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Baigiang 4-5 Duong Thang va Mat phang trong khong gian

Baigiang 4-5 Duong Thang va Mat phang trong khong gian

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06/04/2010

Bai giang sa 4 va sa 5

auDNli THANIi vA M~ T PHANIi TRDNIi KHDNIi IiIAN

Cac bai toan v~ duemg thing va m~t ph~ng trong khong gian luon luon co m~t trong cac d~ thi v~ mon Toan & cac ki thi vao Dai hoc va Cao d~ng trong nhirng nam g~n day (2002-2009).

Bai giang nay d~ c~p d~n nhtrng van d~ sau: - Thi~t I~p plurong trinh l11~t phang,

- Thi~t I~p phirong trinh duong th~ng.

- Cac bai toan xac dinh di~111 va cac y~u t6 khac trong hinh hoc khong gian.

§l. BAI ToAN THIET L!P PHUONG TRiNH MAT PHJ\NG

Vi~c thi~t I~p plurong trinh l11~t phang diroc dua tren cac ki~n thirc co ban sau:

1/ Ii va b la mot c~p vecto chi phuong cua l11~t phang (P) n~u chung khong cung phuong va gia ella chung song song voi (P) hoac n~111 tren (P). Khi do:

n = [ii, bJ la met vecto phap tuyen cua (P). rr jrt

2/ PI1lI'0'ng trinh tong quat ella (P) co dang: --

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 (voi A2+ B2+ C2>"0). ~

Khi do i~ =(A;B;C) la l11(>t, vecto Ph.aP tuyen cua (P)./ /

3/ M~t phang di qua diem M(xo; Yo; zo) va LL_L:!...._ ~.

nhan I; = (A;B;C) lam vee to' phap tuyen co dang:

A ( x - xo) + B (y - Yo) + C ( z - Zo ) = 0 . 4/ M~t phang thea doan chan:

M~t phang di qua diem A(a;O;O); B(O:b;O); C(O;O;e) voi a.b.c =f. 0 co dang:

r

~+r+~=I. abc

Duoi dang IUl)' ta noi mat phang co phuong trinh theo doan chan.

Cdc dang totln co ban

Loai 1: Cac bai toan co ban I?p plurong trinh l11~t phang:

Cac bai toan co ban I~p plurong trinh l11~t phang g6m cac bai toan sau day:

- Vi~t phirong trinh l11~t phang di qua di~111

M (xo. Yo, zo) va nhan vecto n = (A;B;C) lam vecto phap tuyen.

59

Phuong trinh cua no hi: A(x-xlI) + B(y-yn) + C(z-zo) = O.

- Vi~t phuong trinh llI~t phang di qua ba diem A. 8, C khong thang hang cho truce.

M~t phang dn tim nhan hai vecto AB, AC lam hai vecto chi phuong . Khi do bai toan quy v~: Viet plurong trinh mat phang nhan I~ 0=: [A~, AC] la vecto phap tuyen va di qua A.

- Viet plnrong trinh mat phang di qua mot diem A va song song vai hai duong thang d. d-.

Khi do bai toan quy Y~: Vi~t phuong trinh m~H phang qua A va nhan

• r- -"l ."

n = l. 1I \ • 1I: j lam vecto phap tuyen, a etay u\. 1I ~

tuong irng Iii cac vecto chi plurong cua u, va d].

- V iet plurong trinh mat phang clura hai duoug thang song song d, Y'} d2 (d,lld2).

LAy diem ME d. NEd]. Bai toan. quy v~ viet

plurong trinh m~t phang nhan hai vecto MN. u; (u, la vecto chi plurong cua d.) va di qua diem M.

Ngoai ra con nhieu bai toan khac Ct1 the quy v~ cac dang CO" bun tren sau cac pIH~P bien d6i don gian.

TIIi tlfl 1: (DJ thi IlIyi" sinh D(Ii 11{le k"Di B - 2008)

Trong khong gian voi h¢ toa dc) Oxyz cho ba diem A(O: 1:2): 8(2: -2: J):

C(-2;0; I). Viet plurong trinh m~t phang di qua A. B. C.

Gii,i

M~t phang cAn tim nhan:

ll; == A-S =.:: (2; -3: 1 ) va u; = AC = ( -2; -I; -I ) lam c~p vccto ch i phuong.

Do del vecto phap tuyen I~ cua no la:

. [. 'J(I-.3-111-1 2112 --31)

n= 1I1:1I~ _cJ-I--I:-1-2;1-2-1 =(2;4:-8)1/(1:2:'-4).

V ~y mfit phfing dn tim co dang: l(x-0)+2(y-I)-4(z-2)=O~ x+2y-4z+6=O.

Thi t/(I 2: (DJ thi t"yi" sinh D{li "{Ie kluJi B - 2()()6)

Trang khong gian voi h~ toa d(l Oxyz, cho diem A(O: 1 :2) va hai duong thang

d x v - I z + 3 . d {X = I +1 t ")

,: -2'='::")-=--=1-- \4\ .: y=.- -~t

z=2+t

ViJt plurong trinh m~t phang (P) qua A. d6ng thoi sang song voi d. va dc, Ghii

Duong thang d. co vecto chi plurong ll: ::: (2; I; -I) ,

Duong thang d2 co vecto chi plurong u; '" (I; -2; I) ,

60

Vi (P) song song voi d, va d2 IH!n nhan ul va u~ 1.1 c~p vecto chi plurong.

(Chu Y u; va u~ kh6ng cung phuong), Do do (P) nhan I~ = [u;, u;] lam vecto phap tuyen. Ta e6:

- [_. --] [II -111-1 2112 III

n= UI,U2 = -21:1 2;1 2 ==(-1;3:-5)~

M~t khac (P) di qua A (0; I ;2) nen (P) c6 dang

-I (x-O) - 3(y-l) -5(z-2) == 0 ~ x + 3y + 5z -13 == o.

TIIi tI{t 3: (Di thi 111.1'8" sinh D(li II!le klu7i B - 2005)

Trang kh6ng gian voi h~ toa d<) Oxyz cho hinh lang tru dung ABC.AIBICI voi A(O: -3:0): B(4:0:0); C(O;3;0); B,(4:0:4). G9i M Iii trung diem ella AIBI. Viet phuong trinh m~t phang (P) di qua A, M va song song vo'i BC I.

Giiii Ta co: AI==(O; --3;40 va CI = (0;3;4)

Vi M 1.1 trung diem cua A,B, nen M == (2;-%;4)

Tu do co: AIVi -=( 2;~;4) va 8C;=(-4;3:--4)

M~t phang (P) di qua A, M va song song voi BC, nen nhan hai vecto AM va BCI lam e~p vecto chi phuong. Do v~i) vecto phap tuyen I~ cua (P) xac dinh nlur sau:

. [ . 'J (I~ 41 14 21 2 ~ 'J

n=c AM,Be; =l'12 ,;-4 -4; ,2 ==(-6;-24;12)//(-1;-4:2)

3 -41 -4 3

M(lt phang (P) di qua A nen no co phuong trinh 1;\:

-- (x+6) - 4(y+24) +2{z-12) == 0 <=/ X + 4y - 2z + 12 = 0 TIIi tI{t 4: (Da thi IllY;" Ji,,11 D{li 1'{le klu7i D - 2(}05)

Trong khong gian cho hai duong thang:

x-I y+2 z+l.

d =-::::--.==--

I 3 -I 2'

{X 1- V - Z - 2 = 0

d , : •

- x+3y--12=0

1/ Chung minh d, i/ d.,

2/ Vi~t plurong trinh m(lt phang (P) chua ca (d.) va (d-).

Ghli

1/ Duong th5ng d, co vecto chi plurong lil ll; =: (3: -I: 2) va di qua diem M( I : -2; I).

Duong thang de co vee to chi phuong la:

- (II '-III-I 11I1

uc':::l3 0;0 1;11

~Il == (3;-1;2).

Nhu v~iy ul == lI2 .

M~t khac di~111 M (I; -2; -I) khong thuoc d2 (hien nhien), do do d, // d2 =>dpcm.

61

21 Cho y = 0 trong h~ phuong trinh X3C dinh d2, ta co:

{X-Z-2=O <=>{X=12.

x-12=0 z=10

-----+...:;,;_-- d I V ~y d2 di qua di~m N (12;0; 1 0).

Tir do: MN = (11;2; II).

M~t phang (P) chua (d.) va (d2) nhdn c~p vecto.

MN =(11;2;11) va l~ =(3;-1;2) lam c~p vecto chi

phuong nen vecto phap n cua (P) xac dinh nlur sau:

- [ ---- ---'J (12 111111 111111 21)

n= Mbl.u, = -12;2 3;3-1 =(15;11;-17).

R6 rang (P) di qua M (I; -2: -I) nen (P) co phirong trinh:

15(x--I) + II (y+2) - 17(z+ I) = 0 <=> 15x + 11y - 17z -1 0 =0.

Thl tI{t 5: (DJ II'; luyi" sinh D(li II{)e kllJi A - 2002) Trang khong gian voi he toa dQ Oxyz cho hai duong thang

{X-2Y+Z-4=0 {X=I+t

d. : ; d?: y = 2 + t

X + 2y - 2z + 4 = 0 -

z = 1 + 2t

Vi~t plurong trinh l11~t phang (P) chira d. va song song voi d2• Ghii

Duong thang d2 co vecto chi phuong: u; = (1;1;2).

Duong thang d, co vecto chi phirong:

u; =(1~2 -~1;1~2 \1;1: -~1)=(2;3;4)

{X - 2y = 4 {x = °

Trang h~ plurong trinh xac djnh d, eho z = 0, ta co: <=>

x + 2y = -4 Y =-2

Vay M(O; -2;0) E d..

M~t phang (P) clura d, song song voi d-, nen nh~n cac vecto til; tl2 lam c~p

vecto chi phuong, do do no co vecto phap tuyen ;~ la:

,; = [u;. ~J = (I~ ~I;I: ~I;I~ 131) = (2;0; -I)

Do (P) chua d, nen M E (P). Vi th~ (P) co phuong trinh la: 2(x-0) - (z-O) = 0 <=> 2x - z = 0

Tltl tI{t 6: (DJ thi luyi" sinh Cao utillg kllJi A, B, D - 2009)

Vi~t plurong trinh m~t phang (P) di qua di~m A (1; I; I) va d6ng thoi vuong goc voi ca hai l11~t phang:

(PI): x + 2y + 3z -I- 4 = 0 va (P2): 3x + 2y - z + I = O.

L..__L_~_d1 _M ~7

62

Ghii

R5 rang (P,), (P2) dt nhau vi ~:# %, do do giao tuyen:

{X + 2y + 3z + 4 = 0

d: vuong goc vo'i (P).

3x+2y-z+I=0

Duong thang d co vecto chi phuong la:

11 =(12. 3'1.13 11.11 21)=(-8'10'-4)//(4'-5'2)

2-1'-13'32 " ",

ii chinh la vectc phap tuyen cua (P). Do (pf qua A( I; I; I), nen (P) co plurong trinh la: 4(x-l) - 5(y-l) + 2(z-l) = 0

<=> 4x-5y = 2z-1 = 0

TIIi d(1 7: (DJ tlti IlIyJ" sinh C(UJ ti(ing kluji A, B, D - 2(}(}8)

T kl ' . I d' I ; (d) x Y z - 1 r di ~ (I 1 '"

rong . iong gran c 10 uong t lang : - = - = -- va rem A ::-,).

