.t'ttKa. Tn smo-rnuovucu E1t1XEtpi]J..LU'ta <pEPOUV 'to f3apoe; 't'I1e; EYKUPTte; 1t10''tonoiTtCIT]e; uno 't'I1 SE'ttKtO''ttKij EntO''t'I1J..L0vtKij YVOOCIT] Kat E'tO't KaSE unOnEtpU evcvrko-

BaaiA'1C; MaYKAopac;

CIT]e; 0" uu'ta unO'tEA.ei nEptO'O'o'tEPO nEptSroptuKij npa~Tt nupa EYKUPTt Ku'taSECIT] UnO'l'EroV. Tn TtStKOnOA.t'ttKa E1t1XEtpi]J..LU'tu uno'tEA.OUV oJ..Lroe; OUVUJ..LtKOnEoio av'ttnupaSECIT]e;, nou uno OptO'J..LEvEe; npounoSEO'Ete; J..Lnopouv vn UKUpOOO'OUV nA.i]proe; 't'I1v unui'tTtCIT] KUVOVtO''ttKije; pUSJ..LtCIT]e; non npoEpXE'tat uno 'tu EntO''t'I1J..LoVtKa E1t1XEtpi]J..LU'tu. ~TtA.uoi], J..Lnopouv vn UKUpOOO'OUV 'to otKuiroJ..Lu KanotOU vn unat'tEi 't'I1 pUSJ..LtCIT] 't'I1e; /;roi]e; KanotOU aUou 0''t'I1 f3aCIT] E1t10''t'I1J..L0VtKOOV uno<pavO'Erov.

Ilo»; oJ..Lroe; uu'to J..LnopEi vn O'UJ..Lf3ei ornv nEpin'troO'Tt, ytU nupaOEtyJ..LU, ron KUnvtO''ti] xm rou nUSTt'ttKoU KU1tvtO'Trl Kat KUpiroe; J..LEXPt noto CIT]J..LEio J..LnopEi KanotOe; vu SEJ..LEA.tOOO'Et rnv unui'tTtO'Tt pUSJ..LtCIT]e; Kat KanotOe; UUoe; 't'I1v unui'tTtO'Tt 'tTte; uopaVEtUe; rou VOJ..Lou. Ae; E~E'taO'oUJ..LE OJ..Lroe; UUTrlV 't'I1v nEpin'troCIT] Kat tu E1t1XEtpi]J..LU'tu zou avun'tUO'O'ouv Kat ot ouo nA.CUpEe;. H EntO'TrlJ..LTt EXEt KU'taOEi~Et 'tte; 'tEA.eU'taiee; OEKUE'tiEe; Kat EVUe; EA.A.oyoe; crUyxpovoe; avSpronoe; Ssv J..LnopEi

napa vn napaOEXE'tat rnv EYKUPO'tll'ta aU'titc; 'tllC; YVIDOllC;, nroc; 'to Kanvto"f..la «~Aan'tEl O"o~apa EO"ac; Kat 'tOUC; y6pro O"ac;», onroc; nOAU ~EKa9apa avaypacpE'tat IiUroO"'tE Kat O"E Ka9E naKE'tO 'to"lyaprov. H olamO"'troOll au'tft, npaYf..la't1, OEV stvm f..laxrl'tft. Au'to O"llf..laiVElnroc; Ka9E 'to"lyapo nou KanvisEl Kan010C; O"E 0T)f..l00"10 XIDPO, 0"' eva KacpE it onouoitnO'tE aA.A.OU f..lnopEi OUVT)'t1Ka xm cropeurucn vn ~Aa'l'El rnv uYEia Kan010U aA.A.ou. Km euv aKOf..la, npo0"9E'tOUV Kan0101 1iU0l zou unoO"'tllpisOUV 'tll XPT)cr'tft 01aXEiplOll 'tOU 0T)f..l00"1- ou XPitf..la'tOC; Kat nou 01KatOAoYT)f..leva EVW't1IDVOV'tat crqv unepCPOPOAOYT)Oll non anat'touv 01 crUYXPOVEC; K01VroV1KEC; aVaYKEC;, T) O"XEO"T) na9T)'t1KOU KanviO"f..la'toC; Kat a0"9evElac; efvm «a0"9EVitc;», OEV f..lnopEi OT)Aaoit vn EnaAT)9EU'tet f..lE EnapKEla f..lEiSOVa ~Aa~T) uYEiac; it EW nOAU nEplO"O"O'tEPO 0 KanvlO"'tftc; 01a'tllPitO"El 't1C; KaKEC; rou O"UVit9E1EC; O"E aUO"'tT)pa 101ro't1KO XIDPO IDO"'tE vn f..lT)V Em~apUVEl xovevcv 1iU0v EK'tOC; ano 'tOY EaU'tO 'tOU, rots roc; f..lEA.A.OV't1KOC; a0"9EVitc; Enl~apUVEl ~ava 'tOY UY1E1V1O"'tit CPOpOAOYOUf..lEVO E~avaYKasov'tac; Eva K01VroV1KO crUO"'tT)f..la uYEiac; vc O"'tpE'I'ElnOAU't1f..lOUC; nopouc; npoc; 'tT)V Ka'tEu9uvO"T) 'tT)C; iaO"T)C; a0"9EVE1IDV non 9a f..lnopouO"av vc

EixwanocpEux9Ei.

00"'t00"0, tn iOla EnlXE1Pitf..la'ta f..lnopouv vc xpT)O"1f..lonOlT)- 90uv xm ym rnv nEpin'troO"T) Kanol0u nou Yla rnv anoAaucrit rou Ka'tacpEuYEl O"E uxpntc a9Aitf..la'ta, 9E'tov'tac; O"E Kivouvo 'tll sroit rou it avaYKasov'tac; yta 'tll olaO"rocrit rou rnv xrvnronotnon EVOC; Y1YW't10U xm navaKpl~ou K01VroV1KOU - olaO"roO"'t1KOU f..lT)xavlO"f..lOu. 'H nOAu nEplO"O"o'tEPO, O"'tT)V nEpin'troO"T) Kanol0u nou apEO"KE'tat 0"'t0 no'to it crnv KaKlt ola'tpocpit· 'HOT), onroc; cpaivE'tat IiUroO"'tE, 'to EnlXEipT)f..la au'to O"'t11V nAitPT) 'tou wan'tU~T) EXEl apxtO"El vc xroAaivEl apKE'ta. Kat 'to npO~AT)f..la OEV stvm vn E10"EA90uf..lE 0"' Eva olaAoyo O"XE't1Ka f..lE tn 01KalIDf..la'ta rov «uetovornrorv» it 'to olKairof..la 6A.rov ornv npoO"romKlt EmAOyft, npaYf..la non EXEl yiVEl EnaVEtA.T)f..lf..leva Kat EnapKIDC; Kat 01a'tT)pEi f..lla O"XE't1Klt EYKUPO'tT)'ta, nUa vn npoO"EyyiO"oUf..lE au'to 'to sit'tllf..la ano f..lla nEplO"O"O'tEPO nOA1't1Klt O"Koma, au'tft 'tllC; E1t1EiKElac; Kat 'tllC; woxitc; Ka'ta 'tll 01a01KaO"ia O"UYKPO'tllOllC; f..llac; KWOV10"'t1KltC; pU9f..llOllC;·

Au'tft T) O"KE'I'11 f..lac; OOT)YEi 0"'t1C; 9EropT)'t1KEC; WaAUo"E1C; 'tllC; aplO"'tO'tEA1KitC; 9Eropiac; 'tT)C; 01KalOO"UVT)C; (E' ~l~Aio rorv H91KIDV N1K0f..laXEirov) Kat O"'ttc;

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 64

roCPEAlf..llO"'t1KEC; avaAUO"E1C; rou John Stuart Mill (TIEpi EAEU9Epioc). I:'tT)V npID'tT) 9EroPT)'t1Kit napaooO"T) cveuptoxouue EK'tEVEiC; avaAuO"E1C; 'tT)C; svvotcc 'tT)C; «EntEiKElac;» EVID orn OEU'tEPT), rnv apxit 'tllC; «O"1ronitc; rou vouou» Kat rou «mrroaeptoptouoo» (self - restraint), OT)Aaoit rnv anocpuyft 'tllC; unEp'69f..l10llC; xm rou xcrovcYKaO"f..lOU, apxit T) onoiu 9a f..lnOpouo"E vn ano'tEAEO"El eva 9Eaf..la't1KO av't10"'ta9f..llO"f..la f..lE'ta~u acpEVoc; 'tllC; EA.A.El'1'11C; Kat acpE'tEpou 'tllC; unEp~oAitC;. I:E Ka9E nEpin'troO"T) xm 01 OUO aU'tEC; 9EropT)'t1KEC; aVaAUo"E1C; O"'t0XEUOUV orn 01aO"cpaA10ll 'tllC; EAEu9Epiac; rou urouou f..l8O"ro 'tllC; nOA1't1KltC; f..lE'tpl0na9Elac; Kat OEixvouv npoc; rnv Ka'tEU9uvOll 'tllC; ~EA'tiroOllC; 'tllC; K01VroV1KltC; sroitc; f..lEO"ro 'tllC; ~EA 'tiroO"T)C; 'tllC; npoO"romKO'tll'tac; rou orouou (n.x. 10Ea rou EVapErou avopOc;). I:'tllV nEpin'troOll au'tft, T) Ka'taVOT)Oll rrov aVaYKIDV Kat rrov Euat0"9T)O"1IDV rou «1iA.AOU» Ka910"'ta 'tT)V avaYKT) PU9f..llO"'t1KltC; napEf..l~aO"T)C; ano rnv nAEVpa 'tllC; nOA1'tEiac; axpEiaO"'tll.

00"'t00"0, aKOf..la xm 0"' aU'titv 'tT)V nEpin'troO"T), f..lla opyavrof..l8VlJ crUYXPOVT) xotvorvtn OCPElAEl vn VOf..l09E'tEi xm vn pu9f..llSEl rnv xotvorvuo] onuzeptcpopa XropiC; vn EnavanaUE'tal O"E f..lla 10Ea EKOUO"lac; O"UyKA.10"T)C;

6Arov npo<; 'to «KaM». Kat ornv nEpin'troall aUT" npEnEt vu OtEPEUVllS0UV rn opur 'tll<; puS~.Ltall<; npo<; rnv Ka'tEUSuvall TIl<; otacpUA.a~l1<; TIl<; EUll~Epia<; OA.rov. Au'to ~nopEi vn au~~Ei uovo Eav A.llCPSEi Un0'l"111 apxil TIl<; avaAoytKOTll'ta<;, 011A.a011 'to cptororsA.tKO «uscov ano 'to nAEOv Kat 'to EA.aaaov». Ot a'6YXPOVE<; xotvcovis; npEnEt vc anocpuyouv rnv Enucuptapxia TIl<; SE'ttKll<; smom~OVtK11<; yvroall<; Ka'ta 'tll auYKPOTllO"ll rov xcvoviorucev 'tOU<; puS~iaErov. Min rsroin EntKUptapxia Sa KaSta'touaE EntKlVOuvll yta rnv EA.EUSEpia 6Arov ~a<; TIl yvroO"ll rov ~l1xavtoudrv 'tll<; ~ro11<; Kat TIl<; cpuO"ll<; Kat OXt anEA.SUSEpro'ttKll onro<; aacpaAro<; Sa EnpEnE vc etvm. EmnAEov, Sa sviaXUE rnv aiaSllall TIl<; a'to~tKOTll'ta<; KaSsvo<; ano E~a<; Kat Sa anoouva~rovE 'tOU<; KOtVroVtKOU<; OEa~ou<; Kat rnv aA.A.llA.EyyUll nou npEnEt vu EntOEtKVUOUV ~E'ta~u rou; ru Em~pou<; a'to~a. 'Erot, 6Aot Sa ~nopouaav vn EXOUV Eva aiTll~a ro<; npo<; TIl ~ro11 trov aUrov yta TIl au~~opcproa11 'tOU<; ~E 'tOU<; KavOVE<; 'tll<; Ema"'~l1<;.

