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Тохтасьев_Sauromatae-Syrmatae-Sarmatae

Тохтасьев_Sauromatae-Syrmatae-Sarmatae

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Published by serge57
херсонесский сборник, 14, 2005
херсонесский сборник, 14, 2005

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Published by: serge57 on May 30, 2010
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08/07/2010

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XepcooeccKBii: c60plUlK.

BbmyCK 14 Ik

c.P. TOXT ACbEB

SAUROMATAE - SARMATAE - SYRMATAE

Ilepsoe npHBH3aHHoe I{ XpOHOJlOrHH ynoMHHaHHe caspoxaros HaXO,ll;HM y Ieponora B paccxase 0 CKH$cKOM noxone ,lI;apHH I (Iv, 120,2 H np.). Ieorpadraxecxae paaaensr ero KHHrn naior nse pasmrsaromaeca JlOKaJlH3aIUrn CaBpOMaTOB, BOCXO,WI:m;He, OqeBH,ll,HO, I{ pa3HbIM If, MO)l(er 6LlTh, pa3HOBpeMeHHhlM HCTOqHHl{aM: cpasy sa Taaaacosr, Ha cenep, Ha<IHHaH OT cassoro ztansaero (T. e. cesepaoro) yrrra MeoTIf.LU>I no 3eMJIH 6y.ll.HHOB (rv, 21; aHaJIOrH'IHO, HO MeHee KOHKpemo - 57); aa 3eMID1X, OTCTOHm;HX OT Taaaaca aa 'PH.ll.HH nym I{ BOCTOKY H OT MeOTH,lJ;bI na 'PH.ll.HH I¥H I{ cesepy (116, 1)1. I10 BceH BH,ll,HMOCTH, I{ Teponory BOCXO,z:vrr CBe,ll,eHHH I1oMnoHHH Menu I, 14: ad Tanain Sauromatae'.

B rHIIIIOKparoBcKOM COqHHeHHH TI£pt aipwv 'U3a:twv 't01tCOV, 17 (.f\)£I~£($tV' HaIIHCaHHOM HeCKOJlbKO rroasce KHHrn Teponora, casposrarsr 06HTaroT «B Espone» (T. e. sanaaaee MeoTIf.LU>I: 0 rpaaaue MaTepHKOB CM. rJI. 13) H «OKOJlO osepa Meoraasr»: tv ~£ 'tn EupcOnTI to't1. v £aVOC; 2:1Cu8t1COV, 0 n£p1. 'tTJV Ai.P.VTJV OiK££1. 'tTJV Matco't1.v3. BnOJlHe B03MO)l(HO, pe'Ib H,ll,er JIHIIIb 0 paiioaax, npHMhlKIDOm;HX I{ ztensre TaHaHCa; cp, Diod. II, 43, 6: asrcenemnae cKH<paMH H3 MH,ll,HH, caspossarsr nocemnorca «no Taaaacys - napa. 'tov Tava'iv, 6e3 yroqHeHHH, B KaKOH HMeHHO qaCTH csera; HO y I1rrHHIDI n. h. VI, 19, r,ll,e npencraaneaa Ta )l(e TPa,z:uw.IDI, rrpHMO CKa3aHO 0 nensre: Tanain amnem gemino ore influentem incolunt Sarmatae, Medorum, ut ferunt, suboles. Jrn capaarsr, no I1Jnmmo, «paaaeneasr aa MHoro IIJIeMeH», H 0)l;HHM H3 HHX HBmnoTCH Sauromatae Gynaecocratumenoe (cp. Ps. -Scyl. 70 sq.), IIpoH3011Ie,ZUIIHe OT aMa30HOK (sepcaa Teponora)'.

3<pop (t OKOJlO 330 n) B OIIHcaHHH EBPOIIhl «BIIJIOTh,ll,O CKH<pOB» (n£pto~£uoac; 't1)v EupronTJv p.EXpt 2:1CUSroV, Strab. VII, 3,9 = Jacoby F. (ed.). Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, 70. F 42) conocTaBJIHJI apassr CKH¢oB H CaBpOMaTOB, HO sro erne HH'Iero He rOBOpHT 0 JlOKaJlH3aIUrn nOCJIe,ll,HHX. 3aTo H3aMaTOB, 1{0TOPhlX aaraxasre asropsr pasaoro BpeMeHH nOMem;aIOT B I1pHa30Bbe - I1pHKY6am.e5, OH CqHTaJI «aaponoa caspoxraros» (F 160; TeKCT CM. HH)l(e); TaKHM 06Pa30M, no ero

npe,ll,CTaBJIeHHHM, CaBpOMaThl (BO BCHKOM cnyxae xacrs ox) )I(HJIH B A3HH.

CBe.n.eHHH COCTaBJIeHHoro OKOJlO 361-357 rr.6 nepanna I1ceB,ll,O-CI{HJlaKa 0 MecTo06HTaHHH caBpOMaTOB (§ 70) He OTJlHqaIOTCH OT reponoroscxax B rJI. 2P, a B Espone y TaHaHCa )l(HB)'T HeKHe 2:upp.a'tat (68), ynosorayrare erne Pa3 y 3B,ll,OKCa (apud St. B., fro 277 Lasserre) C roH)I(e JlOKaJlH3aU;HeH. I1pe,ll,nOJlQ)KHM, qTO nanasre I1ceB,ll,O-CKHJlaKa 0 casposrarax ztpeaaee rHnnOKpaTOBCKHX. O,ll,HaKO CTOJlb paHHHH JlOKaJIH3au;HH caspouaroa I{ sanany OT Meoransr npornaopexar BceMY, qTO Mhl 3HaeM 06 arnoreorparp aa CI{H<pHH xax no ,ll,pyrHM nareparypnsne HCTOqHMKaM, Tal{ H no ,ll,aHHbIM apXeoJIOrHH. Csopee scero, asrop °I1H1KfaTa IIepi aipcovnOMecTHJI caaposraros B EBPOrry no oUIH6Ke:

CKH<phl y Hero aoofime eaponeiicrore )I(HTeJIH (18),

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a TaK KaK CaBPOMaTbI - «cKH<pcKHii aapon», OHM H