1 -I 2

Vi~t plurong trinh l11~t phang (P) qua diem A va vuong goc voi d.

Giai

Vi (d) thuoc (P) nen vecto chi plnroug (I; -1;2) d

cua d chinh la vecto phap tuyen cua (P).

Do (P) qua A nen (P) co plurong trinh: l(x-I)-I(y-I)+2(z-3)=O

<=> x - y + 2z - 6 = O.

Loai 2: Sir dung plurong trinh churn l11~t • A

phang d& vi~t phirong trinh m~t phang: L.!:.L..- .-J

- Gin Slr cho hai m~t phang (P) va (0) elit nhau:

(P): A,x +B,y + Cjz + D, = 0, (0): A2x + B~y + Cjz + D2 = O.

Khi do m~t phang di qua giao tuyen cua (P) va (0) co dang

a(Alx+ B1y+C1z+ DI)+I3(A2X+ B2y+C:z)=0, (I)

voi a 2 + 132 > 0 .

( I) goi la phuong trinh churn l11~t phang XIlC dinh boi (P) va (0).

- Nguoi ta su' dung plurong trinh chum m~t phang d~ vi~t plurong trinh l11~t phang trong cac bai toan co noi dung sau: Cho dirong thang d viet duoi dang:

(d):{A1X+B1Y+C1Z+D1 =0

A2x+B2y+C2z+D2 =0

Bai toan doi hoi viet phuong trinh l111.\t phang (P) clura (d) va co 1119t tinh chat nao do.

Cach giai bai roan tren ti~n hanh nhu sau:

63

__ ... ~l pnang (I)

~~'" vao dleu ki~n oAu bai ta sc thiet I~p diroc mot phuong trinh nao

do lien h~ giua a,l3.

Butrc 3: Ch(1 y rang a,·p khong o6ng tho·j bang 0, nen se xac djnh diroc a. 13. Thi t/(I I: (Di thi tllyin s intt D{li Il{Je k"6i A - 2002)

Trong khong gian cho hai duong thang

{X-2Y+Z-4::::0 {X::::I+t

[d.}: ; (d~): y::::2+t

z+2v-2z+4::::0

• z:::: I + 2t

I~

Vj~t phuong trlnh l11~t phang clura (d.) vii song song vO'i (d-).

Gh\j

Vi (P) clura (d.) nen (P) thuoc "chum mi,it phang":

a ( x - 2 y + z - 4) + 13( x + 2 y - 2z + 4) :::: 0

¢:>( a+p)x +( -2a+ 213)y+( a--213)z-4a+413=0 (I) (a~ + 132 > 0)

Diroi dang (I) (P) co vecto phap tuyen la: ;~ =(a+[3;-2a+2[3:a--f3) (2)

d ,

Do (P)/ld2. Vi th~ vecto chi plurong li-; :::: (1;1;2) cua d2 phai vuong goc voi I~. 1 co:

u; .l.n ¢:> li~_ii :::: 0 ¢:> a + 13 - 2a + 213 + 2( a - 213) :::: 0 ¢:> a = 13 Do C1.:: + 132 > 0 nen chon 13:::: I => a :::: 1 _

Thay lai vao (1) va co: 2x - z = 0_ Do la plnrong trinh c5n tim ella (P). Nh<in xet

So sanh vb·j each giai co ban cua thi du nay trong thi du 5, loai 1, S 1, co ve giai nay nhanh gon hon.

Tid (/(/2: (Di thi tllyi" sill" D{li "{}e kluji D - 2005) Trong khong gian cho hai dirong tl15l1g:

x -- I Y + I z + I. {x + y - x - x :::: 0

d) :--=--::::-- v:> d,:

3 -I 2 .- x + 3y - 12:::: 0

I Chung minh d,/Id>

'Vi~t phuong trlnh mi,it ph~l1g (P) clura ca d, d2• Ghii

Xem 10'i giai thi du 4. loai I. s I.

Vi (P) clura d- nell (P) thuoc "churn m(it phang'

a(xl-y-z-2)+l3(x+3y-12)=O (I),vai a2 -Iff >0.

i,!!d2 nen d,11 (P). Vi th~ d, E (P) n~lI nlur: M(I; -2; -I) E (P) (0 day ME d.). t1 E (P) nen nr ( I ) ta co phuong trinh

-2a-17f~::::0 (2)

Tir (2) va do a2 + rf > O. nen chon 13 = -2;a = 17 . Thay lai vito (I) ta co : (P): 15x + II y - 17z - 10 = O.

NMII xet: Hay so sanh voi loi giai cling cua thi du nay trong thi du 4, loai I, § I dua ra nh~n xet,

Tlii ti!13

Cho diem A(-I;:2;3).Vi~t phuong trinh m~t phang (P) clura duong th~ng

{2X - y -I = 0 . .

d: va khoang each tir A den d bang 3.

z-I =0

GhB

M~t phang (P) clura (d) nen thuoc chum m~t phang

a (2x - y - I) + 13( z - I) = 0 ¢:> 2ax - tty + I3z - a -13 = 0 (I), voi a 2 + 132 > O.

Vi d(A,d) = 3 nen ta co:

!-2a-2a+3r3-a-l3! ( '(") , ,

, , , =3¢:> 213-5af=9 5a-+I3- ¢:>20a-+20al3+513-=0

~4a- + a- + 13-

.

¢:> (2a + (3)2 =0 ¢:>13+2a=0 (2)

Do aC + 132> 0 nen tir (2) chon a =1,13 = -2.

Thay lai vao (I) ta co: (P): 2x - y - 2z + I = 0 .

Thi d!1 4: (DJ thi Illyill sinh Cao d(illg Str plunn QlItlllg Ng(ii - 2006) Lap phuong trinh m~t phang chira dirong thang:

{2X - y + 3z - 5 = 0 dl:

x+2y-z=0

va vuong goc voi m~t phang (0): x - 2y + 2z - 10 = O.

Ghii

M~t phang (P) clura (d I) nen 11t) thuoc churn:

a(2y+3z-5)+l3(x+2y-x)=0

¢:> (2a + (3) x + (-a + 2(3)y + (3a -(3)z - Sa = 0 (I) aC+132>O.

vecto phap cua (P) la: 11: =(2a+p;-a+2p;3a-p). rt

Vecto phap cua (0) la: 11(.~ = (1:-2;2). Do (P) 1. (0) => nl'.nQ = 0

¢:> 2a + 13 + 2a - 413 + 6a - 213 = 0 ¢:> l On - 513 = 0 ¢:> 13 =' 2a Thay lai vao (I) ta eo: (P): 4x - 3y + Z - 5 = 0 (vi a2 + 132 > 0). Nhdn xet: So sanh each giai tren voi each giai CO' ban sau:

(P) nhan vecto chi phuong ul cua (d.) va vecto phap cua (0) lam c~p vecto chi phirong,

Taco: ll; =[1-1 31;13 21;12 -Ill =\-5;5;5)//(-1;1;1)~ 2 -I -I 1 1 -2

65

V~y vecto phap tuyen ~ cua (P) la:

- - [--- -'J -(II 11.11

n - upnQ - •

-2 2 2

-III-I II)

I; 1 -2 =(4;3;1).

M~t khac do (P) chua (d.) nen noi rieng (P) di qua di~m M nao do cua (d.),

Cho z=O ta co h~ .

{2X - Y = 5 {x = 2 x+2y=0~ y=-I

V~y M =(2;-1;0) e d..

Tir do (P): 4(x-2) + 3(y + I) + Z = 0 ~ 4x + 3y + x-5=0. Ta thu I~i k~t qua tren.

Loai 3: Sir dung plurong trinh theo doan chan d~ vi~t phuong trinh m~t ph5ng. Phuong phap giai cac bai roan nay la dira tnrc tiep vao dang

x v Z -+~+-=I

abc

cua phirong trlnh m~t phang theo'doan chan. Dtra vao cac tinh chat cua m~t phang (P) rna dAu bai doi hoi se thi~t I~p diroc mot h~ plurong trinh d~ xac djnh a. b, c.

TIIi du I:

Vi~t phuong trinh m~t phang (P) bi~t no di qua di~m G( I ;2;3) va cAt cac true Ox, Oy, Oz IAn hrot tai cac diem A, B, C sao cho G la trong Him tam giac ABC.

Giiii

Gia Slr A(a;O;O); B(O;b;O); C(O;O;c) Khi do (P) co dang:

x y Z -+-+-=1. abc

Do (P) di qua G (I ;2;3) nen ta co:

I 2 3 -+-+-=1 (I)

abc

Dtra vao cong tlurc xac dinh toa d9 trong

tam ella tam giac ta co:

{X\ + xs + Xc = 3xG {a = 3

y;\+y[l+Yc=3Y.G~ b=6(2)

z,,+z[l+zc=3zG z=9

Thay lai (2) vao (I) ta thay thoa man vay plurong trinh ella m~t phang (P) lil:

x

~+2'.+~=1. 369

Chit y: Cung dang voi thi du I co th~ la cac bai toan sau:

TIIi d(l 1 a:

Vi~t phirong trinh m~t phang (P) dt cac true Ox, Oy, Oz IAn lirot tai A. B. C sao eho OABC nh~n di~m G( I; 1 ;2) la trong tam ella nr dien.

Giiii

Gia Slr A (a;O;O); B (O;b;O); C (O;O;e). Khi do (P) co dang:

66

~+r+~=1 abc

Theo cong thirc tinh toa dQ trong tam ella nr dien ta co:

. {XO + XA + Xu +xc = 4xG {a = 4

YO+YA+Y8+Yc=4YG¢:> b=4 Zu + ZA + z(j + Zc = 4zG Z = 8 V ~y m~t phang (P) co dang:

~+r+~=1. 448

TI!i d(tJ b: .. ,

Viet plurong trinh m~t phang (P) cat cac true Ox, Oy, Oz Ian IlfQ1 tai A, B; C

sao eho ABC la tam giac d~u va co dien tieh bang 2fj .

Giai

Gia Slr A = (a;O;O); B = (O;b;O); C = (O;O;e). Do AB = AC = BC => a2 = b2 = e2 => [a] = [b] = [c].

~. AB"fj 2a1fj

M~t khae: SAlle = --- = --.

4 4

Vi th~: S:\IlC = 2fj ¢:> a": = 2fj ¢:> [a] = 2. Tir do ta co: lal=lbl=lel=2;

V~y ta co dap s6 sau: a = b = e =2; a = b = e =-2

a = 2, b = e = -2; b = 2, a = e = -2; e =2, b = a = -2; a = b = 2, e = -2; a = e = 2, b = -2; b = e = 2, a = -2.

Nlur vay co tam m~t phang thoa man yeu cAu d~u bai:

~+r+~=I' ..2...+L+_!_=I· ~_r_~=I'

2 2 2 ' -2 -2 -2 ' 2 2 2 '

x Y Z

--+---=1'

2 2 2 '

~_r+~=I' _~+r+~=1.

222' 222

TIt( d(1 2: . . .

Viet plnrong trinh m~t phang (P) qua diem H(2;1;1) va cat cac true Ox, Oy, Oz I~n IlfQ1 tai A, B, C sao cho H la trong tam ella tam giac ABC.

Ghii Gia Slr A=(a;O;O), B=(O;b;O), C=(O;O;e).

