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tinh_toan_cot_btct

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Tính toán cột bê tông cốt thép
Tính toán cột bê tông cốt thép

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GS. NGUYEN DINH CONG

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1I~~ J~~~ n(l ~I(~

A A A t! 1

~~l ~(l~ .~ t~ll~(~

SACH XUAT SAN

KY NI~M 40 NAM THANH L~P TRuirNG DAI HOC XAY DltNG

• •. til

1966 - 2006

! ]<'HlJ v 1.~~ ... ,

'R~'..t· -1";-. _

1 ~ cr. ,_.ll..'>...CI.(L+-

I :IIS ".f.4!%

NHA XUAT BAN XAY DVNG HA NQI- 2006

LOINOIDAU

Thiel IJ ke: cdu betong cot thep gom nhieu cong doan [rang do tinli roan [iill dien cor Iii mot phdn tuang dOl quan trong va cluta dung mot 56" Vatl dli' phuc tap nhu cot chill min If/ell tam xien, cot co tilr dien tron hoac chi: T ... Nhiing win de'd() Illy e6 duoc de" cap toi [rang Tieu chudn {hier k/ ciing nlut trong mot so' giao trinh. va sach tham kluio nhung thuang mat duoc trinli bay d dang nguven !_v cluing rna it dli(/c chi riet h60, cu riul lioa de' co thevdn dung true tiep. N gay rn(rJl1'5 hopdon gian Iii ril!! di¢n chi? llhi;1r cluu nen lech ram pluing, tuy del duoc gioi thieu J nhieu lui lieu, dd duac C),I rJIi/luYa bang cae cong tlurc tinh toan nhung ding COil ell/fa dung mot vai van de' cdn lain sting to han.

Trang kili lhiir kit cdc cong trinh, nhieu J.:.)~ SI( I'(i sinh vien [III((!/Ig g~lp ole 1'(111 de" vlra nell va yell dill tac gid gidi dap. Di(iu do tlioi thuc tac gid bien so~m tai lieu nay nham giiti thieu mot so'van de' ve' tinh toan, hy \'Qng OJ thl cungctu: Ul((JC cdc thong tin va pliuang pluip cdn thief clio cdc can bo nghien Cirri va thiet k(

Day h) (iii lieu tham kluio ma 111¢{ S()' no! dung v[(01 ra ngoai cdc giao trinh (hong rillf(lng d biic dai hoc. NII/mg vdn de" tinli toan ell/I yell thea sat tteu clukin thie: kl hien luiuh ciia I/iff Nam TCXDVN 356 : 2U05. Til)" \'dy co mot .w)' van eM duac md rong, :;/(Ji tliicu rhea nlueu (Juan diem J.:.hu.c nhuu nluim gilip doc gia hirfll .1'(111 \:ll r(mg hon \"(/ 1.\' rllllye'r betong cot thep,

Tieu cluuin Te XDV N 356 - 2005 duoc ball hanli va c6 hieu fl/e IIr thong 11 ndm 2005, dung dt thay thl tieu chudn TCV N 557-1 - 1991. Trang qua trinli bien: Soan tai Ii{u nay (2004 - 20(5) lac gici dCl dua I'do tieu chudn TCVN 5574. Khi rCXDV N 356 duoc cong both! tai lieu nay dd cli« ban :lOllg nl chuan bi dem in. Tac gid ddkip thai sua dura ban thdo theo noi dung \"11 kS' lucu Clio TCXDVN 356, Chac chan rdng nluing vJII de' quan trong va co ban dd duac trinh bill' tlieo TCXDVN 356. Tu» v¢y co mot vai vi du dung srI lieu cii clla ICV N 5574 rae gia win de' nguyen, vt rlld')' rdng n6 klrong g~iy ra nluim lan vr! nhan thuc, khong dnh hudng den mire d¢ chinh xac Clio tai lieu.

Ndm 2006 Truong Dai 1I9c Xiy dung f...j miem 40 ndm thank lijp vel 50 nam dao tao.

Tac gid vie! tai lieu nay ciing 10 de' gop phdn vao il kj niem d6.

Vi tliai gian co 11(111 nen tac gid chi rna": de' cop dell viec tinli roan mot s6' tie" dien cot rna chua duo them cac vall de' klidc nhu :rae dinh noi II/c, cdu tao chi tier. Hy wing c6 {he' bJ sling va hoan chinh vao dip khac.

T ac gid xin hoan nghenh va to long bier on cdc ban doc chl ra, gop ,'\I kiell cho nhiing sai sot e/1a tai lieu dl tac gid c6 tId hoan thien han.

Tac gia

3

Chuang 1

DAI ClJONG VE KHUNG V A COT BETONG COT THEP

1.1. CAC Bv6c THIET KE KET cAu KHUNG

Thier ke ket cau betong cot thep noi chung va ke't cau khung noi rieng tlurong thea !Ilu tu cac buoc sau:

1. Gioi thieu, mo ta ket cau,

2. Lua chQI1 phirong an. lap so d6 ket duo

3. Chon kieh thuoc so bo cac tie"t dien. chon V~[ lieu.

4. Tinh toan ciic l<ii trong, du kien de rae dong

5. Xac dinh noi life. to hQP noi life.

6. Tinh loan tie! dien. kiern tra de dieu kien su dung.

7. 111i0"[ ke' chi tier. chon cau tao. {h~ bien,

Cac buoc tren duoc guy ve cac giai doan thier ke' gorn: Thiel ke' co sa. (so bo), thiet k€ ky thuat va thiet ke ban ve thi cong.

V oi cac cong trinh [an thiet ke theo ba giai dean trong do thiet ke co sa gorn noi dung cac biroc 1. 2, 3; thiet ke' kg thuat gam noi dung cac buoc 4, 5.6 vathiet ke' ban ve thi cong gam noi dung buoc 7.

V oi cong trinh vira va 006 thiet ke' thea hai giai doan hoac mot giai doan (thie: k€ true tiep ban ve thi e6r:g) tuy vay van thuc hien ca 7 buoc trong do e6 mot s6 buoc e6 !h~ lam gao dung, dan gian hoa.

H6 sa thiet k€ gam co ban thuyet minh va de bin ve. Noi dung cua cac buoc co the duoc trinh bay trong bin thuyet minh hoac trong cac ban ve.

o buoc 1 can trinh bay teo goi cua kel cau, vi tri (tren m~t bang kct cau cua cong trinh), nhiern vu, dac diem cua ket cau,

Biroc 2 la buoc kha quan trong trong do vice de xuat cac phuong an, phan tfch va sa sanh d~ chon duoc phuong an hop ly co y nghia 100 den nhieu mat. Met phuong an hQP ly cua ket cau la dam bao duoc yeu cau cua kien true (yeu cau v~ sU: dung), bao dam do ben vfrng, si'r dung tiet kiern vat lieu va thuan tien cho thi cong.

5

Viec de xu,:f! cae phuong an co the theo hai each:

a) Dira tren nhiem vu, dac diem cua ket cau rna de ra cac phuong an doc lap nhau (do mot s6 ngiroi hoac do mot ngiroi).

b) Tnroc tien dua ra mot phuong an, phan tich l1U, nhuoc diem ella phuong an do, tren co sa timeach kbac phuc nhuoc diem rna de xuat phuong an khac.

Viec l~ sa do ket diu mot each dung dan la rat can thiet. Dei voi ca ngoi nha thi d6 la viec b6 tri kel cau t6ng thi va ve mat bang ket cau. D6i voi ket cau khung thl d6 la xac dinh hmh dang, lien ket, cac kich thuoc co ban, Khi lap S0 do ket cau truoc het can quan tam toi 6n dinh tong tM cua cluing, sau d6 rnoi xern xet den sir lam viec ella tirng bo phan, Trong viec lap sa d6 khung thi van de khung phang hoac khung khong gian la quan trong, van de nay diroc de cap 6 muc 1.2.

M91 s6 van de ve to hop noi hrc va chon kich thuoc tiet dien duoc trinh bay 6 muc J -3 va lA.

NQi dung chinh ella tai lieu nay baa g6m viec tinh loan tiet dien thea hai d~ng bai toan: tinh toan co! thep hoac kiern tra.

Tinh loan cot thep 13. khi biet noi luc va kich thuoc tier dien can xac dinh lirong cot thep can thiet, elu kha nang chiu hrc,

Tinh toankiern era la khi (fa: bier (iel dien va cot thep can kiem tra xern tiet dien co dli kha nang chiu dLIQC noi luc eho tnroc hay khong.

Viec chon kith thuoc a buoc 3 la so bo, co the 1a hap iy hoac chua. De danh gia kich thiroc tiet dien da: chon la hop I)' hay kb6ng can phai can err vao ke'r qua unh roan cot thep hoac ket qua bern tra. Neu kich thiroc dft chon la qua bat hap I)' (qua be hoac qua len) thi can phai chon lai va tinh toan lai.

1.2. so DO K.ET cAu KHUNG

Khung g6111 c6 cac CQt, cac dam lien ket voi nhau d. lien ket voi mongo Trang sa db khung cac CQt va dam diroc thay bang duong true cua no.

Ve blob hoc va su lam viec, phan bier khung phang \"11 khung kh6ng gian.

Khung goi la phang khi true cac bO phan ella no cung nam trong mot mat phang va cac tai trong lac dung trong mat phang d6. Mat phang d6 duoc goi la mat phang khung hoac mat phang uon.

Khung ]a khong gian khi true cac bo phan khong cung narn trong mat phang hoac tuy cung narn trongmot ni~t phang nhirng co chiu till trong tac dung ngoai mat phang khung,

Trang ket Call nha, khung rhuong duoc cau tao thanh he khong gian (khoi khung).

H¢ khung kh6ng gian eo the duqe xern L1 g6m cac khung phang lien ket voi nhau bang cac darn ngoai mat phang khung.

6

Tuy thea phuong an ket cau chiu luc chinh cua nha rna he khung c6 tM thuQc v~ nha khung hoac nha ket hop,

v 6i nha khung, M khung chiu toan bo rai trong dirng va tai trong ngang.

Voi nha kel hop (voi loi cung, vach cirng) khung chiu phan tai trong dung true tiep truyen vao no va chiu phan tai trong ngang duoc

phfin phoi eho no.

Tuy he khung la kh6ng giao nhung ve SI! lam viec va tinh roan co the thea sa do khong gian hoac thea sa do phang tuy thuoc vao tai trong tac dung va mire do gan dung c6 the chap nhan duoc.

De: pharr biet truong hop lam viec cua khung Ia phang hay khong gian. xet twang hop he khung dan gian gom 4 cot A, B, C, D va 4 dam lien ket cac dau cot (hinh 1.1). Khao sat cac tnrong hop khung chiu tai trong dUng va ngang.

B

D

c

Hinh 1.1. HI} killing don gidn

(f) K hung chi II tai trong dung

Tai trong tren san truyen V~1O khung Illy rhuoc vao ket cau san thea cac rrirong hop sau:

Tnrting /u7P l . San lap ghep dung panen dar theo mot phuong (hlnh 1.2a), tai trong ru panen chi rruyen len hai khung phang song song, hat khung nay lam viec thea khung phang, cac dam vuong goc voi cac khung nay chi dong vai tro lien ker, khong chiu 19c.

a! i'"" I , I ;-1' ~~~

I I , I I; I I I

1 ~ : : •• :: I

I I , I I I , I I I J I I I I r I I I

~....!...!";'..!..1..!..~..!.. ...

b)

Hinh 1.2. Cdc truang hap san truyen uii trong dung vao killing.

7

Truong JU;p 2. Khi ban san Iii. toan khci ke len 4 dim rna t)' s6 gifra cac canh ban

I

: > 2, xern gan dring ban chiu uon mot phuong, tii trong tit bin truyen len hai khung

I

doi dien, moi khunglarn viec theo khung phang (hlnh 1.2b).

Truong hap 3.' Bin ke len 4 dam rna ty s6 canh ban ~2 < 2, ban chiu uon thea hai I

phuong, truyen tai trong len ca 4 dam, h¢ khung lam viec khong gian (hinh 1.2c).

Truong hop 4. Khi dung them cac dam phu (dam san) de do bin san, dam phu ke len dam khung. Tuy thea sa do b6 tri dam phu rna xet khung lam viec phang hoac kh6ng gian.

b) Khung chiu rdi trong ngang (gio}

Tuy thea plnrong cua tal trong. Khi xet tai trong gio thea phuong ngang (hinh 1.3a) thi cac khung AB va DC lam viec thea khung phang. Khi xet gi6 thea phuong doc (hinh 1.3b) thl hai khung AD va BC lam viec theo khung phang, con khi xet gi6 theo plurong xien thi he khung lam viec kh6ng gian. Chti y rang khi xet tac dung cua gio ngiroi ta xern sao la cling vo cung trong mat phang cua no nen san lam diroc nhiern vu truyen tai trong gin vao cac khung.

j

I Gi6

Hinh. 1.3. Cdc truong hqp h¢ kiiung chill uii II"Qng Ilgong

Voi he khung ella roan nha ding tien hanh phan rich nhu tren de xern xet la khung lam viec thea phang hoac thea khong gian. Tir cho pharr tich su lam viec cua san de quyet dinh each truyen tai trong dung, Khi rna e6 th~ xem roan bo tai trong dung tren san chi truyen len cac khung ngang (hoac khung doc) thi cac khung fiy duoc xern la lam vice thea khung phing dirci rae dung cua tai trong dung. Nguoc lai thi ~tlai truyen tai trong dung len cit cac 'khung dge va ngang va co khung khong gian.

Voi taL trong ngang, thirong nguoi ta dua VaD mat bang ket call nha de xet twang hop belt loi cua 13.1 trong. Khi mat bang nha hep rna dai, do cirng 160g the cua nha thea phuong ngang 18. kha be so voi phuong doc, Luc nay tac dung ella gi6 theo pnuong ngang se bat lqi hem do do chi xet gi6 thea plurong ngang (hinh l.4a) \'a rnoi khung ngang duoc tinh thea khung phang, chiu tac dung ella phan tii trong gio phan pnoi eho n6.

8

a)

8:6

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Hinh 1.4, Cdc truang hop bd: loi Clia gid doi voi kef Call nha

b)

-

/

Khi mat bang ket cau nha co dang gao vuong, dQ cirng t6ngtb~: cua nha theo hai phuong giin bang nhau thi phai xet rae dung ella gi6 theo ba tnrong hop: ngang, doe va xien (hinh lAb,. Voi gio dQC va ngaog nha de khung lam viec phing coo voi gio xien, khung lam viec khong gian.

Tinh to.in noi luc khung phang la bai roan k.':'t call thong thuong, co the giai bang nhieu phuong phap khac nhau. Hien nay de bai toan khung phang chu ycu duoc giai nho viec Slr dung de phan mern unh roan tren may tinh.

Tinh roan noi luc khung khong gian In. kha phirc tap va thuong chi co th~ gia! nho cac chuang trlnh kha manh. C6 the giai gao dung bai toan khung khong gian bang each dua ve bai roan phang thea each phan chia he khung thanh cac khung doc va khung ngang. tren rnoi khung xep d~t de tinh tai va hoat uii rae dung len khung do. Giai toan be) cac khung doc V3. khung ngang thea tnrong hap khung phang. Noi luc trong darn ella k.hung nao iii. cua dam d6 con noi luc trong cor hI. bang tong noi luc trong cot av cua hai khung giao nhau,

1.3. TO HOP :\()l Ll!C KHUNG

1.3.1. f)~i cuong ve to hop noi hrc

Khi tinh roan noi luc khung can tinh rieng noi hrc do tai trang thuong xuyen (tinh tai) va noi hrc do eric tnrong hop khac nhau cua tai trong tarn thoi (hoar tai). CUOt cung can to hop de 11m fa de gia tri noi luc bat Ioi.

Voi de khung phang thuoc ket cau nha dan dung, trong to hQP ca ban can xet 6

tnrong hop tai trong sau:

1. Tai trong rhuong xuyen (tinh tai) (hinh 1.5a).

2. Tai trong tarn thai each tang each nhip tnrong hop 1 (hinh l.Sb).

3. Tai trong tarn thai each tang each nhip trirong hop 2 (hinh IS.c).

4. Tai trong tarn thoi tren toan bo dam (hinh 1,5d),

5. Tai trong gio tit trai sang (hinh 1.5e),

6. Tai trong gi6 tit phai sang (blnh l.5g).

I

9

G

d)

P3

b)

c)

P2

g)

-

-
- ! 1
- - _._
- -

-

-

P1
e)
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-- --
-- --
--

-- _ .... --
Gio tflu Hinh 1.5. Cac truong hop tdi trong tinh khung phang.

Voi ket cau khung nha cong nghiep, trong t6 hqp co" ban con phai xet them tai trong do cau true (g6m lac dung thing dirng va tac dung ngang) tac dung a mot phfa hay hai phia cua cot dang xet.

Tinh toan khung vrri to hop dac bier con can xet them noi luc do cac tai trong dac bier (dong dat. chay no .... ).

To hop noi hrc la mot phep cong co Iua ChQD nharn tim fa nhirng gii tri noi hrc bat loi de tinh toan cct thep hoac de kiern tra kha nang chiu luc, Viec t6 hop noi hrc (hoac t6 hop tai trong) diroc lien hanh theo cac tieu chuan thiet ke. Tieu chuan ella cac nuoc quy dinh each t6 hQP co khac nhau.

Tieu chuan Viet Nam TCVN 2737 -1995 \Ie Tai trong va tic dong quy dinh hai to hop co ban. To hop co ban 1 gam noi luc do tinh tai va noi hrc do mot truong hop cua hoat tai (e6 lua chon). To hop eo ban hai gam noi hrc do tinb tal va noi life do [t nhat hai hoat tai (colua chon truong hop bat lei) trong do noi life cua hoat tai duoc nhan vci he 56 to hop 0,9. Khi trong t6 hop co xer den tai trong cau true thi con can chu y he so to hop khi xet 51! hoar dong dong thai cua mot, hai hay bon cau [rye. Trang moi to hop, tuy thea trang thai gi6i han duoc dung d~ tinh toan rna con dung he 56 do tin cay (he 56 vuot tai) cua tai trong. (Tai trong tinh toan bang tai trong tieu chuan nhan voi he so do tin cay),

Tieu chuan thiet ke' cua Anh, Phap, My kh6ng dua rieng he 56 do tin c4Y rna ghep chung vao he 56 to hop, Cac noi ly-e duoc xac dinh thea tai trong tieu chuan, kS' hieu nhu sau:

10

I

G - noi luc do wi trong thirong xuyen, trong do mot vai tieu chuan thiet ke coo phan bier Gmltx la tnrong hQP bat Ioi (gay ra rae dung cung dau voi noi luc do heat tai) va Gmtn Iii truong hQ'P co loi (gay ra tac dung nguoc dau voi noi lire do hoar tai).

PI (i ::: 1, 2 ... n) - n¢i hrc do cac heat tai.

Noi lire tt'S hop ky hieu la S duoc tlnh voi cac h¢ s6 t6 hop khac nhau.

Khi chi xet tac dung cua mot hoat tai san Pk (nhu t6 hop co ban 1 cua TCVN) thi cac he s6 trong cac tieu chuan nhu sau:

Tieu chuan Phap BEAL - 99:

S I. ::: I ,35Gmltx + Gmin + l'sPk

Tieu chuar: Anh BS811O:

S) = 1,4Gm~t + Gmm + 1,6P~ Tieu chuan My - ACI 318:

SI ::: l,4G + 1,7Pk

Khi xet tac dung cua ca hoat tiii sao Pk va hoat tai gio P w thi:

Tieu chuan Phap:

~::: 1,35G+ i.sr, +Pw S2 ::: G + 1.5Pw + lJ\.VoP~ 1..)10 = 0,77-,:-0,9.

Tieu chuan Anh:

Tieu chuan My:

~ ::: 0,75(1.'+G + 1,7Pk) + 1,6P w

Can chu y rang he sO' trang to hop noi lire duoc lay cao hon chua khBng dinh duoc 13. do an roan ella ket cau se cao bon vi rang d¢ an roan con phu thuoc vao gia tri cuong d¢ ella vat lieu duoc dung trong tinh roan (hoac M s6 d¢ tin cay d6i v6i cuong d¢ vat lieu). Cling mot Ioai betong va mot loai thep thi wang d¢ de tinh toan trong cac tieu chuan co gia tri khac nhau, Chinh vi dieu nay cac Can bo thiet ke can luu y khi S11 dung cac tieu c11U~n. Dff xac dinh noi hrc thea tieu chuan nao thi phai lay cirong d¢ vat lieu thea tieu chuan urong irng de tfnh toan, neu kh6ng thi eo the gap phai nhtrng nham 11n dang tiec.

1.3.2. To hop flc)i lire khung phang thea TCVN

Viec t6 hop noi hrc co bin ella ket c3'1I khung phang duoc gioi thieu kha chi tiet trong nhieu tai lieu va giao trinh. 0 day chi trinh bay mot s6 van d~ GO ban.

11

T6 hop noi luc diroc lap rieng cho cot va dam. V oi C91 can lien hanh t6 hop dong thai hrc doc N va rnornen uon M cho tung tiet dien vi rang khi tinh roan c6r thep can su dung cling Iuc d. N va M, V& m6men M can quy dinh chieu duang va trong bang t6 hop gia tri cua M dtroc mang dau dai so.

Trong moi to hop, tai rnoi tiet dien can to hop de tim ra cac cap noi lire: Mma.\ va N luang img, Mmin (gia tri max thea chieu nguoc lai) va N luang irng. Nmax va M nrong LIng. TIl! du ve to hop noi lire ella mot dean cot cua khung nha dan dung duoc trinh bay 6 bang 1.. I, con thi du ve t6 hop noi hrc cua mot tiel dien c¢! nha cong nghiep mot tang co cau true diroc irlnh bay b bang 1.2.

Bang 1.1. Bang to hop noi hrc cot khung nha dan dung

NQi NQi hrc do hoar lai Noi hrc To hop co ban 1 I Tb hop co ban 2
h!c do gio
Tict N6.1 do I Tnii I Phii 1\1,1>., Mmlll N_., : \ l'-na~ N
.dien Il!C (lob TI-II 1H2 I TH3 1\1-,,,"
•• r ....... \ I j m;.l,:r..
I [ai I I N,~ N,~ i },1,~ . :--l;~ :\IU Mw
I
I 1 2 :) 4 I 5 I 6 7 8 I 9 10 1 i 12
! I ,
r A I M ! 27 21 -3 18 -36 I 38 65 -9 ..t5 I 80 -8 77.4 !
N 230 100 39 139 -7 9 ~39 223 369 . 328 259 363
B M -141.-10 :2 -8 37 -35 ')-. -49 _'l" 2.1 1--54.5 -53
I _.) __
N 39 139 -7.5 6 ""~'1 246 379 :'68 I 235 370
240 i 100 ! _.)'" 6 A 7: Mma;r,; ::::: 27 + 38 = 65; Nnr = 230 + 9 = 239 A8; Mmm = 27 - 36 = -9; Njl! == 230 - 7 = 223 A9: Nmax = 230 + 139 = 369; MIll = 27 + 18 = 45

AIO: Mmax =27 + 0,9 (21 + 38) = 80; Nw = 230 + 0,9 (l00 + 9) = 328 All: Mmm = 27 + 0,9 (-3 - 36) = -8; NliJ = no + 0,9 (39 - 7) = 259 A12: Nma;o;::::: 230 + 0.9 (139 +9) = 363; Mw = 27 + 0.9 (18 -:- 3S) = 77.":'Ell: Nl11l1." .= 240 +0,9 (139 +6) = 370; Mill = -14 +0,9 (-8-35) = -53

Bang 1.2. Bang 'to hqp noi hrc cQt nha cong nghiep

Noi N·J d h ,...! Noi iuc do cau true .\:6i life
IL_IC 01 . lJc .0 oat tat rnai , Ben trai Ben phai I do gio
,
Tiet N6i do Do I Do , !
dien I~IC; ifnh THI TH2 TIf3 Do I Do Trai Phai
ui.i Dm., i Tmw: Drr= r., I
I 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 I s 9 10
I
C I M I 0,4 -0,5 0.6 i 0,1 -20 I ±2 25 I =3 14 -14
N I US 7 8 15 47 a 56 0 0 0 I
I I 12

I

T6 hop eo ban 1 To bop co ban 2
N",,-, I ~"< (VIm,,, ; Nmax
Mm", (Vimm
N N M N N M
11 I 12 13 i 14 15 16 I
I [,7, S ,! 1, 5, 6 1, 5.6, 7, 8 1,3,7,8,9 1, 2; 5,6, 10 1,4,5,6,7,8,9
i 24.2 -18.3 7,4 35 -29,5 19,4
L165.6 158 190 150,4 161 i 196.4 Trong bang 1.2, hoat tai mai dircc xet 3 tnrong hop: truong hop 1 hoar tai 6 phia ben trai: rrucng hop 2 hoar tiii a phirr ben phai; truong hap 3 hoat tiii ad hai ben.

V oi noi Iuc do cau true lay he 560,85 khi xet hoar dong dong thai cua 2 du true va 0,7 khi xet 4 cau [rue.

6 Cll: Mrrnx ::: 0.4 + 0,85 (25 +3) = 24,2 N = 118 + 0,85 xS6 = 165,6

e12: Mmm = 0,4 + 0,85 (-20 -2) = ~ 18.3 N = 118 + 0,85 x47 = 158

C13: Nmax = US + 0.7 (47 + 56) = 190

M = O . ..J. + 0.7 (-20 +2 + 25 + 3) = 7,4

C14: Mm~\ = 0.4 + 0,9 [0,6 + 0,85 (25+3) +14] = 35 N = 118 + 0,9 (8+ 0.85 x561::: 150,4

CIS: Mmin = 0,4 + 0,9 [~O.5 - 0,85(20+2) - 14] = -29,5 N = 118.1-0,9 [7 + 0,85 x47]::: 161

C16: Nmax = 118 + 0,9 [15 + 0,7 (47 + 56)] = 196A

M = 0,4 + 0,9 [0, I + 0.7 )-20 + 2 + 25 + 3) + 14] = 19,4

Khi 16 hop noi luc C<?l tlurong nglIai ta chi clui trong den cac cap noi luc gam M va N uic dung dong thai rna b6 qua luc cat voi nhan xet Ill. hrc cat trong cot kha be, rieng belong du kha nang chiu rna khong dn nnh toan cot thep ngang (de chiu lire cat). VOi tiet dien (; chan cot con phai (6 hop them luc cit de co s6 lieu khi tinh mong, Voi nhirng tier dien khac, neu thay rang hrc cat Iii dang k~, can phai tfnh toan cot thep ngang thl cling can t6 hop [hem luc cat.