H a~ia A.otnov 'tll<; ~E'tptonaSEta<; oEiXVEt npo<; TIlV Ka'tEuSuVO"ll TIl<; avayvroptO"ll<; rov aouva~trov Kat rrov avaYKrov 6Arov ~XPt<; 'tOU onustou onou Sa

npoorursuetrn Kat 11 «aouva~ia», 11 ouva'to'tll'ta 011A.a011 'tll<; EntA.oy1l<; uou vn ~A.an'tro 'tOY Eau'to uou 11 vn ptaKapro yta TIlV eunusptu uou, aA.A.a Kat 'to otKairo~a rou aUou vn ~l1V ~A.an'tE'tat ano 'tt<; OtKE<; uou aouva~iE<;. H aXEO"ll au." efvm npay~a'tt A.En." Sev efvm o~ro<; aouva'to vn ava~l1'tllSEi utu toopponfn ~E'ta~u au'trov rov Suo, Ttn napaOEty~a, etvm aroa'to vn anayopEu'tEi 'to Ka1tVta~a orou; ol1~Oatou<; xropou<;, ano'tEA.Ei o~ro<; unEp~OA.11 vn anayopEu'tEi crouc xropou<; otaaKEoaall<; auvOA.tKa, xropi<; Ea'tro TIl SuveroTIl'ta xroPta~OU rov xroprov au'trov. H unEp~OA.11 au." oEiXVEt npo<; rnv Ka'tEuSUVO"ll TIl<; EntKUptapxia<; TIl<; SE'ttKll<; yvroO"ll<; a' OAE<; 'tt<; EKcpavaEt<; TIl<; KaSll~ptv1l<; ~ro11<; Kat orov mcputo Kat ~OVt~O nsptoptouo TIl<; EA.SUSEpia<; ~a<;. To XEtpO'tEPO o~ro<; etvoi nro<; ot xeptoptouoi uuroi Sa EXOUV Em~A.llSEi orn ~aO"ll aaSsvou<; Enta'tll~OVtK11<; yvroall<; Kat unEp~OA.tKll<; a~tonoillall<; rorv EA.aXta'trov cuveaatdrv nou EntcpEpEt 11 ~EyaA.ll<; KA.i~aKa<; crspncn TIl<; an6Aauall<; noUffiv. EmnAEov, rerotot nsptoptcuot Sa ~nopouaav vn Em~A.llS0UV yta KaSE EWOU<; «SE'ttKO» au~nEpaoun zou ~a<; ~E~atrovEt yta 'tt<; ~A.an'ttKE<; auvEnEtE<; TIl<; opaO"ll<;

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 65

SVO<; orouou 0"'t11 ~ro11 KanOtOU aUou (n.x. KanOto<; non Sev xpllat~OnotEi mnoxtvnro yta ru; KaSll~EptVE<; 'tOU ~'taKtv1laEt<; Sa ~nopouaE vc atTllSEi, ~E npocpaO"ll rnv ~A.an'ttKll Em~apuvall TIl<; a't~oacpatpa<; ano TIl XP11all 'tOU aU'toKtV11'tOU, rnv anayopEUO"ll TIl<; KUKAocpopia<; roue), Kat ~l1v ~taa'tou~E vn au~nEpavou~E nro<; utu 'tE'tOta YEviKEuall stvut unEp~OA.tKll, KaSro<; stvm 11 iota apX11 zou OtEnEt cpatVO~SVtKa OtacpopE'ttKa npay~a'ta. ea 11'tav iaro<; nponuorepo vc 0011Y1lS0U~E aE ~ta mo ~aKpoxpoVta npoanaSEta eutonsptoptouou au'tou 'tOU omvouevou napa npo<; ~ta KaVOVta'ttKll puS~tO"ll ~E aKono rnv na'ta~11 'tOU. EmnAEov, ~ta xowevtc nou pEnEt npo<; 'tE'tOtE<; aKpaiE<; puS~iaEt<;, KaSta'ta 'tOY Eau'to TIl<; at~aA.ro'to TIl<; SE'ttKll<; yvroall<; Kat 'tOU EpyaA.EtaKOu A.OyOU, napa~A.Enov'ta<; 'tOY 011~tOUPytKO Kat OtaAOytKO TIl<; xapaK't11pa. H tOEa rou «vn ~naivEt<; orn SEO"ll 'tOU UUOU» Kat vc Ka'tavOEi<; 'tt<; aVaYKE<; 'tOU stvm ~aatKO a'totXEio 'tll<; aVa1t'tU~l1<; ~ta<; oMnA.EUPll<; Kat uytou<; xotvorvuop; oMTIl'ta<; ornv ozotc OA.Ot EXOUV SEall. EtMUro<;, Ot aVaYKE<; Kat auva~a 11 sull~pia opiouevorv Sa nE'ttE'tat nav'ta orov «Kataoa» TIl<; EpyaAEtaKOTll'ta<; Kat TIl<; SE'ttKll<; yvroO"ll<;.

E01IMOI

navo~\)\6~

1tproTOE't"tl~ Goldsmith College

I:TI)V EUllOa 'to 60% rov avopwv Kat 'to 26-30% rrov YUVatKWV stvm KanVtO''tE~, 'to J.lEyaA:u'tEpO zococro O'TI)V Eupw1t11. E1t1nAEOV, EXOUJ.lE Kat TI)v llEyaM'tEPll Ka't' nrouo Ka'tavaAroO'11 'to'tyaprov O'TI)v Eupw1t11. To 1994 O'TI)v EAAaoa XPllO'tJ.lOnOt"S11Kav 29.354.164.000 'CO'tyapa. Av Ol..ot Ot 'EAAllvE~ KanVt~av, au'to av'ttO''tOlxei O'E J.ltO'o naKE'to 'CO'tyapa TI) J.LEpa.

On 'to 'tmyapo stvm EStO'nKo 'to E1t1~E~atWVEt Kat 11 EKSEO'11 TI)~ YnllpEO'ia~ Tp o qriuorv Kat <I>apJ.laKrov rrov HIlA nou O'Uv'taxSllKE'tO 1995 O"XEnKa J.lE'tO KanvtO'J.la xm tov EStO'J.lO:

-To 87% rorv Ka1tV1O''twv 'tmyapov, Kanv~ouv KaSllJ.lEptva. -I:XEOOV rn ouo rpiru rrov KanvtO''twv ava~ouv 'to npw'to rou; 'tmyapo J.ltcriJ wpa acpo'tou l;unviJO'ouv .

-To 84,3% nurdrv zou Kanvi~ouv 20 " nEptO'O'o'tEpa 'to'tyapa llJ.lEPllO'iro~ EXOUV npoO'naS"O'Et aVE1t1'tUXw~ vn J.lEtWO'OUV 'tOY aptSJ.lo rrov 'to'tyaprov nou KanvtSav.

-'Eva~ KanvtO''ti]~ zou EntXEtpsi O'o~apa vn KO",Et 'to KanvtO'J.la EXEt ntSavOTI)'tE~ J.ltKpO'tEPE~ rou 5% vc EXEt KO",Et 'to KanvtO'J.la eva xpovo llE'ta.

-To 70% rrov O'11J.lEptVWV

KanvtO''twv EXEt 011AroO'Et on Sa "SEAE vn KO",Et 'tEAeiro~ 'to KanvtO'J.la.

-To 83-87% rrov KanvtO''twv, Ot onoiot Kanvi~ouv neptocorepn ano 26 'to'tyapa llJ.lEPllO'iro~ morsuouv on EXOUV EStO''tEi.

-Ot uiool O'XEOOV KanvtO''tE~ zou uno~A"S11Kav O'E EYXEiptO'11 yta xopxtvo rmv nvEUJ.lOVroV l;avapxi~ouv 'to KanvtO'J.la.

-To 40% rov KanvtO''twv non uno~A"S11Kav O'E acpaipEO'11 rou Aapuyya, npoO'naSouv vn Kanvioonv l;ava.

-AK0J.lll Kat J.lE'tal;u rrov EVllAiKroV nou EKcppa~ouv ev'tOVll E1t1SuJ.lia vn KO",OUV 'to KanvtO'J.la Kat AaJ.l~aVOuv aptO''tll ta'tptK" nEpi9aA"'11, J.lOVO ot J.ltO'oi ano roix; aO'SevE~ nou J.lEAe't"S11Kav J.lnOpEO'av vn KO",OUV 'to KanvtO'J.la yta J.lta E~OOJ.lllOa 'to noM, evw 0 odK'tll~ J.laKponpoSEO'J.lll~ ano'tUxia~ ,,'tav U'l'11M'tEPO~ ron 80% J.lE'ta TI) OtaKoni] TI)~ SEpanEia~ rov aO'Sevwv J.lE unoKa'taornru vucortvnc,

-I:llJ.laVnKE~ npoO'cpa'tE~ J.lEAE'tE~ O'UJ.lnEpaivouv on 'tOUAaXtO''tov 'to 75% Kat Ero~ Kat 'to 90% rorv 'taKnKwv Ka1tV1O''twv nAllPOUV ru Kpt'ti]pta ES1O'J.lOU non avayvropi~ouv ot llEyaM'tEpot opyavtO'J.loi 011J.l00'ta~ uysia~.l

o EStO'J.lO~ O''tO 'tmyapo yivE'tat KUpiro~ ano TI)v vucortvn, E1t1nAEov, 0 ES1O'J.l0~ yiVE'tat aKOJ.la 1t10 ouva'to~ orov 11 El;apTI)O'11 ano aU'tE~ TI)~ ouotsc O'UvunapXEt J.lE

Oucovtvao 0avaoll nanavTcuvonouAou

'lfUXOAOytKi] El;apTI)O'11· Pouqxovtu; J.lta cpopa eva 'tmyapo J.lnaiVEt O''tO aiJ.la vucorivn 11 orroia 1t11yaiVEtnav'tou. I:'tov EYKEcpaAo cp'taVEt ano 0X'tw Ero~ oEKaox'tw OEU'tEpOAE1t'ta. I:E rpurvr« Aen'ta 11 vucortvn O''tO aiJ.la EXEt nEO'Et O''tO J.ltO'o. Ornv ru EninEoa 'tll~ vucorivrp; nEcp'touv 0 Ka1tV1O''ti]~ l;avaKanv~Et yta vn avE~aO'Et TI)V nEptEKnKOTI)'ta 'tll~ O''tO aiJ.la. 0 XP"O''tll~ xpEta~E'tat vn Kanv~Et2 'tmyapa TI)V wpa yta vc Kpa'ti]O'Et TI)V nEptEKnKoTI)'ta TI)~ vucottvnc O''tO aiJ.la O'E U'l'11Aa EninEoa. To nprotvo 'tmyapo efvm nav'ta nOAu EUxap1O''to, EnEtO" 61..0 'to ~paou 't<l EninEoa TI)~ vucortvrp; EXOUV nEO'Et xaJ.lllAa. Mere 'to 'tmyapo ava~Et J.lOVO Kat J.lOVO yta vn Kpa'ti]O'Et ra EmnEoa 'tll~ vucortvnc "'11Aa, xropi~ vn OiVEt Kanota EUxapiO'TI)O'11. EntnAEOv, KaSw~ 11 vucortvn cp'taVEt orov EYKECPaAO, 011J.ltOUpyouv'tat Ka1VoupytE~ unoooXE~ yta TI)V vucortvq. 'Erot O''t<lOtaKa eva~ Ka1tV1O''ti]~ apxi~Et Kat aul;aVEt 'tOY aptS J.l0 trov 'tmyaprov zou Kanvi~Et yta vn YEJ.liO'Et n~ VEE~ unoooXE~ zou 011J.llOuPyoUV't<lt otn EYKEcpaAtKa KUuapa. Ttn vn El;acpavtO''touv xpEta~E'tat vn nEpaO'Et eva~ J.l"va~ llE'ta'to KO",tJ.lO rou 'tmyapou.

Otrrv eva~ KanvtO''t''~ KO",Et 'to 'tmyapo 11 El;apTI)O'11 cpaivE'tat ano 'to crepnruco O'UVOPOJ.lO vucortvnq. To O'UYKEKptJ.lEVO O'UVOPOJ.lO EXEt 'ta aKoAouSa O'UJ.ln'twJ.la'ta orov Ka1tV1O''ti] nou J.lOAt~ EXEt KO",Et 'to 'tmyapo.

1 http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/GR/pages/ell/smoking/FDA.asp

Ilpdrrov, EXEt avaYKTI yta'tOlyapO. BitXEt noM O'uXVa Ka9cO~ 0 opyavtO')lo~ npoO'na9Ei vn Ka9apiO'Et tn nveuuovtc, EniO'11~, o av9prono~ au'to~ Vtc09Et O''tEVaXroPll)lEvO~, ayxro)lEvO~ Kat stvm EuE;an'tO~. E1ttnA.EOV, EXOUV 'tllv avaYKTI va )laO'avE Kan. TEA.o~, 011)lWUPyouv'tat Kat npo~A.it)la'ta U1tVOU.

H VtKOnV1l napaYEt vronnulV1l, 11 ozoin stvct VEupOOta~t~a- 0'-rTt~. ~'t0 nEptOOtKO «Nature», 011)l0O'tEU'tllKE )lta speuvo, 11 ortoin EOEt;E on Ka9E E;ap'tllO'11 O'UVOEE'tat )lE rnv vroauutvn. H vronuutvn napaYE'tat o mv KOlAtaKit KaA.Un'tpa orov )lE0'0 EYKE<paAO. M6A.~ 011)lWuPY1l9Ei )lE'ta<pEpE'tat orov npo0'9w A.o~O Kat orov E1ttKAtvit nupitva. 0 EYKE<paA.O~ EXEt 011)lWUPY119Ei O''taOtaKa Kat 0 E1ttKAtvit~ nupitva~ etvat ano tn naAatO'tEpa KO)l)lartn 'tOU. H v'tona)liV1l a<pou efvm VEupOOta~t~aO''tit~ )lE'ta<pEpEt at0'9it)la'ta )lEO'O rcov VEUpcOV. To at0'9it)la'ta sxstvu ru orroin )lE'ta<pEpEt 11 v'tona)liV1l stvm 11 xapa Kat 11 ucovoaotnon. H aU;11O'11 'tll~ v'tona)liV1l~ KaVEt Eva av9prono vn sivm EU9u)l0~, onmn Kat vn etvm 11 np01lY0U)lEVll O'Uvat0'911)lanKit 'tOU Ka'taO''taO'11. Au'to stvm 11 'lfUXOA.oytKit E;ap'tll- 0'11 zou ava<pEp911KE napamivro. Otnv Eva~ av9prono~ OEV stvm EUWXtO')lEvO~ OEV )lnopEi vn KO'l'Et 'to 'tOlyapo yta'ti stvrn 'to uovo zou 'tOY xaponotEi, E;at'tia~ 'tll~ v'tona)liV1l~. Apa, 0 av9prono~ au'to~ EXEt yiVEt OXt )lOVO E;ap'tll)lEvO~ ano 'tllv vucortvn aUa Kat ano 'tllv v'tona)liV1l.

NEq>tAl1 KOPl1

I" Y'VJlvaO'io'V AJlEptKaVtKO KoUtytOAy. IIapaO'KE1>ll~

H npcO'tll )lOU <popa nrnv ern

~Epav'ta rou omrtou )lOU. Azo 'tllv )lia O"ttY)lit avE1tVEa 'tOY Ka9apo aEpa Kat rnv aUll E~11xa aVEMllro, )lE 1tVEU)lOVta YE)ltO')lEva )lE rnv npcO'tll )lOU 't~oupa.