Do OA, OB, OC doi I1lQt vuong goc voi nhau, va H la trong tam tam giac ABC suY ra OH .L (ABC), nen:

o~1 =(2; I; I) la mot vecto phap tuyen cua (ABC): ~ + r + ~ = 0 . abc

67

Tir do ta co: _!_:-!_) = 2 : I : I . abc

Hay b = c = 2a. Nlur vay (P) co dang:

(P):2+l'._+~=1 (I)

a 2a 2a •

Do (P) qua H (2; I; I) nen ta co plurong trinh:

2 I I

-+-+-=1 a 2a 2a

z

=> a = 3. Va)' (P) co dang: ~ + r + ~ = 1.

. . 3 6 6

X Nluin xet: Cling dang voi thl du 2, ta co thi du sau:

TIIi du 2(1

L~p phuong trinh ll1~t phang (P) di qua M( I; I; 1), N(3;O; 1), citt true Ox, Oy,

O I~ I . ABC . 'kl' . I . 0 ., (P) b" 3Ji4

z an trot tai , , va co . ioang cae 1 nr to: ang -7- .

Ghli

Gia sir A = (a;O;O). B = (O;b;O), C = (O;O;c) nen (P) co dang: ~ + r + ~ = 1. abc

Khoang each nr diem 0 toi (P) Iii: h = /1 +\_ +1 .

~ a~ b~ c~

Theo bai ra ta co h¢ phuong trinh:

I I I 7 Ji4

-:;- + -, +-:;- = -- = -. (3)

a- b c- 3Ji4 6

. 1 I 3 I

Thay (2) vao ( I) suy ra: - + - + 1- - = - => a = 2b .

a b a 2b

I I I -+-+-=1 abc

3 I -+-=1

(1)

(2)

a c

1" d' 2b

If 0: c=--·

2b-3

Thay lai vao (3) co plurong trinh:

I I (2b - 3 r 7 • 21

_. + _, + . = -- <:::> II b - 54b + 63 = 0 <:::> b = 3 hoac b = - .

4b- b ' 4b- 18 II

+ N~lI b=3 thi (P) co dang: 2 + r + ~ = I.

. 6 3 2

68

N t: b 21 I' P) . d x Y Z I

+ eu = II t 11 ( co ang: 42 + 2T + 42 = .

--- -_- --

II II 9

Lo~i 4: Cac bai toan khac v~ thiet I~p plurong trinh m~t phang:

N~u nhu viec thiet I~p phirong trinh m~t phling co th~ dira v~ mQt trong ba dang co ban tren, thl bai toan co each giili don gian, ro rang va hoan toan co dinh huang. N~u nlur ta g~p mot bai toan thi~t I~p plurong trlnh m~t phang rna thoat dc1u chua th~y ngay no co mQt trong ba dang tren thi dua vao di~u kien dAu bai ta c6 gf.ng dira chung v~ cac dang co ban do, hoac Slr dung tnrc ti~p dang t6ng quat cua phirong trlnh m~t phang:

Ax + By + Cz + D = O.

Khi do ta dn thiJt I~p I11Qt h~ phuong trinh d~ tim A, B, C, D. Th! t/{I J: (DJ th! IlIyli" sill" D{li II!)e kll/ii A - 2008)

Trang khong gian vci h~ toa d(> Oxyz, cho diem A (2;5;3) va dirong thang

d:x-l=r=z-2.

2 I 2

II Tim toa d(> hinh chi~u vuong goc cua A tren d.

21 Vi~t phuong trinh m~t phang (P) chua d sao cho khoang each nr A d~n (P) la Ion nh~t.

Giai

II GQi M lit hinh chieu cua A tren D. Khi do M=( I +2t; t; 2t-l)

=>AM=(2t-l;t-5;2t-I). A

Vi d co vecto chi phuong la: U =(2;1;2). Nen tlr AM .u = 0 ¢::;> 2(2t-1 )+(t-5)+2(2t-l) = 0 <::? 9t - 9 =0 ~ t= I. V~y M = (3;1:4) 21 Ke AH .L (P). Do M E (P) va M E (d) mit (P) clura (d)

=> AH :s; AM. V~y d(A,(P» = AH nh~n gia tr] Ian nhAt khi va chi khi AH=AM ~ H =0 M . Luc do bai toan tro thanh Vi~t plurong trinh (P) qua A(2;5;3)

va nhan AM =0 (I ;-4: I) la vecto phap tuyen. Do do (P) co dang:

(x-2) - 4(y-5) + (z-3) = 0 ~ x - 4y + Z - 3 = O.

Nhdn xet:

I I Nho co phdn a) thl ta quy vi¢c vi~t phirong trinh (P) v~ bai toan co ban (loai I). 21 Gia sir bai toan khong co cau a) Khi do bai toan vi~t plurong trinh (P) chua

th~y ngay thuoc dang co ban nao. Di nhien ta phai nr giai bai toan phu (diu I) d~ dira no v~ dang CO' ban tlur nh~t. Cach giai J1(~)! lei hay I1hdl.

31 Co th~ giai each khac nhir sau:

Vi d co th~ vi~t lai duoi dang:

, {X-2Y-I=0

d:

2y-z+2 =0

nen (P) do clura (d) nen thuoc chum l11~t phang sau:

69

a( x - 2y -I) + j3(2y - z + 2) = 0

+ N~u a = 0 chon 13 = 1 thi luc do (P) co dang (PI): x - 2y - I = 0

Taco: d(A,(P,»)= ~.

+ N~u 13 = 0 chon a = 1 hIC do (P) co dang (P2): 2y - z + 2 = 0 Ta co: d(A,(P2») = ~.

+ Neu a,j3tO, Ifty 13 = I, luc nay (P) co dang: (P): ax + 2(1 - a)y - z + 2 = 0

Khi do: d(A,(P»)= J 1~-9al

Sa- -8a+S

,81(I-a)2 2a2-2

Taco: d-(A,(P»)= , =f(a)~f'(a)=81 "

Sa- -8a + S (Sa: -8a + Sr

Ta co bang bi~n thien:

a -2

81 f(a) 8/ 18~ 0/ 5

S

V~y max cua f(a) ~ a = '-I. Tir do

max d(A,(P» ~ a =-1

Lucnay(P):x-4y+z-3=0(chlIY: 18> ~) Ta thu lai k~t qua tren,

o day ta quy bai toan v~ bai toan co ban: Sir dung phuong trinh "churn m~t phang" d~ giai bai toan I~p phirong trlnh m~t phang. (01 nhien k~t hop them bai toan tim gia tri Io-n nhftt cua ham s6).

Thl d{, 2: (vJ thl t"yill sinh D{li lire, Cao UljUg kluji A - 2006)

Trong kh6ng gian voi h~ toa d<) Oxyz cho hinh I~p plurong ABCO.A'B'C'O' voi A(O;O;O), B( I ;0:0), 0(0; I ;0) A '(0;0; I). Vi~t plurong trinh l11~t phaug clura A 'C

va tao voi m~t phang (Oxy) mot goc a, bi~t cosn = ~ .

Ghii

G ia sfr m~t phang (P) dn tim co vecto phap n = ( a, B: y ) . LAy C =( I; 1 ;0) la di~111 rna (P) di qua khi do (P) co dang: a( x -I) + j3(y -I) + yz = O.

f'( a)

+ 0

o

+

70

Vi (P) con qua A' = (0;0; I) nen ta co: -a - r3 + y = 0 => y = a + r3 .

V~y (P) co dang:

ax+r3y+ ( a + r3) z - a - r3 = 0 .

Ngoai ra 11~ = (a;p;a + P).

M?t phang Oxy co vecto phap tuyen la n: = (0,0; I) nell ta co:

l.l-;.i11 la + r31

cosa = -. - = -r=======:=--

1i1;II~1 Ja2 +r32 +(a+r3)2 .1

x

./ ./

B

Theo bai ra ta co phirong trinh:

la + r31 = _!_ ¢::> 6( a + r3)2 = a2 + r32 + (a + r3)2

Ja2 +r32 +(a+r3)2 6

¢::> 2a 2 + 5ar3 + 2r32 = 0

(R6 rang r3# 0 vi n~u r3=0 => a = 0 rnau thu~n voi a2 + r32 > 0)

¢::> a = -2 hoac a = _ _!_ •

r3 . r3 2

, a

Neu 13 = -2 , chon a = 2, r3 = - I => (P): 2x - y + z - 1 = O.

,a I .

Neu - = --, chon a = I; r3 = -2 => (P): x - 2y - z + 1 = o.

r3 2

V~y eo hai Ill?t phang (P) thoa man yeu cAu dAu bai. TIIi d{13

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz, cho hinh lang tru dung ABC.A 'B'C' co A(O;O;O), B(2;0;0), C(0;2;0) va A'(0:0;2).

Vi~t plurong trinh l11?t phang (ABC').

Giai

Ta eo: B' = (2;0;2); C' = (0;2;2) z

=> A'C = (0;2;-2); BC-; = (-2;2;2) ..

Ta co: A 'C. BC' = 0 => A'C .L BC' (I) A',__ __ -----::"'"

M?t khac AB _L AC, AB j_ AA => AB j_ (ACC' A) => AB j_ A'C (2) ro (I) va (2) suy ra A'C j_ (ABC).

V~y A'e = (0;2; -2) la vecto phap tuyen cua

(ABC).

M?t khac (ABC) qua A (0;0;0) nell co dang: 2(y - 0) - 2(z - 0) = 0 ¢::> y - z = 0

71

Nhdn xet:

11 Cach giai tren la ngan gon nlurng phai nh~n ra A'C lit vecto phap tuyen cua m~t phang (ABC).

21 OJ nhien co th~ lam nhtr sau:

AS = (2;0;0), AC', = (0; 2; 2)

V~y vecto phap n ella (ABC') xac dinh nhir sau:

11 = [A-B,AC"] = [I~ ~I;I~ ~I;I~ ~I) = (0;-4;4).

V~y (ABC') co dang: --4x + 4y = 0 <=> y - z = o.

Cach giai nay n1t nr nhien va dan gian, T'" tI{14

Trang khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz cho A( I ;2;0), B (0;4;0). C (0;0;3). Vi~t phuong trlnh m~t phang (P) chua OA sao cho khoang each tir B va C d~n (P) lit bang nhau.

Giai

Goi n = ( a; [3; y) lit vecto phap tuyen cua (P). Do (P) qua 0 nen (P) co dang: ux+By+yz=O (I)

Vi (P) qua A( I ;2;0) nen ta co:

a + 2[3 = 0 ~ a = -2[3 .

Do do (P) co dang

-2[3x + [3y + yz = 0 .

Thea bai ra ta co:

d(B;(P» = d(C,(P»

/4[3/ /3y/

<=> = -r=======

JS[32 + y2 JS[32 + y2

<=> /4[3/ = /3y/ .

(2)

Do a~ + [3~ + / > 0 nen tir (2) suy ra: + Chon y = 4;[3 = 3 ~ a = -6 luc nay:

(P):-6x +3y+4z=0. + Chon y = 4;[3 = -3 ~ a = 6 luc nay:

(P): 6x - 3y + 4z = O.

V~y co hai l11~t phang (P) dn tim.