Voi darn khung, nqi lL!c chu yeu la momen ucn M va luc cit Q, ngoai ra con c6 hrc doc N (nen hoac keo). Thong thuong dci voi dam co th~ bo qua anh huong cua hrc nen neu Nn S; 0,1 Rbbllo va b6 qua anh huang cua luc keo Nk neu Nk S; OJ Rb'l bho. (R, va Rbl La cuong do tfob toan cua betong ve nen va keo) va chi t6 hop noi luc M va Q. Can t6 hop rieng M va Q d~ ve bieu do baa cua M va cua Q. Voi dam kh6ng to hop M va Q

13

I

nrong irng vi M va Q duoc dung rieng de tinh toan cot thep dQC va cot thep ngang (khong dung dong thoi nhu M va N a trang cot), T6 hop noi hrc cua mot doan dam khung duoc trlnh bay a bang 1.3, 1.4 va tren hinh 1.6.

Bang 1.3. To hop rnomen ciia dam khung

Tiet !Noi lire N6i hrc do heat tai san NQi luc do gi6 Tci hop CBI I To hop CB2
dien I do I
tinh tai . TIL 1 TH2 TH3 Tr<h Phai Mmax Mmm r-.lmax Mmin
A - 50 -25 -20 -45 I 38 -32 -12 -95 - -119,3
B 40 36 -10 26 3 -4 76 30 75.1 27.4
C -56 -22 -24 -46 -37 35 -21 -102 - -130,7 Bang 1.4. To hop life cat CLIa dam khung

I Noi Noi hrc do hoar tai Noi luc do gio T6 hop CBI , Tci hop CBl
TIe'! ! Juc do I
dien ItInh 11-1 1 TH2 TI-I3 Tr<li Phai o., o., QtnL1)' o.,
{ai
A 34 2A -8 16 I 15 -12 58 22 I 69.1 16
B I I I
-I -2 -8 -10 15 -12 14 -13 - -20.8 ;
i c I -36 -20 -8 -28 15 -12 -21 -64 I -72
I -
I Gin chu )' rang Mmux va Mmin eGng nhu Qmax va Qmm diroc tht hien \ oi dau dai so va co the la khac dau hoac cung dau,

Hinh bao mornen va hinh bao luc cat cua doan dam duoc the hien tren hinh 1.6.

119.3

a) Hinh 1.6. Hinh boo momen va lite cOr eua dam khung

Can chu y rang, de ve duoc hlnh bao momen chinh xac hon thi can tinh [hem gia tri Mmax, Mmm eho mot so tiet dien nira a khoang giiia cua dam. Hinh bao hrc cat ve a hinh 1.6b irng voi tnrong hop dean dam kh6ng chiu tai trong tap trung. Neu tren doan darn co tai trong t~p trung thi bieu do lire cat co buoc nhay tai noi dat life tap trung, can xac dinh

them QmaJ;' Qmin tai cac tiet dien do.

14

I

Trang truong hop neu xet thay khong tht bo qua luc doc N khi t inh roan dam thi can phai to hop mornen M trong dim cung voi hrc doc N nhu doi voi cot.

1.3.3. To hQP noi hrc khung kh6ng gian

So voi viec to hop noi luc khung phang thi to hop noi hrc khung kh6ng gian la plurc tap hon rat nhieu VI phai xet dong thoi den 6 thanh phan noi lire.

1.3.3.1. T6' hop noi luc dam

Gao cac true Oxvz vao dam nhu tren hinh 1.7. Thong thirong can quan tarn 161 M" Qx Ii nQI hrc lac dung trong m(11 phang xOz rna co th~ be qua My, Qy lac dung trong mat yOz. Tuy vay voi khung khong gian con can chu y den rnornen xoan MI tac dung [rang mat phang xOy (vuong goc voi true dam).

Khi xet thav khong the be qua mornen xoan M \ thi can t6 hop no cung voi mornen uon de nnh toan hoac kiern tra cot thep chiu dong thai u6n va xoan.

1.3.3.2. T6' hop noi luc cot

Gan true Oxyz vao cot nhu tren hlnh 1.8. T6 hop noi life can quan tam g6m lire doc N va cac rnomen M,. My. Ngoai fa [rang nhfrng twang hop can thiet con phai xet den hrc dt Q~, Qy va rnornen xoan MI'

De xac dinh duoc cac gia tri bat loi cua M\. My va N can phai chu y phan rich S0 do khi tinh voi tai trong dirng va tii trong ngang.

x

N

y

x

y

z

Hinh 1.7. Cae momen trong dam khung khong gian

Hinh 1.8. N¢i luc cluj yet< trong cot khung khong gian

a) V6i hoot tdi dung tren scm

Lay vi du m~t bang ket cau vci 2 san thuoc hai tang lien tiep nhu teen hlnh 1.9.

Tirong nr nhu tnrong hop xep hoar tai each tang each nhip a hlnh 1.5b. c can xet 4 dang

15

chat tai: each tang each nhip thea phuong ngang va each tang each nhip thea phuong doc. a cac 6 gach cheo hai phirong duoc chllt 100% hoar tai con cac 6 gach cheo theo mot phuong duoc chat 50% hoat tai. Tuy vay each chat cii nhu the moi tao ra SI! bat loi cho cot con voi dim thi chua duoc hoan toan. De c6 duoc gia tri bat loi nhat ella momen dirong a giira moi nhip dam thi can chat 100% heat tai len cac 6 co gach cheo. Chti y rang neu chat hoar tai nhir vita noi, khi t6 hop noi hrc di tinh CQL se c6 nhCmg 6 duoc chat heat Iii gap doi, lam tang qua rmrc hrc nen [rang cot.

San tang K

t

c)

d)

Hinh 1.9. So' do cha: hoot tdi dung Jell san de" [filii no: luc khuug

khong gian

t

San lang IrM va dLlrn sal val K

t

Ngoai 4 truong hop chat hoai tai each tang each nhip con xct them truong hQP chat hoar tai len loan b6 san.

Trang nhfrng nha nhieu tang c6 tinh tal kha 100 so voi hoar taj (g ~ 2p vci g va p la tinh tal va hoar uii tren dam) va co chieu cao nha kha 100 (trcn 40 met) thl m6men trong dam va C9t do hoat tai dung gay ra la kha be so voi rnomen do tinh tai va tai trong gio gay ra. Luc nay co the tinh roan gin dung bang each bi) qua cac truong hop xep hoat tai dirng each tang each nhip rna gQP toan bo hoat tai san va tinh tai de tinh.

To hop noi hrc cho cot khung khong gian can xet cac truong hop sau:

Mx max' My va Nruong Ung; 1\1y max' Mx va Nurong Ung; Nmax' Mx va My lUong Ung;

16

I

Trang qua trinh tinh roan noi hrc can guy dinh dau cua NT.\, My; khi t6 hop ciing phai chu y den dau. Tuy vay cot khung khong gian thuong duoc bo tri cot thep doi xirng do do khi to hop chi can lim M.\ max va My max 1a nhling momen IOn nhat ve gia tri tuyet doi rna khong can tim gia [ri IOn nhat cua M dtrong va M am. Neu c6 du kien d~t cot thep khong doi xirng thl bat buoc phai to hop de tim diroc cac bo ba noi luc voi Nix' My co gia tri duong 100 nhar (max) va gia tri am nho nhat (min - rnornen am co gia tri tuyet doi IOn nhat).

1.4. DAr CC'O?\G vE cor

lA.1. Chieu dai va chieu dai tinh toan

Trong ket cau khung nha c6 the xern chieu dai rnoi cot diroc tinh tu mai den mongo Tuy vay trang t inh roan xem moi cot chi la doan CQl trong moi tang. Chieu dai that cua cot ky hieu la / Ja khoung each giua hai lien ket (lien ket co tac dung ngan can chuyen vi ngang cua cot).

Chieu dai tinh roan cua cot ky hieu lillo, la chieu dai duoc xac dinh thea sa do bien dang cua cot. duoc lay bang chieu dai biroc song kill co: bi mat on dinh vi bi uon doc,

(l-I)

IjJ - he so phu thuoc vao so do bien dang, cGng nrc la phu thuoc vao lien ket 6 hal diiu cot.

Voi cac so do ly urong, lay \fI thea hinh 1.10.

/.

IjI = 0,5

a)

IjI = 0,7 b)

; ~2 /: .. ,_ ..... Th 0\/ Ci-

, . .:- E41tb

,_'

~

IjI = 1 v = 2

c) d)

Hinh 1.10. Cae so do ly tuong ella cot

Can chu y rang trong sa do Iy urong ngarn la lien ket can tro moi chuyen V! thing va xoay, kh6p la lien ket can tro chuyen vi thing (xoay diroc), Cac lien ket trong thuc te khong gi6ng hoan roan voi lien ket Iy tuong. Trang ket cau khung betong cot thep toan khoi, hen ket giiia dam va cot chi co tM xem la lien kel cimg rna khong phai la ngarn vi nut khung co the co chuyen vi ngang va chuyen vi xoay.

V oi cac ket cau thuc te, M so \fI diroc 1<11 tren co sa pharr tich so do bien dang.

17

777T!T

0/ = 1,3

0/ = 1,5

Hinh 1.11. Khung mot Idllg mot nhip

mbT ,/7; ?7



,.. /// / );7







»: '77 , //7- 77 H

H inh 1.12. KIlling nhieu tang 1 nhip, 2 nhfp

a) Khung mot nhip, nhieu tang co lien ket cirng gitra dam va cot Khi san roan khoi:

- CQI lang duoi cung \jJ = 1.

- C6t cac tang tren 'II = 1,25.

Khi san lap ghep:

- Cot tang duoi cung I.jJ = 125.

- CQI cac lang tren \jJ = 1.5.

b) Khung nhieu tang eo lien ket cirng gitra dam \'a cot, co hai nhip (ba c6t) rna long hai nhip B MO han mot phan ba chieu cao H.

H¢ s6 \j.Ilay thea rnuc a nhan voi 0.85.

c) Khung nhieu tang co lien ket cirng giua dam va cot c6 til ba nhip (4 CQt) tro len

hoac co hai nhip rna tong hai nhip 100 hen 1/3 chien cao loan khung:

- Khi san loan khoi l.j1 = 0.7.

- Khi san Hlp ghep \jJ = I.

d) Khung do cau 1[1,1C, khung nha c6ng nghiep mot tang co co: lien ket khop voi ket cau mai rna rnai thi cimg trong mat phang cua no, co kha nang truyen tai trong ngang,

lay 10 theo bang 1.5.

18

I

Bang 1.5. Chien dai tinh toan [0 ella cot nha mot tang

I

I

!

Dac tnrng

GiJ lri 10 khj tfnh lrong.m~t phllng

Kbuog ngang hoac vuong

goc voi true cau

c<;m

I Phan cot

> I duoi darn

Khi ke den II: cau true

lailrong ~------~-----------4-------+---------+---------4

I do cau true Philo COl - Khong lien rue I 2.0 He: I L.5H--z i 2,OI-I1

trcn dam L' I 20 H -IJ -H

- H!O tuc , ,1 1,)11 l,) "

cau true

i Khong lien rue 1,S HI

Vuong goc voi khung ngangho$csongsong voi true cau can khi

C6 Khong co

Cac giang trong mal . I phang oua hang cot doc I hoac cua de goi neo I

O,SHI 1,2HI

--------"1----------"1

0,8.1-f: Q,8H1

Lien IUC I.2H,

Nhil co cau true

I

I

Philo cot MQt nhip ! 1.5 H

Khi khong diroi darn

k~ den tai cau true

r----~!r-------+----+----------+----------1

Phao COL i Kh6ng lien tlfc 2.5 He I.SHl 2,OH" j

I 2.0 Hz !.5H] I l.SH" I

L2H

Nhieu nhip

i

i i

i

; trong do

,

tren dam ' cau true I

du true

Lien [lIC

MQl nhip

Phan CQI duoi

1,2 H

L2H

::~: i O.8H I l.2H

Mot nhip

CQ{ c6 lie't dien khong dbi

Nhieu nhip

Khong lien II,lC

Khi co dam cau true

Lien tuc

Ciu can

Khi lien ket giifa COl do Khop 2,OH l,OU 2.0H

r-----~----+_------+---------+-------~

duong eng vii. nhip I Cirng 1,5H 0.71-1 L5H

1,2 H Q,8H 1,2H

Ky hieu:

11 . ell/ill cao roan bo cua cot tinh tlf nuit tren mong de'll ktt cdu ngang (gian keo IIO(iC til all I! xien cua ddm diJ vi keo] trong m{ir pluiug fI((J7Jg uug;

HI - cliieu cao pluln cot dum {tinl: (IC m(il tren Clia mong dell mal duo: dam edit true).

H: . chilli cao phan cot rnJII (tint: flC m¢f tren Clia bac e(it den ket cal.. ngang trong mijl philllg iuong 1(lIg).

Ghi chu: Ne'u co [ieu ktt del' dinh cot trong IIJU:'J co cdu true, chilli cao tinli toan pluin C(H {ret! troug mat ptuing cf1L(Q true hang cot doc My bdng Hz.

I

19

1.4.2. Tiet dien cot

Hinh dang tiet dien CQl thuong Ia chil nhat, vuong, tron. Cling co th~ g~p C91 c6 tiet dien chir T, chil I hoac Yang khuyen.

Viec chon hlnh dang, klch thuoc tiet dien C9t dira vao cac yeu cau ve kien true, ker cau va thi congo

Ve kien true, do la cac yeu cau ve tham my va yeu cau ve SLr dung khong gian. Voi cac yeu cau nay ngiroi thiet k€ kien Ink dinh fa hinh dang va cac kich thiroc toi da, toi rhieu c6 th6 chap nhan duoc, thao luan voi nguoi thiet k€ ket cau de sa bo chon lira.

Ve ket cau, kich thuoc tie! dien cot can baa dam do ben va dQ on dinh. D9 ben se duoc tinh toan hoac kiern Ira (day la noi dung chinh cua tai lieu nay).

Ve do 6n dinh, do iii viec han che do manh Ie.

(1-2)

Trong do:

i v ban kinh quan tinh cua tiel dien, Voi tiet dien chfr nhat canh b (hoac h) thi i = 0.288b (O.288h). Voi tiel dien Iron duong kinh D Ihi i = O.lSD.

1'J.!h - JQ manh gioi han, voi cot nha I'gh = 100.

Ve thi congo do ia viec chon kich thuoc [iel dien cot thuan ticn cho vice lam va lap dung van khuon, vice d~H cot thep va do beiong. Thea yeu cau nay k ich thuoc tier dien nen chon la boi so ella 2; 5 boac IDem.

Viec chon kich thuoc cot thea do ben (chon sa bo) co the iien hanh bang each [ham khao cac ket cau luang II! (cia duoc xay dung hoac thiet ke), thea kinh nghiern thiet ke hoac bang each tinh toan gar, dung.

Dien t ich tiel dien C91 la Ao xac dinh thea cong thuc 0-3).

kN Ao =_t-_

Rb

(1-3)

Trang do:

Rh- cuong do tinh roan ve nen ella belong. Xem phu luc I: 2.

]\J - life nen, duoc tinh toan gan dung nhu sau:

N = m.qf', F~ - dien rich mat san truyen lai trong len CQl dang xet:

m, - so san phia tren liel dien dang xer (k~ ca mail;

q - tai trong tuong dirong tinh tren moi met vuong mat san trong d6 gam tai trong thirong xuyen va tarn thoi tren ban san, trong nrong dam, wang, C91 dem tinh ra phan be

(1-4)

deu tren san. Gia tri q diroc lay theo kinh nghiern thiet ke.

20

I

Voi nha co be day sao la be (10 +I-lcrn kt d. cac 16'p cau tao mat san), co it nrong, kich thuoc cua dam va cot thuoc loai be, q = 10 -i- 14kN/m2 (l -;. L4T/m2)

Voi nha co be day sao trung birth (15 -;. 20cm), tuong, dam, cQl 1.1 trung binh hoac IOn, q = 15 -;. 18 kl'I/m2.

Voi nha co be day san kha 160 (tren 25cm). cot va dam deu Ion thi q c6 the den 20kN/m2 hoac han rnra.

k, - he so xet den anh huang khac nhu rnornen uon, ham luong cor thep, do manh cua cot. Xet su anh huang Day thea su phan tich va kinh nghiern cua nguoi thiet ke.

,

khi anh huang cua morncn la Ian. do rnanh cot IOn (10 Ion) thi lay k, 16n, vao khoang

1.3 -i- 1,5. Khi anh huang cua m6men la be thl lay k, :: 1,1 -;. 1,2.

Truong hap thiet ke ket cau chiu tai trong dong dar thi kich thuoc cua cot con phai

tuan thea dieu kien ve han che' ty so Den nc :: R: . R6 rang 18. voi Dc be thi can tang b 0

he 56 k..

Sau khi sa bo tinh diroc Ao [hi tien hanh chon kfch thuoc tier dien CQL Voi tiet dien chil nhat ty' Ie giua canh Ian va canh be khong qua 4 (neu ry t¢ tan han 4 thi phai xem la tarn wong).

Kich thuoc tie't dien cot diroc chon sa bo co duoc xem la hap Iy hay khong ve mat chiu luc chi duoc danh gia sau khi da tinh roan hoac bo tri co; thep va dua vao ty l¢ philo tram cat thep, Neu phat hien duoc kich thuoc da chon la qua bat hap ly (qua 100 hoac qua be) thi nen chon lai va nnh lai.

Trang nha nhieu tang, theo chieu cao nha tir mong den rnai lire nen Trang CQt giarn dan. D6 baa dam su hop ly ve StI dung vat lieu thi cang len cao nen giarn kha nang chiu luc cua cot, Viec giarn nay co the thuc hien bang:

- Giam kich tluroc tiet dien CQL

- Giarn cot thep trong cot,

- Giam mac belong.

Trang ba each tren thi viec giarn cot thep ta dan gian han ca nhimg pham vi dieu chinh khong lan. each giarn kich thiroc tier dien la c6 ve hap Iy han ve mat chiu luc nhung lam phirc tap cho thi cong va anh huang khong tot den 51! lam viec tong the cua ngoi nha khi tinh toan ve giao dong. Thong thirong thi nen ket hap ca ba each tren.

1.4.3. Cot thep trong cot

Cot thep trong cot gam cot thep doc emu luc, cot thep d9C cau tao va cot thep ngang.

21

1.4.3.1. Cot thep doc chiu luc

D6 la cac cot thep dtroc tinh toan hoac duoc kiem tra M chiu noi luc trang cot, Thirong dung cac loai thep c6 cirong d(> tinh toan R, = 260.;- 40CHv1Pa (2600.;- 4OOOkG/cm2), duong kinh thanh thep 12.;- 40mm. Khi canh tiet dien cot 100 hon 200mm, duong kinh cot thep phai tu 16mm tro len (trir truong hop cot thep tinh diroc qua be, chi can d~t thea veu cau rei thieu).

Trong tiet dien tron cot thep duoc d?t deu thea chu , .. i (hinh l.13a). Trang tiet dien vuong. chir nhat. chfr T hcac chu I c6 hai each dat:

- Dat theo chu vi (hinh 1.13 b. c).

- D~t tap trung tren canh vuong goc voi mat phAng uon (canh b - hinh 1.13d, e).

8)0" e,

' .

. f

f

e,

• •

~ . . . . .

• •

• e • • • • •

c)

d)I D"'- . ·

b' •

• •

.. .

e)~

• • e

,I

h

Hinh 1.13. Cac each d¢1 COl thep doc ,/!!II/Itc

Truong hop cot vira chiu nen vira chiu uon trong mot mat phang doi xung (nen lech tam phang) thi d~t cot thep tap trung tren canh b la hQP Iy ve mat chiu life vi col thep phat huy duoc loi da kha nang cua no. Dat cot thep thea chu vi thich hop eho C(>1 lam viec kh6ng gian (bi uon theo hai phuong - nen lech tam xien), Truong hop nen lech lam phang ciing e6 tht d~1 cot thep theo chu vi de thuan tien cho thi cong va ciing cit khoi phai dat them cot thep cau tao tren canh h (canh song song voi m?t phang uon).

D~L A'l - dien tich tiet dien roan bo cot thep chiu life.

Ab - dien tich tiet dien betong.

Aq h - or IOOA,1

)1 = - oae)1 -/0 = __ .:..:..

.' A . ~ A

b b

)1, - Iy le COl thep.

Dieu kien han che' la:

)lmin s )ls s )lmax

( 1.5)

flmm - t5' J¢ cot thep loi thieu, thuong lay )1min = 0,005 = 0,5%.

)1max - 1)' l¢ cot thep toi da. Trang mot so tieu chuan thiet ke lay )1m~.\ = 0,06 = 0,6%.

22

Khi bo tri cot thep doc can dam baa dieu kien ve chieu day lop baa ve va khoang ha gura cac thanh cot thep. Trang rnoi tnrong hop chieu day lap baa v~ (co) va khoang he gifra cac thanh cot thep (to) kh6ng duoc nho hon duong kfnh thanh ($) (hinh 1.14a). Ngoai ra vat CQI c6 chieu cao tiet dien h nr 2S0rnrn Ira ten thi chieu day lop baa ve , kh6ng nho han 20mm. Voi c6t thep e6 vi trf dirng khi d6 betong khoang he giila cac thanh khong nho han SOmm. Trang dieu kien kich thuoc tiel dien bi han che rna buoc phai di).t nhieu cot thep thi duoc phep d~t cot thep thanh doi, ghep sat vao nhau thea phtrong chuyen dong ella vila betong khi db, hie nay khe ho- giira cac doi cot thep kh6ng duoc nho hon 1.5 bin duong kmh thanh (hinh 1.14b).

a)

o

b)

o

co CO CO

CD

.0

I

9

I c, ~\~o Co

Hinh 1.14. Lop baa v¢ va khodng lid Clla edt thep

1.4.3.2. Cat thep doc ca'u tao

Trang truang hop cot thep doc chiu hrc duoc d<)t tap trung rren earth b rna canh h > 500 mm thi doc thea canh h can dat cot thep doc cau tao c6 dtrong kinh ur 12 +Iornrn. Khoang each giua cac true de thanh Cal thep do JQc thea canh h Ja s khong duoc Ian han 400mm. Dien tich thanh col doc cau tao khong nho han G,OGlsbt voi b. = min (G,Sb va 200mm).

b)

• • •
• •
b
• •
r 1 ,
s I s I I s
500 < h < 850 a)

. . • •

Rinh 1.15.

CO! thep doc cdil (_10

• •

i T

T

II

5 I

850 <h < 1250

1.4.3.3. Cot thep ngang

Cot thep ngang cua CQt khi dung khung COl buoc la nhfmg cot dai khep kfn va nhirng thanh neo diroc uon moe chuan a hai duu. Cot thep ngang trong cot c6 nhiem Vl.J lien ket voi de cot thep doc thanh khung chic chan, giG dung vi tri cot thep khi (hi cong, gili' on dinh cho cot thep doc chiu nen. Khi chiu nen, cot thep doc co th~ bi cong, pha va lap betong baa Y~ va bat ra khoi betong. Cot dai giG eho cot doc kh6ng bi cong va bat ra ngoai, hie nay cot thep dai chiu keo va neu no kh6ng diroc neo chac chan thl c6 th~ bi bung ra hoac cot dai qua be thi co tM bi keo dut,

23

Duong kinh c6t thep dai ~daj ~ 0,25$dQC max (c6 tieu chuan guy dinh ~dai ~ 0,3$doc)' B6 tri cot thep dai doc thea chien cao cot tuy thuoc vao ket cau co yeu cau chong dong dat (khang chan) hay khong.

V oi ket cau bmh thuong (khong khang chan) khoang each cua cot thep dai trong toan bo cot (trir 000-0 n6i bU9C cot rhep doc) la ad ::; ad $d9C rruri' Lay ad = 15 khi t)1 so c6t thep J-Ls s 0,03 va ad = 10, khi J-Ls > 0,03, d6ng thai ad:; 400mm.

Trang vung n6i c6t thep doc can phai d~t c6t thep dai day han voi khoang each khong qua 1 O~doc min' Trang doan noi buoc cot thep doc phai co it nhat 4 cot dai (hmh 1.16a).

V oi ket cau co yeu cau khang chan cot thep dai can duoc o~t day han {rang doan gan sal voi nut khung. Mire d9 d~t day ella c6t dai phu thuoc vao dip chong dong dar cua cong trinh (hinh 1.16b). Ngoai fa con co yeu du d~t cot dar cho cot 6' trong pham vi nut khung khi nul khung co dam lien ket tir 3 mat ben tro xuong.

Ve hlnh dang, cot dai phai baa quanh loan bo cac cot thep doc va it nhat each mQI thanh cot thep doc co mot thanh dat vao goc cua cot dai (hinh 1.16). Truong hop earth b :$ 400mm rna tren d6 dat 4 thanh cot thep doc thi co th~ khong tuan theo guy dinh vira neu. (Tieu chuan Phap BAEL guy dinh moi thanh cot thep doc co $ ~ 20 deu phai duoc nea giG bang Cal thep dai d€ khong th~ bi uon cong bat ra khoi belong).

3}

24

b)

0,"

~ ·0:'0400

j, h:sSOO .1

Hinh 1.16. BS tri COf (hip dai a) Trong cot binh thuong;

b) Trong cot co yeu cau killing c1ni'n

Cot dai lam vice chiu keo do do dau miit phai duoc neo chac chan, thuong lam moe nea gap a'::; 45° voi doan thang dau mut S:;:: 3~dai' Truong hop lam neo gap 90° thl doan thang S:;:: 8$tlai va do dung day thep buoc dau miit vao vci thanh c6t dai, tranh cho khi cot dai chiu keo rruit bat fa ngoai (hinh 1.17), Khi dung thanh neo dO'I1, hai dau phai c6 moe neD lieu chuan voi S:;:: 3q,da) ,

-

Hinli 1.17. Neo cdr {hip dai

1.5. NOI LUC vA DO U;:CH TAM

1.5.1. Nen dung tam va nen tech tam

Cot chiu hrc nen N la chu yeu, Ngoai ra cot can co the bi uon theo mot phuong hoac hai phuong.