OKa3aJIHCb nepesrenrensr B EBPOrry. Kpoxre roro, 60Jlee qeM sepoarao, qTO asrop 6hlJ1 3HaKOM C nereaaoii, rrossemaarueti npapoznray caapoxaroa n06J1H30CTH OT rpesecxoro ropona Kpeuasr aa «eBponeHCI{OM» 6epery MeOTH,ll,bI B crpaae «CBOOO,ll,HbIX (T. e. «uapcxax») CKH<P0B» (Hdt. rv, 110 sqq.)", H He ynosraaaer aMa30HOI{ TOJIhKO no npH'IHHe cyryfio aay-nroro xapaxrepa csoero COqHHeHHH. OTCIO,ll,a «esponeiicxas» JIOKaJIH3au;HH caapoaaros.

o )I(JfB)'IUHX no T aHaHCY capssarax roBOpHT B aaxane OIIHCaHHH «A3HID> I1ceB,ll,o-CKHMH (875 sqq. Diller),' qepnaBllIHH, B03MO)l(HO, H3,l1;eMerpHH KaJIJIaTHHCKOro (IIHCaJI B CaMOM KOHI..J;e III B.9), aa xoroporo OH ryT )l(e CCbIJIaeTCH (Jacoby, Fragmente ... , 85. F 1) no sorrpocy 06 3THOce H3aMaTOB:

'tOV Tava'iv. oo<'ttC;> Eood 't'iic; 'Aoice; oPOC;. 'tEP.VWV -cte» 't1)v 1ln£tpOV ha'tEpav ~1.xa. npOO'to1. VEP.OV'tat fupp.a'tat. ~tOx1.Ata o'ta~t' EnEX0V't£C;· ei'ta Matw'trov yho<; 'Ia~up.u'trov A£y0P.£vov. roc; ATJP. 1l'tPtoC; £1PTJ1C£v. roc; "Boopo; ~E (F 160). LUUPOP.U'trov l8voC;

291

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«TaHaHC, KaI<OBOH 1IBIDIeI'CH rpaJIHQeH A:3HH, pa3,lJ;eJIHH, C06CTBeHHO, 06a MaTepHKa nansoe, nepBblMH (SC. B A3HH) HaCemIIOT capsrarsr, 3aHHMM (npOCTPaHCTBO) B 2000 CTa,IJ;HeB; sarea - nJIeMH_ ~~, Ha3b1BaeMOe H3aMaTaMH, MeoTc~no CJIOBaM ,n:eMeTpHH, a no CJIOBaM 3<ilopa - aapon caBpOMaTOB». «3aTeM» CBH3b1BalO~ee coofimeaae 0 capsrarax H 0 jlJaMaTax C03,lJ;aeT nOJIHoe snesarneaae TOro, qTO ,n:eMeTpHlO 6bIJI 3HaKOM H nepBblH 3THOHHM, HO CBH3b 3Ta Morna B03HHKH)'Tb H B pesynsrare KOMnHJIHUHOHHOH paOOTbI asropa nepanna. C ,llpyroH cropoasr, HCHO, srro ,n:eMerpHii, aBTOp .KHHI'H «06 A3HH H Espone», aenpeveaao ,lJ;OJDKeH 6bIJI nO,l1;p06Ho rracars 0 TOM, KaKOH napozi )KJfJI no TaHaHCY, pa3,lJ;eJIH1O~eMY MaTepHKH, a IlceanoCKHMH rOBOpHT 0 capsearax, OnHpMCb He aa KaKHeTO 06~eH3BeCTHble <ilaKTbI, HO, pacnonaras TOqHblMH CBe,lJ;eHHHMH 0 paauepax CTpaHbI capsraroa, H, TaKHM 06pa30M, B3HJI HX H3 COBepweHHO KOHKpernoro HCTOqHHKa.

Bo BCHKOM cnyxae, eCJIH OTBJIeqbCH OT aarrpanranasomeiica ,lJ;Ora,lJ;KH, qTO tapJ.Hi"C(u nOCTaBJIeHO BMeCTO LaupoJ.ui"Cat no Merpl{qecKHM COO 6p IDK eHHHM 10, HCTOqHHK nepanna IlcesnoCKHMHa 3HaqHTeJIbHO ztpenaee BpeMeHH ero COCTaBJIeHHH (OKOJIO 110 r. ,lJ;0 H.3.), TaK KaK IIoJIH6Hii (XXVI, 6,13) npa H3JIO)l(eHHH c06bITHH 179 r. ,lJ;0 H.3. mmrer yzce 0 tapJ.tCuat B «Espone»!', a no apxeonorn-recxasr ,lJ;aHHblM aKTHBHoe 3aCeJIeHHe capaarasor creneii K sarrany OT ,n:oHa HaqHHaeTCH aa nOJIBeKa ,lJ;0 IlceanoCKHMHa (CM. HH)I(e). CooTBeTcTBeHHo K npenmecrayromeay BpeMeHH OTHOCHTCH H co6b1THH, 0 KOTOpbIX coofimaer .LI:HO,lJ;0P (II, 43, 7), nHCaBwHH B nOCJIe,lJ;HeH -rereep'ra I B. ,lJ;0 H.3.: caspoaarsr, noceneaaue cKH<ilaMH y T anaaca, CnyCTH MHOro JIeT «C,lJ;eJIaBWHCb CHJIbHee» (qeM CKH<ilbl), «OnyCTOWHJIH 6oJIbwyIO xacrs CKH<ilHH (noAATtV "Cfj~ LKUeia~) a, nOJIHOCThIO HC1J>e6AAH (apol')v a.vatpouV"Ca~) n06e)l(,lJ;eHHbIX B BOHHe, C,lJ;eJIaJIH nyCThIHeH 6ynbwyIO xacrs crpaasr ("Co nA£lcr'tov ).lepo~ 'tfj~ xc'opa~)>>. Craaaaprasre pnropaxecxae BblpIDKeHHH, co spexea Foprna npHMeHHeMble ,lJ;JIH rHnep60JIH3aUHH H reaepanasauaa (<<6ynbwyIO -racrs», «nOJIHOCThIO acrpefinas»), nozrrepxayrsre nJIeoHaCTHqecKHM noeropou O,lJ;HOrO H Toro )l(e B aaxane (<<OnyCTOWHJIH ... ») H B KOHUe <ilPa3bI (<<C,lJ;eJIaJIH nyCThIHeH ... »)12, MOrJIH 6bI Bbl3bIBaTb COMHeHHH B ,lJ;OCTOBepHOCTH ,lJ;eTaJIeH co06~eHHH, eCJIH 6bI He CBH,lJ;eTe.JIbCTBa apxeonoraa 0 no-rm nOJIHOH rH6eJIH CKH<ilCKOH KYJIbryPbI CTenHOH H necocrerraoii 30H Cesepaoro IIPl{qepHOMOPMI aa

py6eJKe N /III HJIH B nepssre ,lJ;Ba ,lJ;ecHTHJIeTWI III B. ,lJ;0 H.3., qTO, KaK CqHTaeT 60JIbWHHCTBO CneUHaJIHCTOB, B TOH HJIH HHOH creneaa CBH3aHO C HaweCTBHeM KOqeBHHKOB C BOCTOKa, KOTOPhIX apXeOJIOrH no 06b1KHOBeHHIO HMeHYIOT capMaTaMH!3. CTPOKH xepcoaeccxoro ztespera IPE P 343, rne 1O.r. BHHOrpMOB (CM. npHM. 13)