72

§2. BAI ToAN THIET LAp PHUONG TRiNH DUONG THANG

Duong thang trong khong gian diroc cho diroi ba dang co ban sau: - Phuong trinh chinh t~c:

Duong thang di qua diem M(xo; yo; Zo) va nhan U = (a; b; c) (a2t- b2 + c2> 0) lam vecto chi phuong co dang:

x - Xo = Y - Yo = Z - Zo

abc

(Voi gia thiet nJu a == 0 thi x = Xo. b = 0 thl Y = 0, c = 0 thlz = Zo) - Phuong trinh duoi dang tham s6:

Duong thang di qua diem M (xo: Yo; zo) va nhan vecto I.i = (a; b; c) lam vecto

chi phuong co dang tharn s6

{X = Xo + at

y = Yo + bt, vci tham s6 t E R. z = Zo + ct

- Phuong trinh diroi dang t6ng quat:

Dtroi dang nay dirong th~ng co dang:

{A1X+B1Y+C1Z+D1 =0

d: .

A~x+B~y+C2z+D~ =0

Khi do vecto chi phirong U cua (d) la:

U ~(I:: ~JI~: ~JI~: ::I)

Cdc dang ht;; I{ip co btin

Loai 1: Vi~t phirong trlnh dirong thang duoi dang chinh t~c:

D~ slr dung diroc plnrong phap nay ta dn biet diroc:

- Vecto chi plurong cua dirong thang. Di~u nay se co diroc ngay n~u bi~t diroc

hai diem A, B cua duong thang dn tim. Luc do AB se la vecto chi phirong cua no. N~u nhir d II d.. thl vecto chi plurong cua d va d, la nlur nhau.

- M(>t diem cua duong thang d (di~u nay noi chung la luon luon co). Thl ti{t 1: (DJ thi IlIyi" sinh D(li IIpc kllai B - 2007)

Trang khong gian vo'i h~ toa d(> Oxyz, cho hai di~m A( I ;4;2), B(-1 ;2;4). GQi G la trong tam cua tam giac OAB. Vi~t phirong trlnh duong thang d vuong goc voi mat phang (OAB) tai G.

D~ thay:

G = ( 0 + I - 1 . 0 + 4 + 2 . 0 + 2 + 4) = (0' 2' 2) .

3 ' 3 '3 ' ,

vecto phap tuyen n cua (OAB) dtroc xac djnh nhtr sal':

73

n = [ OA,OB ] = (I~ :I;I! _ :I;I~ 1 ~I) = (12;-<;;6) /I (2; -I; I)

Duong thang d .1 (OAB) nen vecto chi plurong cua (d) chinh la U = (2;-1; 1) (do u II d ). Mil qua G(0;2;2) nen phirong trinh cua d la: ~ = y - 2 ='z - 3 .

2 -1 1

TIll d(l 2: (DJ thi tuyin sinh D(li Itpc kl,{H D - 2006)

Trong khong gian voi h~ true toa d(> Oxyz cho di~m A (1 ;2;3) va hai dirong thang:

d .x-2=y+2=z-3

J' 2 -1 l'

d, : x-_! = y-I = z + 1 .

- -I 2 1

Vi~t phuong trinh duong thang /). di qua A, vuong goc voi d) vil dt d2•

~ Giii'

Gia Slr /). r1 d, = B khi do vi BEd2, nen:

B = (l-t; 1+2t;-I+t).

Tir do: AB=(-t;2t-l;t-4).

A

Ta co th~ coi AB la vecto chi plurong cua /).. d) co vecto chi phirong la: ~ = (2; -I; I) .

Vi /)..1 d) <=> AB.uJ = 0 <=> -2t-2t+ 1 +t-4=O <=> t = -I.

V~y /). co vecto chi phuong la AB = (1;-3;5) vil di qua A( 1; 2; 3) nen /). co phirong trinh:

x-I y-2 z-3 x-I y-2 z-3

--=--=-- hay --=--=--.

1 -3":'5 -1 3 5

TIIi d(l 3: (lJJ thi tuyin s!nlt lJ(li Itpc kltai B - 2004) .

Trong khong gian cho diem A (-4; -2;4) vil dirong thang

{X = -3 + 2t

d: y = 1- t

z = -I + 4t .

vi~t phuong trinh duong thang /). di qua A c~t va vuong goc voi d.

Giii

GQi Mia hinh chisu cua A tren (d).

V ~y /). chinh la duong thang qua A va M Vi ME'd nen M = (-3+2t; I-t; -1+4t)

:::) AM = (I + 2t;3 - t;-5 + 4t).

M

AM chinh la vecto chi phuong cua /).; (d) co vecto chi phuong la: u =(2;-1;4).

Tir /).j_(d)<=> AM.u = o <=>2(1+2i) -{3-t)+4(5-4t) = 0 <=> t = 1. V~y AM = (3;2; -1).

(d)

74

" . x+4 y+2 z-4

V!>y~eodang: --=--=--

... . 3 2 -I

Tid til! 4: (IJJ thi luyin sin" D{li "flC kl,ai D - 200?) Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d<) Oxyz cho dirong thang:

~: x+2 = y-2 =~

I I -I

va m~t ph~ng (P): x + 2y -3z +4 = O.

Vi~t phirong trinh dirong th~ng (d) nAm trong (P), vuong goc voi ~ va e~t ~ .

Giai

Gia str ~1l(P)=M.

Vi d E (P) va ~ dt (d) nen ME (d). Vi~t lai ~ diroi dang tham s6:

~:{; :;:: t

x =-t

V~y toa d<) (x; y; z) ella M la nghiern ella phuong trlnh:

(-2 + t) + 2(2 + t) -3(- t) + 4 == 0 <=> 6t + 6 == 0 <=> t == I.

V~y M =(-3;1;1).

Ta co d d, ~,d.l ii (a day n =(1 ;2;3»

hi vecto phap tuyen ella (P). Tir do n~u goi u la vecto chi phirong ella d, u,.. la vecto chi plurong ella ~ thl:

- [- -] (II -I 11-1 1111 11)

U= u.l,n = 2-3;-31;11 =(-1;2;1).

V" (d) . h ' hi' x + 3 y - 1 z - 1

ay co p uong trln a: -=t = -2- = -1- .

TId dl! 5: (DJ II'; luyin sinl: Bpi Ilflc kl,ai A - 2007)

Trong khong gian vai h~ true toa d<) Oxyz eho hai dtrong thang:

{X =-1 + 2t d . x _ y - I _ z + 2. d,: y = 1 + t "2--=1--1-' -

z=3.

va m~t ph~ng (P): 7x + y - 4z = O. Vi~t phirong trlnh duong thing (d) vuong goc voi m~t phang (P) cAt ea d, va d2• Giai

Gia sl'rdnd,=A khi do A Ed, nen:

A = (2t,; l-t.; -2+t,).

Gia sl'r d n d2= B. Vi B E d2 nen:

B =(-1 + 2t2; 1 +t2; 3).

Vi th~: AB = (-1 + 2t2 - 2t, ; t2 + t.; 5 - t,) hi vecto chi phuong ella (d).

A

75

Dod E (P»nen AB//~=(7;1;-4),aday n la vectc phap tuyen cua rp), Til do ta eo h~ phuong trinh sau:

2t2 - 2tl -I = t~ + tl = 5 - tl ~ {2t2 - zt, -I = 7t2 + 7tl ~{t2 =-2

7 I -4 -4t2 - 4tl = 5 - tl t2 = I .

Til do suy ra d eo vecto chi phirong hi AB = (-7; -I; 4) va d di' qua A(2;0; I),

Ad' h ' h x-2 Y z+1

nen eo p uO'ng tnn : -- = - = -- .

7 I 4

TIIi t/I,I 6: (Bi thi IllY;" sinh B{li "pc kl1l1i A - 2005) Trong khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz eho dirong thang:

d·x-l=y+3=z-3

. -I 2 I

va m~t phang (P): 2x + y - 2z +9 = O. GOi A la giao di~m ella d voi (P). Vi~t plurong trinh dirong thang ~ n~m trong (P) biet ~ qua A vuong goc voi d.

Ghli

Ta co: d: {~:~;: 2t co vecto ehi

z=3+t

phuong Ii = (-1;2; I), v~y toa dQ (x; y; z)

ii

ella A duoc suy ra Hr plurong trinh: 2(I-t) + (-3+2t) -2(3+t)+9 = 0 ~ t=l.

Til do A = (0; -I ;4).

Vi ~ .L d; ~ .L ;;, a day ~ = (2; I; -2) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P), nen vecto ehi phirong u~ cua ~ xac dinh nhir sau:

- [- -] (12 1111 -111-1 21)

u6 = u,n = 1-2; -2 2; 2 I =(-5;0;5)//(1; 0; I).

~.x_y+l_z-4

V~y '1--0---1-

(hay diroi dang tham s6: x = t; Y = -I ; z = 4+t

Nhdn xet: Do trong vectc ehi plurong cua duong thang ~ eo mQt thanh ph An

b~ng 0, nen ta hay vi~t no duoi dang tham s6. ,

Till t/I,I 7: (Bi thl IlIyi" sinh 010 ,M"g Giao t"a"g ~!111 tdi - 2005)

Trong khong gian v6i M true toa dQ Oxyz eho diem H (I ;2; -I) va duong

thang d: x .,... 3 = y - 3 =!:_. L~p phirong trinh duong thang ~ di qua H, eAt d va

I 3 2

song song voi m~t phang (P): x+y-z+3=0.

Ghii

Do (d) qua H (I ;2; -I) n~m trong (Q), la m~t phang song song voi (P) va qua H. Ta eo (Q)// (P) nen: (Q): x+y-z+m=O.

Vi (Q) qua H, nen eo phuong trinh:

76

I + 2 + I + m = 0 <=> m = -4.

V~y (Q) co dang: x + y - Z - 4 = o.

Gia Sl .. dn (Q):::::> d n~ = M. Vi ME(d)

:::::> M = (3+t; 3+ 3t; 2t)

Tir do ta co plurong trinh:

3 + t + 3 + 3t - 2t - 4 = 0 <> t = -I . Do v~y M =(2;0; -2)

Duong thang ~ di qua H va M nen nhan

HM =(1;-2;-1) la vecto chi phirong, vi th~ ~ co x-I y-2 z+ l

dang: ---=1 = -2- = -1- .

Binh ludn: Cac ba i toan duoi day chua gop m~t trong cac ki th i tuyen sinh vao Dai hoc, Cao d5ng (2002-2009) nlumg no co dang r~t co ban va hoan toan co th~ g~p trong cac kl thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao d~ng nlurng n[UTI toi.

T'" t/(I 8:

B'" I" I 'I"' I ) CI d x y-I z+2 ,

( at toan I;lP p urong trin 1 vuong goc c iungj. 10 I: 2" = -1- = -1- va

{X+I

d2: 2 = y -I . L~p plurong trinh duong vuong goc chung cua d, va d-.

z=3

Giai

Gia Slr MN la duong vuong goc chung

(M E d.; N E d-),

Do M E d, :::::> M= (2t; I +t; -2+t) Do N E d2 :::::> N=(-1+2s; l+s; 3)

V~y NM = (2t + 1- 2s;-t -s;t - 5) Do NM la dirong vuong goc chung, ta co:

{}fM.U; = 0 {6t - 3s = 3

<=> <=>t=s=1.

N-M.u-; = 0 3t - 5s =-2

V~y M = (2;0;1); N = (1;2;3):::::> NM = (1;-2;-4).

Do do din " 'I'd s d S nh 'I x-2 Y z+l

o 0 uong vuong goc c rung cua 1 va 2 co P irong trin 1: -1- = -2 = -4 .

Chu .v: II Cach tlur hai tim duong vuong goc chung diroi dang "phirong trinh t6ng quat cua duong thang" xem trong thi du 7, loai 2, §2.