Khi cot chi chiu mot hrc nen N dat dung doc thea true cua no, CQl chiu nen dung tam. Thuc ra nen dung tarn chi la tnrong hop ly urong, trong thuc Ie rat it khi gap. Kha

nang chiu hrc cua cot chiu nen dung tam la No duoc X8.c dinh thea cong thirc:

(1-6)

Rb, R", - cirong dQ tinh roan chill nen cua betong va cua cot thep, Ab, A;[ - dien tich tiet dien betong va ella roan bo c6t thep doc.

c.p ::; 1 - he so giam kha nang chiu luc do uon doc (M sO' uon doc). Xac dinh c.p theo cong tlurc thirc nghiern (1.7), dung duoc khi 14 < A. ::; 104.

cp := 1,028 - 0,0000288).2- 0,00 I 6A.

(1-7)

I

A. = ~ - do manh cua cot (xern cong thuc 0-2».

l;nin

Khi A. .514, bo qua anh huong uon dQC, lay q> = 1.

Cot vira chiu nen N vira chiu uon M duoc doi thanh sa do IIfC nen d~t Iech tam (hinh

1.18) va duoc goi Ia cot chiu nen lech tam. Gia rri e} = ~ duoc goi la d¢ lech tam tinh hQC.

25

(1-8)

Khi mornen uon M tac dung trong mat phang chua true doi xirng ciia tiet dien eo tnrong hop nen lech tam phang, khi M khong flam trong mat phang doi xung vira neu, eo tnrong hop nen lech tam xien.

N

N

M

M e'="N

-

Hinh 1.18. Sa d6 C(JI chiu nell lech ram

1.5.2. D¢ I~ch tam va lech tam ng~u nhien

Ngoai do lech tam el = M , trong tinh toan con can k~ den do Itch tam ngau nhien

. . N . .

ea gay fa boi nhirng nhan to chua xet den duoc nhu sai lech do thi congo betong khong dong nhat v.v.. . Quy dinh ve viec xet dO lech tam ngau nhien eO. trong cac lieu chuan

thiet kela khac nhau. .

a) Thea lieu chuan Viet Nam TCVN 5574 - 1991. (lieu chuan cii) do Itch tam ban dau eo de tinh toan Iii:

Doi voi cac cau kien chiu nen co so do tinh dinh hoac Iii bo phan cua ket cau situ tinh nhirng chiu Iuc nen tnrc tiep dat len no thi gia tri e~ lay khong nho hon 1/25 chieu cao tiet dien va khong nho han cac tri 56 sau:

20mm d6i voi cor va cac tam urong eo chieu day tCr 250mm trolen. 15mm d6i voi cac tam c6 chieu day 150..;. 250 mm

10mm d6i voi cac tam co chieu day duoi 150mm

D6i voi cac bo phan cua ket cau sieu tinh khong chiu hrc nen true tiep cho phep bo qua dolech tam ngau nhien (ea = 0).

b) Thea tieu chuan TCXDVN 356 : 2005, do lech tam ea trong moi tnrong hQP lay khong nho han 1/600 chien dai cau kien va 1/30 chieu eao tier dien. Do Iech tam ban dau eo Jay nhu sau:

- Vat cau kien cua ket cau sieu tinh:

eo = max (e I ; eJ - Voi cau kien tinh dinh, xac dinh eo thea cong thirc (1-8).

c) Tieu chuan Phap BAEL - 9916y ea = max (11250; 20mm) va nnh eo rhea (1-8).

(1-9)

d) Tieu chuan Anh BS 8110 quy dinh dQ lech tam eo kh6ng nho han do lech tam t6i thieu bang gia tri Ian han trong hai gia tri 1/20 chieu cao tiet dien va 20mm.

26

1.5.3. Anh huong cua uon doc

Cot c6 do manh Ion e6 the bi uon doc Hun eho n6 bi eong (hinh 1.19). Luc nay life nco N gay fa them mot rnornen thii cap Mz = Nez voi e2 la chuyen vi nrong d6i cua tiel dien dang xet so vci vi trl d~[ hrc N.,

Mornen uon tir M tang len thanh M I = M + M2• Viec tang M nhtr vay

la nrong dirong voi viec tang dq lech

tarn tu eo thanh e'o = eo + e2.

Tieu chuan thiet ke cua cac mroc xet vice tang do lech lam nay thea cac each khac nhau.

a) Tieu chuan cua Phap BAEL va ella Anh BS 8110 dua fa cong thirc tlurc nghiern xac dinh e2.

Tieu chuan Phap: /2

e) == 0, 0003..Q.. (2 + alPI)

- h

a)

al va PI ti\ cac he 56 ke den anh huang cua rae dung dai han va nr bien ella betong (al = 0,7+1: PI = 2 +1.5)

)

Ticu chuan Anh: c) = ~l_ Kh (!sl)-

- 2000 c

r

r -l

I _

I I I I I I

rhM oj

N

Hinh 1.19. AliI! huang ciia u(/11 doc

k:::; 1 he 56 phu thuoc rrurc dQ chiu nen ella tiet dien, c .: canh be cua tiet dien.

b) Tieu chuan ella Nga, Trung Quae, Viet Nam xet viec tang dQ lech tam theo he 56 nhan.

, (e) J

eo =c~ +e2 = 1+ c~ eo = 11 eo

11 ;::: 1 ,- he so xet den uon doc.

Trong ty thuyet on dinh dJ. cluing minh duoc eOng thuc xac dinh 11: 1

11=--l __ N_

Ncr

0-10)

0-11)

Ncr - life nen toi han. CiJng trong ly thuyet 6n dinh da chtrng minh cong thirc Ole (Euler) d6i voi cau kien bang vat lieu dan h6i, dong nhat:

27

1[2EJ N =--

cr ~

E - modun dan hoi cua vat Iieu;

J - mornen quan tinh cua tiet dien,

EJ - do ctrng eh6ng u6n cua tiet dien.

De tinh toan cau kien belong cot thep nguoi ta khong dung cong thirc (1-12) rna dung cac cong thirc thirc nghiern. C6 kha nhieu cong thirc nhu vay voi cac mire d9 gan

(1-12)

dung khac nhau trang d6 tinh roan Ncr thea cirong do chiu nen Rb hoac thea rnodun dan hoi Eb ella betong, co ke hoac khong ke den dO l?eh tam va 51! co mat ella cot thep,

Cong thirc thea cuong d¢ chiu nen Rb.

N == 4800Rb] = 400RbAbh2

cr 12 12

o 0

(1-13)

Ab = bh - dien (Ich tier dien chfr nhat.

Cong thirc tinh thea modun dan hoi Eb:

N :::; 2,SEb]

cr p

o

Cong thirc tinh thea Rb co ke d¢ lech tarn va cot thep:

h2

Ncr = CsRbAb P

o

0-14)

(I-IS)

C = 66000 [ 1 + 200u + IJ

s R+350 eo +0,16 ' .I

h

Trang do:

R - mac thiet ke' cua betong thea cuong do chiu nen trung binh (kG/em2); J.\ - ty l~ cot thep,

Cong thtrc tinh thee Eb e6 ke den d¢ lech tam, cot thep va tac dung dai han cua life nen,

N =: 6,4Eb (J V C +a ] ~ (I-16a)

cr /2 K s ~

o d

Ve - M s6 ke den do lech tam:

Ve = 0,11 +0,1 ° 1+ eo

, h

(1-17a)

28

K,j - he so kt~ den rae dung dai han cua luc nen:

K - 1 Mdh + N dhY

d - + ----''-'-'----------'=-=--

M+Ny

v - khoang each tir trong tam tiet dien den rnep chiu keo (hoac chiu nen it) ella

(l-I7b)

tier dien.

Mdh, Ndh - phan noi hrc do tai trong dai han gay fa.

a; = :.' voi E, la rnodun dan hoi ella cot thep,

D

J, - mornen quan tinh cua tiet dien cot thep,

Tieu chuan TCXDVN 356 - 2005 cho cong tlurc tinh Ncr tren CeJ S0 cua cong thirc (1-16a) voi cac he 56 chi tie: han.

. c.r, r J l( 0,11 J l

Ncr =-2- - <3 +0,1 +a,J~

to Cfl, 0,1 + ___f_ j

<Pp

(1-16b)

Trang do:

6~ lAy bang ty 56 e~1 nlurng khong nho han i:\mlJ1

.. (Pp- he so xet den anh huang cua cot thep ling Iuc truce den d¢ cling cua cau

kien. (cpr ~ I - khi khong co cot thep ling hrc tnroc <Pp = 1).

Co - h¢ 56. Voi betong nang va belong hat nbc nh6m A hy C, = 6,4.

Voi betong hat nho nhorn B lay C, = 5.6. <P, - he so, xac djnh thea cong thirc.

M/ Cfl/ = 1 + ~ M

13- he so, vrri belong nang B = 1; betong hat nbc nhorn A: ~ = 1,3; nh6m B: 13 = 1,5. M - mornen lay doi voi mep tiet dien chiu keo hoac chiu nen it hon do tac dung cua toan bo tal trong.

M, - Nhu tren, do tai trong thuong xuyen va tai trong tarn thai dai han.

Tieu chuan cua Trung Qu6c GBllO - 98 toy ciing xet 51.! tang do lech tam bang he s6 nhan 11 nhung khong dung cong thue (1-11) rna xac dinh n bang cong thuc tlurc nghiern:

29

I

Voi nhfrng C9t ngan, c6 d9 minh be, A == I? ::; 14, c6 the bo qua inh huang cua uon 1

doc, lay e2 = 0 hoac 11 = l.

Qua trinh xet su tang d9 lech tam th~ hien tren hinh 1.20.

N

H inh 1.20. 51/ lang do 11cll 10111

Gia tri 11 t inh thea c6ng thirc (1-11) 1<). doi voi I iet d ien c6 chuyen vj Ian nhat. Tuy theo vi tri tiet dien tinh roan rna co th~ lay gia tri 11 urong irng,

Tren hinh 1.19a gia tri ~ Ian nhat a gifra C9t con tren hinh 1.19b, c c6 e2 16n nhat a chan C9t, tai dinh cot eJ = 0 urong irng voi 11 = 1.

Trang tinh roan thirc te, de thien ve an roan co the xem gao dung 11 la hang so trong toan C91. Tuy vay neu muon tinh loan chinh xac han thl can dua vao S0 do bien dang bal IQ'1 -ua cot d€ lay gia tri 11 irng voi urng tier dien.

Sau khi ke den de? lech tam ngau nhien ea va anh lnrong cua uon doc 11 thl m6men uon da tir gia tri ban dau la M tang len thanh M'"

M*=N11eo 1.6. St,JLA.M \l1$C eVA TIET Dr$N COT

(1-18)

1.6.1. Dieu kien ve de? ben

Tinh roan tiet dien C9t theo phuang phap trang thai giai han. Dieu kien co ban dam bao do ben khi tinh theo trang thai gioi h<,U1 ve kha nang chiu lire 18.:

30

N = Ngh Mu ~Mgh

N ~ hrc nen duoc xac dinh theo t6 hop noi life.

(1- t 9) (1-20)

Ngh - kha nang chiu nen cua tier dien.

Mu = Ne.; Momen uon do luc Den N dat lech tam gay ra doi voi true U (khong narn trong mat phAng ucn).

eu- khoang each tv diem d~( luc lech tam N den true U da: chon (eu > 0). Mgh- kha nang chiu ucn ella tiet dien lay dOl ~6i true U da chon.

Xac dinh Ngh, Mgh dua vao su lam viec a trang thai gi6i han Vf, khi nang chiu luc, Trang thai nay ducc thiet lap tren co sa pharr tich cac kel qua nghien ciru thirc nghiern. dua tren de quy luat chi phoi Sl,I lam viec va cac gii thiet diroc de xuat. TLr d6 lap ra de bieu thirc toan hoc de tinh toano

Irong bai roan tinh cot thep boac bai roan kiern tfa can thea man d hai dieu kien ueu tren trong d6 c6 the lay mot dieu kien theo dau dang tlurc (=) eon dieu kien kia theo

dau quy dinh ($). Truong hap nen dung tam chi can mot dieu kien 0-19) trong d6 Ngh = No tin h theo cons thuc (l-6).

1.6.2. Cac ket qua thirc nghiern

1.6.2.1. Quan he ung sud! bien dang

Ket qua quan trong nhat ella thuc nghiern 13. quan he giua ling suat (J va bien dang ty doi t: cua vat lieu duoc gioi thieu tren hinh 1.2L

crt

i

(J

bJ

b)

Hinh 1.21. Quan II¢ giiia ung mar (3" - e c ua vdt li ¢ II: a) Betong; b) Cor thep deo.

Hinh 1.22. Quan h¢

(3"- s dung trong tinh todn: aJ Betong; b) CO/lMp.

31

D~ dung vao tinh toan, cac quan he tren da diroc dan gian h6a va sau khi da dira vao cac he s6 d~ xet den d¢ an roan (d¢ lin cay) thi bieu do irng suat bien dang duoc lay theo hlnh 1.22, trong do:

Rb, R, - cirong dQ tinh toan cua betong (ve nen) va ella cot thep (ve keo):

ECl EJ - bien dang cua betong va c6t thep a trang thai gioi han;

ET = ~' - gi6i han bien dang dan hoi ella cot thep, trong do E., la modun dan hoi.

s

Voi belong, khi chiu nen dung tam nguoi ta eho rang khong nen de cho betong e6 bien dang qua 2%0 va nhu vay lay Ec = 2%0 .. Khi tren tiel dien e6 mot vung chiu keo mot vung chiu nen, kha nang bien dang cua betong a mep chiu Ot!O tang len, lieu chuan cua Phap lay Ec = 3,5%0, con lieu chuan ella My lay Ec = 3%0.

v oi Cal thep, bien dang ella cot thep deo khi bi keo dUt la kha IOn (0,1 +0.2). Tuy vay khi xet su lam vice cua ket cau betong cot thep a trang tha: gioi han mot so lieu chuan co guy dinh han che gia tri cua Ea Irong khoang 10%0.

1.6.2.2. Sf! lam viec cua cau kien

Thirc nghiern ve sl! L1m viec cua cau kien chiu nen lech tam diroc lien hanh theo sa do tren hinh 1.23 voi lire nen N dat each true mot doan eo' Lim thi nghiern voi cac do Iech lam eo khac nhau va trong moi Jan thi nghiern tang dan hrc N cho den khi cau kien bi pha hoai.

Ket qua thuc nghiern cho biet voi eo be toan bo tiet dien chiu nen va SI! pha hoai bal dau ur betong iJ mep chiu nen

nhieu han. V6i eo IOn. mot phan tiet dien chiu nen, phan con lai chiu keo, betong chiu kco c6 the bt mrt, su pha hoai co the bat dau tu vung belong chiu nen hoac lU c61 thep chiu keo,

C6 hai quan diem ve pha hoai: img suat va bien dang,

Quan diem ve ling suat eho rAng vat lieu se bi pha hoai khi ling suat trong no dat va VUQ1 cirong dQ vat lieu. Thea quan diem nay bieu do irng suat dung

Hinh 1.23. SCI d6 IJII/C nghi¢m cdu ki¢n min lech /0111

I

eho tinh toan duoc thiet lap tu ket qua thuc nghiern va kh6ng can quan lam den cac

Quan diem ve bien dang cho rang su pha hoai duoc quyet dinh boi bien dang ella vat lieu, Theo quan diem nay xuat phat d~ lap sa do tinh toan ta bien dang. Tir sa do bien dang, dung cac quan he 0 hinh 1.22 M suy ra sa do irng suat va dung sa do img suit M lap cong thuc.

1.6.3. Gia thiet tinh toan

De lap de cong thirc tinh loan tiet dien belong cot thep nguoi ta dung quy luat ve can oang luc, ngoai ra de dan gian hoa cong viec tinh toan nguoi ta con dung gil thiet be qua 51! lam viec cua belong chiu keo, Rieng voi quan diem ve bien dang con dung them gia thiet tie"! dien phang va gia thiet belong, COL thep eo cung bien dang (tai moi V\ trf).

1.6.4. Sa do ling suit betong "ling nen

Tuy xuat phat cua hai quan diem co khac nhau nhirng sa do irng suat trang belong vung JH~n duoc lay giong nhau va d6 ta mot duong cong nhu tren hinh 1.23c. Dtrong cong do co dang ella dirong cong tren hlnh

1;11 - 1 '""II CA' lui C hinh 17, the

._ lO<,lC . __ . an c u y rang 1 .__ e

hien quan he c-s thea hai true vuong goc con

ninh 1.24b \"3 1.24<: the hien quan he a - £ thea hai lI1;lC song song. TI1;lc trung hoa each

rnep chiu nen mot doan xo' tai do co E = ° va

o = 0, trong doan E < 2%0, quan he c- E la duong cong, trong doan E > 2%0, co c ta hang so, bang Rb (doan AB tren bieu do).

Nharn don gian hoa viec tinh roan nguoi ta da thay bieu do co mot doan eong OA va mot doan thang AB tren hinh 1.23c voi chieu cao vung nen thuc Xo bang bi~u do hinh chir nhat voi chieu cao vung nen tinh d6i x va irng suat tinh d6i R'b' Xac dinh x va R'b dua vao hai dieu kien: gia tri cua hop hrc Db va diem d~t cua Db trong hai bieu do Hi trung nhau. Truong hop tier dien clnr nhat be rong b thi hai phirong trinh de xac dinh x va R',

I

e

,

N

a)

b)

c)

x,

tt)

Hinb 1.24. Ung SUQt trong betong vung nen: a) Sa d6 ni)i I L!C; b) B i ell do' bien dang; c) Bitu do ung sud! thuc; d) Biell do' dan gidn hoa.

33

Ia: Db = R'b bx va cb = fr (xern hlnh 1.24) trong d6 Db va C, da dUQ'C xac dinh theo Rb va xo' Trong tnrong hop chung c6 the bi~u dien x thea Xo va R', theo Rb nhir sau:

(1-21)

Gia tri cua e va ~b phu thuoc hinh dang vung betong chiu nen va Se' V ci tiet dien chir nhat co the lay f\ = 1 va e = 0,8 -:- 0,85 khi Sc = 3%0. -i- 3,5%0. Voi tiet dien chir T c6 canh trong vung nen lay ~h = I va e = 0.82 -:- 0,88 voi tier dien tron Pb = 0,9 -:- 0,95 va e = 0,8 -:- 0,85.

Gia tri e nlur vira neu dung o cong thirc (1-21) chi dung khi Xo~. Tnrong hop nell lech tam rna loan bo tiet dien chiu nen thl true trung hoa narn ngoai tiel dien, Xo > h va Xu co the tang den vo cung (fang hie gioi han cua x chi c6 the dat den toi da la bang h. Khi rna Xo > h va e = 0.85 co the dung wang qua giua x va Xo thea bieu thirc (l-n) sau day:

(xo -0.8Sh)h

X = ___:'-------

Xo - 0, 8235h

(J -22)

1.6,5. Dog suit trong cot thep

1.6.5.1. Theo quan Jilill ung sud!

V 6i rnrong hop COl thep diroc dat tap trung tren cac canh vuong goc voi mat phang uon ja A, (c hi u keo hoac nen it hon) va A', (chiu nen nhieu han) thl cac Ung suat tuong L1ng la G~ va 0', dI1Q'C lay thea ket qua tlurc nghiern nhu sau (hinh 1.25).

a) Voi col rhep A". Khi A, chiu keo, 0", dat gia tri Ian khi cot thep dat xa true trung

hoa va nguoc lai. Khoang each tir A.~ den true trung hoa la va = ho - Xo = ho - ~ . Gia tri Jan nhat rna O"~ co the dat den thee quy uoc tinh roan 13 Rs. Dt dat diroc dieu nay thl v" phai Ion hem mot phan nao d6 cua ~. tarn dat iii. a]ho.

va = ho _..:;::: a] ho rut ra x::; (I-a] )9h(l = SRhO e

Vay dieu kien de Cls dat den R~ la:

x s ~Rho

Nguoi ta xac dinh gia tri ~R bang thirc nghiern, thay rang ~R phu thuoc \'8.0 R, va Rb· Da co nhirng cong thtrc thuc nghiem de tinh toan ~R nhung thuong co th~ Ira bang a phu luc 4.

Khi x > ~R 110 thl ITs chiu keo chua dat R.~ hoac khi x tang den mot rmrc nao do thl as chuyen thanh chiu nen. Tieu chuan TCXDVN 356 : 2005 dua ra cong thuc thuc nghiern

xac dinh ITs:

34

I

_(21-X/ho )

0,- -1 R

, 1-~R ~

C6ng thirc 0-23) diroc dung eho betong co cap bang hoac nho han B30, cot thep nhom C1, AI, CII. AIL CIII, AIII. (R, 5; 400) va chap nhan duoc khi x 5; ho con khi ' x > ho thi 1<1Y a, = -R~. Cong thuc (1-23a) do rae gia d~ xuar cho ket qua dung diroc khi

(1-23)

(1-23a)

Trang hai cong tlurc tren tinh duoc as> 0 la irng suat keo con c, < 0 la irng suat nen, b) Val cot thep A:. Voi cot chiu net lech tam col thep A~luon Iuon la chiu nen. Dng suat trong A~ la a: se 100 khi khoang each tir A'~ den true trung hoa Ia v~ =: Xo - a' kha IOn va nguoc lai. Gia tri IOn nhat rna a.~ co the dat toi la Rsc' De dat duoc dieu nay thi v~ phai 100 han mot so Ian nao day cua a' , diroc d~t la Y la' :

Rut fa:

f = _ r _...:._ , >.... '

va Xo a - e a - Y I a

x 2: (l + YI )8a' = 81a'

Phan rich ket qua thuc nghiern thay rang 01 phu thuoc vao R,c va thay doi trang khoang 1,5+2 (81 lang len khi Rsc tang). De don gian hoa, chap nhan gia tri °1 = 2 cho moi loai cot thep (voi K;c 5; 400:MPa).

Nhu vav dieu kien de a: dar den

IN

R,( 18.:

x 22a'

-r A.
I
III It! f ff R,
~ D,I I cr;A',
l- I---'-'
. a'i
I
x
h.
'h A'

s

Khi x < Za' xern la a~ chua dat den R~ : Dieu kien x 2: 2a' diroc lay theo tieu chuan TCVN 5574 - 1991. Tieu chuan TCXDVN 356 - 2005 khong dua ra dieu kien cho a:. Trong tai lieu nay rae gia

van giu lai dieu kien x 2: Za' nhu la mot dieu kien de phan bier cac tnrong hop tinh toano Viec nay chi co loi la lam r6 rang han su lam viec cua [iet dien va each tinh toan.

Hinh 1.25. Ung sum

,to I' ,

trong COl ! rep 0",. as

35

V oi cot thep co R, ::; 400:t\1Pa lay Rsc = Rs'

V 6i c6t thep co R" CaD han 400NlPa thl trong mot so tieu chuan thiet ke ciing chi lay Rsc ::; 400MPa. Ly do HI. khi chiu nen dung tam lay bien dang gioi han cua betong Ec -== 2%0 va bien dang cua cot thep chiu nen toi da cling bang khoang ay. Y6i bien dang do irng suat trong cot rhep (c6 cLfang d(:l kha cao) khong virot qua gia trio

O~ = teEs:::: 0,002 x200.000 = 400lYfPA (Lay m6dun dan hoi cua thep E" = 200.000MPa).

V6i cot thep cuong d¢ kha eao (A V, AVI, AVIII) TCXDVN 356 - 2005 cho phep hiy R"e :::: 500MPa trong ID¢t 56 tnrong hop dac bier.

1.6.5.2. Theo quan die'm bien dang

Xuat phat ti:r bien dang cua betong tai mep vung nen da duoc guy dinh. dung gia thiet tiel dien phang, khi biel vi tri true trung hoa (bier xo) va vi tri cua thanh h04C hang cot thep thtr i (ho) se tinh ra duoc bien dang cua no 13 tj (hinh 1.26).

llinh 1.26. Ung slid! lrollg cot thep a, duoc Ifill! theo bi{n dang ci_

Khi:

hoi - Xo

!Oi = Ee

Xo

I£i 12::: tT thi OJ = Rs

1£· 1 < £T thl G- = s.E

1 1 I S

(1-24)

(l-25a) (l-25b)

36

R, ET=~

Es

Khi tinh duoc £1 > 0, O"j ia trng suat keo, khi E( < 0 co ung suat nen. 111eo quan diem bien dang, de eho O"j chiu keo dat gia tri R, thl:

Trang do:

Rut ra:

( 1-26a)

>' _ Ec

,"T - R

So +-~

- E,

V6i x = 0''<0 thi dieu kien de 0"1 dat R, la: x < R. h

I ~ t-'t Dl

(l-26b)

(1-27a) (l-27b)

Dieu ben (1-27a) la nrong tu dieu kien Xo :::; ~R ho da trinh bay trang rnuc 1.6.5.1. \'(li h"l = ho (xern hlnh 1.25, 1.26).

V oi cot t hep chiu nen, de cho irng s u.:lt 0"1 dat gia tri cuong do t inh roan ve nen R thi:

'c

Rut fa:

va:

0-28a)

(l-28b)

Dieu kien (1-28a) la tuong nr dieu kien x ~ 2a' trang muc 1.6.5.1 (hinh 1.26 va 1.25 cho thay ho.< = a').

1.6.6, Cac trtrong hop tinh toan

Tir phan tich su lam viec cua tiet dien chiu nen lech tam ngiroi [a dua ra cac tnrong hop tinh toan, Trang vice nay ciing co cac quan diem khac nhau,

37

MOl so mroc Au My phan chia fa hai tnrong hop dua vao vung chiu nen: Tiel dien chiu nen toan hO va tiet dien chiu nen mot phan.

Tieu chuin thiet ke' cua Nga, Trung Quae, Viet Nam phan chia ra hai tnrong hQI) nen lech tam 160 va nen lech lam be dua vao 51,!" lam viec ella cot thep As, cung nrc 1.1 dua vao gia tri cua chieu cao vung nen x. Khi x < SRhO cot thep A., chiu keo, LIng suat ITs dat den R" xJy fa sir ph;:! hoai deo, c6 tnrong hop nen lech Him IOn. Kni x ~ ~Rho cot rhep A, co the; chiu keo hoac nen rna irng suat trong n6 chua dat den R, hoac R,c' su pha hoai bat dau lU belong vung nen, co tnrong hop nen lech tarn be. Tiel dien lam viec thea truong hop nao 1.1 phu thuoc VaD (uOTIg quan giira M, N vci kich thuoc tiet dien va su be tri cot thep, Khi M urong doi 16n tiet dien lam viec gao voi tnrong hQP chiu uon, co vung nen va vung keo r6 ret. Neu cot thep chiu keo As kh6ng qua JOn thi su pha hoai se bat dau nr vung keo. co trirong hop nen lech tam Ian.