To EKava anOnEptEPYEta. Ttn Aiyo KatpO OE )lE anacrxOA.OuO'E. Msm O)lro~ apXtO'a vn nivro Ka<pEoE~ ern starbucks us Eva 'to'tyapo 0''t0 XEpt. Au'to O'uvEXiO''tllKE yta A.iyo. ApXtO'av tu Ka~yaoaKta )lE 'tllv )lava uou, ~UVEXtO'a ouox. Mou apEO'E 11 KiV1lO'11, )lE XaAaprovE rpouspc. IIo'tE OEV E9iO''tllKa npay)la'ttKa, to'ro~ yta'ti OEV Ka1tV~a O'E Ka911)lEPtvit ~aO'11. Ano rnv aAAll O)lro~ E~A.Ena KanOla natota ( O'UVO)liJ..llKou~, 11 Kat )lEyaM'tEpou~) zou it9EA.aV va E9tO''touv, 'to EnEOiroKav cOO''tE vn xepupcvsuovcut )lE'ta crt 'to EKO'l'av 11 npoO'1ta90uv.

~E au-rTtv 'tllv llA.tKia, mrroi zou Kanvi~ouv anO'tEAOUV )l ia KOlVrovtKit o)laoa. Ttn va )lnE~ )lEO'a, npEnEt va Ka1tVi~E~.

Mnc E)la9av on npoKaAEi noUa nVEU uovuc« Kat KapOtaKa npo~A.it)la'ta. ~'tllV apm ue a<PllvE aOta<p0Pll, 'tcOpa us vOla~Et mo noM, yt'au'to Kat O''ta)la'tllO'a . AUa iO'ro~ Kat vn OEXO)lOUV Ka)lia 't~oupa, E'tOl yta va XroVE'I'ro 'to hamburger!

IIaTtpa~, anE~apTflJltvo~ ano TOV EOtO'JlO,

IIapayroyo~ Tl1I..EOpaO'fl~

Ot <piA.ot O'E nporpeaonv, unapXEt )lia 'tEXVtKit yta va Ka'tE~aO'Et~ yta npcO'tll <popa 'tOY Ka1tVO rou 'tOlyapou orn zveuuovtc,

Erot ;EKiV1lO'E )lia <plAia )lE svnv EX9po nou Kpa'tllO'E 14 xpovta nA.itpou~ E9tO')lou.

Tnv EVll)lEProO'11 nno nA.EUpa~ noA.t'tEia~ OEV rnv Aa)l~aVEt~ un'o\jftv oou yta'ti 9EroPEi~ rnv A.it'l'11 'to;tKcOV OUOlcOV avaYKaia,

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 67

)lta nou nAEOV EXEt~ O'UV1l9iO'Et 'tllV XPitO'11 trov. Ani9avo 'to ai0'911)la EUEt'l'11~ nou Vtc09Et~ ornv OEV 'to Ka'taVaA.cOVEt~ 'taK'ttKa Kat Ent1tpo0'9E'ta oou 011)llOuPyEi OuO'apEO'Kta.

EuxapiO''tllO'11 ! 1100vit! stvm ouva'tov vn napEXE'tat ano A.iyo Ka1tVO WA.tY)lEvO O'E Eva xap'ti; Erot anA.a;

~ny)lE~ zon OEV O'E <p9aVEt 'to 'to'tyapo non Kanvi~Et~ Kat ava~11'tEi~, KanOlo nOlO ~apu. Tt stvm 'to nto ~apu 'tOlyapo; rta'ti va EYKa'taAEinro XcOpou~ mrvnvnO''tpo<pit~ Kat OtapKcO~ va ~piO'KOurn O'E Eva )lnaAKOvt 11 )lia aUAit Ka'tro ano onOlaoitno'tE KAt)la'toAOytKit O'Uv9itK11 )lE Eva 'tOlyapo 0''t0 XEpt; IIoO'E~ <pOPE~ EvtroO'a va EYKa'taAEinro npoO'<plAE~ Spocmpiorqrs; ytan EnpEnE vn otaM;ro )lE'ta;u rorv Kat rou 'tOlyapou; I'tnrt nav'ta xpo nuouou 'to 'tOlyapo; H ta'tptKit E1ttO'-rTt)l11 'to OtEyvroO'E ro~ E;ap'tllO'11.

H 1100vit sivm Eva~ ~WJ..oytKO~ )l11xaVtO')lo~ zou nAEOV sivut Ka'tavoll'to~ Kat E1t1lpEa~E'tat ano E;ro'tEptKa EpE9iO')la'ta. ME'ta ano )lta xoupuorucn EVEpYEta 0 opyaVtO')lo~ )la~ xpEta~E'tat )lta E1tt~pa~EUO'11 Kat )lE aU'tE~ n~ )lEPtKE~ xtA.taoE~ VEUPcOVroV Kanou EKEi O''tOV EYKE<paA.6 )la~ zou npOKaAOUV rrtv 1100vit 'to EntwyxaVOU)lE )lE XPitO'11 'to;tKcOV ououbv. Ot E9tO''ttKE~ OUO'iE~ unoKa9tO"touv tou; VEupOOta~t~aO''tE~ non XPllOl)lonOlouv ot VEUpcOVE~ yta va emxotvorvouv Kat )lE'ta~aAA.OUV 'tOY KUKAO 'tll~ v'tona)liV1l~. Au-rTt 11 E;ana'tllO'11 rorv VEUPcOVroV EXEt ro~ ano'tEA.EO')la rnv napaKa)l'l'11 rou )l11xavtO')lOu EMyxou 'tll~ EntSu)lia~.

EntO''tpo<pit O''tllvau'toKUptapxia.

BIR>Aloypacpia http://el.help-eu.com/pages/lex-lexique-438-TOBACCOADDICTION.html http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/GR/pages/elllsmoking/FDAasp http://tovima.dolnet.gr/print article.php?e=B&f= 12440&m=C 1 O&aa= 1 http://www.nosmoking.gr/kopsimo.htm

BIBAIOnAPOYIIAIEII

MaKpl)6rn.l~Tpr'l~ AVT6lVr'l~, K(A)VaTaVTivo~ KapaJ,lavA~~,

'Eva napa6£IYJ,la nOAITIK~~ Hy£aia~, £K6., nOTaJ,l6~, Ae~va, 2007, 159 atA.

MUKPUOllIlTt'tPll~ Av'tOOVll~, Korvocuvrlvoc KUPUIlUVATt~, 'Evn IIupaOEtYllu IIoAttlKTt~ HYEO'iu~, EKO., IIo'tUIlO~, A9Ttvu, 2007, 1590'EA.

H 1tPOO'q>U'tll IlEAE'tll rou Av'tOOVll MUKPUOllIlTt'tPll KU'tU1t1- aVE'tUt J.1E rnv 1tpoO'C01t1KO'tl1'tu rou Kmvo-ruvt tvou KUPUIlUVATt (1907- 1998) Kat EtOtKO'tEPU, IlE rnv to''tOptKTJ U1tOW1tCOO'l1, IlE ouvo- : 1tttKO rpoao, trov KUptO'tEPCOV : 1t'tUXOOV 'tl1~ 1tOA1't1KTJ~ Kat toico~ : 'tl1~ KU~EPVll'ttKTJ~ ron 1tupouO'iu~. :

Ot 9ECOPllttKE~ E1tE~EPYucriE~ rou :

O'UyypUq>EU E1t1KEV'tPOOVOV'tUt O''tU : llYEtlKa XUPUK'tllPtO''tlKa rou :

Kmvo-ruvrtvou KUPUIlUVATt, :

O''t01XEio oumoooE~, 01tCO~ UVuyvco- ~ piSE'tUt U1tO rov ioto, ytu rnv su06- :

Ktllll KUt Ku90ptO"ttKTJ 1tupouO'iu : rou O''tl1V 1tOA1't1KTJ scoTt rou OSU'tE- : pOU IltO'ou rou 200u atOOVU. :

MEO'U U1tO 'tll IlEAE'tll :

E1ttXEtPEhut IltU E1t10''tllIl0VtKTJ : uvaAuO'11 'tl1~ 1tpOO'C01t1KO'tl1'tU~ rou :

KUPUIlUVATt Kat E'tm, 11 OtUAtO'11 : 'tl1~ 1tOA1't1KTJ~ rou O'UIl~OATt~ O''tl1V :

EopuicoO'11 'tl1~ 0111l0Kputiu~ KUt : 'tll~ EUpC01tU'tKTt~ 1topdu~ 'tll~ : xoopu~. 0 Ku911Y11tTJ~ MUKPUOll- :

IlTt'tPll~ XPllO'tIlO1tOtEi KU'ta : 1tEpi1t'tcoO'11 9ECOPllttKa 1l0v'tEAu : 1tOU UVUq>EpOV'tat O''tl1V 1tUPO'OvtKTJ :

Kat 'tl1 ~EIl1tEPtUvft 9ECOpiu 'tl1~ : 1tOA1't1KTJ~ E1t1O'tTJllll~, 1tPOKEtIlE- : vou vn 1tPOO'EyyiO'Et tn toroptxn :

OEOOIlEvU 'tl1~ 1tEptOOOU IlE 00'0 'to :

OUVU'tOV 1tEptO'O'O'tEPll UJ.1EPOAll'!'iu. H J.1EAE'tl1 U1tAoovE'tat O'E 01..11 rrtv ioropucn nopsin Kat E~EAt~l1 'tl1~ llYEttKTJ~ 1tpOO'C01t1KO'tl1'tU~ 'tOU KUPUIlUVATt, EVOO E1ttKEV'tpOOVE'tUt KUpico~ omv 1tOAuE'tTt KU~EPVllttKTJ rou 911'tEiu.

B.Muydapu~

~CO'tllP01tOUAO~ A. ~l1IlTt'tPll~, Kpuro; KUt ME'tUppu91ltO'11 0''tl1 ~uYXPOVll No rtu Eupdnrn , EAAaou- Iozuvtu- ItuAiuIIop'toyuAiu, EKO., Iloruucc, A9Ttvu, 2007, 222 O'EA.

o ~l1IlTt'tPll~ ~CO'tllP01tOUAO~ E1t1XEtPEi IlEO'u U1tO 'tl1 O'UYKPt'ttKTJ IlEM'tl1 rsoonpcrv IlEO'0YEtUKOOV KUt EUPC01tU'tKOOV, 1tUpaAAllAu, xcopoov vn OtEPEUVTtO'Et 'to UKuv9000E~ Kat 1tavtU EntKatPO sTt'tl1IlU 'tOU Ot01K11ttKOU EKO'UYXPOVtO'Il0U IltU~ Xoopu~, 1tOU O'UVOEEtat O'XE06v allEO'U J.1E 'tOV EKOllIl0KPU'ttO'Il0 Kat 'tl1V O1KOVOIltKTJ 'tl1~ stmuspin. H J.1EAE'tl1 E1t1KEV'tPOOVE'tUt U1tOKAEtO'ttKa 0''t0 YECOypUq>tKO xoopo 'tl1~ crUyXPOVll~ Nonn; EupOO1t11~ Kat 0"tl1 9ECOPll'ttKTJ E1tE~EPYucriu 'tll~ Evv01U~ ron 9EO'Il0U, 0 onoio; 9ECOPEhat U1tO 'to O'UyypUq>EU Ott OtUOPUIlU'tisEt 1tpco'tsUOVta pow ornv 1tOA1't1KTJ

Kat KOtVCOVtKTJ UVaAUO'11.

o Ku911Yll'tTt~ ~CO'tllP01tOUAO~ 1tpO~UiVEt O'E IltU 9ECOPllttKTJ Kat EIl1tEtptKTJ 1tUpaUllAu IlEM'tl1 rov 'tEO'O'apcov 1tEPt1t'tOOO'ECOV, Ku900~ 9ECOPEi 1tCO~ uq>iO''tu'tut utn E1tEVEPYEtU J.1E'tu~u U'tOIlCOV Kat 9EO'Il00V, IlE U1to'tEAEO'IlU 'tll Otuq>0p01toillO'11 rou AEt'toupytKou XUpUK'tTtPU rou IlEAE'tOOIlEVOU 9EO'Il0U O'E Ka9E 1tEpi1t'tcoO'11. 0 cruyypUq>EU~, q>UiVE'tat 1tCO~ OiVEt ~apo~ ern IlEAE'tll rou ern 9EO'IltKTJ KUt suporspn O'UO''tl1lltKTJ tooppoato, u1toO''tl1pisovta~ 1tCO~ 01 9EO'lltKE~ UUUYE~ 1tpOO'KpOUOUV O'Uvft9co~ O'E 1tUYtCOIlEvE~ 'tuKnKE~ KUt O'UVTt9EtE~, 1tOU uvno-rpursuovrut tl~ E1t1XEtPOUIlEVE~ UUUYE~ Kat rnv iotu rnv E~EAt~l1 rrov 9EO'Il00V KUt O'E OEU'tEPO ~u91l0, rov KPUttKOOV Il11XUvtO'lloov. ~'tl1 ~aO'11 UU'tOOV'tCOV 9ECOPllttKOOV 1tUPUOOXoov, E1t1XEtPei uPllKa IltU u~toMY11O'11 rou 9EO'IltKOU 1tupEA90v't0~ 'tl1~ Ka9E Xoopu~ Kat KU't01t1V, 'tOV EV't01t10'1l0 'tCOV OIlOlOtTJ'tCOV KUt 'tCOV OtUoopdrv 'tOU~, OO'OV ueope 'tOV KpunKO 'tOU~ Il11XUVtO'Il0, IlE uvuq>opa 1tw'tu O"tU OEOOIlEvU 1tOU EXEt O'UAM~E1. 0 O'UyypUq>EU~ O'U Il1tEpuiVEt, 1tCO~ 1tupa tl~ 1toUU1tM~ O'UO''tl1lltKE~ OtUq>OPE~ J.1Eta~U 'tCOV 'tEO'O'apcov XcopOOV, 11 O'UIlJ.1E'tOxit rouq omv EupC01tu'tKTJ 'EVCOO'11 q>UiVE'tUt 1tCO~ ~0119aEt 1tpO~ rnv all~AUVO'11 'tCOV EV Myco OtUq>OpOOv.