21 Xet mot bai toan urong nr:

Cho hai duong thAng:

{X=I+t , x-3 y-I z

d I: y = -I - t va d2 : -1- = -2- = 1

z=2

------------~N------d2

77

Tim A tren d I. B tren d2 sao cho doan AB co dQ dai nho nhat. Thuc chat day la bai toan xac dinh doan vuong goc chung MN cua d, va d2 voi M E d., N Ed2. Ra diroi dang nay ta b~t buoc phai Slr dung phirong phap tren (vi muon xac dinh diroc duong vuong goc chung). Giai tuong tv" ta co:

A=M(I;-1;2) va B=N(3;1;0).

TIt'd{l9:

Vi~t plurong trinh duong thang qua M (2; -I; I) va vuong goc voi hai dirong

thang:

{X + y + 1= 0 {2X + Y - I = 0

dl: ; d, : .

2x - Z = 0 - z = O.

Ghii

D~ thfry d, va d-, IAn hrot co vecto chi phuong u1 ' u~ xac dinh nhir sau:

~ =[I~ -~1;1~1 2ll~ ~1)=(-1;1;2)' --< (II 0110 2112 21)

u~= 01;10;00 =(1:-2;0).

Vi d vuong goc voi ca d, va d2• nen vecto chi phirong u cua no xac dinh nhir sau:

.< [- -] [II 2112 -111-1 II)

u = UI'U~ = -2 0; 0 I; 1:....2 =(-4;-2;1).

d cc M (" I I) ~ d 'd x - 2 y + I z - I

Do con qua z ; -; nen co ang: -4- = -2- = ---=1

TIt'd{lJO

Vi~t phuong trlnh duong th~ng song song voi duong thang: ~: {;: ~~ t z=5+t

, • x-1 y+2 z-2 {X-Y+4Z-3=0

va cat ca hai duong thang: d, :-- =-- =--; d2:

I 4 3 2x - Y - z + I = 0

Giai

GQi (d) la duong thang cAn tim. Gia su' d rvd, =A .d rvd, =B. Ta hay xac dinh A va B.

Ta co A E d,

~ A = (1 + t;-2 + 4t;2 + 3t).

D~ thAy d2 co vecto chi phirong u2 = (5;9; 1) va di qua di~m M (-4; -7; 0) (ban doc t\l' giai) nen:

d

78

{X =-4+5s

d2: y = -7 + 9s , z=s

V~Y B=(-4+5s;5+4t-9s;s).

Tir do: AS = (5 + t - 5s;5 + 4t ~9s;2+3t -s).

___ 5+t-5s 5+4t-9s 2+3t-s

Vi AB II!:>., nen ta co: = =

3 -I 1

~ {-13t + 32s = 20 ~ {t = -:44

7t-IOs=-7 49

s=-

94

Tit do cling co: A = (~; 142; 58) va AB = (201; -67. 67)

47 47· 47 94 94' 94

35 142 58

x---- Y+-- z----

V~y (d) co phirong trinhduoi dang chinh t~c nhir sau: T = _:7 =-fL

Til! tll,ll 1 ., . '

Viet phirong trinh dirong thang d narn trong m~t phang (P): y + 2z = 0 va cat

ca hai dirong thang:

{X = 1- t

d.: y =t ;

z =4t

{X=2-t

d~: y = 4 + 2t z=1

GQi A = d, n(P); B = d~ n(P).

Do dl c~t d, rna dE(P) => d,,,d = A. Tuong tu d, nd~ = B.

Xet phuong trinh: t + 2(4t) = 0 => t = O. V~y A=(I;O;O).

Tuong nr xet phuong trlnh:

4 + 2t + 2 = 0 => t = -3 => B = (5; -2; I).

Duong th~ng d qua A, B nen nh~n AB = (4; -2; I) la vecto chi phuong, do do

d 6 h . I d ,. d hi h ~ x -) y Z

C P uang tnnn um ang c 111 tac sau: -- = - = - .

4 -2

Loai 2: Vi~t phuong trinh duong thang duoi dang t6ng quat

D€ vi~t phirong trinh dirong th~ng d duoi dang t6ng quat, ta phai tim each quy duong thang d thanh giao tuy~n cua hai m~t phang (P) va (Q). Luc do n~u (P) co dang: Alx + Biy + Cjz + 01 = 0 va (Q) co dang A2x + B2y + C2z + O2 = 0 thi (d) c6

dang:

79

{A,X+B,y+C,Z+D, =0 (d) :

A2x + B2y + C 2Z + O2 = O.

Bai toan quy v~ vi~t phuong trinh hai m~t phang (P) va (0). TII't/(I J: (DJ thi luyJ" .\·i,,11 D{li II{)c kluji D - 2()06)

Trang khong gian vei h¢ true toa d(> Oxyz cho diem A( 1 ;2:3) ya hai dirong thang:

J, da7

d .x-2=y+2=z-3. d .x-l=y-l=z+1

,. 2 -I I' 2' -I 2 I'

Vi~t plurong trinh dirong thfing,1 di qua A, vuong goc voi d, va dt d2• Giai

Vi ,1 qua A va vuong goc voi dl va dt d2 nen L\ nAm trong (P) di qua A va nhan:

1I: =(2;-1;1)

lam vecto chi phirong, & day 1I~ lit vecto chi plurong cua d.. Ta co ngay (P) co dang: (P): 2(x-I) - (y-2)+(z-3)=0

<=> 2x - Y + z - 3 = 0

M~t khac do ~ dt d2 va qua A. nen ~ nam trong m~t phang (0), la m~t phang qua A va d2•

Ta co: M( I; I; -I) Ed2 => A-M = (0; -I; -4) .

Mat phang (0) nhan c~p vecto li-~ =(-1:2;1) va AM lam cap vecto chi phirong, nen (0) co vecto phap tuyen lit:

Ii =[u:.AMJ =[12 11;11

- -I -4 -4

(0) con qua A( I ;2;3) nen (0) co dang:

(0): -7(x - I) - 4(y - 2) + Z - 3 = 0 <=> 7x + 4y - z - 12 = 0

V~y:

{2X - Y + z - 3 = 0

(~): .

7x+4y-z-12=0

(Chu y: do u" u2 i- 0 nen d2 khong vuong goc voi d, do do d2 khong song song voi (P), nen d2 chac chan cAt (P), rna ~E(P) v~y ~ chac chAn dt d2).

csa».

- Hay so sanh voi each giai thi du tren bang plurong phap sir dung phuong

trinh chinh tAc cua duong thang da trinh bay trong thi du 2, loai 1,§2. - Cac ban hay chuyen lai dang tbng quat nay v~ dang chinh tAc! TIll d(l 2: (DI II'; luyin sinh D(li II(,)e, ClIO ddng kllai ~ - 20(7) Trang khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz cho hai dirong thang

d, :~= y-I = z+2;

2 -1 1

80

{X = 1-+2t d~: y=l+t z=3

Yi~t phuong trinh duong thang d vuong goc voi m~t phang (P):. 'l»: + Y - 4z = 0 va c~t ca d., d2.

Ghii

Ta thay d I co vecto ch i plurong

u: =(2;-1;1) va qua diJm M (0;1; -2). Ngoai ra d- co vccto chi plurong u; =(2;1;0) vii di qua N (-1;1;3).

Do d vuong goc voi (P) va dt d., nen d n5m trong mat phfing (0), la m~t

phang nhan cap vecto ul' n lam c~p vecto chi plurong va qua N, a day

11 =(7; I; -4) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P).

(Co th~ thay ngay (u, n) ciing nlur (u2;n) khong phai 1<\ cac cap vecto cung plurong).

Ta co: (0) vii (R) IAn IU01 nhan nQ,nR la vecto phap tuyen xac djnh nlur sail:

. [--_. 'J [1-1 1111 2112 -Ill

nC) = ul'n = I -4; -4 i; 7 I =(3;15;9),

. [ . --J [II 0110 2112 III

nR = u~,n = I -4 ; -4 7 : 7 I =(-4;8;-5).

Do (0) di qua M(O; I; -2) nen (0) co dang

(0):3x+ 15(y-I)+9(z+2)<=>x+5y+3z+ I =0.

Do (R) di qua N (-I; 1 ;3) va (R) co dang:

(R): -4(x + I) +8(y - I) -5(z - 3) <=> 4x - 8y + 5z - 3 = O.

V~y duong thang d cAn tim diroc cho duoi dang tong quat:

{X + 5y + 3z + 1= 0 d:

4x-8y+5-3=0.

Chu y: Hay so sanh each giai tren voi each trinh bay trong thi du 5, loai I, §2. Till tI(t 3: Da I"; IlIyi" sinh D!l; "PC k"tJi B - 2004

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d<) Oxyz cho di~m A(-4; -2;4) va dirong thang

{X=-3+2t

d: y=l-t z=-1+4t.

Yi~t plurong trinh dirong thang ~ di qua A va vuong goc voi d.

Ghii

d co vecto chi phuong l; = (2;-1;4) va di qua diem M(-3; 1; -1).

81

Vi ~ qua A va vuong goc voi (d) nen ~ nAm trong m~t phang (P). D6 la m~t phang qua A va nhan U = (2;-1;4) la vecto phap tuyen, v~y (P) co dang

(P): 2(x+4) - (y+2) +4(z--4)=0 <=> 2x-y+4z-1 0=0 (I)

d M~t khac, do L1 qua A va dt (d), nen ~ n~m

A' trong m~t phang (0) xac dinh boi A va (d)

(Ae d). M~t phang (0) nay nh~n u va AM = (I; 3;-5) lam c~p vecto chi phuong, do

vay (0) co vecto phap nQ xac dinh nlur sau:

Il~ = [U,AMHI;I -ll~5 ~I;I~ - m = (-7;14;7) II (-1;2;1)

Do (0) qua A = (--4; -2;4) nen (0) co dang:

- (x + 4) + 2(y + 2) + (z - 4) = 0 <=> -x + 2y + Z - 4 = 0 V~y dirong thang ~ phai tim co dang sau:

{2X - Y + 4z - 6 = 0 ~:

-x+2y+z-4=0

Nh(111 xet:

- Hay so sanh voi loi giai trong thi du 3, loai I, §2.

- Hay chirng minh hai dap s6 trong thi du nay va trong thi du 3, loai I, §2 la

hai each bieu di~n khac nhau cua cling mot duong thang.

Till t/(I 4: (DJ thl luyill sill" 01(} dtillg Giao 1IIIjllg Veill ta! 2005)

.r-+----\,.---~ Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d9 Oxyz cho diem H

(I ;2; -I) va duong thang: '

d:x-3=y-3=~ .

1 3 2

L~p plurong trinh dirong thang ~ qua H, cAt d va song song voi m~t phang

(P): x + y - z + 3 = 0

Giai

Vi d qua H va song song voi (P), nen no phai n~m trong (0) la m~t phang song song voi (P) va qua H. Vi (0) II (P) nen (0):

x+y-z+m=O

Do 0 qua H( 1 ;2; -1) nen ta co: '

I +2+ I +m=0~m=-4 Tir d6 (0) co dang x + y - z - 4 = 0 (1)

GQi (R) la m~t phang qua H va (d) nen (R) nhan hai vecto u=(1;3;2)va

HM la c~p vecto chi phirong, (y day u la vecto chi phirong cua (d) va M == (3; 3; 0) E d ~ HM == (2; 1; 1). M~t phang (R) co vecto phap tuyen la:

82

- --. [. -----] (13 2112 1111 31l

nR = u,HM = I I; I 2; 2 I =(1;3;-5).