Khi N nrong doi Jan, phan Jan tiet dien chiu nen. su pha hoai bat dau tu belong phia b] nen nhieu, c6 truong hop nen lech tam be.

Can luu y ding trong tinh toan thuc hanh dieu kien de pharr bier cac tnrong hop nen Iech tam chi 13 nrong dci. C6 mot so tnrong hop, voi tiet dien va diem dat lire N da cho, khi thay doi cot thep co the chuyen su lam viec cua tiet dien tu nen lech tam Ian sang nen Itch tam be va ngiroc lai. Khi chuyen nhu vay thi gia tri luc doc gioi han rna tiet

dien chiu dUCK Ngh thay ddi thea.

a) eo IN
i
f
~ I If
~I
I b) I e,
I
I
!i._ r~ I A'
I _._.l..
1\ :
J! Hinh 1.27. Thi du ve cac truang hQP nen lecl: lam

Lty thf du nhu tren hlnh 1.27.

6 hinh 1.27a. d¢ Iech {am cua luc doc eo wong d6i be, thuong la rnrong hap nen lech tam be voi kha nang chiu urc NJ. Neu giam cot thep A~ tier dicn co [he chuyen sang lam viec thea nen Iecn tam IOn voi kha nang N2 < N I'

o hinh 1.27b, d¢ lech lam eo wang doi Jan, tlurong tiet dien lam \'i¢c thea ncn lech tam 160. Tuy vay neu tang cal thep As thi den mot Ilk nao do liet dien se chuyen sang lam viec thea nen Iech tam be (vi trng suat c, trong A., giam xuong khiA, tang) va lire doc N tiet dien chiu duoc se cao han.

Viec phan biet truong hop nen lech tam Ion hay be chu yeu dua vao gia IIi chieu cao vung nen x, chi khi kh6ng c6 each nao d~ xac dinh duoc x thi moi dung di6u kien b? tro,

can eLf vao do lech tam eo·

38

Chuang 2

TIET DI~N CHUNHJ.T CHlU NEN LtCH TAlVI PHANG

2. I . SO DO v A CONG THue co BAN

2.1.1. Sa do va ky hieu

Xet lie", dien chir nhat co cac canh b, h.

h - chieu cao net dien, 13 canh song song voimat phang u6n. b- be rong, In. canh vuong goc m~{ phang uon.

Trang nhirng tnrong hQP thong thuong cot thep doc chiu Iuc duoc dar tap trung rheo canh b va ky hieu la A" A~.

A: - dien rich tier dien cot thep 6 phia gan voi hrc doc dat lcch tam N, trong \'ung bi [len nhieu.

A, - dien rich tie'[ dien CO[ thep iJ phfa doi dien voi A;, cot thep A, co the' bi keo hoac nen it.

a, a' khoang each til trong tam A~, A: den rnep tit"t dien gun nhat.

bo::: h - a - chieu cao lam viec cua tiel dien.

Z,L ::: ho - a' - khoang each giira trang tam A~ va A~.

x - chieu cao vung nen tlnh doi, goi tat Iii chieu cao vung nen;

Rb - cuong dO tinh roan ve nen cua belong. Gia tri R, duoc lay thea phu luc 2 nhan v6i he so' dieu kien lam viec 'I» cho (; phu luc 1.

R" Rs~ - cuong do tinh toan ve keo va nen cua cot thep, lay thea phu luc 3.

SR - h¢ 56 tinh toan gi6i han vung nen. lay thea phu lye 4.

Sa do lire tac dung [hi hien tren hinh 2.1a va 2.1b, voi true U de lay mornen Ii true di qua trong tam ella A~ hoac A~. Nhu vay gia tri eu dUQC lay bang e boac e' (xem cong thirc 1-20).

e- khoang each tu diem dar luc doc N den trong tam cot thep A,.

39

e = Tjeo + 0, 5h - a

(2-1)

T] ;:: 1 - h¢ so xet den anh hufmg uon dC;K, X3.c dinh thea cong thuc (1-11), VOi tier dien chir nhat khi )~h = 10 ::;; 8 c6 tbe bo qua uon doc, n = 1.

. . h . '1

e' - khoang each tu diem d~t hrc N den trong lam A:, Tuy truong hop diem dat N (; khoang gifra hay 0 ben ngoai As A~ rna c6 each tinh khac nhau,

a)

c)

dJ

A', b

b)

I I

h

Hinh 2.1. Sa do [filii roan

Q, b - sa do luc tac dung; C - so do ((/lg sudt ; d- lief dien

2.1.2. Dieu kien va cong thtrc co him

Dieu kien ve do ben Ia cac dieu kien (1- J a) d. (J -20) trong do true co h~\n dt J;J_'y momen di qua trong tam cot thep A, va nnu vay M, = Ne, dieu kien (1-20) duoc viet thanh:

(2-2)

Trang mot s6 rnrong hop dac bier true li:iy rnornen duqe eho di qua trong lam A~ \"3. dieu kien se la:

(2-3)

M1gh - rnomen gioi han the hien kha nang chiu luc cua tiel dien lay doi voi true di qua trong tam c6t thep A,.

(2-4)

40

J\'[2gh - rnornen kha nang chiu hrc cua tiet dien lay d6i voi true di qua trong tam A: (IUY truong hop tinh roan se lap cong thirc sau).

Kha nang chiu nen cua tiet dien Ngh diroc xac dinh bang t6ng hinh chieu cac hrc:

(2-5)

Trang cong thirc (2-4) va (2-5) tinh toan voi gia tri tuyet doi cua (J"s va (J": thea chieu da ghi tren hinh 2.1c. Neu (J", la nen thl a cong thu-c (2-5) 1<1y dau cong truce (J""A\. Truong hop G, duoc tinh thea cong thtrc voi dau dai so, quy uoc irng suit keo Ill. duong thi van giG: nguyen dau cua cong tlurc (2-5) vi luc a~ ia nen se mang dau am. Gia tri cua (J": va a, lay thea muc 1.6.5, cu tbe Ia:

Khi:

(2-6a)

Khi:

(2-6b)

Nhu yay dieu kien de dung her kha nang chiu luc cua cot thep la: 2a' ~ x < ~Rho

(2-6c)

Tinh roan cot thep hoac kiern Ira kha nang chiu lire thuong diroc tien hanh thea dieu kien (2-2) voi Y1jgh thea (2-4) trong do x duoc xac dinh tir dieu kien N :::: Ngh. V6i gia thiet Ll dieu kien (2-6e) duoc thoa man thi co phuong trinh (2-7a):

(2-7a)

Khi xay ra x > sRho. gap tnrong hop nen lech tam be (mac nhien cong nhan x > 2a' do do (J".~:::: R",). de' xac dinh x can giai dong thoi hai plurong trinh. Phuong trinh tlur nhat ia dieu kien can hang luc nen:

(2-7b)

Phuong trinh thu hal Ia quan he giua trng suat as va chieu cao vung nen x, lay thea mot trong cac cong thirc (1-23) hoac 0-25).

Can chu y \a chi co the giai he hai phirong trinh vira neu khi da biet cot thep A", A: (bai toan kicm {raj boac bier quan h¢ giiia A~ va A~ (tinh toan cot thep doi xirng). Khi chua biet A" va A~ (bai toan tinh cot thep khOng doi xirng) co the xac dinh x bang cong thtrc thuc nghiern, gan dung.

Tieu chuan thiet k€ TCVN 5574 -1991 co dua ra cac cong thirc sau:

Khi eo < 0.21\), tinh x thea cong thirc (2.8a):

41

I

( D,5h ~ J

x = h- 1,8+h,-1,4SR eo

Khi Q,2h < eo S; eop' tinh x thea (2~8b):

x=: 1,8 (eop ~ eo) + SRhO

. '

(2~8a) :~

Trang do:

eop =: 0,4 (1,25h - ~Rho)

(2-8b) (2-9) (2-8e)

Khi eo> eop lay x = SRho

Ngoai cac cong thirc (2-8) cung con co mot 56 e6ng thuc khac:

X =:[SR + l-S\ JhO

1 + 50£0

X =[ SR +(1-3£o)(l-sR)]hr

C-IO)

Trong hai cong thtrc tren thi EO = :0 . Cong thtrc (2-10) dung cho rnoi EO con cong th uc (2 -11) chi dung dtroc khi EO S; i, khi EO > ~ (hi l:J:y x = :;I~ho.

Can chu y ding gia tri gan dung ella x xiic dinh theo cac cong tlnrc (2-Sa) den I ~-ll) chi duoc dem dung de unh M l gh theo (2-4) rna khong dung de xac dinh gia lri o thea cac cong thuc (1-23) boac (l-25).

Khi xJy fax < 2a' dung dieu kien (2-3) d~ tinh roan se thuan loi hen (x < la· mac nhien cong nhan x < SRho do d6 Gs == RJ. Tinh M2gh:

M2gh = RsAsZ3 + Rb bx ( a '-%)

C-12a)

Nhan xet rang thanh phan thu- hai trong cong thue 13 kha he; va neu bo qua Ihl viec tinh toan thien ve an toan hon, VI vay tlurong nguoi ta bo qua de 110h roan don giiin.

(2-12b)

Gap tnrong hop a' kha 16n, viec bo qua thanh phan thu hai o· e6ng thirc (2-12a) dan den viec giarn dang kt M2gh hoac tang dang kt COl thep As thi trong tinh toan co the bo qua cot ihep A~ hoac k~ them thanh phan thrr hai,

Chi chu quan trong: C tic bieu (hue dii I~p de' xac dinh M I gil" M 2gh \"Q N gh chi co giu IT! {duac chap nluin fJ dung) khi dien tich cot thep As. A; deu dual/g. Khi dung cdc cong thifc dd [~p ma tinl: dUCfC cot thep am thi chi co fhl kef luan la khong can dell cOf lliep theo tinh todn (drft thep theo cau tao} con cac kif qua I ill II toan (trung gio/l hoac cuoi cung) lei khiJ/lg pluin anl: dung IIII/C te.

41

I

2.2. rIN1-I rOAN COT THEP Dar xG"\1G

Biet kich thuoc tier dien b. h, chien dai tfnh roan '0' noi life NL N, chung ioai vat lieu. Yeu cau tinh roan cot thep doi ximg A~ == A; .

., ., 1 Ch .' bi "I"'

~._,. uan! so I~U

- Xac dinh cuong d6 tinh roan chiu nen cua betong Rb thea phu luc 2 va khi can Ihl

ke them dieu kien lam viec Yb thea phu luc 1. Xac dinh m6dun dan hoi Eb.

- TIm cuong d¢ tinh roan R,,: R"c cua cot thep the? phu luc 3.

- TIm h¢ s6 ~R thea phu luc 4.

- Gia thiet cac dai luong a, a' de tfnh ho == h - a: Z~ = ho - a'.

-" • •• 1.1 . If) , 1 kh' 10 4 . :nh N ' h

- Xet anh huona cua uon doc. xru -.::;; 41Jv 11::=, I - > can unn cr va 11 t eo

~ . h - 'I h '1

chi dan 6 muc 1.5.2. Truong hop tinh to.in Ncr thea (1-16) thl can can phai biet cac gia tri Mdil, Ndh de xac dinh M 56 <PI va gia thiet dien rich cot thep hoac ty l~ cot thep M tinh

J,. Trong tinh roan thirc (e c6 thi bo qua anh huang uon doc khi ~ .::;; 8.

- Xet do lech lam ngau nhien e). tinh el, eo va e thea cong thuc (2-1). Tinh roan cot rhep bat dau nr viec xac dinh chieu cao vung nen x.

2.2.2, Xac dinh sa bo chieu cao vung nen Xl

Trude het can xac dinh sa bo chieu cao vung nen roi can ell vao d6 de phan bier cac truong hap tinh roan.

2.2.2.1. Xac dinh Xl khi Rso: = R,

V oi nhieu loai cot thep thuons dung co K :5 400Ml'a va nhu Yay R ::= R . Gia thiet

. ~ ~ . ~c s

dieu kien (2-6c) duoc thoa man, co the xac dinh x theo cong thuc (2-13) rut fa til dieu kien (2-7a) va diU ia Xl'

(2-13)

2.2.2.2. Xac dinh Xl khi Rsc :;c R,

Truong phai Au My khong phan biet gia tri cirong do tfnh toan cua cot thep khi nen va khi kco vi vay khong co trucng hop Rsc oj: Rs . Tnrong phai Nga va mot s6 nuoc khac

c6 phan biet va khi R, kha cao thl Rsc < R, .

43

I

D~ tinh toan sa bQ chieu cao cung nen Xl cling tarn gia thiet x thoa man dieu kien (2-6c). Lay gia tri N a cong thirc (2-7a) thay vao dieu kien (2-2) voi dau bang va dung bieu thirc M1gh a cong thirc (2-4) voi cr~ = Rsc nit ra duoc phuong trinh bac hai ella x.

A' = _N_,;.( e_,_' O_._5x_-~bo::;_)

" R'Z

s a

(2-14)

') 2N

x" -2ebo + ts)x +-(e + t.) = 0

R b '

b

Giai phuong trlnh bac hai, lay nghiern c6 nghia la Xl'

2.2.3. Cac truong hop tinh toan

Gia tri xI vira tinh loan duoc chi moi la sa bo. Gin dua vao Xl de phan biet cac tnrong h9P unh roan la nen lech tam Ion thong thuong. nen lech tam be hay h\ truong hop dac biet,

2.2.3.1. Nen lech tam Ion thong thuong

Khi rna 2a'::; XI ::; ~R ho dieu kien gia thiet Ia dung. Liic nay lay x = x i va 0': = R,o:; thay vao cong thirc (2-4), ket hop dieu kien (2-2) \'3 clni ~' dong N = R, bx rut ra duoc cong tlurc unh A:.

cot thep doi xirng. lay A, = A', .

. ~

2.2.3.2. se« lech. tam be. Khi Xl > ;Rho

Khong dung duoc gia tri x 1 VI khong phu hop voi dieu kien gia thiet. Luc nay de tim x can phai giai dong thai ba plurong trinh: phuong trinh (2-7b) voi A, :::. A~, phuong

trinh quao he giiia o, va x lay theo mot trong cac cong tbirc (1-23) hoac (1-25) va phuong trinh (2-2) ket hop (2-4). Ket qua rut gon lai duoc mot phuong trinh bac ba ella x.

(2-15a)

Bern di;tt ~ = hX ,dua phuong trinh ve dang khong thu nguyen: o

~ 3 + k2~:1 + k 1 ~ + + ko = 0

(2-15b)

Cac he so k2' k., ko duoc xac dinh phu thuoc vao phuong trlnh quan he giira as va x. ducc cho trong bang sau:

44

, Phuong trinh
; k2 k( ko
I G, -:< !
i
r ( 1-13) I - (SR + 2) 2(1 + <PY + ns - 2<p) 2n (2<pE - YIP - e)
I
( 1-23a) I - (SR + 2) I 2(m: + SR) + 1(2 - 1 - ~) -n[y(2 -y - ~R) + 2s~R)J I
I
I 1 I 1 1
(i-2Sb) -( y -1. 713. - 1) -[ m;(l + 1. 213,)] + B. - ny --n{3 £
C C C 2
N . € = ...:_ . <p 0:; 0 5(1 - s ). 'I :; ~. 13 =: EeE, . c:= a 5 + a 6[3
n , , ~ R 'j 'a ' , ' ...
Rhhho ho h, l,2Rs . Giai phuong trlnh bac ba c6 [he bang each gandung voi chii y dQ bien thien cua S trong khoang giiia ~R va 1. co tht dung phuong phap do thi hoac co the [ham khao each giJi 6 phu luc 5.

Theo y nghia V~( If [hI s chi bien thien trong khoang SR ~ S ~ ~1 . Tuy vay voi SlI o

can than do thiet c6 1M han che I; trang khoang sau:

;: < ~ <1 '-,R -;-

(2-16)

Trong cac phuong trinh quan h¢ C\ - x d5. co dung mot vai dieu gan dung, dan gian hoa do d6 co mot 56 tnrong hop giai phuong rrinh (2-15) diroc nghiern kh6ng Dam trong girri han da neu (khi n va s deu kha be thirong tim duoc ; > 1), hie nay can dung dieu kien (2-16) de xac dinh s.

Sau khi co~. tinh x= ~ho.

De tranh viec phai lap va giai phuong trlnh bac ba qua phuc tap rna ket qua cung chua bao dam dung hoan toan, [rang tinh roan thirc te co tht dung cong thirc thuc nghiern (2-8): (2-1 0) hoac (2-11) d~ xac dinh x. Sai 56 gil1a cac cong thuc gan dung voi nhau va voi nghiern ella phuong trinh (1-15) la binh {huang, co mot vai tnrong hop hoi 100, tuy vay ket qua cot thep tinh duoc chenh lech khong dang k~ va van dam bao dieu kien an roan.

Voi x drr co, dung dieu kien (2-2) ket hop voi cong thirc (2-4) nit fa cong thirc tfnh A~.

A' :::: Ne - RbbxCho - x /2)

~ R.lcZa

(2-17)

cot thep doi xirng lay As:::: A~.

2.2.3.3. Truong hap dif.c biet. Khi Xl < 2a'

Khi xjy ra Xl < Za' thi giii. true! de tinh ;<) khong con dung do do cling khong dung duoc. Liic nay neu {frill roan chinh xac thi se duoc x > xJ tuy vay x van con nho hon 2a'. De tinh loan cot thep dung dieu kien (2-3) ket hop cong thirc (2-12b), rut ra:

45

(2-18)

COt thep d6i xirng lay A~ :::: As.

Khi a' Ia kha Ian co tht dung cong thirc (2-26) M tinh As'

2.2.4. Sa do tinh c6t thep doi xtrng

Bai toan tinh c6t thep d6i ximg c3U kien chiu nen lech tam, lie, dien chir nhat, co c6t rhep d~t tap trung theo canh b duoc sa del hoa nhu tren hinh 2.2.

S6 li¢lI cho wac: o, h, '0' M, N, ea Chung I~i v~lli¢u: M lOng, cOt Ihep

Chuan bi So lieu linh toan;

Tim Rb, Eb, R" R;_' , EI, he s6 ~R (thee cac phu lue) Gta \hiet a, a'. Tlnh ho';

Xel u6n dec, \inh Ncr T)

linh el, eo' e

J - Tinh cOllhep do'l x;)ng

Xac dinh x bang each grai phliong trinh (2·15) ho$c dung GOng thtie gan dung (2-8)(2-10)

I A', = A, = (2-17)

j

Hinh 2.2. Sa do. tinh cot thep d6i xung

46

I

2.2.5. Danh gia va xu IS' ket qua tinh toan

Theo cac cong thuc da lap co the tinh toan duoc As, A~ 18. duong hoac am. Khi tinh duoc A" = A~ < 0 chimg to kich thuoc tier dien qua 100, khong can den cot thep, Luc nay neu co [he duoc thi rut bot kieh thuoc tier dien (hoac dung loai vat lieu co cuong do thap han) d~ tinh lai, Khi khong the rut bot nhu vira neu thl can chon dar cot thep theo yell cau toi rhieu, goi la d~t cot thep thea yell call cau tao.

Chu '1 rang khi tinh roan dune As, A~ am thi cac ket qua trung gian tinh duoc hoac duac chap nhan (chieu cao vung nen Xl; irng suat trong belong va trong cot thep ... ) lil khong ehinh xac, cluing chi co rae dung nhu la dieu kien de tinh loan clur khong phan anh dung 51! lam viec tlurc Ie ella tiel dien.

Khi t inh duoc cot thep duong, tinh 1)' l¢ cot thep:

A, + /,\', h - 01 100(A~ + A',)

).1 -' oa C ).1, -10 = bh .

S - bh, ' 0

Kiem tra dieu kien (1-5): ).lmlll :5: )..1.,.:5: flmax

Khi ,u, < )lmlll chimg to kich thuoc tier dien la hoi 100, can xu 1'1 nlur khi tinh diroc cot thep am.

Khi u, > .um~x cluing to kich thuoc tiet dien qua be, can phai tang kich thtroc tiet dien hoac dung v~t lieu co cuong d(l cao han (hoac dung cit hai bien phap) roi tinh roan

l<,l-i dC thoa man i-l, ::; i-lm;(x'

Chon va be tri cot thep can tuan thea quy dinh ve chieu day lop bao v¢ va khoang ho giua cac cot thep. Sau khi bo tri cot thep can xac dinh gia tri a, a' tinh lai 110, Za' so sanh chung voi gia tri da duoc dung trang tinh roan tnroc day. Khi gia tri ho va Z, vira tinh roan duoc la ian han hoac bang cac gia tri dJ duoc dung thi ket qua la thien ve an toano Neu gia tri ho va Za vira tinh toan diroc be hon cac gia tri dii duoc dung thi ket qua nghieng ve phia thieu an toan, can e6 xu 1'1 thich dang. Khi mire d(l be hon la kh6ng dang ke thi chi can chon cot thep tang len so voi ket qua tinh duoc (mire tang len e6 the

bang hoac Ian han rrnrc giarn cua ZJ)' Neu rmrc do be han la dang ke thi can gia thier lai a va tinh toan lai,

Mot van de rat quan trong trong khi dung de cong thirc de tinh toanla viec thong nhat dan vi. Khi dung dan vi ella cuong dO vat lieu la MFa = N/rnm2 thi can doi dan vi chieu dai (b, ho, Za"') thanh milirnet va don vi cua noi hrc la.Niuton, Niutonxrnm (ky hieu 13. Niu va Nmm M tranh nharn Hin voi N da dung de ky hieu life nen), Khi s6 lieu dau vao diroc eho thea dan vi khac (vi du kfch thuoc tiet dien thea em, noi luc theo leN, kNm) can dung he 56 chuyen doi dan vi thfch hop, tranh 51! nharn Ifin lam sai ket qua.

47

I

2.2.6. Thi du

Thi du 1. Cot tang 5 cua khung nha mot nhip, san toan khoi, chieu dill cot 1 = 3,8m, tier dien chir nhat b = 25cm; h = 40cm. be tong mac 300 (theo lieu chuan cii) cot thep nhorn err. Yeu cau tinh roan cot thep d6i xung. Khi cot chiu cap noi luc M = 138kNm; N = 650kN, trong d6 noi Il.!C do tii trong thuong xuyen va tai trong tarn thai dai han gay

fa 13 Mdh = 80; Ndh = 500.

Khung mot nhip, tang tren 10 = 1,251 = L25x3,8 = 4.75m. Belong mac 300, khi kh6ng xet h¢ s6 dieu kien lam viec co:

Rb = 13MPa, Eb = 29000MPa. C6t thep crr co Rsc = R, = 280MPa

V6i Rb = 13; R, = 280 co ~R = 0,608 (phu luc 2,3,4)

Gia thiet a = a' = 4cm; 110 = 40 - 4 = 36cm = 360mm: Za = 320.

X· .. d 10 4,75 18 8 C' . . d

et uon oc: - = -- = 1 , > . an xet uon oc.

. h 0,4 .

Db lech tam tinh hoc e1 = M = 138 = 0.212m = 212mm.

. . . N 650

D6 lech tam ngau nhien ea;::: max (_I_.~) == 113mm.

. . 600 30

D¢ lech tam ban diu eo = maxje.. ea) = 212mm.

Xac dinh he 56 Tj thea c6ng thirc (1-11) trang do Ncr theo (l.16b). Gia rhiet ty l¢ cot thep )ls = 1,5 % = 0.015.

J, = (As + A: )(0, 5h - a)2 = !-l,bho(O, 5h - a)2

= 0,015 X 250x 360(200 - 40)2 = 34,56x 106mm4

a = ~ = 210000 = 7,24' J = bh3 = 250x 4003 = 1333 x io' mm4

s s, 29000 '12 12

I 4750

o = 0,5-0,Ol..Q.-0,OlRb =0,5-0,01---0,Olx 13 = 0,251.

Cmin h 400

o = eo = 212 = 0 53> 0 . (fl = 1 (khons co Uno luc truck)

e h 400' emi" , Tp 0 o.

<PI = 1 + 13 ~ . Betong nang 13 = 1. Trang cong thirc tinh <PI thl M va MI duoc lay doi voi mep tier dien chiu keo:

48

I

M = 138 + 650 x 0,4 =: 268 2

M, = 80 + 500x 0,4 := 180 2

180

(D, = 1 +-= 1,67

- 268

N 6.4Eh r J ( 0,11 J ]

I cr =- 2 - 8 +0,1 +o:.sls

10 (PI 0,1 + _c

<.pp ,

::;:: 6,4X290.000[1333XI06[ 0,11 +0,I)+7.24X34,56X106]

47502 1,67 0.1+0,53

;::: 3873100 = 3873kN.

1 1

T] = N = 650 =: US

1--- 1---

N~r 3873

h 400

e = fleo +- -a = L lSx 212 +--40 == 410mm

2 2

XI :;:;; ~ = 650x 1000 = 200mm

Rbb 13x2S0

Xl < ;Rl~ = 0,608 x 360 = 218mm. Dong thai XI > Za' = 80 .

. ' N(e + 0, 5x - ho) 650 x I03( 410 + 100 - 360) 088 2

A = =: = 1 mm

'RscZa 280 x 320

A +A' 108Sx2

~l, = ~h ~ = = 0.024 ::: 2.490

o 250x 360

f-ls thuc te Ian han tri so dJ gii [hiel de tfnh Ncr

Chon cot thep: rnoi ben dung 3~22 co dien tfch: 1140 mm''. EO tri nhu tren hinh 2.3.

Lay chieu day lop bao ve 25mm (:?:~) nnh ducc chieu day lap dem a = 25 + % = 36mm

ho = 400 - 36 := 364mm, Ian han gia tri dung trong tinh loan 1a 360mm. Khoang ho giua hai cot thep:

250-2x 25 -3$22 ,

tq = 2 = 67mm > 50, dat yeu cau,

49

ib27

6q,22

,
I I
~ ID
"r-- =
0 0 ,,'
'"
() () o

L_~_: _--------"""L___12~1 L i 400 Cl

Hinh 2.3. Tici dien cot - (hi du 1.

Cot thep dai trong cot chon $6 ~ l/4$doc max:

Khoang each co! dai ad = 250 < 15~docmlll = 330.