B.Muydapu~

APXAIA EAAHNIKH rPAMMATEIA

dlEU8uvoIJ. oetpdc: I'eropvtc 3av8aKIJ.

EKAO~EI~ APXAU!N KEIMENnN

Aoyta 1tU(!a(){p.o:ra 0'frJ'V PfJ'(O(!t~ '(ov A(!turO'(EAoV; 104 xa(!ax7:fJ(!tartxa na(!aOellam avvaqJ'1] ue 7:0V; tonoix; (ia Oellam) 7:TJ; a(!tar07:eAtX'lj; Prj7:0(!tx'lj; OXOAta~0V7:at tu: nATJ(!07:TJm yta n(!w7:TJ qooa.

AfJlloofJtvov; lle(!i '(()w OVllpo(!tW'V

H n(!w7:TJ oe navxooiuo enine~o x(!t7:tx'lj sau e(!IlTJVeV7:tX'lj OeW(!TJOTj uuu; ana tu; xakU7:e(!e; ~TJIlT]YO(!ie; 7:0V lleyakU7:e(!OV (!'lj7:0(!a OAmV 7:aw enOXwv.

8ovxvMdov A(!xatOAoyia

'Eva oovaoxaottxo n(!orono taro(!tx'lj; agJ1jyTjOTj;, -----..--- aV7:tXetlleVtxOr:TJm; tau X(!t7:tXoV xveouato; yta

7:TJv n(!oo~o 7:OV a(!xaiov eMTJVtXOV nOAt7:tOIlOV.

'n""~~""·~ , "".,,,,.w,,,,

(I (~~','~' i~~~~ ~ ,~-:~~::;,~'"

'~M)~"" nln.""'"

MEAETE~ Dramatica

«Yno&tYlla7:tXe; avaavvOeOet; xallevOJv 7:(!ayOJ~twv. IIoAV7:tIlTJ avMoy1] lleAe7:WV yta tu; taaeu; xcu 7:OV xa(!ax7:'Ij(!a 7:TJ~ a(!xaia~ eMTJVtX'lj~ ~(!alla7:tx'lj~ noiTJOTj~ arTJV xAaOtx'lj

xcu llemxAaOtx'lj enOX'lj». F.R ADRADOS

E).).,fJ'V~ Mv()oAoyia - Aux()Wia

o nOAVIlO(!gJO~ xall{3a~ 7:TJ~ eMTJVtX'lj~ IlvOoAoy{a~, XV(!{OJ~

7:TJ~ AaxOJv{a~, ue 7:(!ono yAagJV(!O, eVATJn7:0 sau 7:eXIlTJ(!tOJllevo.

JZ)RAMATfC;\

META4>P~EI~ :E:ENnN EPrnN

/uro(!ia 'ft]; E).).,fJ'Vt~; Aoyo'(EX'Via; (A xat B ,(OlIO;) Ilavooaua 7:TJ~ eMTJVtX'lj~ Aoy07:eXv{a~ ~w&xa cudmov ana 7:OV 'OIlTJ(!O OJ~ 7:TJv n(!WtllTJ X(!tartavtx'lj y(!alllla7:eia. A6yo~ Ilearo~ xai 7:eXIlTJ(!tOJllevo~, nA'Ij(!TJ~ na(!aOeOTj nT]Ywv xcu nAoVOta {3t{3Atoy(!agJ(a. 'Eva e(!yo avaipoods;

E'tULQeLU Ellt]"(J)" 4>LA,OA,0Y(J)" llAATDN

tPtAOAoytXO ne(!to~tXO ~te9voV~ ell{3eAeta~ Ile n(!OJ7:o7:vne~ etOTjy1joet~ oe OAO 7:0 tpaaua 7:OJV a(!xatoyvOJartxwv entarTJllwv.

llU(!ti.(!'ft]lla

II(!07:aOet~ ~t~aoxa).{a~ 7:OJV gJtlOAoytXWV llaOTjlla7:OJv arTJ

LI CV7:e(!o{3aOllta Exna{~eVOTj. Axooiayua yvwOTj~ sau ellnet(!{a~ ~OXtllaOllevOJv exnat~eV7:tXWV.

[ft] E~O~EI~ IIAIIAZH~H

NL%T]'tUQU 2 & E,..,,..,. MltEVU%Tj, 106 78 Ae~vu

TTjA.: 210-3838020, 210-3822496, Fax: 210-3809150 site: www.papazisLgr • email: papazisi@otenet.gr

BIBAIOKPIIIEI

Charles Pattie, Patrick Seyd and Paul Whiteley, Citizenship in Britain, Values, Participation and Democracy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004.

AcpOPf.1it ytU 'tllV Sf.1nstptri) f.1SA£'tll 'tlle; Wt0'tlltae; rou nOAi'tll O''tll Bpsruvtn, uno'tSASO'S, crUf.1cpcovu f.1S roue iOtoue; rou; O'uyypucpsie;, 11 OtUCPUtv0f.1SVll KpiO'l1 9sO'f.1WV KUt nOAt'ttKite; uv'ttnpoO'wnSUO'11e; oro HvCOflSvO BuO'iAsto, nou 1t11yu~St uno rov npco'tocpuvit nOAtnKO KUvtO'f.10 Kat 'tllv sUst'Vll Sf.11ttO''tocrUv..,e; rov Bp sruvdrv unsvuv'tt O''toue; 9sO'f.1oue; roue, rrrv unOXWPllO'11 'tlle; nOAt'ttKite; O'Uf.1f.1s'toxite;, 'tll 0''tUO'tf.10'tll'tU rorv iotcov rorv 9sO'f.1wv, Ku9we; KUt 'tllv unoppsouon uvucrvorntu, uno 'tllv EV A.6yco 0''tuO'tf.10'tll'tu, rov f.1E'tunOAsf.1tKWV 9sO'f.1tKWV OOf.1WV rou BPS'tUvtKOU KpU'tOUe; vn nvrrnroKpt90uv O''tte; vsse; nOAt'ttKSe;, KOtvCOVtKSe; KUt 011f.10KpU'ttKse; unattltO'Ste;.

Ano'tsAsi xupuK'tllP~

O''ttKO O''tOtXdo OptO'f.1SVCOV O'uyXPovcov KotVCOVtWV, StOtKU nurdrv nou f.1S'tS~l1O'UV uno uu'tupxtKSe; nOAtnKSe; OOf.1Se; O'S 0l1f.10KPU'ttKu O'UYKPO'tllf.1SVOUe; KUt npoO'uvu'tOAtO'f.1SVOUe; 9sO'f.1oue;, unoO''tllpi~ouv ot cruyypucpStc;, 11 uOtucpopiu unSvuvn O'ne; 0l1f.10KpUnKse; OtuotKuO'ise; (SKAoyse;, O'Uf.1f.1s'toxit O'S supu'tspse; nOAtnKSe; OPUO''tllPtO'tll'tse; K.'t.A.). QO''toO'o, 11 unouO'iu 0l1f.10Kpunri)e; - O'Uf.1f.1s'tOXtri)e; nOAtnri)e; KOUA'tOUpUe; zou stXS npoKU'VSt uno 'tllv f.1UKpoxp0vtU un09uppuvO'11 rou «noAi'tll» crnv evepvo O'Uf.1f.1s'toxit ron oro nOAtnKO crUO''tllf.1U, SvOSt;l1 f.1tUe; O'ucpwe; OUO'ASt'tOUPYlri)e; O'XSO'11e; f.1s'tu;u rou KpU'tOUe; Kat rou nOAi'tll, ta nOA.A.UnAU KotVCOvtKU Kat OtKOV0f.1tKU npo~Aitf.1Uta zou uvnf.1E'tcom~ouv KunOWe; uno ne;

BaaiAtlC;; MaYKAopac;;

VSO'tSUK'tSe; 011f.10Kpu'tise; (uvcroAtKit Eupwnll, Aoto, K.'t.A.), Ku9we; Kat ot unuvun'tUK'tSe; OOflSe; rou; EVTtf.1SpCOO'l1e; rou nOAi'tll, ouO'tWOSe; O''tOtXdo ytU 'tll O'UYKPO'tllO'l1 f.1tUe; O'UYXPOVlle; «Kotvite; yvWf.1llC;», f.1nopouv vc OtKUtOAOyftO'OUV O'S f.1EyUAo ~u9f.1o UUtltV rrrv unoucriu rou nOAi'tll uno ne; 0l1f.10KpUnKse; OtUOtKUO'ise;. 0 nOAOe; rou nOAi'tll O''tll O"XSO'11 KpU'tOUe; - nOAi'tll uno'tsAOUO'S nupuooO'tUKU, O'ne; EV A.6yco xoworvtsc, Svuv UOUVUf.10 KpiKO, 11 OPuO''tllPtonoillO'l1 rou ozoiou unut'tst 'tllv f.1E'tu~UO'11 O'S f.1tU vsu nOAtnri) KOUA'tOUpU.

To npO~Allf.1U 'tlle; tOtO'tll'tUe; rou nOAi'tll, «SVOe; cruVOAOU U;tWV, npuKnKWv Kat KUVOVCOV ot onoiot s;sAiO'O'ov'tat npOKStf.1SvOU vn uvrczoxptvovcci ornv sntAuO'11 npO~Allf.1U'tCOV O''tll

~aOll TIl~ cruMoyudl~ opa0ll9> (o"EA.., 129) OEV ano'tEAEi, OOO"'toO"o, anOKA.EtO"'t1Ka Eva ~"'tllf..la nOA.tnKll~ cruf..lf..lE'toX1l~ " 011f..ltOUPyia~ OtKatOOf..la'tOOv nOA.tnK"~ O"Uf..lf..lE'tOX"~. Ano'tEA.El Eva EUpU'tEPO npO~A.llf..la cruvouaO"f..lou OtKatOOf..la'tOOv Kat unoxpEOOO"EOOv (n.x. CPOP0A.OytKll unoXPEOOO"l1)· Etvrn, O"TIlv ouoto, f..lta npoO"na9- Eta E~tO"OPP01t1lOll~ f..lE'ta~u 'tOOV nOA.tnKOOv Kat 'tOOV KotVOOVtKOOV OtKatOOf..la'tOOv, f..lE'ta~U t ou OtKatOOf..la'to~ TIl~ anA."~ 011f..lOKpa't1K"~ O"Uf..lf..lE'tOX"~ Kat 'tll~ npoO"~aOll~ oru; 011f..lOKpanKE~ OOf..l8~, ano TIl f..lta Kat 'tOOV ouotooooov KotVOOVtKOOV OtKatOOf..la'tOOv zou O"XE'ti~ov'tat f..lE ~l1't"f..la'ta avaOtaVOf..l"~, npoO"'taO"ia~ ron «a5Uvaf..lou» Kat KOtvOOVtK"~ OtKawO"uvll~, ano 'tllv aA.A.ll. AMOOO"'tE, O"E f..lEyMO ~a9f..l0, 11 anA." nOA.tnKll ano~EvOOOll rov noA.t'toov Eopa~E'tat ornv KotVOOVtKll rou; ano~EvOOO"l1. Ot cruyypacpEi~, xpllO"tf..lOnotOOv'ta~ crUyxpova EpyaA.Eia KotvoovtKll~ - 9EnKll~ aVaA.UOll~ O"TIlv npOO"1ta9Eta rou; va Ka'tavo"O"ouv TIl opaOll 'tou noA.iTll c' Eva rsroto nOA.tnKO -KotVoovtKO nEpt~aMOV, 9EOOPOUV ru KOlvOOVtKa OtKatOOf..la'ta oo~ naiyvta f..lll0EVtKOU a9poiO"f..la't0~. To OCPEA.O~ Kanowu stvm 11 anOOA.Eta eunueptm; Kanowu

aMOU, O"E av-ri9EOll us rn nOA.tnKa OtKatOOf..la'ta ano rnv EnEK'taOll 'tOOV onokov OEV xaVEt KavE~ (positive- sum gain). To npO~A.lluo, OOO"'toO"o, O"E 'tE'totE~ 9EOOP"o"E~ TIl~ a'tOf..ltKll~ Kat EV yEvEt KotVOOVtKll~ cruf..lnEptcpopa~ EVO~ opoov'tO~ unOKEtf..lEvOU stvm 11 napayvooptOll TIl~ o"XEO"taKll~ cruYKPOTllOll~ Kat 'tll~ aA.A.llA.E~ap'tllO"l1~ 'tll~ a'tOf..ltKll~ rou opaOll~. Tsrois; 9EOOP"o"Et~ xnruvoouv 'to opoov UnOKEif..lEVO oo~ «naiX'tll» zou Em9uf..lEi TIl f..lEYtO"'tonoillOll TIl~ «oocpEAEta~» rou f..lEO"a ano 'to «KOtvOOVtKO natxviot». ~'tllV npaYf..lanKOTll'ta Of..lOO~ 11 Op90AoytKo'tll'ta 'tll~ EntA.oy"~ 'tOOV opaO"EOOv rou opoov'to~ unOKEtf..lEvou Otaf..lEO"OA.a~Ei'tat Kat ano a~WA.OytKOU~ unoA.oyto"f..lOU~ ot onotot unEp~aivouv TIlV anA." O"XEOll f..lEO"OU -oxonou,

'Erot, Eva ano tn aouva'ta 0"11 f..lEla au't" ~ 'tll ~ f..lEA.E'tll ~ cpaivE'tat va stvm 11 EK'tE'taf..l8v11 XP"O"l1 TIl~ 9Eoopia~ rrov natyvioov, O"XE06v O"E Ka9E onusto onou ananEl'tat Ef..l~a9uvO"l1 'tll~ E~"Y11O"l1~. To xapaK'tllPtO"nKo au'to napacrUpEt Kat TIlV EPf..lllVEia O"E PllXE~ E~l1Y"o"Et~, Ka900~ ~aO"tKO npO~A.llf..la f..lE n~ 9EoopiE~ natyvirov stvm 11 iota 11 tOEa non ~piO"KE'tat orov nup"va au'toov