V~y (R) co dang (x-I) +3(y-2) -5(z+1 )=0 <=> x+3y-5z-12=0.

. {X+Y-Z-4=0

V~y dirong thang phai tim co dang:

x+3y-5z-12=0.

Nhdn xet: Hay so sanh loi giai trinh bay trong thi du 7, loai I, §2.

rill t/l;I 5: (SU dung phuong trinh tong quat cua duong thang d~ tim hinh chieu cua mot dirong thang tren mN m~t phang).

(Di thi Il{vill sinh 010 acing Bill Tre - 2006)

Trong khong gian voi h¢ true toa d<) Oxyz cho dirong thang:

(~): {2X + y + z + I = 0 x+y+z+2=0.

va m~it phang (P): 4x-2y+z-1 =0.

Vi~t plurong trinh hinh chieu vuong goc cua ~ tren (P).

Ghii Hinh chieu ~ cua d tren (P) n~m treu mat phang (0): Do la m~t phang chua (d) va vuong goc vai (P).

Vi (0) chua (A), nen no thuoc chum m~t phang: a.(2x + y + z + I) + f3( x + y + z + 2) = 0

<=> (20. + 13) x + ( a. + 13) y + ( a. + 13) z + a. + 213 = 0 ( I ) (voi 0.2 + 13~ > 0 ) khi do (0) co cac vecto phap la: ~ = (20. + P;a. + p;a. + P).

Vi (P) vuong goc voi (0) nen nQ.np = 0 ,(] day n; =(4; -2; I). Do do ta co:

4(20.+13)-2(0.+13)+(0.+13)=0 <=> 8a.+413~o.-I3=0 <=>70.+313=0 (2)

Tir (2) va do a.~ -+- 132> 0, nen chon 0.=3; 13 = -7.

Thay vao (I) ta co: (0): -x - 4y - 4z - II = 0 <=> x + 4y + 4z + II = 0

, {4X-2Y+Z-I=0

Vb hinh chieu d cua ~ tren (P) co dang sau: d:

x + 4y + 4z + II = o.

Nhdn xet: co th~ tim (Q) nhir sau:

. -- (11 1111 2112 III

Dtrong thang Aco vectc chi phucng u6= I 1;1 1;1 I =(0;-1;1).

M~t phang (0) nhan u 6 va yecta phap n =(4; -2; I 0) la c~p vecto chi phirong, nen (0) co vecto phap tuyen la:

- [- -] (1-1 1111 0110 -til

nQ= u6,n = -21;14;4 -2 =(1;4;4).

83

Do (0) qua M(J; -3;0) E ~,nen (0) co dang: x-I+4(y+3)+4(z-O)=O ¢:::> x + 4y + 4z + II = O.

Ta thu lai k~t qua tren! TIIi (If I 6

Vi~t plurong trinh duong thaug d di qua diem M (I; -I; I) va dt ca hai dirong

~ {X=I+2t {X+Y+Z-I=O .

thang: d, y=t : d , .

- y = 2z-3 = 0 z=3-t

Giiii

G9i (P) la m~t phang xac dinh boi M va (d.), (0) la m~t phang xac dinh boi M va (d-).

Khi do goi d = (P) n (0).

Vi (0) clura d2, nen (0) thuoc churn m~t phang n(x + y + Z - I) + P(y + 2z - 3) = O. a1 + P~ > O.

Vi M E(d~) => M E(O), va ta co:

a(I-1 + I-I)+P(-I +2-3)=O=>-2P=O => P = O.

Do a2 + p2> 0 rna P = 0 nen chon a = I. Khi do (0) co dang sau:

(0): x + y + Z - I = 0

M~t phang (P) qua d, rna qua N = (1;0:3) E d,

va nhan cap vecto ll>=(2:1:-I)v~1 MN=(0:1;2)la cap vecto chi phuong. Vi th~ (P) co vecto phap tuyen:

11; = [ u;. MNJ = (I: - ~I:I~I ~I:I~ :1) = (3: -4:2)

Do do: (1)): 3(x-l) -4y+2(z-3)=O ¢:::> 3x-4y+2z-9=O

. {X+V+Z-I=O

V~y diroug thang d phai tim co dang: d:· .

3x-4y+2z-9=O

Clut }~: Dc thay d co vecto ch i plurong la U = ( -6: -I; 7) .

lli' va d, cling nlur li va d2 khong cling plurong => d va d, cling nlur d va d2 c~t nhau (do d va d, cling nAm trong (P); d va d2 cling niim trong (0».

TIIi till 7: Vi;' phtrang IT;"" duirng vuitng gOL' cluing

1 I Tri;lh bay each giai tong quat cua bai roan vi~t phirong trinh dirong vuong goc chung cua hai duong th~ng d, va d2 cheo nhau.

21 Ap dung phan 1 I giai bai roan sau:

{X=-1+2t

I d x y-I z+2 . d I

C 10 : - = -- = -- va ,: y = + t

I 2 -I J -

z-3

a/ Chirng minh d, va d2 la hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

bl Vi~t plurong trinh duong vuong goc chung cua d, va d-.

84

Giai

Gift sir d, va d~ la hai dUCl11g thang cheo nhau.

Gia slr d, co vecto chi plurong u-; va di qua di~m A;

d~ co vecto chi plurong u; va di qua di~m B. GQi MN la doan vuong goc chung.

Taco: MN .ldl;MN .ld2, vay: MN/![u~,U2J

D~t U =[U;'ll;]'

Khi do n~u goi (I') la m~t phang qua A va nh~n uI'

B

N d-

plurong; (Q) la m~t phang qua l3 va nh~n ll~; li la cap vecto chi phuong thi:

MN =(P)n(Q).

Tir do suy ra each giai bai toan dirong vuong goc chung nlur sau:

a. Tim u =[i.I;,U-~·J.

b. Tim vecto phap tl~: = [li~, u] => phuong trinh cua t1l~t phang (P). c .. Tim vecto phap n(; = [u;, uJ => phirong trinh cua mat phang (Q).

d. Gia sir: (P): Alx + Bjy + Ciz + 01 = 0; (Q): A2x + B2y + C2z + 0]= 0

" {A1X+B1Y+C1Z+01 =0

Khi do: d:

A2x+B2y+C2z+02 =0

la duong vuong g6c chung cAn tim.

2/ Xet bai toan cu th~ tren: ta c6 u~ = (2; -I; 1) va A(O; 1; -2) E d.

l~; =(2;1;0) va B (-2;1;3) E d2.

-. [-_. ---'J [1-1 1111 2112 - 11)

Luc do u = u ·u., = . . =(-1'2'4) nen

I' ~ I 0'0 2'2 1 '"

-- [- -] [12 4114 -111-1 21)

n p = u 1 ' u = _I 1 ; I 2 ; 2 -1 = ( 6; 9; - 3) / / (2; 3; -1) ,

--- [--- -] [I" 4114 -111-1 21)

nQ= u2'u =: ; 0;0 2;2 1 =(-4;8;-5).

00 (P) qua A (0; 1; -2) va (Q) qua B(-I; 1;3) nen (P): 2x + 3y - Z - 5 = 0 va (Q): 4x - 8y + 5z - 3 = O. v ~y duong vuong g6c cAn tim la:

{2X + 3y - Z - 5 = 0 4x -8y + 5z-3 = O.

Loai 3: Cac bai toan khac v~ thiet I~p phuong trinh dirong thang:

D~ giai cac bai toan nay ta ti~n hanh theo cac biroc sau:

- Blf(7C 1: Dira vao yeu du d~u bai, thuc hien cac thao tac phu, nlur ke them duong (thuong la ke them duong song song hoac dtrong vuong goc), d~ quy bai

85

toan dn giai vb mot trong hai bai toan co ban (loai I hoac loai 2) viet plurong trinh duong thAng.

- BUlle 2: Tlurc hien l11(>t phep giai CO' ban da biet (duoc trinh bay dn than trong loai I, loai 2).

TIIi lift 1: (DI thi luyill sin" D{li "pc k"/ii B - 2009)

Trong kh6ng gian voi h~ true toa d(> Oxyz cho l11~t phang (P): x -'2y + 2z - 5 = 0, hai diem A(-3:0: I) va B( I; -I :3).

Trong cac dirong thang di qua A va song song voi (P), hay vi~t phirong trinh dirong thang rna khoang each nr B d~n do la nho nluil.

Giii

Duong thang d qua' diem A va song song v6"i (P) IH~n no niilll trong Ill~t phang (0) qua A va song song voi (P). Ro rang (0) e6 djnh.

Vi (O)II(P) IH~n no co d .. mg (0): x- 2y + 2z + 111 = 0 (I)

Do (0) qua A(-3:0: I) nen ta co: -3 + 2 + m = 0 => m = I.

V~y (0) co dang: x - 2y + 2z + I = 0 (2) Ke BH j_ (0). Khi do H c6 djnh.

/ 7

~

Ta xac dinh H nlur sau: Do BH II n =( I; -2;2); 6" day n la vecto phap tuyen ella

{X = I + t

(0) nen BH co d~ng: BH: y = -I - 2t z = 3 + 2t Vi th~ H = (I +t; -1-2t;3+ 2t)

Do H E (0), nen ta co phuong trinh:

10

I + t - 2(-1 - 2t) + 2(3 + 2t) + I = O¢:) 9t + 10 = 0 ¢:) t = --.

9

Do do H(=!'!'!';-?-)'

9 ' 9 9

Ke BK j_ d, khi do BK~ BH

V~y d(B, d dat gia trj nho nh~t ¢:) K == H.

Noi each khac dirong thang d dn tim la duong thang qua hai di~m A va H.

Vi th~ AH = (26 ;!.!.;-~)11(26;11;-2) hi vecto chi plurong ella d.

9 9 9

d 0 I) Ad' h ' h hl h ! x+3 Y z-I

Do . qua A (-3; ; , vay co p irong trill e III tae sau: U = II = -2-

Nhdn xet

- Bang phep vi! them m~t phang (0) song song voi (P)111 va Slr dung d~u hieu nhan bi~t gia tr] nho nh~t, ta xac djnh diroc them mQt di~m niil11 tren d.

- Bai toan quy v~ mQt trong cac bai toan co ban loai I.

86

: DJNH DIEM vA cAc vEU T6 KHAc TRONG HINH HOC GW rica KHONG GIAN

m\IC nay xet cac bai toan xac dinh di~m trong hinh hQC khong gian, d~c ,ai toan xac dinh hinh chi~u cua di6m tren m~t phang, tren duong th~ng:

I xac dinh di~m dbi xirng .. ,

iii toan d~ cap trong muc nay ciing tlurong co m~t trong cac d~ thi tuyen '~i hoc, Cao d~ng trong nhirng nam 2002 - 2009,

1(1 1 (Di tlti Illyill sinh D(li II{Je kllJi A - 2009)

g khong gian voi h~ true toa d<) Oxyz cho m{tt phang (P): x-2y+ 2z- 1 =0 eng thang:

d .x+l_y_z+9, d .x-l_y-3_z+1 1'-1--1--6-' 2 '-2---1-- -2

11 di~m M tren d. sao cho khoang each tir M d~n d2 bang khoang each tir M

Giai

ici sir M (-I + t: t; -9 + 6t) Ed, la di~m cAn tim. 1-I+t-2t+2(-9+6t)-Ij 11It-201

.hi do ta co: d(M,(P») = I = --- (I)

\,12+(_2)2+22 3

Duong thang d2 co vecto chi phuong u; = (2; I; -2) va di qua di6m N = (I J; -1 ) JM =(t-2;t-3;6t-8)

Ta co: [NM, u2 ] = (I; - 3 6t = ~I;I~~ - 8 t - ~I ;I~ - 2 t - :1) =( 14-8t; 14t-20;4'7t),

. ( ) I[NM,U;JI J(14-8t)2 +(14t-20)2 +(4-t)2

Dov~y:dM,(d2)= II =

u2 3

Vi v~y: d(M,(P»)=d(M,(d2»)~~26It2 -792t+612 =lllt-201

~26Ie-792t+612= 12It2-440t+400 ~ 35e-88t+53=0 ~ [::~3.