Thi du 2 CQl ella nha cong nghiep mot tang. Tinh loan cho phan cot du6i cau true voi chieu cao HI = 6Am, dam cau true khong lien IUc. Tier dien chir nhat b "" 40cm: h = 80em, betong co dip dO ben 25. cot thep loai REWOO. Yeu cau t inh COl thep doi xilng chiu cap noi luc M = 480kNm. N = 500kN.

Chieu dai tinh toan /0 = 1.5H) = L5x6A = 9.6m. Belong dip 1S co Rio = 14,5MPa. E, = 30000MPa. CO! thee RB400 co K<~ = R._ = 36SMPa.

He .... 6 :1' = 0.558.

Gia ihiet a = a' = Scm: he = 80 - 5 = 75cm = 750mm: Z" = 700mm. Xet uon doc:

, (

~=~=12>8

j, O,~

J bh3 400 x 8003 7060 06 ~

=~= =1 x l mm

12 12

1\.; = 2, SEbJ = 2,5 x 30.000 x 17060 x lOt> = 3880000'\"

) ~ __ ~ _ ~ 1 _ I U

_. /4 9600~ o

Ncr = 13880kN.

I

n = = ----=- = 1 04

'1 l-~ 1 __ 5_00_ '

Nc 13880

M 480

e) =-=-=0 96 = 960mm

N son '

50

I

( I h '\

D6 lech tam nsau nhien e, ;;:-_ max l-'- va ....:.:_ I:::: 27mm

, - ~ ~ 600 30)

Tinh wan cot nhu cau kien tinh dinh.

eo:::: el + eJ :: 960 + 27 = 987mm.

h 800

e > fjef) +--a = 1,04x987 +- -50 = 1377mm

~ ~

N SOOx 1000 , _

XI ::::--= =86mm<2a =100

R_b 14.5x400

Tinh toan theo [flIOO£! hop dac bier:

A.' = A = N(e - ZJ :::: 500000(1376 -700) = 1323mm2

-, ,I R Z 'I)S'< :00 -

, J

'\ +A' ITY'x?

u :::: r , '= ~ _J - = 0.0096 = 0.96%

" bh., 400 x 7S0

Chon cot Ihep: rnoi ben dar 3~25. chon chieu day lop baa ve 35mm: a :::: 35 + ~/2 = -ISmrn (hinh 2.--I-il):

X, ::: 90.6 < 2a':::: 96.

Ghi chu. (Jiel rll/( nhu chou /(ip bao l'C 25/11111. U -= a' -= 25 + rjJ2 = 38111111 ,xi::: 86 > Za' ::: 76/IJ/II

Tinh [at cot rhep theo cong thuc khac vci h., ::: 762. Z., = 724.

;-\ ::: A', :::: N(e + 0.5x - ho) = 5000000376 + 43 -762) = i243mm)

,-' R Z 365 x 724

, a

Thi du 3. Cot co chieu dai tinh toan 10 = 2.8m, tiet dien chir nhat b -= 30cm: h ::: 50cm, betonz cap dO ben 20. cot thep nhorn cn. Noi lire tinh toan gam N::::; 1320kN, M ::: 218k?'I m. Yeu cau tinh toan cot thep doi xtmz.

Betong cap 20 co Rb :::: 11.5MPa, E, :::: 27000; cot thep CII co RIc:::: R, :::: 280. He 56 c.,,::::0.61.

Gia thiet a::: a' = 4cm: ho:::: 50 - 4:= 46cm:= 460mm: Za:::: 460 - 40:::: 420mm. !s.__ = 2,8 :: 5.6 < 8 , bo qua uon doc, n :::: 1.

h 0,5 ' . 'I

, l -""'l 1 U

e ;::..:....:. =....:...:..::..:::: O.l65m:::: 165mm;

I 1'.f 1:20

D - ~I' (2800 ,500)" 7

6 lech tam ngau nluen e., ~ max -- va - = 1 mm

. . ~ 600 30

51

I

Cau kien thuoc ket cau sieu tinh:

eo:::: max (e., e3) = 165mm.

e:::: 165 + 500 -40 =: 375mm 2

XI :::: ___!:i_ = 1320 x 1000 :::: 400mm

Rbh 11 x 300

SRhO:::: 0.6 x 460:::: 276 < XI' Tlnh roan thea tnrong hop nen lech tam he. Dung e6ng

hu _' d' d' ,. H' eo 165 0 "3

t LIe aan ung e xae dinh x. e 56 ~() == - = -:::: . .)

'- ., . h 500

(. 1 - SR J ( 0,4 'I

x r= ~R + 2 ho = 0,6+ -; 1460=304

1 +50EO 1 +50xO,33- )

A ::::A' 0= Ne+Rbbx(ho-x/2):::: 132000Qx375-1L5x300x304(460-152)

"R~Za 280 x 420

:::: 1462mm2

Ll =A~+A::::: 1462x2 =0,0247=2,47%

, , bh., 300 x 460

Chon cot thep: moi ben chon 4$22 (hinh 2.4b)

6ql25

a)

~
,
418 ~ t L
300 b c <=>
<=>
'<:"
[": .: ~ C
I b)

<hE
f.l ~- 2500
p <:::>
p C ,...,
h
i J 35 !

800

I , 35

500

Hinh 2.4. Tier dien cot th! dl_l2 I'a 3

Ghi chu. Trang 1M du 3 nell nIIIOI! tinh toan x bdng each lop va guii phuong Trinh thi:

e 375

<p:::: 0,5(1-s,R):::: 0,2: E::::- =-= 0,815

ho 460

Z 420 N 13200'00

y :::: _2_ :::: _' _ :::: 0,913: n:::::::: :::: 0,8696 .

ho 460 Rbhho 11, 5 x 300 x 460

k2 =2<p-3=-2.6

52

kl = 2( I + (DY + ns - 2<p) = 2(1 + 0,2 x 0,913 + 0.8696 x 0,815 - 0.4) = 2,9826. ko = 2n(2(0£ + Y<P - E) = 2 x 0,8696(2 x 0,2 x 0,815 - 0,913 x 0.2 - 0,815)= -1,168.

Phuong trinh se la:

e - 2.6~2 + 2.9826~ - l.168 = a

Gia dLI,/C ~ = 0,71: x = 0,71 x 460 = 326.

, 1320000x375-11.5x300x326(460-163) 1368 2

A = = mnl.

, 280x420

:2 3. Ti~'H TO . ..\'\ COT THEP KHONG oor X(~G

Trong thuc k' chi co mot so It tnrong hap nguoi [a rnoi d~t cot thep khong doi xirng A, 1= A~. Voi mot cap noi luc M. N cho tnroc thi tinh 100in cot thep khong doi xirng cho

long hrong COt thep !\ + A: be hon truong hap col thep doi xirng (d~c bier [a khi nen lcch tam be). Tuy vay khi cau kien chiu M doi dau rna gia tn tuyet doi gan bang nhau thi tong luong cot thep trong truong hap dat doi xirng va khong doi xung chenh nhau khong dang ke. CO[ thep khong doi ximg that 51! co hieu qua ve tiel kiern vat lieu chi khi tie"! dien chiu mornen khong doi dau hoac rnorncn theo chieu nay kha tan hon mo men thea chieu nguoc lai. Truong hop dac biet cua col thep khong doi xirng lit chi unl; roan cor thcp 0 mot phfu. phia kia kh6ng dilt cot thep hoac chi dat theo cau I~O (khong ke den I rong I inh loan J.

De t inh loan col thep khong doi xirng truce tien ciing can chuan bi 56 lieu giong nhu dJ [am 0- rnuc 2.2.1 doi voi cor thep doi xirng.

2.3.1. Truong hap tinh toan

Khi dat COl rhep khong doi ximg, ban dau chua co erich gl xac dinh diroc x de dua vao do rna philo bid [Nang hop unh toano Liic nay co the dua vao d(l lech tarn:

Khi lleo > cOp - tinh theo nen lech lam lon TjelJ :<:;: eop - tinh theo nen lech tam be.

Tieu chuan TCVN 5574 cho cong rlurc thuc nghiern eap = 0.4 (1.25h - ~R hD) co [he la'y gan dung eop = O.3ho-

2.3.2. Nen lcch tam ion

Dieu ben de tinh roan Itt Tjeo > eop va chieu cao vung nen x thoa man dieu kien (2-6c). Luc nay co hai phuong trlnh ltt (2-2) va (2-7a) de' xac dinh ba 5n so [a x, As va A:. Day [a bai roan co nhieu nghiern. Trong thuc te kh6ng can 11m duoc tal ca cac

53

nghiern rna chi can mQI nghiern hop Iy ta duoc. De giai bai toan e6 the eho truce mot gia tri cua mot trong ba an so roi tim hai an con lai, Clui y ring cac in s6 x, AS' A~ chi bien thien trong mot khoang nhat dinh, tuong doi hep nen gia tri cho tnroc hop ly phai narn trong khoang de dinh vira neu, Trong ba fuJ thi khoang bien thien cua x la r6 rang hon d. (la'S: x s: ~Rho) VI vay cho X mot gia Ir! de tinh A<, A: la thuan loi han. Cling co the

cho tnroc A~ de tinh x va A~ hoac eho tnroc A, de tlnh x va A:. Tuy vay VI khoang bien thien cua A~ la kha be va kh6 du doan nen trong thuc te tinh toan it dung each eho tnrrrc A, rna thong chuang chi eho tnroc x hoac A:.

Cho x mot gia tri tuy y trong khoang 2a' S:x S:~Rho.

Thay x d5 e6 vao bieu tlnrc (2-4) va dung dieu kien (2-2) voi chu )' a: := R'L se rut ra cong thirc de t inh A~. D6 la cong thirc da: duoc lap (2-17). Viet lai:

Cong thirc (2-17) va (2-19) co dang hoan roan giong nhau, cai khac chu yeu la gia In eua x.

Khi tfnh duoc A: > 0, dem x va A: thay vao phuong trlnh (2-7a) rut fa cong thuc t inh A,:

(2-20)

Dog voi moi gia tri ella x e6 A, va A: urong ling tuy vay tong hrong cot thep A+A' thay doi khong Ion, VI khi tang x thl A~ giarn con A, tang. C6 tbe chung minh duoc

bang toan hoc khi x := X A := ho; a' thl tong cot thep A, + A: la be nhat. Trong mot so tai lieu nguoi ta khuyen lilY x := SR.ho de nnh roan voi )' nghia si'r dung het kha nang vung belong chiu nen va e6 duoc tong A, + A: gan "oi gia tri be nhat.

Truong hop t inh roan duoc A~ s: 0 thi chon 1 ai x be han roi tinh lai. Khi dJ. chon x be nha[ bang 2a' rna van tinh duoc A: < 0 thi chon A: thea cau tao va tinh A, theo cong thirc (2-26).

2.3.2.2. Chon A; tinh x va As

Khi bier tnroc hoac chon truce A' can tinh x tiI dieu kien (2-2) voi dau bang:

.. s .

54

(2-21 )

De tranh viec giai phuong trinh hac hai, dem d~t ~ = _IX ,am = ~(l- 0, 5~) thay VaG 11)

(2-21) rut fa:

a = Ne - R,cA:Za

m R bh2

b U

~ = 1- JI-2am

(2-22)

(2-23)

Hoac nr am tra ra ~ thea bang a phu lye 6.

Tinh x = ~~ va him Ira dieu kien 23' ::; x ::; ~Rllo (~ ::; ~R)' Khi thea man dieu kien \·U:..I neu thi thay x va A: vao cong thuc (2-20) de rinh A~.

Khi ~ > SR clnrng to A: dJ. biet Iii chua du. dn tang A~ roi tinh lai hoac xac dinh A: thea cong tlurc (2-19).

Khi x = ~ho < 2:1', ke 61 tnrong hap am < 0. chimg (0 A: la qua JOn, neu co (he JLIO"C thl g iarn 1)(11 .< roi t inh lai. Neu van giu nguyen A: thl t inh A~ thea tnrong hap dac biet a rnuc 2.3.2.-.1-.

2.3.2.3. Truong /J(JJJ A; = 0

D6 la IfI1Cmg hap dac biet khi khong dn den cot thep A: (tinh duoc A: < 0, khong dat cot thep chiu nen hoac chi d~t theo diu tao voi A: ~,0005bho, khong ke vao trong tinh to.in).

Luc nay tinh am thea cong thirc (2-22) trong do cbo A~ = 0. Canh tay don noi luc la z,

Zb = ho - 2 = (1- 0, 5l;)ho = Sho 2

S = 1-0,5:; = O,S( 1 + Jl-2am)

(2-24)

(2-25)

Dien nch COl rhep As co the dircc tinh theo cong rhuc (2-20) trong d6 cho A: = 0 hoac t inh thea cong tfurc (2-26):

A = N(e-Zb)

:. RsZb

(2-26)

55

I

2.3.2.4. Truong hop diJ-c biet x < 2a'

Khi biet tnroc A~, tinh Um, S rna x = sho < 2a', k~ d. tnrong hop am < 0 thi khong the dung x d~ tinh tiep, Luc nay tinh A, thea cong thue (2-18).

Tnrong hop a' la kha Ion. dung (2-18) se tinh duoc A, kha 160. C6 the se tiel kiem hon neu be qua A: trong tinh toan va hie nay khong can dieu kien x _;::: 2a'. Tinh roan A .. thea cong thirc (2-26).

Ker hop cong thirc (2-18) va (2-26) co the viet thanh:

A = N(e-Z)

.' R Z

,

(2-27)

Co the chon truce cot thep chiu keo A, de tinh toano Luc nay rut A: lU bieu tlurc (2.7a) roi dem thay vao (2-4) se dira ve diroc mot phuong trinh chua x:

RbbX( % - a ') = R,A,Z~ - 1\(e - Z)

Cling co the lap duoc phuong trinh tren day bang each lay momcn cac luc doi \'ai true di qua trong lam cot thep A~ va vuong g6e voi mat phang uon,

Giai phuong trinh, tim duoc x, khi x thea man dieu kicn han che (Za' ::;: x ::;: :;Rho) thi thay x vao cong thirc (2-19) M tinh A:. Neu tim diroc x khong thoa man dieu kien han

che' chirng to gia tri A, da: chon la khong hop IY. can chon lai.

Nhu da nhan xet 0' phan dau ella muc 2.3.2, vice eho tnroc A, de tfnh roan mung n~ng tinh cha: I)' thuyei, lime le it dung den.

2.3.3. Nen lech tam be

Dieu kien de tinh toan lil. l1eo < eop- Gioi han cua chieu cao vung nen x hI ;Rho::;: x ::;: h. Nen lcch tam be khi thoa man dieu kien (2-28) thl xern 1.1 rieng belong du kha nang chiu luc, cot thep hoan roan d~t theo cau tao,

(2-28)

Khi N > NB can tinh roan. Luc nay co 4 an s6 can xac dinh Ia A" A:, x \'a G, trong [lie chi e6 ba phuong trlnh. D6 la phuong trlnh (2-2) ket hop cong thirc (1-4), phuong Irlnh (2-7b) va rno: trong de phuong trinh quan he giila 0', va x.

56

Day b bai roan eo nhieu nghiern. tuy vay trong thiet ke thuc te chi can mot nghiern hop Iy la duoc. D~ tim diroc nghiern, ve nguyen cae eo the cho truoc gia tri cua mot dn

so bat ky roi giai he phuong trinh de tim ba dn con lai. Clni Y rang cac an 56 x, A;, A:.

<3, chi bien thien trong mot khoang xac dinh kha hep, nghiern tim duoc chi hop IS' khi cho truck in 56 mQI gia tri phu hop. Trang cac an Ihl khoang bien thien ella x la kha ro rang VI v~y thuong nguoi ta chon truce x de tinh cac an con 1<!-1. Tuy vay ciing c6 th~ chon [woe A de unh roan. Khons dat van de chon truce <3. hoac A' VI kho dir dean

..... ...... . . :'-.:. ~ .

khoang bien thien hop ly cua cluing. neu chon truce mot gia tri khong phu hap se e6 ket qua khong hap ly' va phai unh lai mot 56 Jan.

2,3.3.1. C hon truac x de' fin h todn

Vi:. nguyen tile loan hoc co the chon tnroc eho x mot gia trj tuy y trong khoang xac dinh ~h(l S x ::; h. Tuy vay nen xac dinh x theo cong thirc rhuc nghiem (2-8) hoac (2-10). Tfnh loan COl thep A: thea cong thirc (2-17).

vr:. phuong dien Iy thuyet, khi da: co x va A: thi co the tfnh <3" va lil (2-7b) rut ra cong thue tinh ;\:

(2-29a)

Cia tri <3, tinh thea cong tlurc (l-23a) hoac (1-23).

Tuy vay chi nen dung cong thirc (2-29a) khi <3, la luang d6l IOn con khi <3s kha be thl kha nang pham sai so trong tinh [min Iii IOn vl rang cac cong tlurc xac dinh x va a., deu l~l cong thirc thuc nghiern. gan dung. Hon nira khi do lech tam ella kha be, cot thep r\ chiu nen thi vice lung do lech tarn lil eJ thanh l1eo SC lam giarn dien rich A,. Luc nay ..,e lil bat loi eho As neu giarn do lech tam. VI nlnrng Iy do tren, ngoai yeu cau ve dieu kien cau tao, cot thep A, cua cau kien chiu nen lech lam be con can thoa man dieu kicn (2-29b) sau:

(2-29b)

Yeu cau A, ::;A: la de phong khi tinh dLIqC <3, qua be, thea (2-28a) c6 the tinh fa A, qua IOn. khong dung voi 1 hue te. Yeu cau A, ;?: e. A; 13. de phong khi dQ lech tam qua be, ket qua unh thea (2-29a) duoc ttnh voi dQ lech tam IOn han sf: chua du an toano H¢ 569. lay thea bang sau:

etJho I 0 0,02 o.o- 0.06 0,08 0,10 0,12 ;;::0,15
i
8~ I 1 0,94 0.86 0,78 0,70 0,60 0,50 0,30 57

I

N

2.3.3.2. Chon truac As de" tinh loan

Nen lech tam be c6 the chon tram: cot thep As thea cau tao, Luc nay c6 ba plnrong trinh de xac dinh ba in 56. Sau khi rhuc hien mot 56 bien d6j can thiet dtra ve mot phuong trinh chua x:

O,5R~bdx2 + (2RsAsZa - Rbbda')x - (Ne'd + tRsAsZa)::: 0

Trang do:

d = h - SRhO; t = h + SRho ; e' = Z~ - e.

Giai phucng trlnh, kiem tra dieu kien cua x. dem x thay vao cong thirc (2-17) d~ tinh A:. Neu x khong thoa man dieu kien han che' da neu cmmg to gia tri A., da chon ia khong hop lY.

2.3.3.3. Truong hap diJc biet As = 0

Nen Iech Uim be voi 'leo < eop co the thiet k€ voi A, = O. Luc nay can tinh toan M betong va cot thep A.~ chiu toan bo

noi hrc. Vi khong co cot thep A" khong c6 dieu kien gi eho c; nen cung khong can dieu kien x ~ ;Rho. Chi can dieu kien 2a' :;; x::; h.

Lap plurong trinh dt xac dinh x bang dieu kien (2-3), lay momen doi voi true di qua trong tam A~ (hinh 2.5).

I lIe. e' a'
I
I
I
i A'
I
I
_l
• , t ':1' t t j t , '_R
I
I R' A'
! ! ____!_
I I
x
! h Hinh 2.5. So d6 tinh loan kh! A,) = 0

( .,

, X 11

Ne = M'")rh = Rbbx --a I

-~ Ii)

\-

(2-30)

e' == O,Sh -Tjeo - a' Dieu kien ve kha nang chiu luc la:

N ::; Ngh = Rbbx + R~ A~ De dan gian viec gdti phuong trinh (2-30) dicit: x

aa =--;; T=aa(O,5a~ -1). a

Rut ra:

T= Ne' R ba'2 b

58

(2-31)

(2-32a)

I

(2-32b)

Hoac tir T {fa aa (; bang cua phu luc 6.

Dieu kien la x ~ h

Nell tfnh duoc x> h thi bat bUQC phai d~t cot thep A", khong thc bo duoc. Sau khi co x. dem thay vao (2-31) rut ra cong thirc tinh A~:

(2-33)

Khi can dar cot thep A, thea cau tao thl lay A, 2: O.0005bho.

2,3.4. Danh gia va xu Iy ket qua

Ke"1 qua tinh Cal thep khong doi xirng co the duong hoac am. Viec xU- If tien hanh thea rnuc 2.2.5 nhu doi voi truong hop d~t cot thep d6i xirng.

Truong hop nen lech tam be. neu can tinh cot thep khong d6i xirng thi cling chi nen 1 i2 n hanh kh i do lech tarn elJ > 0.15ho. V oi do lech tam be han. toan bo tiet dien chill nen. chi nen d:lt cot thep doi xirng.

Khi d(lt COl thep khong doi xirng, tnrong hop nen lech tarn be luon xay ra A: 2: A" con twang hop nen lech tarn 100 (ill A: co the 100 hon hoac nbc hon A,. Khi rna Rbbx < N

thi .c< Ion han A, va nguqe lai.

2.3,5. Thi du

TIll du 1. Theo so lieu cua thi du 1 (; muc 2.2.6, yeu cau tinh cot thep khong doi xirng. So lieu (da eho va dIT tinh duoc):

b = 250; h = 400; a = a' = 40: ho = 360; Za = 320mm. Rb = 13, R~ == Rs = 280 MPa; ~R =0,608;

N = 650kN; M = 138 ki\Im; eo = 212mm; 11 = 1,18;

e = 41Omm: ;Rho = 216mm.

Tinh tiep:

eop = 0,4 (1,25h ---;R 110) = 0,4 (1,25 x 400 - 216) = 114mm llco = 1,18 x212 = 250> eop = 114.

59

Tfnh thea nen lech tarn Ian. Chon x = l;Rho == 216rnrn.

A' == Ne-Rbbx(ho-O,5x)

S R,eZa

A' == 650000x410-13x250x216(360-108) == IOOOrnm2

, 280x 320

A = Rbbx+R~A~-N =13x250x216+280xlOOO-6S0000 =II86mm2

~ R 280

,

Tong hrong cot thep A.< + A~ = 1186 + 1000 == 2186mm 2.

Ket qua gan bang khi tfnh thea d6i xirng.

Chu thich. Trong {hi du tren. neu chon x kilac di ciing dirac, gid sir chon x == ]50mm (2a' == 80 <.r < ;R"O == 216). \-O-i.r == 150 tinh duoc A: == 1-1231//1/12; A, = S-I3mm2. {(i'lIg II((JII}.: col

Ihip hi: A, + A~ == 226611l/}/2. Ke: qlld giill b/il/g ral cac {fulfllg hop d(1 111I1i.

Thi dlJ 2. Cot tiet dien chir nhat b == 40cm: h == 60cm, chieu dai tinh toan 10 == 3.6m: betong mac 250 (cu) cot thep RB400W. Noi lire tinh roan gam N == 2200kN, i\1 = 352kNm. Yeu cau unh col thep khong doi xirng.

So lieu: Rio == 11 ,j, Eb == 27000: R, = R', = 365 MPa. ;R == 0.585. Gia thiet a == a' == 4cm: ho == 56cm :::: 560mm: Za == 51-0mm.

X, ." d 10 3,6 6 8 B' " d

et uon oc: - == - == < . a qua uon OC, 11 == 1.

. h 0,6 .

M 352

e = -== -- == 0, 16m == 160mm:e. == 20mm

I N 2200 ,I

600

e() == 160:e == 160+--40 == 420mm. 2

en!> == 0.4(1, 2Sh -;R ho) == 0,4(1. 25 X 600 - 0, 585 x 560) == 177

lleo:::: 160< eop == 177. Tinh loan thco nen lech lam be.

E == ~ = 160 ::: 0 267

o h 600 '

r~ I-tR] [0 ~85 0,415 i~60 "64

X== ';R+ .) ho= .J + ~ I) =-~ ·mm

'- 1+50Eo 1+50xO.267~ J

, _ Ne - Rbbx(ho - 0, Sx) _ 2200000 x 420 -11. 5 x 400 x 364(560 -182) _ 1 QO? 2

A. - - - 0 _mm

x R\<:Z~ 365x520

60

Tfnh c s theo cong thuc (1-23):

( 1 - _:_ l ( 364 J

h I--

a =ll2--0 -1)R_== 2 560 -1 365=250J\1Pa

, l-~R s 1-0,585

A = Rbbx+RscA~ -N = 11x400x364+365x1801-1200000 =68mm2

'as 250

~= 160 =0 267'8 =03

h 600 ' , a '

o

. _ . {0,0025bho = 560mm:2

Dieu kien chon A,: A" ~ ')

8aA~ =: 0, 3x 1802 == 600mm-

Lay A, thea gia trj 100 han (rang 3 gia tri a tren, As = 600.

A, + A: = 600 +1802 = 2402 2402

" =: =00107 = 1.07%

r,l 400 x 560 '

Cling voi bai wan tren thu giai val (Nang hop A, = 0. (1b!!C te chon As thea cau tao loi thieu A, = 0,0005 x --1-00 x 560 = 112mm~ va khong ke vao tinh toan),

e' = 0.5h - T)eo - a' =: 300 - 160 - 40 -= 100mm T = Ne') =: noo.ooox 1O~ = 31.25

Rbba'- 11,5x400x40~

uJ = 1 + .J 1 + 2T = I + Jl + 62, 5 = 8,97 x:::: cxaa':::: 8,97x40 =: 359mm

, N - R, bx 2200.000 -11 x 400 x 359 )

A, -= = = 1824mm-

"R 365

sc

A, + A~ = 112 .:r-1824 = 1936mm2

2.4. Til'<'H TOAN KJ-iA NANG CHfU Ltl:

2.4.1. Cac loai bai toan

Khi da bier kfeh thuoc tiet di~n va cau tao cot thep co the tinh toan kha nang chiu luc theo mot so bai toan khac nhau:

- Kiem tra xem tiet dien co du khe nang chiu duoc mot cap n<)i lire M, N hay khong.

61

I

(2-34)

- V6i hrc nen N eho tnroc tinh xem tiet dien chiu diroc mot mornen M bang bao nhieu.

- V6i d¢ lech Urn eo cho tnroc tinh xem tiet dien chiu duoc life nen N bang bao nhieu.

- V oi M eho truce tfnh xern tiet dien chiu duoc N bans baa nhieu,

2.4.2. Kiem tra kha nang chiu cap noi hrc M. N

Thea chieu rae dung ella M de xac dinh vi tri va tri so cua A". A: (tnrong bop cot thep doi xirng thi khong can). Chuan bi cac so lieu nhu trong rnuc 2.2.1. Chu )' rang a day kh6ng giii. thiet a. a' rna xac dinh true tiep Ill" so lieu cau tao.