. paCn03HaJI HMH capuaroa (~~p).la'tav, CTK. 15), CHJIbHO <ilparMeHTHpoBaHbI KaK paa B caMOM HHTepeCHOM Mecre, HO OCHOBHble 3aKJI1OqeHHH HCCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIH He BbI3bmaIOT COMHeHHii: Ha,lJ;ITHCb ztarapyerca nepnoji xeraep-rsro III B. HJIH, KOHKpernee, OKOJIO 280 r., ynosoraaaae capaaros MO)I(eT 6b1Th o6MlcHeHo TOJIbKO nOHBJIeHHeM HX aa reppHTOpHH 6b1BWeH CKH<ilHH, BepoHTHO, H Kpsnra, if TO CMblKaeTCH co CBH,lJ;eTeJIbCTBaMH apXeOJIOrHH H BMeCTe C HHMH zraer XpOHOJIO~ecKY1O npHB.lI3KY paccxasa .LI:HO,lJ;opa, a 3aO,lJ;H0 yxassmaer; qTO OH HCnOJIb3YeT TepMHH «caspouarsr» JIHWb no Lpa,lJ;HUHH, B xaxecrse apxaH3HpY1OIIIero CHHOHHMa BMeCTO noaoro tap).lCt"Cat (cp. HIDKe).

IIpHBe,lJ;eHHoe MeCTO y II0JIH6HH ztaer cauoe PaHH~ep,lJ;O ,lJ;anrpOBaHHoe ynOMHHaHHe cassoro TepMHHa tap).lCt"Cat B mrreparype. Ilpaazra, aexoropsre HCCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIH cqHTaIOT, qTO snepsue OH n01IBIDleTCH B KHHre <l>eo<ilpacTa (t 285 r.) «0 MeH.lIIOIIIHX oxp acxy ()I(HBOTHbIX)>>. Kpoue OT,lJ;eJIbHbIX CCbIDOK, UHTaT H rrepenoaceaaa, OHa H3BecTHaJIHWb B perpepare <l>0TH.lI (Bibl. Cod. 278, p. 525a, 36): TapaH.IJ:P BO,lJ;HTCH, «KaK roBOP.lIT, y CKH<ilOB HJIH capaaros» - tv LKUeat~ qxx.crtv 11 tap).lCt't<Xt~ (fr. 172, 1 Wimmer). Ho yace CaMO no ce6e crpamroe «HJ!ID> BbI3bIBaeT COMHeHHH B TOM, CTOHJIO JIH Lap).lCt'tat~ B TeKCTe cajaoro <l>eo<ilpaCTa. JJ:pyme aHTHqRble asropsr, CBe,lJ;eHHH KOTOPbIX 0 TapaH.IJ:Pe BOCXO,lJ;.lIT K <l>eo<ilpaczy1\ capnaros He ynoMHHa1OT; 60JIee Toro, BnOJIHe onpeneneano asracaserca, -rro ,lJ;HKOBHIIHbIH saeps BO,lJ;HJIC.lI, c06CTBeHHO, ,lJ;IDKe He noofime B CKH<ilHH (KaK Plin. n. h. VIII, 123 sq.: Scytharum tarandrus; Ael. n. an. II, 16: CKH<ilbI 06TImmaIOT ero KO)I(eH ~HTbI), a xoaxperao <<y CKH<ilOB, aassrsaeasrx reJIOHaMID>: tv Of LK'beat~ "Cot~ KaAOU).l£Vot~ r£ArovOt~ (Ps.-Aristot. 8avJ.l. aJeovcrJ.l. 30, p. 832 b 7; TO )l(e - Philo, de ebr. 174). Fenoasr )l(e, cornacno Teponory (lY, 108 sq.; cp. Mela I, 116), )l(HJIH aa reppnropaa 6Y,lJ;HHOB, C KOTOphIMH HenOCpe,lJ;CTBeHHO rpaHHqHJIH CaBpOMaTbI (rn. 21). TaKHM 06Pa30M, tap).lCt"Cat y <l>0TH.lI, ecJIH H He HBAAeTC.lI ero co6CTBeHHbIM npH6aBJIeHHeMI5, TO aK'I)'aJIH3HpOBaHO HM H3 taupO).lCt"Cat; CXO,lJ;HbIM 06pa30M noC1)'ITHJI Crediaa BH3aHTHH:CKHH (s. v. r£Arov6~), KOTOPbIH, nepecxaasrsaa CBe,lJ;eHHH

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He 60JIee Ha,!(e)l(HbIM HBJIHeTCH