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 71

'tOOV 9EooptOOV, on f..lnopEi~ va epunvsuosu; Eva npO~A.llf..la anA.ro~ nEptypacpov'ta~ rn SuvnnKa Op90A.oytKa uovoaenc zou 9a aKoA.ou9,,0"0uv ot OpOOV'tE~ yta TIlV EnlAUcrll rou, uovo; roi»; " O"E ouvspvcofn f..lE aMou~ OpOOV'tE~. H 9EoopiE~ natyvioov zpootpspouv anA.oo~ KanOta 'tunOnOtllf..lEVa uovoarmc EniA.uOll~ EVO~ npo~A."f..la'to~ ano TIl O"Koma rou opoov'tO~ Kat OXt f..lta OA.OKA.llPOOf..lEVll epunvetc EVO~ KOtvOOVtKOU oowouevou. Ot EV A.6yoo 9EoopiE~ apf..lo~OUV nEptO"O"o'tEPO O"E Entf..lEpOU~ OtKOVOf..ltKE~ aVaA.uo"Et~, an' ozou aAAroO"'tE Kat ~EKiVllO"av, napa O"E aVaA.Uo"Et~ nOA.tnKOU Kat eupU'tEPOU xotvrovtKOU xapaK-r1lpa. Ilntyvto A.Ot1tOV, 9EOOPEi'tat f..lta Ka'taO"'taOll onou VO"f..lOVE~ OpOOV'tE~ " Of..laoE~

Sp div r mv o uj xp o uov r c t ,

cruvEpya~ov'tat " aV'tayoov~ov'tat 0"' Eva nEpt~aMOv ano 'to onoio EXEt anoO"na0"9Ei «~taioo~» Ka9E tOtai'tEpo toropuco xapaK'tllptO"nKo TIl~ opaOll~ 'tOU~. Tll 9EOll nurof rou O"'totXEiou o mv aVMuOll EXEt napEt 11 f..lEAETIl 'tOOV 'tPEXOUO"OOV nEptO"'taO"EOOv (on; nEpt~MA.ov) Ka'tOO ano ru; onoiE~ opa 'to a'tOf..lO Kat ot oaote; f..lMtO"'ta f..lEA.E'tOOv'tat O"E O"XEOll f..l' aU'tE~ 't~ opao"Et~ oo~ f..la911f..lanKE~ cuvcpmo s«; EntA.oyOOv Kat

anOKAE10"1 .. ubv EntAoyroV. Etvnt E~<paV"~, EK npro't'll~ ,,011, 0 a'taiptaO"'to~ xapaK"'pa~ 'tOW EV Myro ~E900rov ~E rnv K01VroV1KTJ aVaAUO"ll. 1\UroO"'tE, rc naiyvta Kat 01 o"uVEnayO~E~ E~l1yfJo"El~ nou E1t1XElpOUV'tat ~O"ro mmfrv rov aVaAUO"Erov OEV ~nopouv vc YEV1KEU'tOUV O"E ~EyaA.E~ K01VroVlKE~ o~aOE~, Ka9ro~ anO'tEAoUv EpyaAEia nsptoptouevrp; E~~EAE1- a~ non anal'tOUv 'tll ~EAE'tll rou E~op90AOY10"~OU OAroV rrov E1t1~pOU~ Opao"Erov.

'Erot, 'to «nalxvtOl» 'tll~ 1010't11'ta~ rou nOAh11 , Ka9ro~ anO'tEAEi npO~A11~a O"UvEpyaO"ia~ ~E'ta~u «Op90AOY1KroV Eyroiordrv», anat'tEi, aU~<prova ~E rou; O"Uyypa<pE~, rnv unap~l1 'tEO"O"apov 101ahEprov npoun09EO"Erov Yla vc nalX'tEi (O"EA. 18, 19). Ilpdrrov, 01 naiX'tE~ npEnEl vc npOo"~AEnouv O"E ~la ~E'tayEVEO"'tEP11 anOKO~lO"ll ro<pEA11~a'trov ano 't~ npa~El~ roi»; . .8.EU'tEPOV, 'to natxviOl npEnEl vc etvm snnvnAa~~avO~Evo erot roO"'tE vu E~nEorovE'tal 11 ai0"9110"11 't11~ O"UvEpyaO"ia~ ~'ta~u rrov a'to~rov. Tptrov, olnaiX'tE~ OEV npEnEl vc yvropisouv 'tOY XPOV1KO OPtSov'ta OAOKA"ProO"ll~ rou natyviou, 010n O"E 01a<popE'tlK" nEpin'troO"l1 xuruppsouv ru xtvnrpu 't11~ O"UvEpyaO"ia~ roix. Kat rscoprov,

01 naiX'tE~ npEnEl vn ~nopouv vn EXOUV 'tll ouva'to'tll'ta vc n~ropouv rnv «napEwivouO"a» ouuaspt<popa, anoKAEiov'ta~ ano 'to natxviOl oooix EnlXElpoUV vn Enro<pEA1190uv ano 'tll opaO"ll rov <lUrov xropi~ 01 i0101 vn EXOUV o"u~~E'taO"XEl 0"'t0 nalxvtOl. ~'t0 nAaimo 'tll~ EV A.Oyro EnE~EpyaO"ia~ 6A.0 'to «nalxvtOl» 'tll~ Ka'tavo11O"ll~ rou O"XEmaKOU Kat a~toA.oytKOU xapaK't"pa 't11~ xorvrovtuc unO~l~asE'tat O"E ~ta avaAUO"ll rou 'tunou rou «OlA,,~~a'tO~ rou <puAaK10"~Ou» xm rov Op90AoY1KroV rou EntAoyrov yta ouvepyuO"ia xm ~11 O"UvEpyaO"ia. E1t1nAEov, 'tOviSE'tat ano rou; O"Uyypa<pE~ xm 11 avaYKaia unap~l1 ~la~ E9vtKTJ~, K01VroV1KTJ~ Kat EV yEvEl nOA1'tl0"~lK"~ O~OlOYEvEla~ npOKE1~OU vc nalX'tEi Eva 'tE't010 natxvt0l. 00"'t00"0, Kan 'tE't010 ~aAAOv napayvropisEl 'tOY npay~a'tlKO xapaK't"pa rorv opyavroO"Erov non nporo90uv rnv avan'tu~l1 't11~ 1010't11'ta~ ron nOAi'tll Ka9ro~ xm rov OE011A.ro~Evorv roi»; oxozdrv.

'E't0"1, ern ~aO"l1 OA.roV au'trov, 'to avaAunKO nAaiO"to Ka'tav011O"l1~ xm EnE~EpyaO"ia~ trov nOA1'tElaKrov nEn019" O"EroV (civic beliefs) rrov Bperovev avas11'tEi'tal, O"'t11V EV AOYro speuvu, ~Eo"ro ~la~ o"Elpa~

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 72

Epro't11~a'toAoyirov yta 9E~a'ta 011 uoxpurtuc, E umo rocuvn ~ orou; 9Eo"~OU~, avoxfJ~ anEvavn O"'t~ 101al'tEpO'tll'tE~ rou «<lUou», nEp11<paV1a~ xm EV npoKE1~ro, niO"'tll~ anEvavn oru; ol1~oKpanKE~ olaolKaO"iE~, Ka9ro~ xm aA.A.roV sl1'tll~a'trov. Ttn 'tll aUv'ta~l1 rov Epro't11~a'toAoyirov xp11m~on01- OUV'tal O"X11~a'tonol11~EvE~ 9EroP"o"E~ an' 6A.0 'to <paO"~a rov 9EroP11nKrov aVaAUO"Erov yta rnv 1010't11'ta rou nOAi'tll (9EropiE~ Op90AOytKTJ~ EntAOyfJ~, OO~lKE~ 9EropiE~), 01 onoiE~ EAEyXOV'tat ~Eo"ro 't11~ Ka'tao"KEu,,~ usrc~A11'trov, nou ~ 't11 o"Elpa roi»; 011~10UPYOUv ~ov'tEAa opaO"ll~ ra onoia uno~aAAov'tal npo~ E~E'taO"ll O"E O"XEO"l1 ~E OP10"~E~ nA.EupE~ 'tll~ K01VroV1KTJ~ sro"~. cI>aivE'tat o~ro~ ~EKa9apa nro~ 'to ~OV'tEAO au'to EntAoyfJ~ 9Erop,,0"sorv, ~'ta~A11'trov xm am~a'tonoi11O"l1~ ~OV'tEAroV opaO"l1~ OEV aKoAou9Ei Kanota nE10"nKTJ apxfJ ~ao"El 't11~ ozotce; EntAEyov'tal 01 EV Myro ~'ta~A11'tE~ O"E O"XEO"ll ~E KanolE~ <lUE~. cI>aivE'tatnro~ 111t10 nE1O"'tlKTJ E~"Y11O"ll a' au'to 'to s"'t11~a ano'tEAEi, ~aAAov, 11 npoO"na9Ela rou; vn KaAU'I'0UV OAO 'to nEoio avaAuO"l1~ rorv nOAl'tElaKrov nEno19"O"Erov rorv oprov'trov, Ka9ro~ Kal11 oOK1~aO"ia rou ~OV'tEAOU " EVO~ O"UvouaO"~ou

~OV'tEA.roV nou 9a 9EroP119Ei EnapKECHEPO roe; npOe; ne; aVaAUnKEe; rou l010'tll'tEe;. Ilpoonnllouv 011A.aO" vc KaAU'l'OUV 01..0 'to cpao~a rorv urouicrucdrv xm OA.l0nKrov 9Erop"OEroV. Iloio anO'tEAEo~a o~roe; etvm KaAU'tEpo evovn KanolOu aA.A.OU onuotvet nroe; ,,011 ucpiO'ta'tal ~la npo- 01a~opcpro~~ avnA.ll'1'1l roe; npoe; 'to ioto 'to ano'tEA.EO~a 'tlle; EpEuvae;, npay~a nou OEV yiVE'tat yvroO'tO ano rou; cruyypacpEie; rou ~l~A.iou. DA.ll 11 napanavro oXll~a'tonoilloll Ka'taA."YEl EV 'tEA.El OE anA.Ee; ~E'tp"OEle;, Ka'tavE~l1~Ee; Ka'ta YEroypacplKO 'tono xm xpovo, rrov mouucdrv orccerov rou noA.i'tll anEvavn ornv na'tpioa rou, O'tO cruvav9- prono rou, croix 9EO~OUe; Kat ornv aV'ttA.ll'1'l1nOU EXEl 0 iOl0e; yta r n olKalro~a'ta x c t ne; unoxpErooEle; rou,

Mson ano rc epeuvnnxn Eup,,~a'ta rou E~nElplKoU ~poue; 'tlle; EpEuvae; avaoE1KVuov'tal, rocroco, EvolacpEpOUOEe; olamo'trooEle;, OE aV'ti9E01l ~ 'to 9EroPllnKo 'tlle; ~poe;, 01 onote; uvutpsnouv " Em~E~alrovouv npoola~opcpro~EvEe; aVnA."'I'Ele; 0XEnKa ~ rnv xoworvia nOA.l'trov o'tll Bperuvtu xm 'tll cru~~E'tOxfJ 0' au'to nou ovo~a~ou~E, uno rnv EUPU'tEPll svvotu, ol1~oola

coutpo. ~UYKEKpl~Eva, OOOV acpopa 'to ~"'tll~a 'tlle; noA.1't1Ki)e; ana9Elae; rrov Bpercvrov Kat 'tlle; anoo'taotonoillo"e; rou; ano opaoEle; nou an'tov'tat'tou «K01VOU aya90u», olamo'trovE'tat nroe; 11 9E01l au't" ano'tEA.Ei anA.roe; ~la npoKa'taA.ll'1'l1 " ~la UnEp~OA.", Ka9roe; 01 Bperovot cru~~E'tEXOUV OE uccvozomruco ~a9~0 OE nOA.1't1KEe; Opao'tllP10'tll'tEe;. ~'tov avnnooa ~pioKE'tal11 Em~E~airo- 01l rou YEyOVO'tOe; on aU'tEe; 01 Opao'tllP10'tll'tEe; uoopoov, roe; Eni 'to nA.Eio'tov, rou; mo ~Opcpro~Evouq, rou; oucovouuci EUnopOUe; xm rou; EnaYYEA.~anKa mo Enl'tuXll~EVOUe; Bparuvooc, <l>aivE'tatnroe; 11 xowovtc nOA.l'trov ano'tEAEi Eva xropo npoVO~taKi)e; avanro~l1e; Kat napaKoAou91101le; rorv EvolacpEpov'trov xut rrov OU~CPEPOV'troV, EV YEVE1, 'tlle; ~Eoaiae; 'ta~l1e;. H napanavro olamo'tro01l OEV ano'tEAEi avaYKaonKa ~la «1191Ka» ~E~n'ti) 'ta01l 'tlle; Bpsrcvuoj; xoworvicc; aA.M stvm ioroe; 11 E~nElplKi) Em~E~airo- 011 nroe; eupurepu ~l1't,,~a'ta avanro~l1e; ~tae; ol1~oKpanKi)e; xotvrovtnc, ~lae; xowovtcc EVEPYroV noA.1'trov, ana1'touv oucovouucd avanroY~EvEe; xm EuproO'tEe; xorvorvtsc, KaA.a nA.llpocpopll~EvOUe; nOA.l'tEe; xm 10XUpOUe; ol1~oKpa'tlKOUe;

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 73

9EO~OUe;. <l>aiVE'tat 011A.aO" nroe; 11 ol1~oKpanKi) cru~~E'tOX" stvm 9E~a ropi~avolle; Katnpro'to~ouA.iae; EA.EU9EProV nOA.l'trov Kat 0Xl Enl~OA."e;. Dnroe; 01anl0'trovouv aUroO'tE 01 cruyypacpEtc; (OEA.., 261), 11 avanro~l1 ~lae; ouva~lKi)e; xo rvmvtuc noA.1'trov e tvut n19avo'tEPO vn cru~~Ei ~E'ta~u rov ~A.rov ~lae; xowevte; nou stvm ,,011 9EnKa npoKa'tE1A.ll~~Ev01 (civic minded) anEvavn OE nOA.1't1KEe;, a'to~lKEe; " o~aolKEe;, npro'to~OUA.iEe; ~E oxono rnv aVaA.ll'1'1l opa01le; yta 'tll ~EA.'tiro01l 'tlle; ~ro"e; roue,

Ilspcnspoi, 11 E~nElplKi) ~A.E'tll Ka'tEoEl~E nroe; 0 ~a9~0e; E~nA.oKi)e; rrov a'to~rov OE Spnornp10'tll'tEe; 'tlle; ol1~ocrtae; ocpaipae; xapaK'tllpi~El Kat rnv n010'tll'ta ~ro"e; 'tlle; EV A.6yro xotvorvtoz; To «K01VroV1KO KEcpaA.al0» nou 011~10UPYEl'tat ano ne; opaoEle; a'to~rov" o~aorov nou O't0XEUOUV ornv aVaA.ll'1'1lnpro'to~ouA.iae; Yla 'tll ~EA. nro01l 'tlle; n010'tll'tae; 'tlle; a'to~lKi)e; xm K01vrovtKi)e; roi»; ~ro"e;, 0011YEi OE noA.A.anA.acrtaonKa ano'tEA.EO~a'ta nou oeopoov EV 'tEAEl 'to crUVOA.O 'tlle; xowrovicc, Ooo mo opao'ti)pla stvm ra a'to~a o'ttc; 'tomKEe; rou; xotvrovie; Kat O'ttc; nOA.1't1KEe; rou; un09EoEtc;, rooo zeptoootepo uvcernxroetm 'to ai0911~a E~mo'tocrUVlle; Kat

cruvEpyaO"iae; ~E'ta~U 'tOW ~EA.WV aUnle; 'tlle; xoworvtec, Ka'tt non EXEt ~E 'tll o"Etpa 'tOU roe; ano'tEAsO"~a 'tll cruVOA.trit ~EA.nroO"11 'tlle; nOtO'tll'tae; ~roite; au'twv rov a'to~rov (o"EA.., 213 - 223).