De bier duoc tnrcng hop tinh toan can tim gia tri cua chieu cao vung nen x. Truce het gia thiet dieu kien (2-6c) duoc thoa man de Ill" phuong trinh (2-7a) rut ra x va d~1

ia x -.

Dua vao gia tri x2 de phan biet cac truong hop,

2.4.2.1. Nen lech him {6"n thong thuang

Khi x:: narn trong pharn V! 2a' S x] S ';RhO' kct 'qua dung voi gl.! Ibid. lay x = "2 lhay vao cons thuc (2-4) voi G' = R'. de unh M. .. ;. va kiern tra theo dieu kren (2-2).

2.4.2.2. Nell lech tam be

Khi unh duoc x , > ~Rhn kh6ng dung duoc gia tri x::,_ VI gia thiet kh6ng dung. Luc nay phai giai dong thoi hai phuong trlnh de' xac dinh x. Phuong trlnh thu nhat la dieu kien can bang luc (2-7b), phU011g trinh thu hai la quan he gilia cr~ va A (1·23) hoac (1-25).

Khi dung phrrong trinh (1-23a) ket hop (2~7b) rut fa duoc:

x = (N - R"A: )(h -SRho) + R,A, (11 + ';Rho) Rhb(h - t.Rhn)+ 2R,A,

(2-35)

Dieu k ien cua x la cl;>l1n < x Sh

Sau khi c6 duoc x dem thay vao cong thirc (2-4) voi G: = R,,, de tinh M: gil va him tra dieu k ieu (2-2).

2.4.2.3. Truong h9P d(ic biet

Khi tfnh duoc x:i_ < 2a' cling khong dung dLfOC gia trj x2. Luc nay can tien hanh kiern tra thea dieu kien (2-3) voi M2£h xac dinh theo (2-12b).

62

2 . .4.1.4. Kie'm tra su chill nell ngoai mat phdng uan

Ngoai vice kiern tra vci cap noi hrc M. N, khi b < h con can kiern tra 51! chiu hrc theo phvang ngoai mat phang uon. Dieu kien kiern tra la N ~ No voi No la kha nang chiu nen dung tarn. xac dinh theo cong thirc (1-6).

2.4.3. Xac dlnh )1 khi eho truoc N

Tien hanh theo cac buoc nhu da l~p trong muc 2.4.2. de xac dinh M Igil' Thay bieu thuc ella e vao dieu kien (2-2) tinh diroc cS"

M]gh -N(O,5h-a)

e(~ :::::

(2-36)

:\1 = Ne:

(2-37)

Khi xac dinh M can chu y den dau (chieu tac dung), Dua vao dau cua M de biet cot thep nao la A~. A:. Neu kh6ng guy dinh tnroc dau cua M thi khi cot thep khong dOL

xirng se xac dinh diroc 2 gia tri cua M theo hai chieu Ling voi cot thep A\ a ben trai hoac bell phai.

2.4.4. Xac dinh \' khi bier cil

Cho [WaC do tech tam eo co nghia la cho IrLCOC diem d~t ella N. DL!u vao diem dat do de pharr dinh COL thep A" A: (A; dat gan N hon). Gia thiet dieu kien x ;::: 2a' duoc thea

man. dem thav bieu thirc cua N a (2-5) voi <J: = R_\~ vao dieu kien (2-2) rut fa phirong trinh de xac dinh x:

(2-38)

Cling c6 the lap dUQ'C phuong trlnh (3-8) bang each lay tong mornen cac luc doi voi true di qua diem d~t cua N.

Gia thiet tiep la x :::;; SRho de lay <J, :::: R, thay vao piurong trmh, giai ra, lay nghiern c6 nuhia va dat 10. x-:

~ ,~

(2.38a)

Trang nay e' = e - Za duoc Jay theo dau dai 56 de tinh. Dua vao X3 tim duoc de phan biet cac tnrong hop,

63

I

.. N:= MI£1l = Rbbx(h.o -x!2)-:-R..;cA:Za

e e

(2-39)

2.4.4.1. Nen lech tam Ion thong thuang

Khi thea man d. hai gia thiet 2a' :5 x) :5 ~Rho thi lay x = x) thay vao cong thirc (2-7a) de tinh N.

2.4.4.2. Nen l¢ch tam be

Khi x) > ~Rho, phai tinh lai x.

Luc nay can giai dong thoi hai phuong trlnn de tim x va (Js. Phuong trinh thtr nhat la phuong trlnh (3-38), phuong trinh thu hai HI. quan h¢ c, va x, co the chon mQ1 trong cac cong thirc di'i lap (1-23); (1-23a) hoac (1-25).

Sau khi tim duoc x, dem thay vao cong thirc (2-4) voi (J~ = R,~ de tinh M1gh. Tir dieu kien (2-2) rut ra:

2.4.4.3. Truong hop ddc bi¢t

Khi tinh duoc x) < 2a' (k~ ca tnrong hop x3 < 0) can dung dieu kien (1-3) va cong tbuc (2-12b) de xac dinh N:

N = M2gh = R,A.,Z~

e' (e-Z,)

(2-39a)

2.4.4.4. Cia thief truoc 1J

Trong bien thirc xac dinh e c6 h¢ so 1) chua tinh duoc, vay ban dau phai gia thiet mot gia tri 1") ;::: 1 d~ tinh toano Sau khi co duoc N thi tinh lai 1"). so sanh \"61 gia tri da gia thier. neu hai gia [ri la gan hang nhau th] chap nhan duqc.

2.4.4.5. Kie"'m tra ngoai md! phdng

Gia tri N tinh duoc con can thoa man dieu kien N :5 No nhu eta trlnh bay trong muc 2.4.2.4.

2.4.5. Xac dinh N khi cho truoc M

2.4.5.1. Tinh toan Mo thea truang hop chiu uon

Dua vao chieu ella rnornen d~ dinh vi cot thep chiu keo As' Tinh roan Mo la rnornen u6n tiet dien chiu diroc khi N == O.

Tir phuong trinh (2.7a) khi N = 0 rut ra x va d~t la x4:

(2-40)

64

Mo = Rbbx(h() - 0, 5x) + R>~A:Za C6ng thuc (2-41) nrong tu nhu cong thirc (2-4).

Khi x., > ~Rho van dung cong thirc (2-41) trong do x = ~Rho Khi x-J. < 2a' (k~ d. k.hi x, < 0) t[nh Mo thea (2-42):

(2-41 )

(2-42)

2.4.5.1. Truong hop M > Mo

Khi M > :"L:J can xac dinh hai gia tri N I va N] irng voi truong hop nen iech tam 160 V;\ ncn lech tam be.

Gi3. thiet dieu kien x e 2a' duqc rhoa man (0-: -'= R,~). 111ay bi~u thuc e vao bieu thuc (2-5) vao dieu kien (2-2) rut fa phuong trlnh bac 2 cua x.

(2-43)

Tarn gia thiet 11 de doh toan nhu (; muc truoc.

Gia thiet tiep x ::;: ~R.!lo de c6 cr~ x: R~. Thay 0", = R, vao plurong trlnh (2-·.0) tim duoc hal nghiern xJ• x:.. Dog voi moi nghiem co nghia tinh duoc gia tri N tuong irng.

Voi x thoa man dieu kien gia thiet 2a' S x::;: ~R.hO thi thay x vao cong thirc (2-7a) de tfnh N.

Voi x > '~Rh,) can giai dong thai hai phuong trinh de xac dinh 0-, va x. Phuong trinh (2-43) va mot trong de plurong trlnh quan he 0-, va x. C6 x se tfnh diroc N.

Voi x < 2a·. bang each bien dOl dieu kien (2-3) rut ra:

N = 11M - R,A,Za O,5h-a'

(2-44)

2.4.5.2. Truong h9P M < lr10

Luc nay xay ra nen lech tam be va chi co mot gia tri N. TiM roan bang each giai dong thoi hai phuong trinh d~ tim x va cr~ sau do tir x xac dinh N.

2.4.5.3. Kiem Ira N

Gia tri N tinh diroc trong muc 2.4.5 deu khong diroc lay I6n han gia tri No tinh thea cong thirc (1-6).

65

I

2.5. BlEU DO TUONG T Ac

2.5.1. Khai niern ve bieu do nrong tac

Tuong tac & day la wong tac giil'a khii nang chiu m6men uon M va kha nang chiu luc nen N.

Voi mot tiet dien c6 c6t thep da bier bieu do tuong rae tht hien toan bo kha nang chiu lire cua no irng voi moi gia tri cua M va N.

Nhu da trinh bay trong muc 2.4 irng voi rnoi gia tri N 11m duoc mot gia tri M, ung voi moi gia tri eo tim diroc mot gia tri N hoac irng voi moi gia tri M tim duoc mot hoac hai gia rri N. Lap bieu do voi hai true lit M va N. Moi cap gia tri nhu vira neu cho mQI diem. Tap hop tat ca cac diem co duoc bieu do wong taco Khi di!.! cot thep doi xirng bieu do co dang nhu tren hinh 2.6. Trong hai true co the !fly true dirng de bieu dien M hoac !\ UJ)' tbeo sir thuan loi khi Ihe hien \'a khi dung.

Hinh 2.6 the hien bieu do khi momen M theo mot chieu. Khi xet M theo hai chieu (duong va am) thl bieu do diroc phat trien theo cit hai phia nhir tren hinh 2.7.

M

D

B

B

L....- ~- N

C

'---------D"------- ....... M

Hinh 2.6. Bufll do luang toe lhc"l!i~n theo hai aiel! vai M theo J chieu

M

B

C N

Hinh 2.7. Bill( do· luang /(k \·61 M hai chieu

Khi xet ca N theo hai chieu (nen va keo) thi bieu do duoc phat trien thanh dang khep kin nhu tren hinh 2.8.

66

M

"N C

Hinh 2.8. Bit/II do tuang rae voi M va N 111(:0 liai chien.

Xet rieng goc mot phan III voi N nen. tren bieu do co ba diem dac bier. Diem D irng voi N ::::: 0 va \l) (cong thirc 2-41. 2-42). Diem C Ling voi M = 0 va No. Gia tri No xac dinh thee cong thirc (l-6). Diem B Ling voi MCTM\ va NB . CO' the chtrng minh duoc dmg

I-I - , die B' , . , J h., + a.' 0 -I V _. ._ .," .

A 11 a::::: a, rem ung \'01 rnrong lop x = Xl) = ") = ,) 1. 01 gia if! nay eua x, neu

t.nh roan COl thcp khong doi xirng $e CO' duoc tong IUQTlg cot thep A, + A: Ii nho nhar.

Bieu do luang lac chia mal phang lam hai mien: ben (rang va ben ngoai, Voi mQI cap noi luc M. N cho tnroc c6 mQI diem trong ma: phang. Khi diem d6 thuoc mien lrong (diem I) tie'! dien du kha nang chiu lire. Neu diem d6 thuoc mien ngoai (diem K) tie', dicn khong du kha nang chiu lire (hinh 2.9).

Tren bieu do. vung Ian can diem B co (he l;t nen tech lam 16n h01C be, phan can leu nong doan DB urong irng voi nen lech tam 16n. [rang doan Be - nell lech tam be.

VOL c.ic die:n nam ngay tren bieu do (diem P) kha nang chiu luc vua dung bang no: luc rna lie', d ien phai chiu, Khi diem do narn tren doan BC thi rnor trong hai noi hrc tv[ hoac :.J giarn xuong se lam tang do an loan \'a nguac iai. Neu diem d6 nam tren doan DB thi khi M giam se (ang an toan

con N giam se nguy hiern. Trang

doan Y1 > NIo ung voi moi gi.i tr(

cua \1 co hai hrc N I va N2• Khi N M"

tha y d6i trong khoang tren N 1 :::; N :::; 1'12 thi c6 duoc an roan (gia thiet

N 2 > N I) can neu N vuot fa ngoai pham vi tren l;) nguy hiern.

Diem B irng voi Mmax. Vai rnornen nay tiel dien chi du kha nang chiu Iuc khi N vira bang dung Nil can neu N tang len hay giam xu6ng tier dien deu bi nguy

B

I ,

M, - - - - - r - - -. !

, ,

Mo 0 : :

M "

'-------,---T------- ------·K

Mo-------~---~--------- P

I I I

I C

L_----~--~--------_7--~--~~N

Na Nl Np Nx No

Hinh 2.9. Biell do va cdc cap noi hrc

67

hiern, Voi nhan xet nay, khi thiet ke' khong nen vi muc dich tiel kiem Cal thep rna eho tiel dien lam viec a diem B neu chua co duoc d9 tin cay can thiet cua M va N.

2.5.2. Bieu do t110"f1g tac voi As khac A:

Voi liel dien dat cot thep kh6ng doi xirng, dac biet la khi A~ va A~ khac nhau nhieu thi bieu d6 urong tac c6 mot 601).n lui hoi khac so voi cac bieu do d5. ve cho tie't dien dat cot thep doi ximg. De xem xet van de nay truce hel dn ban ve trong tam hinh hoc va trong tam vat lieu cua tiet dien.

Trong lam hlnh hoc 0 cua liel dien chfr nhat each deu cac canh, la giao diem cua hai duong cheo, Trong tam vat lieu cua tiet

dien, k)' hieu O, duoc xac dinh co ke: den sl! khac nhau ve kha naris bien dana cua betons va

o . 0 0

cua c6t thep thong qua gia tri

modun dan hoi cua cluing.

MQI each khac, trong tam vat lieu O, la trong lam cua lie! dien wang. dirong trong do da guy doi dien tich CO! thep ra dien rich betong nrong duong. H¢ 56 guy doi Ja ly 56 cua

'd d' h'" E,

rna un an 01 Il\ =-'

. E b

I ho
s:
I i •
! I -. I
/,e i
I I
~ ~A,i
l
A,./I r .. s b
01 -«
I ./ '/
..
I ~
I
[ ely I y" ::

" I ~

[

O.5r,

O.5~

I h

Hinh 2.10. Trang tom liin], }U!C 0 va trong tam wir lieu 0\. cua liel dien.

Lay true di qua mep tiel dien phia co A: lam chuan, khoang each tir 0, den true chuan 13. y,. duoc xac dinh nhu sau:

_ Q,Sbh2 +nJA,ho +A~a') Y\· -

bh + n, (A, + A~ )

(2-45 )

Voi tiet dien co cot thep d6i xirng thl y\" = Q.5h, diem 0\. trung voi O.

Khi lap sa do t inh toan chung ta lay true di qua trong tam 0 de xac dinh do lech lam eo va tfnh M = Neo. Nhung neu lay true di qua trong tam O\" thi rn6rnen M,. se la (hinh 2.11a).

M" = N(eo - dJ = M- Nd,

Trang do: d, - khoang each gina 0 va O\"; d, = Q,Sh - )\.

68

(2-46)

I

Nhirng nghien CLfU ve SI.! lam viec cua tiet dien belong cot thep cho dog tfnh toan voi true qua 0\, lit dung han, tuy vay trong nhieu truong hop do sai lech kh6ng dang kc nen ducc bo qua. Nguoi ta chi neu ra van de nay khi muon thi hien that chinh xac (thea Iy thuyet) bieu do nrong taco

b) M

B

a)

A,

L..Ll.--~·\rt----1.J...

Hinh 2.11. 50 d6 l'a biill d6 tuong laC khi A; > As

Nhu vay khi hrc N d~t dung \'3.0 O, tiet dien rnoi thirc sl.! chiu nen trung tam va chiu duoc hrc nen Ian nhat NL = No. Tuy vay neu so voi true qua 0 thi hie nay tier dien van con chiu mot rnornen M = ML = Nd.; Khi vi trf d~t hrc N narn giua 0 va 0" thl thuc chat. so voi 0,. \II da doi chieu, Tren bieu do c6 mot doan III i ttl L (hinh 2.11 b).

Khi l\ > :\ ~ . diem 0" gan VOl ,-'\, han, sa do va bieu do nrong tac nhu tren hinh 2.12.

IiIN M
I
~~ 1 ' M,
~111 0, a }
N
.~.
L
M'
, Hinb 2.12. 50d6 va biill d6' tuang tac kh! As> A;

2.5.3. Cac plurong phap ve bi~u do nrong tac

Bieu d6 nrong tac duoc tfnh wan thea tirng diem. n6i de diem lai thanh duong lien tue. De xac dinh toa do tirng diem c6 the dung mot trong nhCing each da trinh bay a cac rnuc 2.4.3. den 2.4.5: Cho N tim M. cho M tim N hoac cho TJeo tim N. Dung bai loan bier l""jeo tinh N trong viec ve bieu d6 wong tac co nghia la tir goc toa do ke dtrong xien

69

I

lap voi true N mot goc cp rna tgtp ::::: lleo' Diem can tim nam tren duong xien d6 (khi da tinh diroc N). Co the va nen dung ket hop cac phuong phap VI moi phuong phap co ehb manh va cho yeu cua no. Ba phuong phap da trinh bay la voi mot gia tri da biet cua dai luong nay tim gia tri luang irng cua dai hrong kia. De ve bieu do thl chung ta nr eho dai hrong nay cac gia tri khac nhau de tim cac gin. tri nrong ling ella dai hrong kia va e6 diroc mot so diem.

Trang cac phuong phap da biet pmrong phap nao ciing phai tfnh toan thong gua mot bien trung gian la x. Vay co the xern x la bien doc lap de tir d6 xac dinh de gia tri ella M va N. Ve phuong dien V~I ly, cho x bien doi co nghia la Slr dung thay doi rmrc do chiu nen cua be tong Ill' d6 rna xac dinh kha nang chiu nen rna kha nang chiu m6men ella tiel dien. Ve mat thirc hanh lay x lam bien so Iil. don gian hem ca.

Tnroc her tfnh x, thea e6ng thirc (2-40).

Khi x4 ::::: 2a' thl lay x bien thien trong khoang x , :s: x s: h. Khi x, < 2a' (ke ca khi x, < 0) 1<1)' 2a' s: x s: h.

Nhan xet rang. khi tinh toan tiet dien, neu ke den dQ lech tam ngau nhien ea va anh huang ella uon doc T] thl momen IU M tang len thanh M· ::::: NT]ea - xem cong thirc (1-18). Trang tinh roan thuc hanh, & true rnornen ngiroi ta kh6ng d~t gia tri M rna dat gia tri M -. lam nhu v~y viec lap va sir dung bieu do don gian han.

V6i de gia tri cua x trang khoang 2a's: x':::; sRhl,tinh gia tri N theo cong thirc (2-7a), unh M I gh thea cong thirc (2-4) trong do G: = R" va unh \"T]eo thea cong thirc (2-47) nil ra tu dieu kien (2-2).

(2-47)

Voi cac gia tri x trong khoang :;Rho < x s: h. dung cong thirc (1-23a) X3c dinh 0,. dung cong thirc (2-7h) tmh N, dung cong thirc (2-4) tinh M i~h va X3c dinh Nne., thea (2-47).

2.5.4. Nhan xet ve bieu do tuong tac

Bieu d6 luang tac cua tiel dien d?t COl thep doi ximg c6 hinh dang ohu hinh 2.6. \'3 2.9. Khi dung bieu do nay de xern xet kha nang chill life ella liel dien e6 mot so nhan xet nhu sau (hinh 2.13):

- Diem I Dam ben trong mien chiu life voi MI, N\. Cac diem K,• K2, K3 nam ben ngoai mien chiu lire thl hoac la ca MKj, NKJ dell 16"n hem MI, N1, hoac it nhat ding e6 mot Irong hai dai hrong 100 han MI' Nj. Do la trong dai the.

- Trang vung Jan can dean DB tinh hinh co khac, M9t diem Q & mien trong vci MQ; NQ. Mot diem R & mien ngoai trong hie d6 MR < MQ va NR < NQ. Nhu v~y tiel dien

70

chiu duoc mot cap noi luc MQ, NQ trong hie kh6ng chiu duoc c~p MR, NR deu co gia rrj nho hon. Tuy vay cap noi luc lv"fR' NR c6 d¢ lech taro eo == ~ IOn han. Dieu nhan xet vua roi nhu la mot nghich ly, n6 diroc giai thich bang each phan rich 5~ lam viec ella tiet dien betorig cot thcp chiu nen lech tam lon, 51.! pini hoai bit dau IU vung keo. Khi M va N deu giarn nhung :.,r giarn nhieu hon thl luc keo trong cot thep 5e tang len. Cong thirc (2-20) eho thay, khi ?'J 16n thl cot thep chiu keo As se be han.

f---fl------------>.,.---, K, I

I

I

M,f--~----~-------.~,

L-~ ~ L-L__~_~ N

N, N., N,

Hinh 2.13. N h~1l .rh l"(! hi/II do" tuang hlc

Hinh dang duong cong ella bieu do nrong tac phu thuoc vao gia tri tuyet dci va ty I~ giira cot thep (; hai plua. \"010 gia tri nrong d6i cua ."(4 1.1 S .. == ~ ..

o

Xet tiet dien d~l cot thep (; phia ben trai la AI' ben phai la Ap. Cho Ap mot gia tri e6 dinh vao rmrc trung binh, eho At thay d6i ur 0 den mot gia tri kha 100. Ve de bieu do voi ca rnomen duong (At chiu keo) va mornen am (Ap chiu keo). Hinh dang cac bieu do thay d6i nhu the hien tren hinh 2.14.

Xet rieng pharr bieu do img voi rnomen duong (AI chiu keo) thay nhu sau:

Khi At = 0 co duong 1, diem DI trung goc toa do. Tuy At = 0 nhung khi tang luc nen N kha nang chiu m6men tang cho den diem 81,

Tang AI nhung At < Ap' c6 duong 2. Bieu do c6 diem lui L2 (; phia tren, Khi AI = Ap' co duong 3, doi xirng.

71

rf,M®

.W

r

M

Rink 2.14. Cdc dang dutmg colig Clio ble'll do tuong tac

Tang Al > Ap nhung van giu eho S-t :::; ~4 <;R (xern x, a cong tlurc 1-40), c6 duong o

4 voi diem lui L4 narn a phia dum. Khi gia tri ~ ding tang len thi doan DB cang giam. Tang AI den mile ~ > ';R' doan DB bien mat (duong 5).

2.5.5. Bieu do tutrng tac kh6ng thir nguyen

Lap bieu d6 voi kich thuoc tiet dien va cot thcp da bier nhir phan tren da trinh bay chi thich hop cho mot twang hop CI.). th~ nao d6 voi viec van dung hi han che, Lap bieu do voi cac thong 56 khong thd' nguyen, dac biet la lap cac ho bieu d6 se e6 diroc su van dung rong rai han.

Xet tier dien dat cot thep doi xirng A.. = A: va thea man dieu kien R~ = R~c'

a a' x

0=-=-' .;=-

ho ho' ho

72

a = RscA~ = R/\.,

RbbhO Rbbho

Com: thirc (2.7b) bien d6i thanh:

n = :; + a (1 - cp,)

T d' 0, Khi / ~ I' l vs f rang a 4\ = R' 1::; ..::. ':;R ! 11 <jJs = va n =..".

~

(2-48)

(4-49)

V oi ~ > ;R \'3. khi dung cong thirc (1-23a) de de dinh cr_ se co diroc:

(P = 5._ = 1 _ 2(:; -:; R )

~ R, l+cr-:;R

Bien deli cong thirc (2-47) thanh:

m = ;(1- 0,52.) + (1-8)(a -0,5n)

(2-50)

(2-21 )

De lap mot bieu do. cho 0, :;R va a mQI gia tri chon san, cho S [hay doi se tinh ra cac gia tri n va m. Moi cap n, m cho mot diem cua bieu do. LlY S thay doi tir 0 den SR' sau do ur ~R den h.

v oi 0, ~R C han san. lai eho a [hay doi (« r- u: ... Un) se co duae mot ho bieu do. Nh u vav mot ho bieu do Ling voi mot gi.i tri o. ~R' nhieu gia tri 0 ... 010 () thay dbi se c6 nhieu 110 bieu do voi cac O. ex khac nhau. Hinh 2.15 ve mot ho bieu do nhu vay .

.. m

~ a I 0=---. ='0 os .1 n .

. ,

~" "0.6 '

I I I I

0, 1 f-----__;_-----+--7I----,'<;:"--~-___j_.:>"r_--;:..,..__-_I

I I

t

0,2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1,0

1.2

1,4

1,6

1,8

2.0

Hinh 2.15. H9 biell d6 tuang rae khong th« nguyen

73

I

Khi ve bieu do eho mot tiet dien cu the voi chieu dai t inh roan 10 eho tnroc, da xet duoc anh huong cua u6n doc theo phuong yeu nhat (h~ s6 uon doc tp) de tinh gia tri No (kha nang chiu nen dung tam. khi M ::: 0). Khi lap bieu do khong thtl: nguyen chua xet duoc dieu vira trinh bay vi vay gia tri 0 irng voi m ::: 0 chi moi the bien kha nang chiu nen Ian nhar luc chua k~ uon doc,

Bieu do wang tac cua tiel dien mo: cau kien cu !h~ duoc dung chu yeu de kiern Ira kha nang chiu hrc thea cac bai roan trong muc 2.4.

De kiern tra kha nang chiu cap noi luc M, N thl tnroc her tfnh eo, Y) va M = N11Co.

V 6i M* va N c6 diroc mot diem I. Khi diem d6 nam a mien trong cua bieu do thi iiet dien du kha nang chiu luc.

De X3.c dinh M khi 'bier N thi ttl N tim duoc diem Pta giao ella dirong gi6ng ur N voi bieu do. Tit P 11m ra Nt"', t inh duoc eo va 1'1,11.

De xac dinh N khi biet eo, gia thie't he s6 11. Ke duong xicn co g6c e rna 19 e ::: 11e().

Duong nay cat bieu do tai diem P l : Tir P I tim ra gia tri N (hinh 2.16). Chu y tg8 a day c6 dan vi chieu dai, phai tinh toan thea t~, le tren hai true cua bieu do.

1M' ~ N".