CBH.ll:eTeJlbCTBO Aararoaa KapHCrnHCKOro (Mirab. 152a, BepOHTHO, xepea nocpencrso KaJIJIHMaxa), comaCHO KOTOPOMY nOJIY'laeTCH, 'ITO TepMHH Ea.p~a.'t(U 6bIJl 3HaKOM Iepaxnany IIoHrniicKOMY (fr. 128 a Wehrli = Callimach. 407, 91 Pf.), coBpeMeHHHKY <I>eo4JpacTa: «06 osepe y capxaroe (tv fup~a.'tat~) Tepaxnaa IIIDIIeT, 'ITO aan HHM He nO,!(HHMaeTCH HH O,!(Ha rrraua, a KaKaH npH6JIH3HJIaCb, noratiaer OT csrpana». Y ,!(pyrnx napa,!(OKCOrpa<pOB (parad. Vat. 14 R., orsyna Parad, Flor. 22 Ohler") H y Me,zJ;HKa Py<l>a 3<peccKOro (apud Oribas. Coll. med. V, 3, 29), '1epnaBIDHX H3 repaKJIH'!(a17, rOBopHTCH 0 l:a'\)po~a.'tat. Coaepmenao HCHO, 'ITO Iepasnnn, 1.(HTHp0BaBmHH ero KaJIJIHMax, H, cxopee scero, CaM Aararoa, MJIa.ll:IDHH COBpeMeHHHK KaJIJIHMaXa, nHCaJIH 0 casposrarax, a pyKOnHCHOe l:apJ.la.'tat y AHTHroHa - HCKa)l(eHHe no'!( BJIHflHHeM noanaetimero CJIOBoynoTpe6JIeHHfI. CJIe,!(yeT OTMeTHTb, 'ITO KHHrn Airraroaa nonma B e,l(HHCTBeHHOH pyKOIrnCH. K CO)l(aJIeHHIO, <pparMeHTbI Fepaxnnna He conepzcar HHKaKHX ,!(aHHbIX 0 MeCT006HTaHHH ca(B)P(O)MaIOBI8.11pe,nrr0JI0JKeHHe,D,.A Ma'lHHCKOro, 'ITO 03epo B CTpaHe ca(B)p(O)MaTOB - 3TO coBpeMemn.rii CHBam, H, TaKHM o6pa30M, ORR B IV B. (6rrH)l(e K ero KOHI.ZY) 3aCe.JIfIJIH ~e 3eMJIH no sananaoay n06ep~1O MeOTH.ll:bI, OCHOBaHO aa necxe: OTK)',!(a MO)l(HO 3aKJIlO'IHTb, 'ITO na 3eMJUIX BOCTO'IHee T aaaaca H MeoTH,!(bI H BnJIOTb ,!(O BOJIrH H Kacnas He 6b1JIO xaxoro-ro zrpyroro osepa, 0 KOTOPOM MOrJIH paccxassrsars nozrofiasre He6bIJlHUb1?

nHIDb pana nOJIHOTbi CTOHT ynoaaayrs He.!(oKalYeMYlO ranoreey Pocrosneea, 'ITO paCCKa3 IIoJIHeHa (VIII, 56) 06 AMare, )l(eHe Menocasxa, naps «CapMaTOB, (3eMJIH KOTOpbIX) ,!(OCTHraIOT no6epe)l(bfl IIoHTM, BOCXO,!(HT K HCTO'lHHKaM, coo6IIJ;aBlliHM 0 C06bITHfIX M~ 272 H 220 IT. ,!(O H.3. 19 MO)l(HO cnopars C ,!(eTaJIHMH aprysrearanaa 51. XapMaTThI20, HO, no cyra nena, ero ,!(aTHPOBKa npHMepHO reM )l(e BpeMeHeM, 'ITO H ynOwrnyTI>IH IIoJIH6HeM (XXVI, 6, l3) norosop <I>apHaKa I C XepCOHeCOM, CapMaTCKHM napea raTaJIOM H np. B 179 r. ,!(O H.3., na MOH B3rJIf1.ll:, BbIrJIfI.ll:HT BrrOJIHe y6e.ll:HTeJIbHOH21•

CTPa60H B II, 5, 7 H3JIaraeT BbI'IHCJIeHHfI fHnnapxoM pasnepoa OHKYMeHbI, KOTOPbIH B Ka'leCTBe HCXO'!(HOH rHnOTe3bI B3f1JI paaraepsr

XepconeccKHii COOPIIIIK. BbIIlJCK 14 Jb.

3eMJIH, onpeaeneaaue 3paTOC<peHOM, OnHpMCb aa ero )l(e reorpadnorecxae MaTepHaJIbI (KHHra Fnnnapxa 6b1JIa He opar-aaam.nsna reorpatpaxecxaa HCCJIe,!(OBaHHeM, a JIHmb peuenaaeii aa «I'eorpadraxecxae 3anHCKH» 3paTOC<peHa H Ha3bIBaJIaCb «IIpoTHB 3paTOC<PeHa»: Strab. I, 1,41; I, 1, 12). IIO.ll:BOM rrpoaeacyro-nrsre HTorH, CTPa60H 06TeKaeMo

. roBOPHT 0 CneUHaJIHCTax, xoropsre, C onopoii xa H3BeCTHble H nocryrmsre ,!(JIfI nJIaBaHHfI paCCTOfIHHfI, H3Y'1aJOT BOnpOC (A.a.~oV't£~ ouv 'to. Ota.O''tll~(X'ta 'Yvropt~a lCat. 1tA.£0J.l£va O'lC01tOUO't), KaK '!(aJIeKO o6HTaeMbi 06JIacTH ssmre Bopacdieaa ('ttX U1tEP BOp'\)O'eEvO,\)~): «a 06HTalOT asmre EOPHc<PeHa caxrsre KpaHHHe Hl HlBeCTHbIX CKH<pOB - POKCOJIaHbD>, 0,!:UIaKO HX o6rraCTb lO)l(Hee (ORR - voruo repot) cTPaH, JIe)l(aIIJ;HX nsnne Bperranaa ( T. e. T)'JIe22); ztansme K cesepy OT pOKCOJIaHOB 3eMJIfI H3-3a XOJIo,!(a aeofiaraeua; IO)l(Hee POKCOJIaHOB HaXOMTCfI H CaBp01>1aThl, )l(HsyIIJ;He «BbIIDe MeoTH,!(bI» (U1tEP 'tfl~ Matcl)'ttOo~), H CKH<pbI «BnJIOTb '!(O BOCTO'lHbIX CKH<P0B». Bjaecre C reorpadiaxecxoii cnp anxoii B VII, 3, 17 (poKCOJIaHbI aa KpaHHeM cesepe CKH<pHH, na paBHHHe Me)l(.!J:Y T aHaHCOM H EoPHC<p~OM) 3TH caenenax C OCHOBaHHeM aTpH6Yf~pYIOT23 3paTOC<peHY (t He nosise 192 r.24). POKCOJIaHbI Ha3BaHbI CKH<pCKHM nJIeMeHeM25 H OT'!(e.JIbHO OT caspoaaros, JIOKaJIHla:u;IDI KOTOpbJx, KaK H CKH<PoB, BbIrJIfI,!(HT He O'leHb onpe'!(eJIeHHoH. IIpH HHTepnpeTaUHH 3THX YKa3aHHH CJIe,!(yeT HMeTb B BH.!J:Y, 'ITO aaecs 3paTOC<peHY Ba)l(HO 6bIJ10, npeacne scero, B3aHMOpaCnOJIO)l(eHHe HapO,!(OB no napannenasr: vo n drrepot osnaaaer; 'ITO casposcarr,r, CKH<pbI H «BOCTO'lHbIe CKH<pbI» 06HTaJOT He TO 'IT06b1 npasro K tory OT pOKCOJIaHOB, a B 60JIee IO)l(HOM nosce. «Bsnne MeOTH,!(bI» neacar TeppHTopHH K cesepy OT rrapaJIJIeJIH, npoaenemroii xepes ycrss Taaaaca; B cyIIJ;HOCTH, caeposrarsr )l(HByT eCJIH H He no TY CTOPOHY T aaaaca, TO H He aa Cesepe IIoHTa, 3aHflTOM cKH<paMH (3,!(ecb OH BO BCflKOM cnysae CJIe,!(yeT Tpa,!(HUHH26), caMbiM ceaepnsra nJIeMeHeM KOTOPbIX flBJIfllOTCfI pOKCOJIaHbI. IIOJIHOCTblO nposcaaer 3TO MecTO nepecxas 3paToc<peHa y CTpa60Ha XI, 6, 227: no npasyio pyxy BcrynaJOIIJ;eMY B KaCnHHCKOe Mope (C cesepa) HaxOMTCfI «CKH<pbI, CMe)l(Hbie C eBpOneHCKHMH (CKH<paMH), H capaarsr", ()l(HBYIIJ;He) Me)l(,!(y TaHaHCOM H 3THM MOpeM», a no nesyro PYKY - BOCTO'IHhle CKH<pbI (01. 1tpO~ em EriJeat) BnJIOTh ,!(O Oxeana no cocencrsy C HH,ruieH (cp. II, 5,31; XI, 1, 7). TaKHM 06pa30M, no CBe,!(eHHflM 3paroc<PeHa, CKH<pbI )l(HJIH H rne-ro K cesepy OT