35

V• 'I'd': l • M (01 3) M (18533)

ay co tat rem can tim: 1= ;;- ; , = -;-;- ,

. - 35 35 35

Till (Iy 2 (Di IIIi luyin sin" Dpi II{Je, Cao tiling kllJi. B - 2008)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa de;, Oxyz, eho ba diem A(O; 1 ;2), B(2; -2; I), C(-2;0; I) va m~t phAng (P); 2x + 2y + Z - 3 = O.

II Vi~t phuong trlnh m~t phang (ABC).

21 Tim di~m M E (P) sao cho MA = MB = MC.

87

Ghii

II Theo thi du I. loai I. § I thi m~t phang (ABC) co phuong trinh:

x + 2y - 4z + 6 = 0

Taco:

AB2 = 4 + 9 + I = 14; AC2 = 4 + I + I = 6 BC2 = 16 + 4 = 20.

~ BC2 = AB2 + AC2 ~ BAc = 90° .

G9i l Ia trung di~m ella BC, thi 1=(0; -1;1) va IA=IB=IC. Vi MA=MB=MC, nen 1 chinh la hinh chieu cua di~m M tren (ABCD).

Theo cau II thi (ABC) co plurong trinh x + 2y -

4z + 6 = 0, nen vecto plHIP I; =(1;2;-4) ella (ABC) chinh la vecto chi plurong cua duong thang MI.

Duong thang MI qua I (0; -I; I) nen MI co plurong trinh:

{~: ~I + 2t

z = 1-4t

M~t khac M con nam tren (P): 2x + 2y + z - 3 = 0, nen ta co phuong trinh:

2t+2(-1 +2t)+ 1-4t-3=0 ~ t=2.

V~y M = (2;3; -7) la di~111 dn tim. Clil/ Y:

Cau 21 co th~ giai dge I~p nhir sau:

G9i M (x.y.z) la diem dn tim. Khi do ta co h~ plurong trinh sau:

{2X + 2y + z - 3 = 0 {2X + 2y + z = 3

., ., ., .., .., ..,

X- +(y-I)- +{z-2t ={x-2r +(y+2t +(z-It ¢:> 4x-6y-2z=4

x2 +{y _1)2 + (z- 2)2 = {x + 2)2 + l +{z _1)2 -4x --2y -2z = 0

¢:> x = 2; y = 3; z = -7.

V~y M = (2;3; -7) ta thu lai k~t qua tren.

Thl tI(t 3: (DJ lit; tuyi" !1';"I, DfJ; It{Jc klt(ji D - 2007)

Trong khong zian cho hai diem A(I;4;2), B(-1;2;4) va duong thang: ~.x-l_y+2_z

'-=1--1--"2'

Tim di~1ll M E ~ sao cho dai IU<Jng MA 2+MB2 nhan gia tr] nho nhat.

Giai Vi~t lai ~ diroi dang tham s6 sau:

~ :{~ :~;: t

z =2t

Khi do M E~, nen M = (I - t; -2 + t; 2t).

88

l

Luc do ta co:

MA2 + MB2 =[(1-t _1)2 +( -2 +t _4)2 +(2t - 2)2 ] +[(1-t + 1)2 (-2 +t - 2)2 +(2t _4)2 ]

= 12e-48t+76= 12(t-2)2=28(1)<=>t=2.

Tir (I) suy ra: MA2+MB2 nh~n gia tri be nhAt = 28 <=> t = 2 <=> M = (-I ;0;4) TIIi tI(1 4: (DR thi luyi" sinh D{li /I{JC k/uji B - 2()06)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d(l Oxyz eho diem A (0; I ;2) va hai duong thang:

dl:%=y~I=Z:II; d2:{~:~~~2t

z=2+t

Tim toa d(l cac di~m M Ed" N E d2 sao eho A, M, N thang hang.

Giiii Vi M Ed, ~ M = (2t; l+t; -I-t)

Vi N E d2 ~ N = (I+s; -1-2s; 2+s)

Tu do ta co: AM = (2t;t; -3-t) va AN =( I +s; -2-2s;s).

Ta co A,M,N thang hang <=> [AM.AN] = 0

¢> (1~2 =~s- :Ir -t I ::I;I~:s -2 _:1) =(0;0;0)

<=> (-ts-2t-6s-6;-3ts-t-3s-3;-5ts-5t)=(0;0;0)

{ts + 2t + 6s + 6 = 0 (I)

<=> 3ts + t + 3s + 3 = 0 (2)

5t(l+s)=0 (3)

Til" (3) suy ra t=O hoac s= -I.

, {6S+6 = 0

+ Neu t=O, thay vao (I), (2) co: <=> s = -I .

3s+3 = 0

+ N~u s = -I, thav vao (I ), (2) co: {t = 0 <=> t = 0 .

• -2t = 0

V ~y h~ ( I ). (2). (3) <=> { : : ~ I.

Do do M = (0; I; -I) e d.: con N = ( 0; I; I) E d2 la hai diem dn tim. T/Ii tI(1 5: (DJ thl IU),i" sinh D{li /I{JC k/uji D - 2()()6)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d(l Oxyz cho di~ll1 A (I ;2;3) va duong thang:

d·x-2_y+2_z-3

'2---=1--1-'

Tim toa dQ diem A' d6i xirng voi diem A qua d.

Giai GQi M la hinh ehi~lI ella A tren d. -Do M E d ~ M = (2+2t; -2-t; 3-t)

89

::::> AM=(2t+I;-t-4;-t), d co vecto chi plurong u =(2; -I; I)

Ta co AM . U =0 <=> 2(2t + I) + t + 4 + t = 0 <=>t=-I

V~yM=(0;-1;2) (d)

Do M la trung diem cua AA' nen ta co:

XA'= 2XM - xA=2.0 - I =-1 YA'= 2YM - YA=2.(-I) - 4 =-4 ZA'= 2ZM - zA=2.2 - 3 = I

Vay A' = (-I; -4; I) la diem 06i xirng cua A qua d.

TIIi tI(1 6: (DJ thl tllyin sinh D(li ,,!)C kluji A - 2002)

Trong khong gian cho duong thang d: {~ : ~: tt va Z = I + 2t oi~m M (2; 1:4). Tim toa 0(> diem H thuoc d sao eho doan thang MH co 0(> dai nho nhfrt.

Giai

H chinh hi hinh chieu Clla M tren (d). Giai nlur thi du

5 ta co: H= (2;3;3).

Chuy:

Co th6 giai 111m sau: Do H = (I + t; 2 + t; I + 2t)

::::> MH~ = (t - I)~ + (t + I)~ + (2t - 3)~ = 6(t - 1)2 + 5

V~y MH dat gia tr] nho nhat <=> t=I <=> H(2; 3; 3).

Till tI(t 7: (DJ thi tllyJn sinh D!ti II!)c kllai D - 2005) Trong khong gian voi h~ toa 0<) Oxyz eho hai duong thang:

d, : x -I = Y + 2 = Z + I ; d2 : {x + y - Z - 2 = 0

3 -I 2 x+y-12=0

A

A

M

d

H

Gia suo d, n (Oxz) =A; d2 (1 (Oxz) = B. Tim dien tich tam giac OAB.

Giai

Tlr h~ phuong trinh:

{x-I y+2 z-r l

3 =--=-1 =2 ::::> x = -5; y = 0; z = -5. y=O

V~y A (-5; 0; -5).

(M~t phang Oxz eo plurong trinh y = 0).

. {X+Y-Z-2=0

Tirong tu. nr h~ phuong trinh: ::::> x = 12; Y = 0; z = 10.

x+y-12=0

V ~y B = (12;0; 10).

Ta eo: OA = (-5;0;5);08 = (12;0;10).

90

Vith~ [OA,OB] =([0 -5[;[-5 -5[;[-5 0[)=(0;-10;0).

o 10 10 12 12 0

V~y SOAB =kl[OA,OS]I=k·10=5 (dvdt)

Thl tI(t 8: (Bi thi tuyill sinh B{li II!)(', Cao (flillg kll6i A - 2005)

Trang khong gian voi h¢ toa dQ Oxyz eho duong thang va m~t phang (P) nhu

sau:

x-I y+3 z-3

d:-- =--=--; (P): 2x + y-2z+9 = O.

-I 2 1

1 I Tim toa dQ diem 1 thuoc d sao eho khoang each tir 1 d~n (P) bang 2. 21 Tim toa dQ diem A, n~u A = d n (P).

Ghii II Do l e d => 1=(I-t, -3+2t;3+t).

\2(I-t)+(-3+2t)-2(3+t)+9\ [t=-2

Do d(I,(P») = 2 ~ I . ' = 2 ~ 12-2tl=6 ~

\j22+12+(-2t t=4

V~y tren d eo hai di~m dn tim 11(3; -7; 1) va 12(-3; 5; 7)

21 Xet phuong trinh 2( 1 - t) + ( -3 + 2t) - 2(3 + t) + 9 = 0 ~ t = 1 V ~y A=(O; -1;4) la giao di~m cua d voi (P)

TIIi d(t 9: (Bi thi tuyill sill" Cao (flillg Sit pll{lnl TP H6 CM Minlt - 2005) Trang khong gian v6i h¢ true toa dQ Oxy, eho m~t phang (P): x + y + z - 4 = 0 va ba diem A (3;0;0), B(O; -6;0) va C (0;0;6). Tim t~t ca cac diem M sao eho:

I MA + MB+ M-C Iia nho nhk Giiii

GQi G la trong tam tam giac ABC. Ta eo:

IMA + MB + MCI = 1MB + GA + MG + (j-B +MG + GCI = 13MBI

(do GA+GB+GC=O). Tlrdo:

MiniMA + rvffi + Mel = 0 ~ MG = 6 ~ M == G ~ M =(0; -2;2).

Thl tI(I 11: . .

Cho hai diem A (-1;3;2); B(-9;4;9) va mat phang (P): 2x-y+z+l=0. Tim

di€m K E (P) sao eho AK +BK la nho nhk

D~t f(x, y, z) = 2x - y + z + I.

Ta eo: f(-I; 3; -2) = -6 < 0; f(-9; 4; 9) = -12 < 0 => A, B a cung mot phia ella (P).

GQi A' la diem d6i xirng ella A qua (P). Gia Slr A'B n (P) =K khi do d~ thay K

ehinh la di~m dn tim.

GQi H la hinh chieu cua A tren (P).

Duong thang qua A, H nh~n vecto phap ii = (2; -1; 1) la vecto chi phirong, do do no eo dang:

B

A'

91

{X=-1+2t y =3-t

z = -3t .

Tir do H = (-I + 2t; 3-t; -2+t), va do H E (P) nen ta co phirong trinh 2(-1 +2t) - (3-t)+ (-2+t)+ I =0 ~ t=I ~ H=( 1;2; -1 r

Vi H la trung diem cua AA' => A' = (3; I ;0).