P,

2.5.6. Dung bieu d6 nrong tac

t

______ 1 I

~--~--------~I--~!--------~p

I f

~~ ~~~ __ ------+_----~ N

N" NI N,

Hinh 2.16, Dung bieu do tuong lac de" xac djllh "hd Jlallg chill Inc

HQ bieu d6 khong thti' nguyen, ngoai viec dung de kiern tra kha nang chiu luc nhir tren (chi dung mot duong irng voi a da bier) con dung de tinh toan col thep mot each nhanh chong,

, a

Tit cac s6 lieu M. N, b, h, R _, Rb da eho, gia th iet a de tinh ho dt is = -, Tinh n,

. -' ho

Tleo, o1. Dung ho duong cong \'oi is va '~R thich hop se [U 01, n tim ducc c. \'a :

74

(2-52)

Thi duo Ll)' so lieu iJ thi du 3 rnuc 2.2.6: b:::: 300, h :::: sOOmm; 10::::: 2,8m; R, :::: 11,5; R. :::: ~80MPa: ~ :::: 1320kl"J; M :::: 218kN. Gia [hiet a :::: 37, h. :::: 463, 0 = _22_:::: 0,08;

, .~ 463

D5. tinh roan duoc eo :::: 165mm: Yj :::: 1.

n = :-.,; = 1320 x 1000 :::: 0,864

Rbbh:i U,Sx300x463

N 16-

m:::: i '1e,_~ :: n llen :::: 0.864 _) == 0,308

Rb bh;i ho 463

V oi n :::: 0.864 va m ::: 0,308 tim tren ho bicu do c6 diem K narn giCi'a hai duong cong irng voi a::;:: 0.2 \'30,3. Noi suy c6 duoc a ::: 0,28 (gAn dung).

A.::: Q,28xl1.5x300x467 ==161Omm2

, 280

2.5.7. Tlu du ve bieu do nrong tac

T It] du 1, ClO tie'[ dien nhu tren hinh ]: .4b voi 10 :::: 2.8m; b :::: 30cm. h :::: SOcm.

A~ :::: ,t:,_<:::: 2922 + 2¢2S :::: 17,4cm2, a :::: a' :::: 3.75cm, lay tron a :::: a' :::: 4cm, Rb :::: 11,

R, ::: 260MPa: ~R :::: 0,64. Tinh toan va ve bieu do nrong taco

ho:::: 50 - 4:::: 46cm::: 460mm: Za == 420mm.

R,A, - R~cA: 0

A4 = =

Rbb

Mo = R, A, Za = 260x 1740 x420 = 190x1Q6Niumm = 190kNm. No = CP(RJ:r'-\b + R . .,A~l) (ccng tlurc 1-6).

A'l :::: A$ + A: = 17,4 x2 z: 34,8cm2 = 3480mm2

Ab:::: 300x500 -3480::: 146500mm2. i = O,288b :::: Q,288x300 :::: 8,6

A:::: 10 ::;: 2800 == 32,4 > 28, can xet u6n doc

i 86,4 .

75

cp == 1,028 - 0,0000288x32.42 - 0,0016 x32.4 == 0,94 No = 0,94 (llx146500 +260 x3480) = 2365000Niu. No:::: 2365kN

Cho x bien thien trong khoang 2a' = 80 s x ::::; ~Rho = 276 Lay x = 80;

N == Rbbx + R~A: - R~A~ = 11 x 300 x 80 + (0) = 264000 Niu = 264 kN

M)gh = Rbbx (110 -0,5x) + RscA~ Z,

=1 J x300x80(460-40)+260xI740x420 = 300,9 xl06.N"iu rum = 300,9kNru.

M* = Ml!'h - N (O.5h - a) == 300.9 - 264 (0.5 x 0.5 - 0.04) == 245.4 kNm.

T··' 1""" kha , b' 110 160 100 1"0 ')-0 ')76 inh d ke lep II,lC ay cac gta trt 'lac cua x ang _, . _ , __ , . _J . _ . till uoc .et

qua ghi trong bang:
x (rnm) N (kN) M1gh (kNm) ivf* (kNm)
I 120 396 348,4 265.2
160 528 390.6 279.7
200 660 -127.6 289
DO 759 -15 L8 292.4
250 825 466.4 293.2
276 91 483,3 292 Tiep II,lC cho x bien thien trong khoang :;RhO < x ::; h = 500, voi x = 300, (dung c6ng tlurc 1.23a t inh c.):

cr, == Il', 1 1( x - ~:;_Rh0) j' R, == [1 2(300 - 276) ]260 = 204.3 J"vlPa

h-SRho 500-276

= 11 x300 x 300 + 260 x1740 - 204.3 x 1740 = 1087x 103j\iu.

MInh = Rbbx (110 - O,SX) + Rsc:A: Z,

~ - .

=11 x300 x300 (4-60 - 1.50) +260 x 1740 x420 = 496.9x 106Nmm.

M* == 496.9 - 1087 (0.5 x.5 - 0.04) = 268,6.

Tiep tuc tinh wan voi cac gia tri cua x bang 350, 400, 450, 480. Kit qua ghi o' bans sau:

<:> •

76

! i N (kJ'\fiu) M1gh (kNm) M* (kNm)
i x (rnm) 0", (1'v1Pa) I
i 300 I 204,.3 1087 497 269
i !
350 88,2 1454 519 214
400 -27,8 1820 533 151
450 -144 2188 539 80
480 -213,6 2407 - - Lire nen toi da CQt chiu duoc N = 2365 leN, khi tinh voi x = 480 co N = 2407 > No, dung tinh toano Ket qua d~ ve bieu do ghi trong bang sau:

i N 0 I 396 I 528 660 I 759 I 825 I 911 1 1087 1454 11820 2188 2365 I
I i
I ~vf'" 190 I 265,2 I 279,7 289 I 292,4 I 293 I 292 1 269 214 I lSI 539 0 1 Thi du :!. Vt bieu do luang tac khong thupguyen, cat rhep doi xirng voi 5 = -t- = 0,08. o

Ty !¢ cat thep .u = ;' = 0,01. R~ = 260; Rb = 13; ~R = 0,6 o

Trang pharn vi ° < ~ < ~R = 0.6 co 0 :=~.

Khi ~ = 0; n= 0; m = (1-0) (a - 0.50) = 0,92 xO,2 = 0,184

voi ~ = 20 = 0.16: 0 = 0,16

m = ~(l - 0,5~.) + ([- 0) (a - 0,50) ::: 0,16 (1- 0,08) + 0,92 (0.2 - 0,08) m = 0,2576.

V6i de gia tri khac ella ~::::; ~R = 0.6, ket qua ghi trong bang sau:

I " I 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6
i n I 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,.6
;
I m 1 0,272 0,301 0,32 0,329 0,328 V oi ~R < ~ < 1 + 8 = 1,08.

!p =1- 2(C,-~R) =1- c,-0,6

I 1+8-SR 0,24

n = S + a. (1 - rp) ::: S + 0,2 (l - q\)

m = ;; (1 - 0,5s,) + (l - 8) (a - 0,50);::: ~ (1 - 0,5~) + 0,92 (0,2 - 0,50)

77

S 0.7 0,8 I 0,9 1.0 1,08
CPs 0,583 0,167 I -0,25 -0,667 -1.0
n I 0,783 0,967 I 1.15 1,33 lA8
m 0.28 0.23 I 0,15 0,07 ° Ket qua de ve bieu d6 nrong tac lay thea hai bang tren, Khi eho a thay doi se c6 mot ho bieu do. Hinh 2.15 the hien ho bieu do voi cac gia tri 0: = 0,2: 0.3; 0,4 va 0,5. Chti y rang ho bieu do a hinh 2.15 rnang tinh chat nrong tnrng, duoc the hien chua that chinh xac do d6 chua dung duoc de thiet ke thuc te, De dung cho trurc Ie c6 the tham khao cac bieu do 6 phu luc, Thea nguyen tac va thf du da neu, moi co quan thiet ke nen nr I~p cho minh mot s6 bieu d6 mall de dung.

2.6. TfNH rOAN VdI NHIEU cAP N~n u;c

2.6.1. Chon cac c<;1P noi lire d~ tinh roan

Khi t6 hop noi I,!C de tinh toan CQI (xern muc 1.3) thong thuong moi cot duoc xet II nhat hai tiet dien, moi tiel dien c6 6 cap noi lire trong hai t6 h9P co ban, nhu vay rnoi cot c6 It nhat 12 cap noi hrc co ban. Ngoai fa con c6 Ihe c6 de cap noi hrc cua t6 h9P d{1C bier. Theo nguyen tuc thi tiet dien can phai du kha nang chiu lal ca cac C~IP noi lire c6 Ihe xay fa. Khi dung bieu do nrong tac de tinh roan cot thep hoac kiem Ira thi vice 1111h \"(5i 11101 so Ian cac c~p noi lire kh6ng c6 gila phuc tap. Tuy vay, khi dung cong thirc de' 1111h roan thi khoi luong cong viec tang len nhieu. D~ giam nhe khoi luong nguoi ta lim each bo b6"t mOL so cap, chi chon ra mot so cap thuoc loai bat loi nhat d~ t inh wan (can nhieu cot thep hon). Khi tiel dien c6 du kha nang chiu duoc cac cap thuoc loai bal loi nhat Ihl no cung du khJ. nang chiu cac cap con lai.

Dieu 3.21 ella TCVN 5574 - 1991 q u Y d inh: Chon de cap noi luc M. N bat loi trong d6 ngoai gia tri tuyet doi ella mornen con can xet den chieu cua n6. Voi mot luc nen N dJ chon, de tinh toan can lay M co gia tri luang ling Ian nhat. Con neu voi M diJ. chon de tinh loan rna N luang irng co kha nang (hay doi thi can xet den cit gia tri N be nhat \'a N Ion nhat.

Trang cac cap noi lire cua bang t6 h9P thi cit M \'.1 N deu thay doi do do kho chon fa mot C1P nao do la bat loi nha: rna thtrong phai chon fa mot 56 cap dang nghi ngo thuoc 10,!-i bat IQ'i nhat, [rang d6 neu dat cot thep doi xUng [hi kh6ng can chii y den chieu cua momen con neu dat cot thep khong doi xirng thi phai chu y ca den chieu ella momen (M duong, M am). Cac e~p thuoc loai bat loi nhat la cac cap:

- Cap c6 gia tri tuyet doi m6men 16'0 nhat,

- Cap c6 luc nen Ian nhat.

78

- Cap co do lech tam Co 100 nhat.

- Cap c6 M va N deu rhuoc loai Ion.

- Cap c6 M va do lcch tam eo deu thuoc loai IOn.

Viec chon baa nhieu cap de tinh roan khong co quy dinh cu the, c6 Ihe Iii. 2, 3, 4 hoac nhieu hon IUY thuoc vao 51! phan tfch cua nguoi thiet ke. Noi chung dung cang nhieu cap de tinh roan thi do tin cay cang cao.

2.6,2, Tinh toan cot thep voi nhieu cap noi luc

2.6.2.1. Nguyen tdc chung

Khi da chon duoc mot 56 cap noi hrc, neu tinh cot thep dOL xirng thi lien hanh tinh eho tit eel cac cap r6i i[IOy gia tri lao nhat de bo tri.

Khi d~[ cot thep khong d6i xirng voi rnuc dicb tier kiern cot thep thi viec tinh roan se trc nen phirc tap hon VI irng val mQI cap noi hrc thirong phai tinh mot 56 Ian, CLl sau rnoi Ian lai so sanh ket qua cua cac cap khac nhau de dieu chinh nham dat duoc vice su dung cot thep tMt hop 19, tiet kiern. De tien thea doi cluing ta danh so cac cap noi luc ia i ;:: a, b. c ... , goi CO[ thep phia ben trai ia Al, ben phai Iii. Ap' thir tu cac Ian tfnh iii. j = 1,2 ... Ky hieu cua mot cot thep trong qua trinh tfnh roan Ii AUj hoac Apij' Trong twang hop can phan bier r6 rang cot thep chiu keo boac chiu nen thl e6 the them dau phay eho COl thep chiu nen. thi du, neu ky' hieu A;IJ thi da co ngu y cot thep d6 chac chan iii. chiu nen con

neu kv hieu AllJ ia chung chung. Hinh 2.17 neu mot thi du tier dien duoc tinh voi hai cap noi luc a, b a hai IAn tfnh. Khi can phan bier f6 fang 51.! chill hrc cua cor rhep co the ky hie A' 'A'

l~ll . PJ va . tb :

Vice tinh toan phu thuoc vao cac cap rnomen 13 cung chieu hay khac chieu, tinh to.in theo nen lech tam iOO hay lech tam be.

Lan 1

Lan 2

Hinh 2.17. So do dill (en cot [hip cdc Ian tinh

I

79

2.6.2.2. Truong hap cdc cap m6men cung chieu

Tlnh roan e6t thep khong doi xirng voi cac cap noi life co rnornen cung chieu, truce het tfnh eho Hil ca cac cap va so sinh ket qua. Khi co mot cap nao do cho A( va Ap deu Ian nhat thl di:mg viec tinh toan va I<1y kel qua do d~ chon thep,

Truong hop co cap a cho Alai Ian nhat con mot cap khac, vi du cap b. cho Apbl 16n nhat (trong so cac Api I) thl tiep tuc tinh voi hai cap d6, sau se xu Iy voi cac cap con Iai. Hai cap duoc xet thuong c6 it nha; mot cap duoc tinh theo nen lech tarn Ian.

D~ de theo doi, cho rang cit hai cap deu chin rnornen dirong, Ap dong vai tro cot chiu nen A', A( chiu k60 (hoac nen It). Ket qua tinh Ian thu nhat cho Alai> Albl va A~al < A~bJ

(them dau phay vao Ap d~ n6i rang d6 la cot thep luon luon chiu nen),

a) Truong hap c(ip 0 min lee}: 16m be

CO[ thep cua cap a kh6ng Ih{~ thay doi. chi c6 Ihi thay d6i COl thep cap b (nen Itch lam Ian). Xem lai khi tinh cap b da: dung x bang baa nnieu. Khi dJ Jay x = Sl~ho thi ngi:mg tinh roan va dung ngay At.al va A~bJ d~ chon COl thep, Neu da !ify x < SRhO thl

xoa bo ket qua, tinh lai C?P b nhung van xern nhir tinh Ian thir nhat, voi x = s!{hO' hie nay A~b van Ian nhat thi ngirng tinh toan. con neu lai ph.it hien c6 cap c nao d6 rna A~I !a

Ian hon thi tiep rue Xli Iy voi cap c nhu da lam vci cap b.

b) Truong /I(!P cd hoi cap 0, b deu nen Itch lam 16n.

Tinh c1P a Ian thir hai voi A~J2 = A~bi se duoc gia tri Ala2 < I'\al' So sanh Ala2 voi A( cua cac cap con Iai, neu Aw2 van Jan nhat {hi dung tinh toan va ChQIl CO'l thep thea Ala2 va Ap,,2' Neu phat hien thay co ITlQt cap c nao d6 rna Aiel> Ala2 thi uep rue iinh loan voi cap c nlnr da lam voi cap a.

2.6.2.3. Truong h9"[J ctu: cdp momen khac chilli

Tinh toan COL thep khong dci ximg cho nhieu cap noi luc co momen khac chieu, tnroc het can unh loan cot thep kh6ng doi xirng eho lal ca cac cap.

Khl e6 mQI cap nao do rna ca Al va Ap deu 100 nhi[ thi dirng tinh toano Neu kh6ng c6 cap nao nhu the thl trong cac cap momen cimg chieu chon fa rno: cap dai dien d~ so sanh, Thi du chon duoc cap a chiu mornen duong, cap c chiu rnomen am. Khi rna d. Al va Ap cua cap nay deu Ion han cap kia thl loai bo cap c6 COl thep be, chon m91 C1P khac c6 rnomen cung chieu voi cap co cot thep Ian M tinh toan theo rnuc 2.6.2.2.

80

Khi mil rnoi cap co cot thep 6 mot phla lon hon cua cap kia thi tinh roan thea cac truong hop sau:

a) Truong hop ca hai cap deu nen lech [am be thi dung tinh roan, rnoi phia chon theo cot thep 100 nhat cua phia do.

b) Truong hop mot cap nen I~ch tam 100 (thi du cap a), cap kia nen lech tam be. Chi co the thay d6i cot rhep cua nen lech tam IOn. Khi cot thep chiu keo cua nen lech tam Ion lit be hon rna khi tinh toan da dung x = SR ho thl dirng tinh toano Neu khi tinh toan dung x < ~Rho thi can tang x, tinh lai de giarn cot thep chiu nen va tang cot thep chiu keo. Tuy theo ket qua unh lai nay rna xu IY. dirng tinh roan hcac tfnh voi cap khac,

c) Truong hop mot cap nen lech tam 16"0, cap kia nen lech tam be rna cot thep chill keo cua nen lech tam 100 lai 100 han cot thep cung phfa cua nen lech tam be thi can t[nh lai voi cap nen lech lam 160.

Thi dLJ cap a chiu rnornen duong, nen lech tam 16n, cap c chiu rnornen am nen lech lam be rna:

Tfnh lai Cl)P a ISo thu hai voi A~2 = Ape) se duoc Ala2 < Ala). Tuy theo kei qua tfnh lao hai rna XU [y. khi :·\:t2 van la Jan nhat [rang cac All thi dung tfnh roan. Neu c6 mot elp d nao do rna Atd > . .l"t.l2 thi lai dem cap elY fa de so sanh va tinh lai,

d) Truong hop cit hai cap deu nen lech tam Ian.

Luc nay cac Ian tinh c6 the nhieu hon va lien hanh theo plurong phap tinh lap.

2.6.2.4. Phuong phap tinh ldp

Phuong phap tinh lap (hoac tfnh vong) cho hai cap a. c nen lech tarn krn c6 rnornen khac chieu, cot thep kh6ng dci xt..ing rna trong Ian tfnh thir nhat rn6i cap co cot thep {; mot phia Ian hon eva cap kia, Cot thep (; rnoi phfa 1.1 chiu nen cua cap nay va chill keo cua cap kia. Xet hai tnrong hop sau:

a) Truong hap 1. Cot thep chiu nen 160 non.

Luc nay can xern khi tinh toan dii lily x nhu the 0<10. Nell da lay x = ~Rho thi dirng tinh loan. Nell d5. Lay x < ~Rho thi tang x den ~Rho roi tinh L<_J.i. Sau khi tlnh lai rna cot thep phia chiu nen van IOn han thi dung tinh toan con neu xay ra cot thep chiu keo 100 han [hi nnh tiep theo truong hop 2.

b) Truong IWp 2. Cot thep chiu keo Ian hon.

Thi du cap a chiu m6men duong, Au chiu keo con cap c chiu rnomen am, Ape chiu keo. Xiy ra:

81

I

Tinh Ian thu hai nen bal dau bang cap c6 cot thep chiu keo 100 nhat (thi du AWl> Ap::I) \'8. tinh c61 thep chiu keo (Al,d khi da: chon truce cot thep chiu nen A~2' Ch90 A~'2

nhu sau:

A~JI < A~a2 .::; Apel" Nen chon: A~12 ~ 0,5 (A~I + Ap::I)' Biet col thep chiu nen A~2 tinh ra coi thep chiu keo A,d2, Neu Ala2 < A;cI [hi dimg tinh roan. Viec tinh lap chi lien hanh khi A'~2 > A;cI "

Tinh Ian hai cho cap c bang each chon truce col thep chiu nen A;~'2:::: AlJ2' tinh diroc col thep chiu keo Ape2' So sanh Arc] voi A~a~' Sa do t inh roan mot vong the hien iren hinh 2,18,

f~

I

~}

j

Tinh duoc A~

linn duoc

A..:. ,

Bat.clalC chon A'c;,2

I~

So sanh

Hinh 2,18, So do mot \"(')Jig tinl: Iqp

Neu Ape] > A~2 tiep tuc tinh roan lao thtr ba voi A~~3 duoc chQI1 tnroc [rang khoang A~il.2 < A~a3 .::; Apb2 " V6i A~3 da chon tiep tue t inh roan mot vong m6i cho den khi tim duoc APC3 de so sanh voi A~.l~' Neu ket qua chua duoc nhu mong muon thi tinh tiep vong thtl 4, tlur 5, Tinh nhu the" den vong thir k (co th~ k :::: 2: 3 la du) khi Apc~ co gi<.i tri gan bang AP.lk thi dirng.

82

I

2.6.3. Nhan xet ve phuong phap tinh

Khi can tinh {min cot rhep cho InQ! tiel dien chiu nhieu cap noi hrc khac nhau thi dung phuong phap tinh cot thep doi ximg la dan gian han. Cang don gian hon nCra neu dung diroc ho bieu do luang rae khong thu nguyen.

Viec nnh cot thcp khong doi xirng voi nhieu cap noi luc nham sit dung cot thep mot each tie: kiern, hop Iy trong nhieu truong hop la kha plurc t<;LP va maog tinh ly thuyet nhieu han. De co the van dung trong th!.fc te ner: va can hJ.p cac chuang trinh ph::in mern, SLr dung may tinh.

2.7. TiET DIE?\" co COT THEP DAT THEO CHU Vi

2.7.1. Dai cirong ve viec d~ t cot the p thea eh u vi

Trang nlurng phan triroc day d5. trinh bay each tinh roan cho tnrong hop cot thep chiu luc duoc dat tap trung thea qnh b co dien tich A~, A~ (hoac AI' Ap). Khi canh h la kha 100, theo yeu du cau tao, doc thea canh h do d~! them cot thep doc nhung chi xcm ];1 cot cau tao rna kh6ng ke vao [rang tinh toano

Tie"! dien e6 cot thep d~t theo ehu \'[ til khi cot thep chiu hrc ducc dat phan ra wang doi deu [f1~0 ca canh b Yi'l canh h va th wing dar doi \ung theo

hai true (hinh 1.19). GQi S t \';1 ~: la khoang each giiJa de true thani: CO! thep thea canh b va canh h. Khi dung

de thanh cung duong kinh ~ va 5: .: S2 co rruong hop dat cot thcp deu thea chu vi.

Thuong chi c6 the: di).t cot thep deu

• • • • I a i
I I r I
: 5,
• i
I
. S, b.]
• I !
I
! s, I
• T • 't ' r
I i I ..L___j
I 81 i I I
a $1 I 52 ! 52 al
I I h' i
I , I
I h o

Hinh 2.19. Til;' dien cr5 ,or {liep do f I h eo dill vi

trong [ie-[ dien hinh vuong hoac tier

dien chu nhat rna b.. h. la boi so cua khoang each s. Khi d~t khong deu thi nen tao fa mat do cot thep thea canh b 100 hon thea canh h bang each dung SI < S2 hoac chon duong kinh CO[ thep dat thea canh b 100 hon.

Xet ve mat chiu lire, khi nen lech tam phang [hi viec di).t thep thea chu vi It hieu qua hon so voi viec d~t thep tap trung doc canh b. Tuy vay khi kich thuoc tier dien kha 160, s6 luong cot thep kha nhieu thl viec d~t cot thep rheo chu vi .lam cho [hi cong dan gian hon va kh6ng can dar them cot thep cau tao, Han nira khi CQI co th~ bi uon thea hai phuong thl viec dat thep thea chu vi Ira nen can thiet,

83

2.7.2. SCI do cot thep va SCI do ring suat

Tiet dien c6 kich thuoc b x h trong d6 h la canh song song voi mat phang u6n. Cot thep diroc be tri thanh tirng lop vuong g6c voi canh h LIn hrot c6 dien tich la AI' A2,·· .An trong d6 AI va An la hai lop ngoai cung dat theo ca . .nh b voi Alia cot thep chiu keo hoac nen it hon. An la cot thep chiu nen nhieu. Khoang each tu trong tam cac lap cot rhep den If(;mg tam tiet dien la Yj. Lay dau cua Yi la duong khi cot thep a khac phia voi luc nen N dat lech tam, Yi la am khi a cung phia (so voi trong tam tiet dien). G9i hoi la khoang each tir trong tarn cot thep lap thtr j den mep vung nen. MQi hoi deu duong (hinh 2.20).

De lap sa do ling suat, dung cac co' sa \'a gia thiet da neu 0 muc 1.6. se la thuan tien hon khi thea quan diem bien dang, dung gia thiet tiel dien phang de X3c dinh bien dang £j cua cac lap COl thep, tu £i suy ra ling sua; OJ.

Goi Xo - khoang each nr tfL,1C trung hoa den mep chiu nen; x- chieu cao viing nen tinh doi.

Khi tiet dien c6 mQI phan chiu keo :';C1 < h, lay x = 8h (8 = 0,85).

Khi roan bo tiet dien chiu nen, Xo 2:: h. lay x thea cong thirc (J -22) c6 the tinh loan Ei va Cl"j thea cac cong thirc (1-24) va (1-25).

Tieu chuan TCXDVN 356 - 2005 dua ra cong thirc thuc nghiern dt xac dinh 01;

(2-54)

O~PI - irng suat tnroc trong cot thep. voi cot thep thuong 0~pl = O.

C\c.u - irng sua! gioi han cua CO\ thep (; vung chiu nen, voi cau kien lam [U belong n~ng. belong hat nho, belong nhe gia Ifi 0, diroc l~\y nhu sau:

- Y6i tai trong (} muc 2a cua phu luc liiy 0~c.u = 50MPa

- V oi lai trong 0 muc 2b. lay O"sc.u = -l-OOMPa.

co = a - O.OOSRb

LlY a = 0,85 doi voi betong nang. 0: = 0.8+0,75 doi voi bctong hat nho (xern phu luc 4).

Sj = ~. Chieu cao tuong dci vung cniu nen cua belong. h.,

Theo cong thirc (2-54) tfnh duoc 0"1 > 0 la irng suat keo, OJ < 0 la ling sua! nen, Gia tri cua OJ duoc lay trong gioi han - Rsc :$ °1 $ R~.

84

I

Theo TCXDVN 356 : 2005 neu gia tri 0"1 tinh thea cong thuc (2-54) doi voi cor thep nh6m CrY, AIV. AV, AVL AT VII rna virot qua PR~i thi phai tfnh lai thea chi dan cua lieu chuan (cong thirc 68, dieu 6.2.2.19).

I 11e, N
I
I
I
I
I I
I i
I i
,
cr)., t I I r ~ r I 'j
alAI -.,. I
, a,1\.
I x
I W

I

R,

, I

I ~"'----~: I

: 'f-- _ _:ho<-,-X --jl h. ~ a

ib

i •

O.Sh

O.Sh

h

Hinh 2.20. 50 do ling suor, bien dang va lief dien co cOl thep dijl theo chu vi

85

(2-56)

2.7.3. Cong thirc tinh toan co ban

Sa do irng suat da lap a hinh 2.18 la tong quat do d6 khong can phan bier nen Iech tam la 16n hay be, kh6ng can cac dieu kien x S ~Rho va x 2:: 2a' nhir khi tinh voi tiet dien thong tlurong c6 cot thep d~t tap trung theo canh b.