293

J~ TOxr&CbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sannatae - Synnatae

KaBKa3a29, TOr,na KaK CaBPOMaThl, B OTIIH'lHe OT CKH<ilOB, He ,nOXO,nHJIH zro MH,nHH. B irrore, <ilOPMYJJHPOBKY B II, 5, 7 cneayer nOHHMaTb TaK:

IO)lCHee napaJIJIeJIH pOKCOJIaHOB - nOHTHHCKHe CKH<ilhl (napannens Bopacrpeaa), 3aTeM Me)IC.ay TaHaHCOM H KaCnHeM (napannens MeoTH.lU>I, T. e. YCTbH Taaaaca) - caspossarsr H onars CKH<ilhl BnJIOTb ,no BOCTO'lHoro oxeaaa.

qTO, ozmaxo, ,nOJI)lCHO oaaaxars unE P Bopoo9£v0~? Co apesrea Ieponora (IV, 53,4 sq.) HCTOKH Bopacdieaa TaK H He C,neJI3.JIHCb ,nOC'I)'IIHLI HayqHOM)' H3Y'IeHHlO (Strab. II, 4, 6: 01)'t£ ... lCa'tCJ)n't£UJl£vCJ)v). TeM He MeHe_e, rryrex Bhl'IHCJIemrn, HCXO.n;H H3 paCCTOHHHH OT sxaaropa ,no rpanan oiiKyMeHbI aa tore H na cesepe, Crpa60H (HJIH Tarmapx, eCJIH He caM 3paTOc<ileH) YCJIOBHO onpenenaer paccroaaae OT YCTbH Bopacrpeaa zro cesepasrx 06JIaCTeH B 4000 CTa.n;HeB (II, 5, 9; OCHOBaHIfj[ - B § 8). TaKHM o6pa30M, «asmre EOPHC<ileHID) - reorparpaxecxaa terminus technicus ,nJIH 06JIaCTeH rne-ro B aepxnexr Te'leHHH Bopacrpeaa, aa rpaaane 06HTaeMOH 3eMJIH. To ace BbIp~eHHe HCnOJIh3yer IIrrl"llllrii (n. h. VII, 12), KOTOPhlH, O,nHaKO, roBOpHT 0 CaBP0MaTax: ... supra Borysthenen Sauromatas (cp. npHM. 4).

B 11,5, 13 (C. 128) Crpa60H, OnHpMCb B QeJIOM aa reorpadrauecxyio cxeray 3paTOc<ileHa, nHIIIer, O,nHaKO, 0 mpererax, 6acTapHax H CaBPOMaTax zo T aaaaca H MOOTH,llhI; aH3.JIOrH'IHO - VII, 2, 4: MHe, roBOPHT Crpa60H, HeH3BecTHO, 'IT06hl 6acrapHbI HJIH CaBPOMaThI HJIH KaKHe- JIH60 npyrae <OKHB}'II.{He B KH6HTKaX» nJIeMeHa)I(HJIH «ssnne I10HTa»; unEp 'tou Ilovron - 3TO 3eMJIH, cesepaee reppHTOpHH, soropyro, no ,nOCTOBepHbIM CBe,neHIfjIM, HaCeJImOT CaBpOMaTbI (cesepaee npH'lepHOMOPCKHX crerreii), 0'leBH.n;HO, aaecssparocdeaoacxaa KapTHHa MHpa asryameaposaaa Crpa60HoM HJIH)')I(e I' HIInapXOM (HJIH ztaace I1ocH,noHHeM?)30, KOTOPhIH BCe )l(e nOJIh3)'eTCH crapoii HOMeHKJIal)'POH (caapouarsr, a He capaaru).