I:ll~av'ttKo EVOtaq>Epov, roo r o o o, napouO"ta~ouv Ot O"oO"taA.Oll~OKpa'ttKEe; EmO"11~avO"Ete; Kat zporpoas; trov cruyypaq>Erev, Ot ozotot, oru; Ka'taAllK'ttKEe; rou; OtantO"'tWO"Ete; yta 'to ~EAAOV 'tll e; xowrovicc rorv nOA.t'twv, unoO"'tllpi~ouv EVa npoypa~~a noA.t'ttrite; Kat KOtvroVtrite; toorn'tae; it KaAU'tEpa, nEptOptO"~ou rov crUyxpovrov opa~a'ttKWv OlKOVO~tKWV uvtoorrrrorv. I:UYKEKPt~Eva, 0"'totXEt09E'twv'tae; Eva np6ypa~~a recoepov onueirov (o"EA.., 281 283) zou, onroe; unoO"'tllpi~ouv, ~nopEi OUVTJ'ttKa va EVtO"XUO"Et rnv O"UYXPOVll xotvcovin noA.t'twv, npoO"oioouv Eva oUVa~tKO xapaKnlpa orn ~EM'tll rou; avaoEU(vUov'tae; 'to Kpu~~Evo nOA.t'ttKo an09E~a 'tlle; crUYXPOVTJe; cru~it'tllO"11e; yta rnv xowovto noA.t'twv Kat 'tte; noA.t'ttKEe; O"uvEnEtEe; ~tae; 'tE'tOtae; KOlvrovtrite; Kat a'to~trite; mpiucvO"lle;. Ev zpoxeuievco, ot cruyypaq>Eie; zporetvouv 'tll O"'taOtaKit npow9llO"ll 'tlle; tMae; 'tlle; a'to~trite; Kat o~aotrite; cru~~E'toxfle; orn KOlva ~EO"a ano Eva np6ypa~~a

xotvrovtxozotnorp; rov EV A.6yro cruVTJ9EtWV Kat a~tWv ern ~aO"11 EVOe; O"X0A.tKOU npoypa~~a'toe;. H unoO"'titp~ll rou EV A.6yro EntXEtPit~a'toe; EPEWE'tat O"'tte; OtamO"'tro~EvEe; EUEpYE'ttKEe; cruvEnEtEe; 'tlle; xotvrovtxozotnorp; rerouov tOEWV ornv KAaO"trit EAAllVtrit apXatO'tlltn Kat rnv xapaK'tllPtO"'ttKO'tEPll uo pq>it noA.t'ttrit e; 'tll e; opyavrocrit e;, 'tllv nOAll - Kpa'tOe; . .8.EU'tEPOV, Ot cruyypaq>E1c; unoO"'t11pi~ouv nroe; rn cru~q>Epov'ta ~tae; avan'tUy~e; xotvcovtnq noA.t'twv ~nopouv KaAU'tEpa va E~unllPE't1l90uv ~EO"a ano 'tOY Ka'taKEp~a'ttO"~o 'tlle; KEV'tptrite; E~oucriae; Kat rnv an60oO"11 EK'tE'ta~Evrov EUSuVWV nOA.t'ttKite;, OtKOVO~tKite; Kat KOlvrovtrite; OtaKU~EPVTJO"11e; ornv 'tontKO'tll'ta. IIpay~a'tt, 'to yvroO"'tO nOA.t'ttKo npoypa~~a 'tlle; 'tontrite; aU'tootoiKTJO"11e; ~nopEi va ~Oll- 9itO"Et o mv avan'tu~ll ~tae; KOUA.'toupae; YEVtKEU~EVlle; noA.t'ttrite; cru~~E'toxfle;, Ka9we; Kat ern ~EA. 'tiroO"ll rrov O"XEO"EroV cruvEpyaO"iae; ~E'ta~u rov ~EA.WV 'tlle; xotvomrc«;

'Eva tOtai'tEpa O"11~UV'ttKO ~it'tll un, O"U ~q>rova ~E roi»; cruyypaq>E1c;, 'to onoto E~nooi~Et rnv uytit avan'tU~ll ~tae; Kotvroviae; noA.t'twv Kat an09appUVEt rnv noA.t'ttrit cru~~E'toxfl, etvm Eva npO~A.ll~a nou av'tt~'troni~Et, Kat

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 74

~aAtO"'ta O"E UnEp~OA.tKO ~a9~0 Kat II EAAllvtrit xowevte, I:uvon'ttKa, iO"roe; va ~nopouO"a~E va 'to ovoueoouue roe; 'to npO~A.ll~a 'tlle; «aEvalle; EKAoytKite; ava~E'tPll- 0"119>. Xapcecmptomco O"'totXEio au'tou rou npo~A.it~a'toe; ano'tEAsi II cruVnlPllO"ll crnv EntKatpO'tll'ta ~tae; cruvEXoue; noA.t'ttrite; sxorpetEiae; II ozotc q>EPEt nEptO"O"o'tEPO ra xapaK'tllPtO"'ttKa ~tae; noA.t'ttrite; nponayavoae; ~ anW'tEpo O"Kono 'tll XEtpayWYllO"11 rou nOA.t'ttKoU O"w~a'toe;. TE'tOtEe; napa'tE'ta~Ee; nOA.t'ttKEe; exorpurstsc anoyu~vwvouv 'tOY nOA.t'ttKO OtaAoyo ano rnv OUO"tWOll 'tOU noA.t'ttrit EmXEtPll~a'toA.oyia, avaoEtKv6ovrce; nEptO"O"o'tEPO 'tll ~opq>it 'tOU aywva napa rnv noA.t'ttrit 'tOU ouolc, nou etvoi II EK'tE'ta~EvTJ Kat A.En'to~pite; cru~it'tllO"ll rUpro ano 'tte; EntA0YEe; Kat 'tte; xpooanxs; EnlAUO"11e; rov crUyxpovrov xotvo» VtKO-OtKOVO~tKWV npO~A.ll~a'trov, onroe; n.x., 'tlle; to"O'tt~lle; npoO"~a- 0"11e; ern aya9a 'tlle; EKnaWEUO"11e;, 'tlle; uyEiae;, 'tlle; xowrovucrp; aO"q>aA.tO"lle; Kat 'tlle; EpyaO"iae;. Teroie; npaK'ttKEe; «Ka'taO"KEUite; nOAt'ttKite; a't~EV'tae;» ano- 9appuvouv r nv nOA.t'ttKit O"U~~E'tOXit, Oll~tOUPYouv ouO"ntO"'tia anEvav'tt o"'toue; 9EO"~OUe; Kat EV 'tEAst anoyoll'tEUOUV 'tOY noA.i'tll. Ot cruyypaq>Eie;

unocr't11pi~ouv op900~ nOl~ ~EyaAT'I EUWVll y1<1 rnv avan'tU~T'I au'tou rou npo~A1l~a'to~ EXOUV ra ~cra ~a~tld)~ EVT'I~pOlO"T'l~, rn onoic EXOUV Ol~ ~aO"T'l rou; 't11V npocrna9- Eta npooo9T'1O"T'1~ trov O"U~CPEPOV'tOlV rov navicrxuPOlv tOtOK't11'tOOV 'tou~.

TEAo~, crT'l u av r t K1l Otamcr'tOlO"T'l nOAtnld)~ O"T'I~acria~ stvm T'I 'ton09E't110"T'1 rov O"UyypaCPEOlV Ol~ npoq 'tt~ O"UvEnEtE~ 't11~ KOtVOlVtK1l~ Kat OtKOVO~tK1l~ aVtcro'tT'l'ta~ ornv nEpat'tEpOl

avan'tu~T'I rorv OT'l~OKpanKOOV nEnot91lcrEOlV trov noAt'toov. H KotVOlvtKO -OtKOVO~tld) cvtoomru, unocr'tT'lpi~ouv, npoKaAEt cr'tPE~ArocrEt~ oru; OT'l~OKpa'ttKE~ otaotKacriE~, an09appUVEt rnv nOAtnld) 0"u~~'t0X1l rov E1tt~Epouc nOAt'toov Kat Ka'taA1lYEt os ~ta unepouootbpeuon ouva~EOl~ ora XEpta rov AiyOlv (crEA. 282). Ilto rsuouue AOt1tOV nOl~ T'I otappT'l~T'I 't11~ KotVOlvtld)~ o"uVOX1l~ npoKun'tEt Ol~ avanocpEuK'tO

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 75

ano'tEAEcr~a 'tT'l~ OtKOVO~tK1l~ E'tEpoYEVEta~, OT'lAao1l 'tT'l~ EK'tE'ta~EVT'I~ EtcrOOT'l ~a'ttK1l ~ avtcro't11'ta~. Ev 'tEAEt, cpaivE'tat nOl~ T'I anOOUVa~OlO"T'l 't11~ Ota9EO"T'I~ yta nOAtnK1l crU~~E'tOX1l non EpEtOE'tat o rnv KOtVOlVtKOOtKOVO~tld) nEpt90lptOnoiT'lO"T'l rou nOAi't11 , ano'tEAEi 'to KPt~pto anoouva~OlcrT'l~ 'tT'l~ iOta~ 'tT'l~ OT'l~OKpana~.

Michael Edwards, Civil Society Cambridge, Polity, 2004

H xotvcovia rwv nokrcdrv ootveun vn stvm T'I Eno~ «~EYaAT'I tOEa», 'tOvi~Et 0 Michael Edwards, non Kuptapxd cr'tT'lv 9EOlPT'l'ttK1l 0"U~1l't110"T'1 aUa Kat O"'t11V nOAtnld) npaK'ttK1l ano n~ apXE~ rou KatvOupytoU atOOva. AvacpEpE'tat ornv opaO"T'l O"UUoytKOOV uzoxst~EvOlV nou EXOUV O"UyKp0't119Ei ~E 't11V au90p~T'I't11npOl't0~ouAia rov EVOtacpEpo~OlV Kat OtEKOtKOUV 'tT'lV uotovoutu rou; anEvavn

rooo oro Kpa'to~ ooo Kat ornv ayopa.