{X=3+4t

Taco: 131\"=(12;-3;-9)1/(4;-1;-3) nen plurong trinh BA'cod;;lI1g: y=l-t

z = -3t .

Do K E (P) nen ta co plurong trinh:

2(3+4t)-(I-t)+( -3t)+1=0~t=-1 ~ K=(-1;2;3).

§4. BAI ToAN CO THAM 56 Val DUONG THANG

, .,

VA MAT PHANG TRONG KHCNG GIAN

Cling gi6ng nhu cac bai toan co tham s6 khac trong dai s6, giai tich, hrong giac ... cac bai toan co tham s6 trong hinh hoc noi chung va trong chuyen muc nay noi rieng ta cung tuan theo cac quy tftc sau day:

- Btnrc 1: Giai mot bai toan hinh hQC thuan tuy va tAt nhien trong dap s6 cua

bai toan nay van clura tham s6.

- BI((I(" 2: Tim cac gia tri thich hop cua tham s6 d~ thoa man yell du bai toano Tltl d(1 1: (DJ thi IlIyJII sinh DCli II!le kllOi D - 2002)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz cho m~t phang (P): 2x-y+2=0 va dirong thang:

{(2m + I) x + (m -I) y + m -I = 0 dill :

mx+(2m+ l)z+4m+2=0

Tim M dJ dill song song vO'i (P).

GQi um la vecto chi plurong cua dill, thl

_. . . (II - mOil 0 2 m + I 112 m + I I - m I) , , , .

um = ; : =(-2m-+m+l;-4m--4m-l;m--m).

o 2m + I 2m + I m III 0

Vi dill II (P) nen di~u kien dn la u~:.n = 0, 6" day Ii = (2; -I ;0) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P).

. -_.-.. , , 1

Taco: um.n=O ~ 2(-2m-+m+ 1)-(-4I11--4m-I)=0 ~m=--.

2

KI . I I' d . d d {y = I

11 m = - - t 11 111 co ~ng:: .

2 x =0

92

I

R6 rang voi moi z E ~~ thi A = (0; I .z) E dm voi m = --. nlurng A eo (P). ')

Vay d//(P) • nrc I .. m = -l thoa man yeu du dAu bai.

Chuy:

Viec tlnr I~i m= -l xern dill voi m = -l co song song voi (P) khong la di~u dn thiet.

TIll tI{I 2: (DJ thi ,"yR" sinh D!I; "{Ie klu5; D - 2(}03)

Trong khong gian voi h~ true toa 0(> Oxyz cho dirong thang

{X + 3ky - z + 2 = 0 dl.. :

kx - y + z + 1 = 0

Tim k d~ duoug thang d. vuong goc voi m~t phang (P): x - y -- 2z + 5 = o.

Ghii Duong thAng d. co vecto chi phuong:

u: :::: (I~~ - :I;I~ 1 kll~ ~kD =(3k - I; -k - I; -I - 3k2)

R6 rang u. 7= 0 voi moi k

. - 3k-1 -k--I -1-3k2

Ta co do J. (P) <:~ 1I1..//n<=>--=---=---

1 -I 2

jJk-l::::k+1

¢:.-;> ,<=>k=l.

2(3k-I)=11-3Ic .

V ~y k = 1 Iii giil tri duy nh,h ella tham sf) k d~ d. 1. (P). Tlii tI{I 3:

Trong khong gian vci h¢ toa dQ Oxyz, cho hai duong thang:

{X - az - a = 0, {ax + 3y - 3 = 0

dl : va d-

y-z+I=O - x+3z-6=0

Tim a d~ dl va d2 dt nhau,

d, va d2 cAt nhau khi ',1 chi khi h~ plurong trinh sau:

x-az-a=O (I)

y-z+I=O (2)

ax + 3y - 3 = 0 (3)

x+3z-6=0 (4)

co nghiem duy nhat. Tir (2) suy ra y = z - I; nr (4) suy ra x = 6 - 3z. Vay:

{Y=Z-I;X=6-3Z {y=Z-I;X-6-3Z

h¢(I), (2). (J). (4) ¢:.:> 6-3z-az-a,,-,0 <=> z(3+a)=6-a

6a-3az+3z-3-3=0 3z(l-a}=6(I-a).

(5) (6)

93

Y~y h~ (I) (2) (3) (4) co nghiern duy nhAt <=> h~ (5) (6) co nghiem duy nhAt. + N~u a = -3 ~ (5) vo nghiem.

+ N~lI a=l , khi do (5) (6) <=> 4z= -5 (7)

:::7:::3n::i:': ~::in::t):) : I{:h~~ :h:n d_;S)

z = 2 (9)

T'd' 6-a.., 0 U 0 suy ra: -- = _ <=> a = .

3+a

Yh a = 0 va a = I la hai gia tri d~ d. va d2 dt nhau. ('11111;:

II C~ch giai tren thuan tuy dua vao dai sb.

21 Ta co thJ giai nlur sau:

-- (10

d, co vecto chi phirong ul = 0

ngoai ra M (a; -1;0) e d..

d, co vecto chi phuong u~ ~ (I~ ngoai ra N (0; I; 2) E d2.

Ta co

-all-a 1111 01)

-I; -I 0;0 I =(0;1;1),

~I;I~ ~I;I~ ~I) = (9;-3a;-3).

[u;. u~J = (1~3a _ ~1;1~3 ~I;I~ _ 3~1) = (3a - 3;9; -9); MN = (-a;2;2).

Dodo: [tl;,li;]MN =-3a2 +Ja

D~ d I, d2 dt nhau di~u kien cAn la u I' U 2 phai d6ng phang, nrc la

[u;.ti-;J.MN = 0 <=> -3a2 + 3a = O<=> [::~.

Dao lai: N~u a = 0; ll~ =(0;1;1) va u; =(9;0;-3) khong cung plurong nen d. va d-.

N~u a = I thi u; = (0; I; I) va u2 = (9;-3;-3) khong cung plurong nen d, c~t d2 Y~y a =0 va a=1 la hai gia tri dn tim cua tham sb a d~ d, va d2 dt nhau.

BAJ T jp TI/ GJAI

Blli I (D8111i IlIyi" sinh ClUJ ctti"g giao Iluing 2004) Trong khong gian voi h~ toa d(l Oxyz cho diem G( I ; I ; I ).

II Yi~t phirong trinh m~it phang (P) qua G va vuong goc voi duong thang OG. 21 M~t phang (P) a cau II c~t cac true Ox. Oy, Oz I~n hrot tai A, B, C. Chung

minh ABC la tam giac d~u.

Da : 1/ x y z I

ap so: -- + - + -:=: .

333

94

Btli 2: (Di thi luyi" sinh cao tiling SIT pll(tnl klt6i A - 2004)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz eho duong thang d va m~t phang (P):

(d) '. {2X + y + z + 5 = 0

(P): x+y+z-7=0

2x-z+3 =0

Vi~t phuong trinh hinh chieu vuong goc cua (d) tren (P). ,{X+Y+Z-7=0

Ddp so

6x - y - 5z + 7 = 0

Bi;i 3:

Trong khong gian vci h~ toa dQ Oxyz, eho m~it phang (P): 4x-3y+ II z-26=O va hai dirong thling:

d, : _2_ = y - 3 = z + I ; d , : x - 4 = r = z - 3 .

-1 2 3 1 2

II Chung minh d, va d2 cheo nhau.

21 Vi~t plurong trinh duong thang L\ nftl11 tren (P) va e~t dl;d2•

,: x+2 y-7 z-5

Dapso2/ L\:--=--=--.

5 8 -4

Bt;; 4:

Trong khong gian voi h~ true toa dQ Oxyz, cho di~m M (5;2; -3) va mat phang (P): 2x+2y-z+ 1 =0.

II Xac dinh hinh chieu MI cua M tren (P).

21 Vi~t plurong trinh l11~t phang (Q) qua M va chua dirong thang.

L\' x-I = y-1 = z-5

. 2 I -6'

Dap .w;: 1 I M I (1; -2; -I); 21 x + 4y + Z - 10 = O. Bt;; 5:

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa dQ Oxyz eho hai diem 1(0;0; I) va K(3;0;0). Vi~t

plurong trinh l11~t phang qua I, K va tao voi l11~t phang (xOy) Il1Qt goc bang 30°. x y z

-+--+-=1

3 3.fi I

Dap so:

2

x y z ----+--=1.

3 s.Ii 1

2

Bt;; 6:

Trong khong gian voi h~ true toa dQ Oxyz, eho hai dirong thAng:

x y + 1 z. {3X - z + 1= 0

dl :-=--=- va dJ:

1 2 1 - 2x + y - I = 0

II Chung minh d, va d1 cheo nhau.

21 Vi~t plurong trinh dirong thang d dt ca d., d2 va song song voi duong

. x-4 y-7 z-3

thang L\:-' -=--=--.

1 4 -2

95

· {4X-Y-S=0 Ddp so:

2x + z - 6 = O.

Blli 7: (Di II'; Iuytf" sinh Cao ulillg Str ph!,,,, Quallg N[:tii - 2(J(}6)

Trong khong gian vci h~ toa 09 Oxyz, cho hai duong thang co phuong trinh:

{2X-Y+3Z-S=0 {2X-2Y-3Z-17=0

d, ; d,

x+2y-z=0 2x-y-2z-3=0

va diem A(3;2;S)

II Tim toa oQ oi~m A' 06i xung voi A qua d.,

21 Lap plurong trinh m~t phang di qua d. va song song voi d2• 31 Tinh khoang each giu'a hai duong d, vii d-. Dc.ip.w;"I/A'=(--17;-24;-II)

21 4x + 3y + Z - S = 0 69

31 a>:

,,26

Blli 8: (Di thi lIIytf" sinh D{,i I,{,e Hung Vuong - 2006) Trong khong gian voi h~ toa 0(> Oxyz, cho hai duong th~ng:

jX=S+2t {X+Y+Z-7=O

dl = Y = I - t va d, :

~ 2x+3y+z-16=O. z = 5-t

II Chung minh dllld2•

21 Vi~t plurong trinh m~t phang clura d. va d2. Dap S(;: 21 3x + 5)' + Z - 25 = O.

Blli 9: (Di thi t'~vdll .\~;III' ClIO cf(jllg Y tJ 1-20(6)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa oQ Oxyz cho hai duong thang dl,d2 va m~t phang (P) co plurong trinh:

x t l y-I z-2 x-2 ),+2 z

dl :2-=-3-=-1-; d2 :-1- =-5= -2 ;(P):2x-y-5z+1 =0

II Clurng minh d, va d2 cheo nhau. Tim khoang each gifra d, va d-.

21 Vi~t plurong trinh duong th5ng ~ vuong goc voi (P), cAt ca d, va d2•

.: 62 x - I v - 4 z - 3

Dlip so: II r.;;:;; 21 i~: -- = _' - = --.

,,195 2 -I -5

Biii /(): (DJ tlti !1I_rtfll sinh D{,; II{IC I/l;lIg Illli - 20(}6)

" . {x + v - 2z + 3 = 0

Cho diem A(3: -2:5) va QUang thanu d: '

~ x + 3)' + 2z -- 7 = O.

I I Vi~t phuong trinh tham s6 cua d.

21 GQi A' la hinh chieu ella A tren d. Tim toa oQ A'.

jx = -8 + 4t

Dcips(;: II ),=5-2t ; 2/A'=(4;-1;3).

z = t

96

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