Lap c6ng thirc hinh chieu:

Cong tlurc mornen:

Hai phuong trinh (2-55) va (2-56) duoc dung dong thai voi phuang trinh (2-54).

Viec vim dung cac c6ng thuc, phuang trinh vira neu de tmh cot thep la kha phirc tap \'J phai chon truce vj trf cac 16p cot thep de xac dinh YI• hoi' _gia thiet guy luat phan bo dien rich cac 16'p cot thcp va thuong phai dung each tfnh gan dung dan. D~ van dung trong thirc teO thi I~p va dung ho bieu do nrong lac kh6ng thu nguyen la thuan lei han ca.

V~ nguyen tfic co the l~p bieu do eho moi twang hop dat cot thep bat kyo IUy \'iIV thong dung han ca Iii truong hop cot thep doi ximg theo hai true. Phuong phap dung bien ~o trung gian x 13. thuan loi.

Lap bieu do cho m91 cau kien cy the khi da biet kich thuoc tiet dien va bo Ir[ cot thep bang each eho x thay doi, ban dau lay x = 0, I h roj tang dim tirng cap eho den x = h. Voi rnoi gia tri x tim diroc mot cap N va M"'. V ai x kha be co the t inh diroc N < O. irng voi rnrong hop keo lech tim. kh6ng dung cac gia tri do. Chi lay so lieu de ve bieu do khi N~O.

Tinh them mQI gja tri mla voi nen dung lam (M* = 0). luc nay N = Rbbh + R"IA,.

Khi e6 xe: den uon doc can dira them he so <p :5 1,

TM du. Ve bieu do urong tac cho tiet dien [; hlnh 2.1 S v6i cac so lieu sau:

b = 400; h = 800mm; 10 = 6m; betong co R, = 14.5MPa; col thep 16 4> 22 co R, = 365MPa; E" = 210.000; a = 40mm. So lieu \'e cot thep ghi [; [rang bang:

K)' hieu AI A2 I A3 A4 /\5 A6 I
Dien rich (mm2) I , I
1520 760 760 I 760 760 1520
I Yi (rnm) 360 216 I 72 -72 -216 -360 I
hoj (mm) 760 616 I 472 328 184 40 I 86

Tinh 0; theo cong {hU'c (2.54) (rang do lay o"<c.u = 400MPa.

0) = a - 0,008 Rb = 0,85 - 0,008 x 14,5 = 0.734.

01 = cr,c.~ (0) -1J = 400. (0,;34 -IJ = 1202( 0.;34 -lJ\

1 _~. ~I 1 _ 0,734 '"l\ '")1

Ll 1,1

D·' I ,. R < < R nh .' .... 6 - < < 36 -

ong ttxn > >,_°1- " Uv<).y-J )_cr~_ )_

so I x ,365 x 3-65 x I 365 x 365 DA34 365 2 -365 I'

~--1--- ... ~I~---4----+----~---r---4----+----+----r---4----+--~

I 365 x I 365 I" 365 DA8S I 365 0.369 ·186 x I -365 I

)60

i

x j

365

x

365 I 0,508 365 O.73! 5 /1.304 -365

-365

240

x

-365

320

0.421 I

365

10.519 365 i 0,678 99 (J,9?5 -297 1.7391 -365

x

~ 560 10.7371 -5 ] 0.9091 -231 U86 .365: " i -365 x -365 x I -365 i

I·----+-----+-~-----'-----'----_+__------'----____,,·-------.......f__--__+----+__--_+_---

: 0.S4~ I -154 : 1.039 -352 j ;< I -365: ~ I -365

640

x

-365

400

0 .. 5261

365

10,649 I 157 10.847 -160 L219 -365 x -365

-J65

x

-365

I

480 ! 0,631 I 196 10.779 i -69 i 1,0171 -334 11.4631 -365 x -365 i x I -365 I

! 0.947; -270 ]1.163 -365 :-; i -3651 x 1-3651

x

-365

x

i

-365 I

I 720

I

800

1.052 I -363 ! 1.~98 I -365 I x I -365 x I -365 I

x

-365

x

-365 I

Chu thich: Nhiing 0 co danl: dd« x khong can tinh toan s' rna co (M !elY 0;' = R,lw(Lc 0; = -Rsc.

! :\ = 1520 i .-\, = 760 Al= 760 I A4 = 760 A, =760 I A~ = 1520 I
I YI = 360 I y~=216 Y.l= 72 YJ = -72 y, = -216 I yr, = - 360
I
x ,
I I
cr:\ ~'~t I cr:\ erAy crA crAy crA crAy c;,-\ crAy cr!\ vAy I
10' 10'; JOr; 10.1 10" 101 10~ rc 1O~ 101 10~ ,
, , I 277 59,8 277 19.9 277 199
) 8Q. 554 ! 199 -19,9 277 -59,8 -554
! J60 554 i 199 277 59.8 277 19.9 277 -19,9 -141 30,4 -554 I 199
I
240 554 199 277 I 59,8 ! 277 I L9.9 4 -0,3 -277 59,.S -554 I ]99
320 554 199 177 I 59,8 i 75 ! 5A -22.5 16,2 -277 59,8 -554 199
i
400 I 554 199 119 25.7 -121 I -8.7 -277 I 19.9 -277 59.8 -554 199 I
480 I 298 L07 i oS:? -It ,2 -253 I -18,2 -277 ! 19.9 I -277 59.3 -554 199 i
i , I
560 ! -7 -2.5 ; -L 75 -37,8 -277 1-19,9 -277 19,9 -277 59.8 -554 199 I
!
640 I -234 -84 -267 -57,6 -277 -19;9 -277 19,9 -277 59,8 -554 199
720 -410 -147 -277 -59,8 -277 -19,9 -277 I 19,9 -277 59,8 -554 199
800 -551 -198 -277 -59.8 -277 -19,9 i -277 19,9 -277 59,.8 -554 I 199 87

I

Rhbx LoA N 0,5R~bx(h-x) ~aAy I M" l
I
x 10' 10' 10-' 106 106 1O~
80 464 1108 -644 167 398 565
160 928 967 -39 297 488 , 785
240 1392 281 llil 389 537 926
320 1856 -150 2006 445 539- 984
400 2320 -556 2876 464 i 495 959
I
480 2784 -11l5 3899 46c I 356 816
560 3248 -1567 4815 389 218 607
640 3712 -1886 5598 297 117 414
720 4176 -2072 6248 188 52 240
800 I 4640 -2213 6853 0 I I 1 Voi M* = 0, CQI chiu nen dung tam. luc nay phai ke den uon doc theo phuong yeu nhat. Ban kinh quan tinh be nhat i = 0.288 x400 = 1 J 5mm

) 1(1 6000 - 2" .... 8 . k' in d

,,= - = -- =) ,.L >.L .can 'e uon oe

i 115 .

<p = I .028 - 0.000028 8 x52,2~ - 0,0016 x 5 2.2 = 0.866

Tinh No theo cong thirc (1-6):

No = c.p(RbAb + R'~A.q)::: 0,866 (14,5 x 400 x SOO + 365 x 60SO) = 5940000 Niu.

L1Y gia If! cua N kh6ng qua 5940 kN.

Trang ket qua tinh roan co 1 56 N < 0, chiu keo lech lam. bo de 56 lieu d6. Utlg voi N = a tinh duoc M* = 790 kNm. Kef qua di ve bieu do ghi trong bang sau:

, N 0 1111 2006 ! 2876 3899 I 4SI':=; I 5598 I 5940 I
I I ,
I
I ~ I 790 926 984 I 95<;1 816 I 607 I 414 I 0 I
M I I
I I
.. ~- 2.7.5. HQ bieu do kh6ng thir nguyen

HQ bieu do duoc lap eho tiet. dien e6 kich thuoc b, h bat k5' va t~1 l¢ cot thcp

)1, = A'I bal kv voi A-I la dien tfch toan bo cot thep doc.

. bh J .,. • .

Tuy \'~y can du kien b6 If! de lop e61 thep de xac dinh cac gia tri o = ~. 'y. == hOI . ~ = Yi Dien tfch moi lap' co: thep ia A = k, A = u.bh voi ).I.. = k-u

h I h' 1---'1 h' . I I <I I 1 I. ~.

4

Nhu each the hien tren hlnh 2-18 thl A'I = 16~; A I = A6 = 4~ do d6 k I = k6 == 16 == 0,25

88

I

Dat:

8M p_ ::: ~. Duns cons thue (2-54) bien doi thanh:

. 'R ~ ~

b

(J ( ,., \

,c_ U I '-'J J

p, ::: (' '\ r ~Yi -1

R l-~I\-' /

b 1 1 .'

, /

l'o ' I "R R,

u6ngl101-~'::;PI'::;-

~ R, Rb

Dung e6ng tlnrc (2-55) va (2-56) bien doi thanh:

n = ~ - L:PI).1i

m = 0,5~( I - ~) +I:P,).lIP,

(2-57)

(2-58)

v oi de giJ. tri ~ kha be tinh ra duoc n < O. Bo qua de gin tri do. Lrng voi ~ ::: I. tinh theo ncn dung tarn, rn ::: 0 va n = 1 -i- ~'c ).1"

b

Moi bieu do duoc lap voi mot kieu b6 trf cot thep the hien qua cac he so k, va de thong so' 0; R,: Rb. Voi & da co se tinh fa de gia tri YI; Pi' Voi mQI gia tri J-l" da chon eho ~ thay doi nrng cap se tinh roan va ve duoc mot bieu do. Cho u, de gia If! khac nhau se co mot ho bieu do. Hinh 2.21 gioi thieu mot ho bieu do nhir vay.

Van dung ho bieu do c6 the M kiem tra kha nang chiu hrc hoac de tinh toan cot thep. Trang cac bai roan kiern tra thl khi biet lleo can tim luc N la kha pho bien trong viec tinh roan cau kien chiu nen itch tam xien se trlnh bay a chuang 5. Thi du thea hinh

2.2 L tier dien c6 ).1, = 0,01 = 1 %. Voi tg8::: 'leI) = 0,25, tim N?

. h

Ke duong xien g6c 8 rna 198 = 0.15 voi clui y ty l~ tren hai true la khac nhau. Gia tri 0.25 la ty l~ gilb lung do va hoanh do, Duong xien cat bieu do co ).1, = 1% tai diem P. giong xuong tim (hay n = 0,65 tu do tinh duoc N = nRbbh.

De tinh loan cot thep, tu n va rn tlrn dUQ'C diem K narn giila hai duong voi ).l~ cho truce. NQi suy duoc )l~ can thiet va tinh:

89

(2-59)

°F~-----,---

I

0,1

R,= 250MPa R,= 9MPa

0.2

0.4

0.6

0,8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Hinh 2.2l. flo hidil do I/rmlR uic kj;"lIg IM( nfWW:1I cua fiei die» co cot thep da: /!jeo ch u n

Tlti dJ.I.

Tier dien b ~ 400mm, h ~ 600mm, belong co Rb = 9; cot thep co R, = 260MPa.

N = 2000kN~ M = 3-W kNm. Chieu dai tinh toan cua C9t /0 = SAm. Yeu cau tinh roan col thep dat theo chu vi.

G· , ., 0 <.:: a 40 1

la thiet: a = 4 mm, u = - == - == -

h 600 15

Xet uon dOC:

J == bh3 = 400 x 6003 = 72x lO~mm2

12 12

ung voi Ro = 9 c6 Eo = 24000MPa.

N = 2,5£oJ _ 2,Sx 24000x 72 x lOs:: 14800x ]03 Niu

th (2 54002 o

90

1

1"] ;;: N;;: 2000 = t.I 5

1--'- 1-~-

Nll1 14800

M 3-m 0 - 170 D t h - nhi

e I x: - = --" = .11 m = mm . 0 ec tam ngau len eo·

N 2000 . . ~

(l5400 600J 0 r»: ki ' . . inh () 170

e.l ~ --:- = 2 mrn . Cau - en thuoc ket cau sieu ( f'~ = max el, eo = mm.

600 30 .. ~ w

lleo = US x OJ 7 = 0, 195m = ! 95mm

n = ~= 2000 x 1000 =0,926 Rbbh 9x400x600

m;;: Nlleo = 2000000 x 19S = 0 301

Rbbh~ 9x400x6002 '

1 Du kien dung 14 thanh cot thep d~lt theo chu vi nhu tren hln h 2.21. V oi 0::: 15 ;

R, = 260: R .... = 9. tra bieu do voi n = 0,926; m = 0.301 co diroc diem K Dam giua hai bieu do voi u, = 0.025 va 0.03. l\1)1 suy co /l, = 0,028.

J

A,\ = 0,028 x 400 x 600 = 6720mm-

B6 tri 1-.+ thanh, dien tich mot thanh: 6720 = 480mm2 . Chon dung cot thep J..25 co

. 14 . ~

dien t ich 491mm1 (hinh 2.23).

Chii y ring ho biiu do a h inh 2.21 mang nhieu tinh nrong tnmg, chua du do chinh xac de dung cho thiet ke thuc Ie. 6 phu luc 9 eho mot so bieu do co the dung duoc,

2.7.6. Phuong phap gan dung xac dinh N

Khi bier do lech tam Tjea can xac dinh N rna kh6ng c6 bieu do tuong tac phu hop de dung thi co the tinh roan nhu sau:

Tinh uoc chimg chieu cao vung nen x theo cong thtrc (2-60):

x = (0. Sh -llea) + (0. Sh _ ne )2 + 0, SR"As\ (h - 2a) aRb

b

(2-60)

X2 ::: X + a~h. Gia tri ai' Cl.z l<fy phu thuoc vao ty s6 x/h thea bang sau:

91

I

X/h ::;0,.1 0,1 -;- 0,2 0,2-;-0,3 0,3-;-0,4 0,4-;-0,5 0,5-;-0.61°,6-;-0,7 0,7-;-0,8 ! 0.8-;-0,9 :::: 0,9
0.1 0,05 ° -0,05 -0,1 ! -0.15 I -0,2 -0,25 i -0.3 -0,35
uJ i
I
u2 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,05 ° I -0,05 -,0,10 I -0.15 -0,2 ling voi moi x da chon, tinh roan 0'1 cua cac lap cot thep thea cong thirc (2-54), Til do tinh hat gia tri cua N la N I va N2, Tinh N I thea cong thuc (2-55) da 14p:

NJ = Rbbx - L:a,Aj Tinh N2 thea cong tlnrc (2-61) nit fa tir (2-56):

N? = M' = O,5Rbbx(h-x)-'- IO',A,Y,

- Tjeo Tleo

(2-61 )

Voi hai gia tri x lim duoc hai cap N1, N2 nhu v~y. Ghi ket qua \'110 bang sau:

X xl X2
NI NIJ I NI2
N2 N21 N22 C6 the xac dinh \' gao dung baog do thi hoac bing rinh roan. Vc d6 Ih! N! \'a N~ thea .\. Diem cat nhau cua hai d6 thi eho bier gia If! CUJ :-< (hinh 2.22).

Vai hai gia rri cua x nhu da chon kha nang hai do thi N I va N1 cat nhau la rat JOn, Neu cluing van chua cat nhau ihi can phan doan de chon them mot gia Ifi x rnoi ngoai hai gia If! da: co,

Ciing co the lap cong tlurc de tinh roan N dua tren cac s6 ! ieu N I' N2 da co, Tnroc hel can bier khoang xj. x).;_ rna trong khoang do hai do thi cat nhau, Tieu chi de nhan bier Ji :

N2j < Nlj trong khi N2k < Nlk (noac ngucc l';1i),

, N,. N,

N,

L- ' x

s;

x

Htnh 2.22. Do' thi xac dinh gio It! N

92

(2-62)

I

Thirc chat ella phuong phap vua trinh bay cling 1a phuong phap ve bieu do nrong tac nlurng khong ve loan bo bieu do rna chi tinh toan cho mot dean voi hai diem. Tinh chat gan dung (; cong thirc (2-62) la xern a trong doan dang xet sir thay dci cua Nj va N2 thea guy luat duong thang.

Thi duo Lay ket qua ella thi du a rnuc 2.7.5. Yeu cau xac dinh lire N khi eha T]eo = 19Smm: Rb = 9: R, = 260MPa.

Tier dien the hien tren hinh 2.~3. Cac so lieu ve col thep dung de tinh {OaO ghi (;

bang sau:
Ky hieu Ctfulao Dien uch Y1 ZI
.-\1 4!f!25 19M 260 560 !
I
A., 2!f!25 982 130 I 430
I
A·· 2¢2S 982 0 I 300
I
) I
A 2<p2S 982 -130 I 170
.j.
..1,5 4¢25 1964 -260 I 40

A'I z: LA, = 14¢25 ::: 687 4rnm:. 7.," 560

z~" 30G .. '

170

• I

• I

Hiuh 2.23. Tiel dien ddt thep theo chu vi

'!Qj

I

40

600

Tinh x thea e6ng thirc (2-60):

I '"" ~ O.8x260x6874x520

x = (300 - 195) + \1 (.)00 - 195t + = 570mm

9x400

x 570 0 95 L' h' "' . > I' -

- = -:::, . av at gla tn cua x a Xl va X1

h 600 •. "

93

I

(J

(J.

XI ::;: X + alh voi 0.1::;: - 0,35: XI::;: 570 - 0,35 x 600::;: 360mm x2::;: X + ~h::;: 570 - 0,2 x 600::;: 450mm

Tinh cri theo cong thtrc (2.54) voi ro ::;: 0,85 - Q,008x9 ::;: 0,778

0"1 = cr~~.u (5!!.__ -1)= 40~ (0,778 -1)=1366(°,778 -1)

1-~ ~i 1- 0, 178 ~I ~i

1.1 1,1

,~ - x D" h" R < < R rc l; 260 < < ')60

~I - h' ong t OJ - s - O"j - ~, We a. - _ 0"1 - - .

'"

Lop cot thep

I I I , -I I
I J I I I
AI' h[)'l= 560 0.643 260 0.803 i -42 i
I 0.837 -97 1 1.0-1-6 ! -260 !
(\2' h01 = 430 I i
A1• h03 = 300 1.0 -260 I 1.433 -260 I
i\ ... 1104 ::;: 170 2,11 -260 I 2.53 ~260 i
A", ho,"\ =-40 I 9.0 , -260 I 10.75 -260
I Ket qua t inh to.in \"e luc:

.-~-~
AI == J964 A1 == 982 A., == 981 I :-\." = 982 A. == J ')64 !
I I
Y: == 160 Y2 == 130 )', == 0 1 v, == ~130 y, = -260
x i I I
aA (JAy aA r (JAy i a.-\ I 0.--\\' aA aAy a.-\ aAy
10' 10" 10' IO~ I 10' 10" 10' IO~ 10' 10"
360 510 132,6 -95 I -12,3 I -255 0 I -255 33.1 -510 ! 132,6
I I i
! .+50 ~82.5 -21 .. -+ -255 I -3.3.1 ! -255 0 -255 I 33,1 I -510 132,6
I
- N, = i\f == O.5Rbbx(b - xl + I O",AiY,

- l1e() llC()

360 UJ

1901

226-1-

i

450 (K)

I

2977

J 193

I i

N = ~1/N2K -N2j)-l\'2/NIK -NI_1) Nlj+N2K -N2j-NIK

94

N == L901(1193-226'+)-2264(1977-1901) = 20 83k."<' 1901..,-1193 - 2264 - 2977

Chi chu: Truong hr;p c6 bieu do' tuong lac thi viec xac dinli tV se- d()'11 gian Ii 011. Bfell do' pill) hop co cdc !/tollg s6' sail: Rh == 9.

R ? 60 \ ·fP a 40 1 , . . b d b .' 'h' h - J ' d '

::0 _ !V a: - = - == -. cot Ihep zorn 14<1'1 lWC 0 tn t an ,) l<lng trong: 0

, h 600 15 ~ 't'. ~ ~

hang tlur nhat (A I) va bang thu 5 (A~) co 4 ~, de hang khac c6 l@. HQ bieu do 0 hlnh 2.21 co cac thong so phu hop nhu vay.

Gia thtr bieu do d hinh 2.21 co duoc do chinh xac can thiet thi each tim gia tri N nlur "au:

~\ 687-+

~t = ~ x: == 0.0286 = 2.86%

, bh 400x 600

ne 195

tg8=-_o =~=O.325

'- h 600

K~ duong xien gee voi tg6 :;: 0.325 gap de bieu d6:

V6i ,LL, :::: 0.025 tim throe n :;: 0.S7

u. = 0.030 lim diroc n = 0.98 ~Q! suy. voi fJ., =: 0.0286 e6 n = 0.94

N = n.Rbbh =: 0.94 x 9 x 400 x 600 =: 2030000 N:::: 2030kN

Ket qua co sai so so voi [fob to.in (sai so do unh toan gan dung va do do chinh xac ella bieu do).

95

Chuang 3

TIET D~N CRa T vA CRa I

3.1. DAI CUONG VE TIET DrtN CHUT

. Tiet dien chir T gem co canh va siren (hinh 3,1) voi ki hieu cac kfeh thuoc nhu tren hinh ve.

a" .. ac - khoang each nr trong tam cot thep Aw. A, den mep tiel dien gan nhat.

Za = h - aw - ac - khoang each giua trong tam A", va Ac

I - diem giua cua liet dien, each deu hai rnep mot doan 0.5h;

G - trong lam hinh hoc cua tier dien,

Tiet dien e6 mot true doi xung. Momen u6n [<ie dung irong mar phang chua true doi xirng do.

b - be rong SU"On.:

B - be rong canh:

c - be day (chien eao) canh:

h - chieu eao liel dien (trong phuong mat phang uon):

Aw. Ac - dien tich cot thep dat tap trung (; phan siren (thee canh b) \'a a pharr canh (theo eanh B);

b

I I •
I v
A../ ~ Ii ¥G ~Ac
"-J ~ B
/
I ,
I 1 I
I I V
i ,
W L_g_
I
I y,,! I Yo
r I
h Hinh 3,1, Tiei di¢1I chit T

Tiet dien chir T thtrong g~p la tiet dien cua vorn voi earth la phan \'0 due lien khoi vrri suon. Trong khung cua kit cau nha, cot co tiet dien chtr T co th~ gap trong mot so truong hQP dac bier, hoac la CQI doc lap khi can rna rong ra hai ben, hoac C¢I duac due lien voi IUOng ella vach cirng, 16i cirng.

. Truong hQP c91 doc lap thl be rong B duoc cau lao trong mQI pharn vi gioi han nao do con khi cot diroc due lien voi urong thi be rong cua 1U00g co lh~ ia kha J6'n, luc nay de lay B dua vao trong tinh toan can co mot han che nao do,

96

B:: h ~ 2v

v oi dam {iet dien ehii T dii e6 nhirng quy dinh ve dQ vuon ella canh v diroc ghi trong de lieu chuan thiet ke. Dei voi cot co {iet dien chir T cac tieu chuan con it de cap den, Sau day dua ra mot vai gioi han e6 tinh chat [ham khao, do tac gia de nghi,

Lay v S; ~ chieu cao cua cot, dong thai:

. 8 .-

Khi c ;::: 0,15h lay v:'S; 4e.

0.1 h ::; c < 0.15h lay v :'S; 3e. 0,05h < c ::; 0.1 h lay v s; 2e. e :'S; 0,05h Iffy v S; c.

Dien tich tiel dien clur T la Af

Trong tam hloh hoc cua tiet dien G each rnep canh mot doan Yc va each rnep SLICtn. mQI doan Yw'

a.Sbll2 +a.5(B-b)e~

v =0

. ~

A T

(3-1)

v ::b-y

~ \\ ... 1.,..'

TrQT1g tarn G each dierr: giiia cua tiet dien I mot doan til d:

d = O.5h - Y«

(3-2)

Mornen qU3.T1 tinh cua tiel dien Lly doi voi true di qua trong tarn G va vuong goc voi canh h Iii:

b ~ , (B-b)cJ ~ J

J = -(VI'"", y;.) + +(B - b)c(vc -O.)Cr

3 . ~ 12 '"

Ban kinh quan tinh i va dQ manh )~:

i~ fT . A=~

{A:; , i

(3-3)

(3-4)

3.2. Nor LLTC vA DIED Kl~N riNH ToAN

3.2.1. NQi life

NQi life de tinh toan tiet dien ehil T cilng gam life nen N va rnomen uon M nhung 6 day can chii y rnornen M da duoc lay thea true nao, true di qua diem I hay true di qua diem G (hinh 3.2),

97

I

GQi Mj - mornen uon doi voi true qua I.

MG - m6men u6n d6i voi true qua G.

(3-5)

1M,

. j I

IN ~M~=M -Nd , t' ~ I

'- __ \ GI I I

I

Hinh 3.2." N(Ji luc d{ tinh lit;1 dien chii T

Trang cong thirc (3-5) lay dau (+) khi mornen lam cho earth chiu keo, dau (-) khi morncn Jam eho canb chiu nen.

Trong klu tinh toan ke; cau va 10 hop noi luc can chu Y' Ia cac rnornen da duoc tlnh theo true qua I hoac qua G.

Khi chuyen momen Ill' Mj sang Me-; Ihl c6 the :;;iy ra Iii. Mj va 1'\'1(; cung chieu hoac kh.ic c hieu (M j la duong nbung Me-; Iii am). Thong [huang. kh i M j \'3. \ 1(; cung chieu 111 j [fang tinh roan. du tinh voi MJ hay Me; cling khong co gl khac bier. clu do tfnh dung gi<i If! do lech tam e va e' (e va e' khong thay doi khi tinh voi Mj hoac Me). Khi Mj \'a Me; khac chieu thi phai dao nguqc phep tinh VI neu ISy theo chieu M, (gia thir la momcn duong) thi canh chiu nen can thea chieu MG (m6men am) canh tro thanh chiu keo.

D¢ lech lam iinh hQC:

(3-6a)

06 lech tam ban diu eo: cau kien tinh dinh:

. .

cau kien sieu tinh:

(3-6b)

Voi e~ 13. db lech lam ngau nhien (xern rnuc J -5.2).

Khi xet anh huang cua uon doc, do lech tam tLr eo tang len thanh TWo voi 1"[ ;:: 1 duoc xac dinh theo muc 1-5-3.

, _

Khi A = I? :5 28 be, qua u60 doc. lay T] = 1. v oi I. > 28 can tinh J thea cong tlurc (3- 1

3) tfnh Nih theo cong tlurc (1.14) hoac (1.16) tlnh T] theo (l.ll).-

98

I

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