B n03.n;HeHIlIHX HCTO'lHHKaX pOKCOJIaHhl HMeH)'IOTCH capMaTCKHM aaponoa (TIlC. Hist. I, 79: Sarmatica gens; SHA, tyro trig. X, 2), 'ITO, C TO'lKH spenaa cOBpeMeHHoH TepMHHOJIOrHH, cnenyer npasaars npaBHJIbHbIM. Capsrarcxae .n;H3.JIeKThl ooo.e,nHHHer, npeacre scero, B~M H HpKM OC06eHHOCTb, HeH3BeCTHM HH B CKH<ilCXOM, HH B JJPYI'HX HpaHCI<HX. H3blKaX, xpoae ocenrn:cxoro: nepexozi co'leraHHif ri, ry > 131, riy > li32, 'ITO H Haxo,nHMB 3THOHHMe ·ProI;oAavoi. < *roxsniilan(a) HJIH, csopee, *roxSan-alan(a) < "rauxsna-aryana-, C ,nHCCHMHJIHTHBHhlM asmanenaea [n] (<ilaKTH'lecKH uenoro cnora") H -0- BMecTO -a- B Ka'lecTBe rpesecxoro XOMn03HIJ;HOHHOro macaoro":

*aryana- (= 'AAaV01.), onpezreneaaoe npnnar arens asna *rauxsna- «6JIeCTlUIIHH, CBerJIhlID>35.

C006I1JeHHe 0 MecTOci6HTaHHH pOKCOJIaHOB B VII, 3, 17 rrpoztonaceao HCTOPH'lecKHM 3KCK)'PCOM H3 npyroro HCTO'IHHKa36: OHH 6bIJIH COI03HHKaMH CKH<ilCXOro IJaPH Ilanasa B BoifHe C Xepcoaecoa, O,nHaKO xepcoaeccxnii zrexper B '1eCTb ,[(Ho<ilaHTa (IPE F 35223) rOBopHT 0 peBKCHHaJIaX - P£U~tVaAOL37, H npaBHJIbHOCTb 3TOro qreHl{j[38 nozrrsepacnaerca aazmacsro KEH 698 rrepaoa nOJIOBHHhl II B. H.3.: llaLpLoaAoc; LCtUpO<pou £PJlllV£UC; (sc. ' AACtVWV HJIH P£UO/~LVCtAW09). P£UOLVCtAOC; llCtLptOCtAOU40. P£UOt-VCtAOC; ~CTaBJ1Herco60IOHMH-3THHKOH(cp. npHM. 48)41, npH'leM, B OTJIH'lHe, aarrpnxrep, OT 6ocnopcxoro uapcxoro HMeHH LCtupoJla'tllc;42, C06CTBeHHO capuarcsoe, T. K. OHO CBH3aHO roMeOTeJIeBTOM C capMaTCKHM )ICe HMeHeM OTQa43; cp. TaK)lCe 'P£UKCt- vaA.oL B OITHCaHHH EBpOneHcI<OH CapMaTHH y I1TOT1eMeH PMOM C pOroXmaHaMH (Geogr. III, 5, 10 Muller; K 'lJIeHeHHIO Cpo LaKa-pCtUKCtL, Strab . XI, 8,2; Sa<Ca>raucae, Iustin. ProI. XLII)44.

MO)I(Ho JIH COMHeBaTbCH, 'ITO y Crpafoaa npoH3oIIIJIa nyTaHHIJa, BhI3BaHHaH C03By'1HeM .nBYX sapsapcxax Ha3BaHHif? Iopaaao Y.nHBHTeJ1hHee, 'ITO OHa npo,nOJI)I(HJIaCh nyTaHH~eH B rOJIOBaX HCCJIe,nOBaTeJIeH aosoro BpeMeHH, He 3aMe'laroIIJHX, 'ITO P£~t VCtA.oL H ·Pro~OA.avoi. HHKaK He MOryT 6hlTb B03Be,neHhI K e,nHHOH HpaHCXOH npadiopsre H, CTaJIO 6hlTh, He MoryT 6hlTh o603Ha'leHHeM onaoro H .roro )ICe aapona,

I10MHMO TOro, 'ITO 3paTOc<ileH nepasnr nOCJIe I1ceB,no-CKHJIaKa H 3B,noKca (LUPJlCt'tCtL) <ilHKcHpyeT capxarcxoe (B COBpeMeHHOM nOHHMaHHH TepMHHa) nJIeMH B «Espone», oco6oe saaseaae em CBH,neTeJIhCTBa COCTOHT B TOM, 'ITO «caapcsrarsr» y Hero no-npeacaesry 06HTaIOT <ilaKTHqeCKH aa MeOTH,noH. I10JIyqaeTcH, 'ITO nepeceneaae POKCOJIaHOB He paccaarpasanocs KaK nepeceneaae caBpOMaTOB (capuaroa) sa TaHaHC HJIH ztaace npOIIIJIO He3aMe'leHHbIM M5I rpexoa MeTpOnOJIHH. 3TO MO)ICeT KOCBeHHO CBH,neTeJIhCTBOBaTh 0 TOM, 'ITO eIIJe B I<OHue III - naxane II B. OCHOBHaH Macca caBpOMaTOB (capsraroa) eIIJe )lCHJIa B «A3HH»45 H 3TO XpOHQJIOrH'leCKH cornacyercs C ,naHHbIMH I1ceB,nOCKHMHa 875 sqq., eCJIH OHH noxepnayrsr y ,[(eMerplfj[ Kannaraacsoro.

M no apxeonoraxecxmr ,naHHhlM C06CTBeHHO 3aCeJIeHHe 6hmilieH CKH<ilHH XOqeBHHKaMH H3-3a Tanaaca, Tor,nailiHee HMH KOTOPhIX coofimaer xepcoaeccsaa HMnHCh IPE F 343 H I1oJIH6Hif, Ha'lHHaeTCH He paasme cepenaasr II B.;