H ~E'tanoAE~tK1l nOAt'ttK1l E~nEtpia rrov nEptcrcro'tEPOlV xpurdrv nEpacrE ano 'tpEi~ cpacrEt~. H npoo'tT'l 1l'tav EKEtVT'I ~ta~ Ka'taAu'ttK1l~ Kuptapxia~ rou Kpa'tou~: Kpa'to~ npovota~ (npoctuoiu ano 't11V «KOUVta orov 'tacpo») ornv ounld) Eupdnrr], E9vtKO~ crocrtaAtcr~o~ ore VEa

Kpa'tT'l rou rptrou KOcr~OU, OAoKAT'lpOlnKo~ Kpancr~o~ ornv E1ttKpa'tEta rou cr'taAtvtcr~ou. H OEU'tEPT'l, ano 't(l 'tEAT'I 'tll~ oEKaEna~ rou 80', 0"T'I~aoEU9T'1KE nvnonKnKa ano 't11V anoAu't11 KUptapxia 't11~ ayopa~ Kat rnv npocrna9Eta yta 't11v anoM~T'lO"T'I rou xotvrovtKOU Kpa'tOu~ nou O"UVOE9T'1KE ~E roue P1lyKW Kat ®a'tcrEp. H'tpi'tll cpaO"T'l, ano 't~ apXE~ 't11~ oEKaE'tia~ rou 90, xapaK't11picr9T'1KE aKpt~OO~

uno rnv EsanA.wO"l1 rrov J.lll KU~EPVll't1KOOV OpyavOOo"EWV KUt 'tllV av9tO"'l1 'tll<; 8paO"'l1<; roue, ~pUJ.lU't1Kit 009110"'11 Kat t8EOA.OytKit vOJ.ltJ.lonoillO"l1 oro xmvoopyto nuro npo'tuno KOtVWVtK,,<; nUpEJ.l~UO"'l1<; E8wO"E 11 EJ.lnEtpiu 'tWV 8tKWWV 'tWV UV't1CPPOVOUV'tWV O"'tt<; XOOPE<; ron «uaupxtou» AEyOJ.lEVOU O"oO"tUA.tO"J.lOU (Xap'tll<; 77 o r nv To"EXOO"A.o~uKiu, AUllA.eyyUll ornv IIoA.wviu), non Ku'tacpEpav vn EKcppaO"ouv 'tllv Ku90A.tKit A.atKit UV'ti9EO"'I1 O"'tU unoO"u9pWJ.lEVU EKElVU Ku9EO"'tOO'tU KUt vn npoKuAEO"OUV 'tllv uva'tponiJ roue,

Km orrtv EUa8u 0"'I11lEtoo911KE J.ltU UstoA.or11 uvan'tUSll rou EPYOU 'twv J.lll KU~EPVll'ttKOOv OpyUVOOo"EWV. I:UJ.l~OA.tKit KOpUcpwO"'I1 'tll<; VEU<; uu'tfJ<; Eni ron E86.cpOU<; npuYJ.lu't1K0'tll'tu<; ,,'tuv 11 uvuyvooptO"l1 Kat KU'tOx;UPWO"'I1 'tll<; xotvrovtce; 'tWV noA.l'tWV KU'ta rnv 'tEA.EU'tuiu O"uV'tUYJ.lU'ttK" J.lE'tuppu9J.ltO"'l1, EO"'tW KUt IlE rnv Kanw<; ESu0"9EVllJ.LEV11 J.lopcp" ron «E9EA.OV't10"J.l0U». H VOJ.ltKit uu'tfJ npo080<; EytVE IlE eupeia 8tK0J.lJ.lU't1Kit O"U J.lcpwviu, KUt unO'tEAEO"E J.ltav avUJ.lCPtO"~"'tll'tll Em'tUxiu ron KtvTJJ.lu'tO<; rov 800 MKO, rou ozotou lly,,911KE 0 NtK,,'tU<; Atovupmcrj; nou 't00"0 npowpu Xa911KE, 0 av9pwno<; nou nEptO"O"o'tEPO uno KUVEvav UUo 'tau'ti0"911KE J.lE 'tllV t8EU 'tll<; xorvmvtcc rorv noA.t'tOOv W<; uv'ti~upou O"E EvU YEPUO"J.lEvO nAEov Kat UV't18PUO"'t1KO KOJ.lJ.lU't1KO O"uO"'tllJ.lu. Min uvucpopa OJ.lW<; 0"'t0 crUV'tuyJ.lU KUt J.lOVO 8EV A.UVEt KavEvU npO~A.llJ.lU, Kat 9u J.lnOpouO"E J.laA.tO"'tu vn A.Et'tOUpyiJO"Et Kat W<; npocpuO"'l1 ytu nA."Pll npUK't1Kit U8pavEtU. H KU'tOx;UPW-

0"11 A.. X. 'tll<; KPU't1Kit<; rn9uVll<; ytu 'to nEpt~aUov Kat rnv uvOO'tU'tll nat8Eiu oro crUV'tayJ.lU ron 1975 8EV unE'tpE'I'E rnv mo 8puJ.lu't1Kit uno~a9J.ltO"'l1 EW<; KU'tUO"'tpocp" rorv CPUO"tKOOV O"Uv911KOOv SW,,<; ornv EA.A.a8u EK'tO'tE Kt OU'tE rnv unoO"a9pwO"'I1 rou nUVEntO"'tllJ.ltuKOU O"UO"'t"J.lu'to<;. H uu90PJ.lll'tll OJ.lw<; av'ti8puO"'I1 rov noA.t'tOOv J.lE ucpopJ.l" 't1<; npoO"cpu'tE<; nuPKUYtE<; KUt 11 UUSllJ.LEV11nEpt~aUoV'toAoytKit !lV1lO"UXiu nou EKcppaSE'tat uno noUE<; nAEupE<; etvm EA.ntSooopu 0"11J.la8tu o'tt 8EV 9u EXOUJ.lE vn KaVOUJ.lE unA.OO<; IlE EvU «XWptO IIo'tEJ.lKtV» V0J.ltK"<; 'tUnoA.u'tpEiu<;.

H O"l1J.lUV't1Kit ouvetotpopd nliv'tw<; ron ~t~A.iou ron Edwards eivrn vn unoypUJ.lJ.lio"Et zoco O"UYKEXUJ.LEV11 Kat EO"W'tEptKa UV'ttCPU't1Kit etvm 11 xowovte 'tWV noA.t'tOOv w<; 9EWPll'ttKO<; wno<;. Ilpoxemn ytU EvU VEO CPUtVOJ.lEVO nou av'tAEi rnv 8uvuJ.ltKit ron uno rrrv nnstpouopcpiu 'tWV «KtvTJO"EWV noA.t'tOOv» O"E 01..11 'tllv ucp"A.tO, KtvTJo"Et<; non 8EV svtriocovrm O"E KavEvU 9EWPll'ttKO nA.uiO"to " WEOAoytKit O"'taO"'l1 !lUa EtO"1t1l80uv O"E 6A.u. Av Kat W<; evvoi« nou 'tOvtSEt 'tllv (O"XE't1Kit) uU'toppu9J.ltO"l1 'tll<; xorvrovtcc unEvuv'tt o rouq nOA.t'ttKoU<; 9EO"J.lOU<; KU'taYE'tUt uno rov AptO"'tO'tEA.ll Kat t8iw<; uno rov TOK~iA., 11 O"'I1llEptvTJ npuYJ.lU't1KO'tll'ta stvm rooo 8tcpopOUJ.lEVllnOU Ent8EXE'tUt nOA.A.UnA.E<; UVUyvOOo"Et<;. ~EV EXEt 9EO"l1 E800 J.ltU ~tuO"'ttKit atO"t080Siu 0't1 'to vEonuYE<; uU'to KotVWvtKO tonto O"'I1J.lUiVEt rov OptO"'t1KO evruqnuO"J.lo rrov naAatoov 80J.lOOv Kat voorpomdrv, rnv ptstKit XEtpUCPE'tll0"'l1 ron EVEPYOU noA.i'tll uno rov KPU't1KtO"J.lO W<; npuYJ.lU't1Ko'tll'tU

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 76

uUa Kat W<; 'lfUXOA.oytKit np08ta9EO"'I1 J.lEO"U orov i8to. H noA.A.unA.O'tll'tu, 'to E'tEPOKA.ll'tO rorv O"'tOXeUO"EWV KUt rov 80J.lOOv, stvm KU'tUO"'tU'ttKO yvOOptO"J.lu rorv xcrvoqxrvdrv KOtVWVtKOOV KtVllJ.latrov. Ano 'tllV UUll oJ.lw<; nAmpa etvoi u8tuJ.lCPtO"~"'tll't0 o'tt 11 EKPllSll uu'tfJ EXEt uvuSWOyOvTJo"Et rnv noA.t'ttKit npUK't1Kit. Xropf; vn Est8uvtKEUOUIlE, stvm eUAoyo vn uvuyvwpiO"OUJ.lE 0"'t0 ui'tllJ.lU 'tll<; uurovoutac rrov E9EA.OV'ttKOOV npw'to~OUA.tOOv KUt O"UVEVOOO"EWV J.ltU npOKA.llO"'11npo<; 'tllV noA.t'ttKit EsouO"iu vn a7ro&i?:el rnv xotvrovtK" 'tll<; wCPEA.tJ.lO'tll'tU KUt vn unoK't"O"Et J.ltU KUtVOUpytU vouuiosotnon.

Y napxouv, onw<; 't1<; Kw8tKOnotEi o Edwards, tpeu; oxoxlivoooe; 7rpoueyyiuelC; ornv EPJ.lllvEiu rou CPUtVOJ.lEvOU 'tll<; Kotvwviu<; rov noA.t'tOOv. H 1lpwTf/, rrrv ozotc ovo J.lasEt «veO-7:01CpIAzavr/», 9EWPEi 'to CPUtVOJ.lEVO rrov uu90PJ.lll'tWV O"UVEVOOO"EWV rmv noA.t'tOOv -UO"XE'tW<; rorv O"Konoov roue- W<; curooxono. MEO"u uno 'tllV aO"KllO"'l1 uu'tfJ<; 'tll<; 'tomKit<; npw'to~ouA.iu<; unoK'tOuv ru u'toJ.ltKa Kat O"UA.A.oytKa unOKEillEvc O"Uvui0"9110"'11 'tll<; 8uvuJ.l"<; roue, npayJ.lu non uompe] uno 'to Q"UYKEV'tPW't1KO Kpa'tO<; 6A.0 Kat IlEYUA.U'tEPU 'tJ.l"J.lu'tu 'tll<; 8tKatO- 800"iu<; rou KUt 'tll<; Em~OA."<; rou, H UV't1KPU'ttKit Kat UV't1noA.t'ttKit uu'tfJ 'ton09E'tll0"11 J.lnopEi vunapEt El'tE 8Esta strs UptO"'tEP" WEOAoytKit xpota. Mia ~e6T8p" avw."",,,, non 'tllv 8tUWnwO"E mo OpuJ.lU't1Ka o Ba'tO"A.ucp Xa~EA. (w<; llYE'tll<; ~E~atU rorv 8tucpwvouv'twv KUt OXt w<; npoE8po<; xeromv 'tll<; xoopu<; ron), ~AEnEt ornv AEt'tOUpyiu rorv uU'tOVOJ.lWV EVOOO"EWV rov noA.t'tOOv

Eva &ovmAOYlla5 GYxdpYfpa yta va Opt09Ei Kat va npay~a'tro9Ei T'I «KaA~ xouovia», EKEiVT'l 8T'1Aa8" nou ~EnEPVaEt rov nOAtTtKO aU'tapXtO~O, 'tT'Iv avtoo'tT'l'ta Kat rou; anOKAEto~OU~ nou xapaK'tT'Ipi~ouv 'tT'Iv unapxouoa. Ilpoxsum 8T'1Aa8" yta Eva nEipa~a aKpt~OO~ 8T'1~toupyia~ ~ta~ EVaUaK'ttK'fJ~ nOAt'ttK'fJ~ 'ta~T'I~. YnapX81 'riloq 'I Oewp'lu'I, non EnE~Epya09T'1KE ~E rov mo 9EroPT'l'ttKa OAoKA.T'lpro~O rpoao 0 Xapneppac;, non nsptypacpEt 'tT'lv uurovouncn 'tT'l~ xorvorvicq rrov nOAt'toov ro~ Ka'taoKEu" ~ta~ «bYfpDulac; aeaiptu:», EVO~ Ev8ta~EOOU 8T'1Aa8" xoopou ava~Eoa ornv t8tro'ttK'fJ ~ro" Kat ornv nOAt'ttK'fJ 9Eo~tK'fJ 'ta~T'I. ~'tov Xoopo au'to cru~~tOOVOuv cruvEt8T'1'tonotT'l~a unoxetusvu ~E EV'tEA.ro~ 8tacpopE'ttKe~ O'tOXEUOEt~ Kat npO~AT'I~a'tto~OU~, nou o~ro~ 6A.a ano KOtVOU exouv EnE~Epya09Ei rou; EAax,tcroix 8ta8tKao'ttKOU~ opou; non E~aocpaAi~ouv 'tOOO rnv t8tuuspomtu rou Ka9EVO~ ~EXropto'ta 000 Kat 'tT'Iv 0'totXEtoo8T'1 a~Ot~ato'tT'l'ta nou anat'tEl 0 8taA.oyo~. H 8T'1~0O"ta ocpaipa, AOtnOV, stvm nEptoxit rou 8taA.6- you Kat rou 8taAEK'ttKOU ,,90u~, nou ~aoi~E'tat EnaVro crnv avayvWpltTYf ron UUou (au'tOu nou 8tacprovEl ~a~i ~a~) ro~ iconuou. Auto onuutvst 'tT'lV napai'tT'lO"T'l ano Ka9E ~opcp" ~ia~ o'tT'lv Em~oA" rorv 8tKOOV ~a~ anO'l'Erov, rnv nPOOna9Eta va 80U~E rov KOO~O Kat ~eoa ano rn ~a'tta LOU aAAOU Kat rnv avayvooptoT'l ron op90U A.6you ro~ rou ~OVa8tKOU xprrqptou yta rnv EmKpa'tT'lOT'l rcrv t8EOOV. Anroi non 8ta~OuAEuov'tat crnv 8T'1~0O"ta ocpaipa exouv npo ocp9aA~OOv rn ~EyaA.a ~T'lTiJ~a'ta zou anaoxo-

AOUV cruVOAtKa 'tT'Iv xoworvto, 8EV ~T'I'touv o~ro~ va UnOKa'taO'taoouv 'to Kpa'tO~, nUa va E1tTlPEaOOUV 'tt~ nOAt'ttKe~ rou EntA.oye~. 'Eva~ ~aO"tKO~ Kiv8uvo~ non anEtAEi criJ~pa 'tT'I 8T'1~0O"ta ocpaipa efvm T'I anolKlOnoiYf~ 'tT'I~ ano otKOVO~tKa Kat E~OUotaOnKa cru~cpepovrn nou geAouv va 'tT'Iv Ka'taoTiJoouv opyava ~Evrov npo~ auTiJv oxomponirmv .