294

npHCYTCTBHe B CTenHX 3ana~Hee TaHaHCa CHpMaTOB, pOKCOJIaHOB H CapMaTOB I'arana, npH~HCJIeHHOrO I1oJIH6HeM K npaBHTeJIHM (<<~aCTaM») eBpOneHCKHX aaponos ( ... 'troVOf. ~a't<l rilv EUpronllv [sc. O'l)v<icr'tO>v] r<i'taAOC; <> Lap~ 'tllC;), apXeOnOrH'IeCKH npOCJIe)l(HBaeTCH O~eHb CJIa6046. OnbBHHCKHH nexper B -recrs IlpororeHa (IPE F 32 B9), H3~aHHbrn npaaepno rorna )Ke, xorzta 3paToccpeH nacan CBOH reorpaci>~ecKHH TPy~7, erne ynosnraaer L1C'US<X.t K8K HenOCpe~CTBeHHbIX. coceneii OJ1bBHH, np~eM pets aaer, HecOMHeHHO, 0 no~eCKOM, a He 06 3THH~eCKOM TepMHHe: TeppHTOpHaJIbHO Y)KaBilleeCH cxadicxce uapCTBO npozronzcarro snaners 3eMJIHMH B paaoae OnbBHH. Cootimeamo o naaaxe, OXBaTHBilleH 3THX CKHCPOB H ztpyrax coce~BapBapoB(caB~apaTOB,THCaMaTOB)npH cnyxax 0 rpH.lJYIUeM HaIIIecTBHH ranaros H CKHpOB (Bs_s), xpOHOJIO~ecKH npennrecrsyer CHTYauHH, OIIHCaHHaH aa cropone A nexpera, xorna OJIbBHH ron sa ro~OM ssmna-raaana «napsr» uapio HeKHX caiiea (LCUWV4S) Caiiradiapay, 3THOHHM H, O~eBH)l;HO, CBH3aHHblH C HHM 3THMOnor~ecKH nepBbIH KOMnOHeHT HMeHH napa - Lcx.t'ta-q>a.pv(HBHO orrnaronsaoe HMjl aa *-to-) He HMelOT y6e.ll:HTeJIbHOrO 06bHCHeHHH49, HO BTOPOH KOMnOHeHT, KaK H3BecTHO, HpaHCKHH (*farnah-). I10CKOJ1bK)' caHH HHKaK He MOryT 6bITb IIJIeMeHeM CKHci>OB (KOJIb CKOpO CKHCPbl ynOMHHYTbI B B9), 60JIbIIIHHCTBO HCCJIe.ll:OBaTeJIeH C~HTaeT HX CapMaTCKHM IIJIeMeHeM. ,[{eKPeT paCCKa3bIBaeT 0 HHX 'rax; «soma naps Caaradrapa npH6bID B KaHKHT H TPe60Ban napos no cnysaio npoesnai ('t<l oropa. 'tf\c; napooo'l»); «xorna HBHnHCb BO MHO)KeCTBe CaMH sa rronyseaaesr napos ... »; «soma OT~aHO 6bIJ10 aa orxyn (CHapH)KeHHe) nOCOJIbCTBa B ~eHUHIOuaPjl(Cai£racpapHa) ... »;«HKOrmtuaPb CaHTacpapH HBHnCH aa 1)' CTOPOHY sa .ll:apaMH ... »; «HO naps, He~OBOJ1bHbIH ztapaxra, paaraesanca H BbIC1)'IIHJ1 B noxon ... » (nepeson B.B. Jlarsmresa). C03.ll:aeTCH anesarneaae, 'ITO caaa crpaaa CaMeB, rne aaxonanacs CTaBKa (~a.crl.A£l.a.) Cairradiapaa, nesana aa ~OBonbHO 3H8':IHTeJlbHOM ynanemn« OT OnbBHH50, HO B J1I060M cnyxae BbIMOraTeJIbCTBO «MPOB)} y OJIbBHononHTOB npennonaraer npaso aa anaaeaae COCe~HHMH 3eMJ1HMH, KOTopOe Ha~O 6bIJ10 3aBOeBaTh, BhlTeCHHB C HHX CKHCPOB. TO~HO TaK )Ke npH'IHCneHHe I' arana K eBponeHCKHM npaBHTeJlHM He HCKJIIO'IaeT TOro, ~TO OH, nonofiao CamacpapHY, J1HIllb KOHTPOJIHpoBan 3Ha'lHTeJ1bHYlO '1aCTb 6blBilleH C~(HCPHH nonHTH~eCKH H 3KOHOMH':lecKH, a casra ero opzta 6a3HpOBanaCb, HanpHMep, B paiione .ll:enbTbI Taaaaca".

MQ)KHO npe,LIIlOJIO)l(HTh, 'ITO, cnycra HeKOTOpoe

XepconecCKBii c60pllllK. BblIIYCK 14 Jb

BpeMH, CKHCPbI '1aC'twrno OI'BOeBanH YTP8':IeHHble TeppHTOpHH, '1eM 06bHCHHeTCH nOjlBJIeHHe HX HMeHH B CTK. 9 aa CTopOHe B zrexpera npn OTCYTCTBHH ynoMHHaHHH CaHTacpapHa (HO pa60JIeIIHe, KOTOpoe 3BYQHT B Ka)K~OH crpoxe, co06IIIalOIIIeH 0 caHHX, caanerenscrsyer, 'ITO OJIbBHOnOnHTbI 6naropa3YMHO y~HTbIBaJIH B03MO)KHOCTb B03BpaIIIeHHH pBHp.ellOF(_uapH). Bo BTOPOH nonoaaae II B. CKHCPCKHH naps CKHJIYP '1eKaHHT MOHeThI aa MOHeTHOM nsope OnbBHH H, no BceH B~HMOCTH, zraace KOHTpOJIHpyeT ee nomrrmecior". Hazmacs aa nOCTPoeHHOM OKOJIO 130 r. ~O H.3. MaB30nee Aprora B TaK Ha3bmaeMOM Heartone CKHCPCKOM, COCTaBneHHaH OT HMeHH «snazrsrxa 60raTOH KOHCKHMH nacrfiamaiaa CKHCPHH» (nonpasyaeaaerca, HeCOMHeHHO, Cxanyp), coofimaer 0 ero nofienax nan cppaKHi1uaMH H «MeOTaMID>S3, OTK)'M CJIe~eT, ~TO CKHCPbI 6blJlH TOr.ll:a BnOJIHe B CHJIax ocymeCTBJIHTb soeaasre noxonsr B secsxra ornarreaasre CTPaHbI, He O'leHb orracaacs yztapa C TbIJ1a co CTOPOHbI capMaTOB54. CTPa60H (VII, 4, 5) IIHIlleT 0 Kpsrae: «11 Ha3bIBaJIaCb BCH 3Ta crpana, a '1aCTH'lHO (crXEOOV Of. tt) H Ta, ~TO aa nepemeiixoa BIIJIOTb ~o Bopactpeaa Manoa CKHcpHem>. I1CTO~HHKOM cnpaaxa, nO-BH~HMOMy, 6bIJ1 I10CH~OHHH55, IIHCaBIIIHH BO BTOPOH - TPeTbeH '1eTBepTH I B. no H.3. KaK 6bI TO HH 6bIDO, HMnepcpeKT haAdto y CTPa60Ha (npaxso H3 HCTo~HHKa?) OTHOCHT HCnOJ1b3OBaHHe 3TOro Ha3BaHHH K npomnosry cxopee acero, KO BpeMeHH CKHJIYpaS6; COBpeMeHHblM CTPa60HY 0603Ha'leHHeM (HO TOJIbKO ~ KpbIM,a) HBnHeTCH «Bonsnroii Xeponecx - it ME-i/i II XEppOVTJcrOC;, TepMHH, KOTOPbIH HCnOnb30Ban (HJIH snepasre nsen) ApTeM~Op 3cpeccKHHs7.