Ka~~ta ano 'tt~ 'tpEi~ au'te~ EP~T'lVEiE~, op9a unoypa~~i~Et 0 Edwards, 8EV Ka'teXEt 'tT'Iv nA"PT'l aA,,9Eta yta 'to qxnvousvo non aVaAUEt, nUa Ka9E ~ta ayyi~Et ~Exropto'te~ Kat oT'l~av'ttKe~ nroxe~ ron. H nPOOna9Eta yta 'tT'Iv unayroyiJ 'tT'I~ npay~anKO'tT'l'ta~ 'tT'I~ Kotvrovia~ rorv nOAt'toov OE ~ta uovocnuuvm 9EroPT'l'ttK" " t8EOAOytK'fJ npO~AT'I~anK'fJ sivm E~ optouou anovEuprooT'l Kat E~ou8E'teproo" rou. Dnro~ 'tOvi~Et o M. Walzer, Eva~ ano rou; mo oT'l~av'ttKou~ 9EroPT'l'ttKOU~ 'tT'l~ Kotvrovia~ rrov nOAt'toov o,,~pa, T'I 8T'1~0O"ta ocpaipa 000 Kt av eXEt ro~ YEVtKO O"Kono rnv EnE~Epyaoia EVO~ ~ov'teAOu Ent9u~T'I't,,~ xoworvuoj; OUYKPO'tT'lOT'l~ nou 8UVT'l'ttKa 9a ~nopouoE va E~aocpaA.ioEt utu npaK'ttK" ouvcdveon, EK rorv npay~a'trov, Eni rou E8acpOU~, 8EV efvm napa Eva nE8io av'tUyrovto~OU noUoov E'tEPOKAT'I'troV ~Ae'l'Erov Kat 0'toX09EO"toov nou 8EV Ka'taA"YOuv OE EVonOtT'l~EvE~ 9EroP"OEt~ Kat a~tOAoyiJoEt~. To EYXEipT'l~a rou 8taAoyou Kat 'tT'I~ Ka'tavOT'l'ttK'fJ~ ~E'tOX"~ o'tt~ Koo~09EroP"OEt~ rou aUou 8EV Ka'taA"YEt napa 01tllvta OE cruyKA.iOE~ Kat ouuqxoviE~. Au'to 8EV aKUpOOVEt ~e~ata 'tT'lv vojuuornt« rorv 8ta8tKaonKoov pu9~ioEroV nou nponvu-

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 77

cpepa~E ('tT'IV anayopEuoT'l 'tT'I~ ~ia~ Kat rnv avayvooptoT'l 'tT'I~ to"o'tT'l'ta~ OAroV), nUa ~a~ npoEt80notEi va ~T'lv nEpt~Evou~E nsptocorspc ano 'tT'Iv XEtpacpe'tT'lO"T'l 'tT'l~ nporro~ouAia~ rrov nOAt'toov an' ooa ~nopEi npaK'ttKa Kat E~nEtPtKa va anocpepEt. H ~rov'taVta Kat T'I 8T'1~tOUpytKO'tT'l'tU 'tT'I~ au'tovo~T'I~ 8paO"T'l~ anD PDVYf UfC; 8EV stvm EXeyyUO yta rnv napayroy" OUAAOytKOOV np0'tunrov Kat uopqxov ~ro"~. MovaXa eva~ aKpa'tO~ ouromouo; 9a 8tEKptVE crqv "uuropjnvmon" rorv Eni ~pou~ KOtVroVtKOOV 0~a8rov rnv navaKEta yta 'tT'Iv unep~aoT'l rorv O"T'I~EPtvOOV 8UoAEt'tOUPytoov.

To 9E~EAtaKO npO~AT'I~a 'tT'l~ au'tovo~T'I~ 8paO"T'l~ zou cruviJ9ro~ npO~A.EnE'tat stvm 'to E~"~: T'I Suvut ornru ~eoa ano rrtv OU~~E'tOX" OE utn KAEtO't" E9EAOV'ttK" 0~a8a nou cru~~pi~E'tat Eva KOtVO o'toxo va ano~ovro90uv tu ~eAT'I 'tT'l~ ano 'to cruUOytKO yiYVE09at, va a8tacpopnoouv yta 'to YEvtKO KaAO, Kat va avan.u~ouv ~ta craon aV'ttna9Eta~ av OXt ~ioou~ npo~ 6A.ou~ roue aAAOU~ zou ~E'texouv orov 8T'1~0O"t0 8taAoYO Kat npa~T'I. Min aKo~a mo aKpaia EK80xit 'tT'I~ napEVepYEta~ stvct va ~AenEt KavEi~ 'to 8T'1~00to cru~cpepov ~OVO ~eoa ano n~ 8t01t'tPE~ rou 8tKOU t o u OUYKEKpt~eVOu EV8tacpepov'tO~, nEptcp povcovru; n~ cruvenEtE~ non 9a EiXE ~ta ~OVo~p,,~ Em~OA" ron 8tKOU 'tOU o't0XOU navro ornv cruVOAtK'fJ ~ro" 'tT'I~ Kotvrovia~. To KiVT'l~a n.x. yta rn 8tKatOO~a'ta rov ~oorov efvm Eva ano 'tU mo a~tOAoya vea KtviJ~a'tU trov 'tEAEu'tairov x.povrov. To va anat'tE~ o~ro~ 'tT'Iv a~E0"T'I8taKOn" trov nEtpa~a'trov navro OE ~ooa (Kat

tOiOlC; npompe6yoV'taC; O"'t11v ~ia, OnOlC; 'to Animal Liberation Front 'tTIC; Bpercvvicq) XOlpiC; va O"E EVOtacpEpouv notEC; 9a it'tuv ot cruvEnEtEC; yta 'tTIv napayOlyft VEOlV cpapl .. uIKOlV OEV sivut 9E~mit npo~oAit luac; tOtai'tEP11C; 0"'tOX09EO"iac;, nUa au9aipE'tTI Em~oAit rou OtKOU oou EVOtacpEpov'tOC; navOl 0"'t0 KotVOlVlKO crUVOAO.

H svepyonotnon 'tTIC; KOtvOlViac; rrov nOAt'tCov aivrn O"UVE1tC:OC; avayxaia aMa 6Xl tau lICavr, cruv9itKll yta'tTIv ollluoupyia luac; O"UVOAtKitC; 9EO"IuKitC; 'ta~11C; EAEU9Epiac; Kat to"o't11'tac;. Mai;i IlE 'tTIV EKAUO"11 'tTIC; O"KE'IfTIC; Kat 'tTIC; opaO"llC; ano tu Ka'tOl xpEtai;E'tat 'tau'toxpova xt Eva nOAt'ttKo Kpa'toc; non anOO"'tai;Et Kat cruV9E'tEt rn napaYOlya au'tou 'tOU KotKOlVlKOU ~paO"ll0 'tOV onoio EVOl'tit;E'tat. Eva 'tE'totO Kpa'toc; 9a it'tav cpuO"tKa ICpamc; veoo W1COV,

nOto'ttKa otacpopo ano 'to O"UYKEV'tpOl'ttKO Kpa'tOC; 't11C; OtotK11'ttKitC; Ent~oAitc; nou yvOlpii;oUIlE ano rnv nOAt'ttKlt llaC; nEipa -xm ot zsptooorspoi ano llaC;, OUO"'tUXOOC;, E~aKoAou90UIlE va Ent9UIlOUIlE, uno 't11V npOUn09EO"ll on EJlEiC; 'to EXOUIlE orn XEpta Ilac;.

H xotvorvin Aot1tOV tmv nOAt'tOOV OE IlnopEi va 'tauni;E'tat IlE 'to crUVOAO rcov 1l0PCPOOV 'tTIC; opaO"llC; nou cruvanO'tEAoUV 'tOV uv9poontvo ~io. Etvm Eva 1l0VO O"'totXEio 'tOU, zou ~E~ata orcv urpoesi ~Aan'tE'tat 11 cruVOAtKlt uYEia rou KotVOlVlKOU opvcvtouou. 00"0 xt av sivm nOAU OUO"KOAO, crullnEpaivst 0 Edwards, va Ka'taAit~ouIlE O"E opio-rucn O"ullnEpaO"lla'ta, unapXEt Evac; Ka90011Y11'ttKOC; Kuvovac; zou EXEt anOKpUO"'taAA0l9Ei IlEO"a ano 'tTIV unapxouO"a it011 EllnEtpia rorv MKO: on 0 mo

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 78

npco qiopoq 'tponoc; yta va Em'tEUx90uv ot O"'t0Xot rou; stvm 11 cruvEpyaO"ia IlE 'ttC; IDEC; O"cpaipEC; r o u 0111l00"tOU ~iou IltaC; EAeu9EP11C; KotVO'tTI'taC;, 011Aaoit nc; EmXEtPitO"EtC; Kat rou; KpanKOUC; cpopEiC;, uno 'tTIV npOUn09EO"ll on unapxouv ru EXEyyua yta 'tTIV anocpuyft 'tTIC; aAmO"llC; rorv rmrovo- 1l00V opyaVOOO"EOlV rov nOAt'tOOV ano aAAO'tpta cruIlCPEPOV'ta Kat ~M'I'EtC;.

ME nOAuXPOV11 npOO"OlntKit crullJlE'tOxit O"'tTIv oouAeta onucvnxdrv MKO onOlC; 11 OXFAM 0 Edwards EXEt O"uyypa'l'Et Eva nOV11lla non na'tUet O"'tEpea mlvOl O"'tTIV npaKnKlt EllnEtpia Kat llaC; cvotyst ra Ilana 't00"0 yta 'tTIV JlEyaA11 unoO"XEO"11 nou CPEPVEt O"'tOV nOAt'ttKO O"n~o 11 acpU1tVtO"ll 'tTIC; xoworvta; rcov nOAt'tOOV, 00"0 Kat yta 't11V E~atpE'tKft uvruperuco'tTl 't a 'tTl C;.

J\orOTEXNIKEI nAPEMBAIEII

nANGHPAI

R. M. Rilke

To ~OTlO TOU aTO aloEptvlO KAoul3i KOPCPc0VOVTOI co vo ~Il I3Atnouv

Eve KAoul3i crro nAEy~tvo KOYKEAO KI eve xoouo ovurrooxro on' t~cu

AUTOe;; al3tAToe;; aTplcpoyupi~EI orro YCUVIO oe YCUVIO KI 0 nrrortvioc xc0poe;; TOU TOV E~opyi~EI

XOPEUEI 11 OUVO~Il, OAAO aTOV KUKAIKO xopo MIO KoPCPCU~tvIl 8tAIlall I3AtnEIe;; uovo

MtVEI 130ul3oe;; KI OTOV KonOTE TO ~OTIO TOU all Kc0VEI Eu8ue;; ~IO EIKOVO orro TOV t~cu xoouo TTlOVEI An' TO acply~tvo ~tAIl TOU ~ YOA~VIl anO~EI

AAAO ~ EIKOVO rrou 'CPUYE ~Ee;; ornv KOPOIO TOU al3~vEI KOI Alc0VEI.

(Arro Til aUAAOY~ «NOEe;; 'A VOEe;;»

EKo. 'IKOpOe;;, A8~vo 2007)

A van a pay to y f) ELK 6 v a <; - 'H X 0 U

Korvcovlo nOAIT~V 80

TClC. 't8A,8U''CClC.lClC. xeOVtClC. 1:0 yetiflflClC. ClC.U'tO sX8t OUV8888l, fl8 TYjV 8tClC.tpOe8UX~ XClC.t 1WtO'ttX~ neo'tClC.o'Yj ouc; 't'YjA,801ntXsC; XClC.t eClC.8totpwvtXSC; 8tClC.tp'Yjfllo8tC; XClC.t O"CtC; nClC.eClC.ywysc;. ElVClC.t ouvdivuuo rou new'tonOetClC.XOU XClC.t XClC.tvo't0floU OX88tClC.OflOU 8'tClC.tetXOU XClC.t 8tClC.tp'Yjfltouxou evnmou, 't'YjC; to"Coo8A,l8ClC.c;, XClC.8wc; XClC.t ttov OA,OXA,'Yjewflsvwv neO'!tio8wv 0X88tClC.0flOU XClC.t 8tClC.x8leto'Yjc; 8'tClC.tetX~c; 8ntXOlVWvlClC.c;.

H OtCltpO(!cl 8tVClt G't'1V nOtO't'1'tCl

AglO'"CO'"C8AOUC; 29 Ko~civ'1 T'1A. Fax 2461037711

01 IYNEPrATEI TOY TEYXOYI

NiKO~ Mo'V~tA,T)~: OflO't1flOC; Ka811Yll't1lC; KotvrovtoA,oyiac; oro London School of Economics, Ilposdpoq 'tllC; Evmorp; Iloxrrrov yta 'tllv IIapefl~aO"fl.

IIl:P1KA,1l~ Ba(nA,61to'VJ..o~: L1T)fl00"10YPU<poC;, A/1tpoe8poc; 'tllC; Evroorp; IIoA,1ubv Y1a rnv IIapefl~aoll·

Paul Hirst: Ka811Yll't1lC; Kowrovuoj; 0eropiac;.

Michael Walzer: Ka911Yll't1lC; IIoA,1't1K1lC; cI>tJ..ooo<piac;.

AJ..t~avopo~ ~proA,O~: Ka911Yll"'C; ~'UV'taYflanKou L11Kaiou, IIpoe8poc; 'tflC; IIoA,1't1KijC; E1t1'tpo1t1lC; E9v1Kijc;A1teA.eugeproO"flC;.

Adam Smith: ~KOO'tOC; cI>tJ..ooo<pOC;.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: repflavoc; cI>tJ..Ooo<pOC;.

naVVT)~ IIavay61to'VJ..o~: IIpoe8poc; r~EE.

lroavvT)~ Y<pav'T61to'VJ..o~: Ka911Yll"'C; K01VroV1KijC; IIoA,1't1Kij C;.

Goran Persson: IIpOOllV IIpro9u1toupyoC; 'tflC; ~ou1l8iac;.

Ba(JiA,T)~ MaYKAapa~: IIoA,1't1KoC; E1t1o't1lflrov, L1WUO"Krov oro EAlI.

@ava(JT)~ IIa1tav'Trov61to'VA,o~: IIapayroyoc; 'tflA,eopaO"flC;.

IIEP1KA.1l~ Balllavo~: Ava1tA,llPro"'C; Ka911Yll"'C; IIoA,1't1Kij C; cI>tJ..ooo<piac;.

AV'TrovT)~ MaKp'VOT)J1ll'TPT)~: Ka911Yll't1lC; L1101KflnKijc; E1t10"'flllC;.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->