H8':IHHaH C I B. ~o H. 3., sorna capxarsr y*e 3aCeJIHJlH ceseponpasepaosaopcxae CTeIIH, TepMHH La.p~<i'ta.t CTaHOBHTCH 60nee ynOTPe6HTeJ1bHbIM, ozraaxo La'l)pO~(t.'ta.t Y.ll:ep)KHBaeTCH He TOJIbKO B UHTaTax H3 60JIee npeaaax aBTOpOB H B HX nepenozceaaax (HaIIpHMep, Strab. II, 5,7; XI, 6, 2: aapxny C Lap~<i't<X.t, 3aMeHHlOIT(HM La.'I)PO~<i'ta.t 3paTOccpeHa, cp. npHM. 28), HO IIIHPOKO acnonssyerca B Ka~eCTBe apxaaaapyrornero 0603Ha'leHHH capMaTOB5S; naoma 06a TepMHHa BCTP~awTC5I promiscue, OCOOOHHO y CTPa60Ha. 3TO 6bIJ10 HaCTOJIbKO pacrrpocrpaneaasra HBneHHeM, 'ITO ilnHHHH ~8)Ke 06bHBHJI TepMHH «capssarsr» naTHHCKHM, B npOTHBOnOJIO)KHOCTb rpesecxosry «caspouarsr» (Sarmatae, Graecis Sauromatae, n. h. IV, 80). Haorna 06a TepMHHa BCTpe~aIOTC5I promiscue, ocofieaao '1aCTO y CTPa60Ha.

T aKHM 06pa30M, C KaI<OI'O-TO BpeMeHH rpexa

Y-:,·

e>r'

295

~ TOxracbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sannatae - Synnatae

CTaJIH OTO)IC~eeTBJUlTb 06a 3THOHHMa HCaMH aapoztsr. 113 '1Hena paCCMOTpeHHbIX ssnne asropoa, nHcaBWHX zro CTPa60Ha, 3TO oro)IC~eeTBJIeHHe 4Ja.KIWIeeKH npacyrcrsyer y nceB~o-CKHMHa H B HCTO'IHHKe ,[(Ho~opa, KOTOPhlH npHMO CBH3aJI caapoaaros apxaasecxax speaea C CapMaTaMH, onyCTOWHBIIIHMH CKH<lJmo B aasane III B. ,ZIpeBHHe OCHOBhlBaJIHCb, aazto ~MaTb, He TOJIbKO na O'leBH~HOM C03By'lHH 3THOHHMOB, HO H na npHOOH3HTeJIbHOM COBna~eHHH MeeT 06HTaHHH caBpOMaTOB VI-IV BB.~O H.3. H capaaros III-II BB. ~o H.3. (H Te, H .zq>yrne - sa TaHaHCOM), a T8K)1(e o6weM ofipase )lCH3HH. XOTH 3TH OCHOBaHHH BhlmH~HT ~OBOJIbHO y6e~HTeJIbHhlMH, OTO)IC~eCTBJIeHHe caBpOMaTOB H capaaros (B ~HaXpOHH'leeKOM nnaae) MO)ICHO 6y~er C'lHTaTb H~)I(HhlM JIHWb B TOM cnyxae, eeJIH pacxoscaeaae 3THX ztsyx <l>OpM (Laupo~ H LapJl) nOJIy'lHT y6e~HTeJIbHYro JIHHrBHCTH'IeCKYro aarepnperanaro.

B oresecraeaaoa mtyKe HaH60JIee H3BeCTHa 3THMOJIOrHH, npe~JIO)ICeHHaH B. H. Afiaessrr«, KOTOphlif B~eJIHJI B LaupOJ.d~tat 3JIeMeHT -rca B xaxecrne cy<lJ<lJHKCa, a OCTaBweeCH HCTOJIKOBaJI KaK.lIP. -apaa *s(y)ava-arma- (<'lepHOp}'KHe»59. 3m ezraa JIH y~OBJIeTBOpHTeJIbHO <lJoHeTH'IeCKH60, HHKaK He 060CHOBaHO ceMaHIWlee~l , HO rnasaoe 3aK1IIO'laeTCH B nOJIHOH HeB03MO)ICHOCTH rasoro )ICe 06'bHCHeHHH <lJoPMhl LapJlUta1. (H LUPJlUtat, 0 soroposr A6aeB He ynoxraaaer). KpOMe TOro, A6aeB, no~06HO 60JIbWHHCTBY npoxax HCCJIe~OBaTeJleH, ynyCTHJI H3 BH.DY HaJIH'lHe 06WeH Mop<lJeMhl - JlUta1. B npyr ax 3THOHHMax pO~CTBeHHhlX HapO~OB, 06HTaBWHX B TOM )ICe CTenHOM nosce: 'Ia~a-JlUta1. H nozt (CM. npHM. 5), 91.cra-Jlatat (IPE 12 32 B9, npororeaoacxaa nesper), a KaK p83 TaKOe COnOCTaBJIeHHe H Be.lWI" K e~CTBeHHO npaBHJIbHOH JIHHrBHCTH'IeCKOH HHTepnpeTaU:HH LaUpoJlUta1./Lap JlUta1.. BnJIOTHYro K HeH nO~OweJI ewe KapJI MlomIeHXO<}J<lJ, nOMep)ICaHHbIH <1>. 1Ocm62. TeM He MeHee, B ~aJIbHeHWeM eH ~OJIrHe ronsr ynopno npenno-nrrana npyr-ae, aaorna 3aBe~OMO aenpaesoreasre (KaK y A6aeBa) COnOCTaBJIeHHH H KOHCTPYKU:HH. ,[(ora~KY MroJIJIeHXO<l><lJa cyweCTBeHHO YTO'lHHJI B 1923 r. <l>acMep63, OKOH'IaTeJIbHOe )ICe pemeaae rrpofinesrsr npHH~e)I(HT P. IlIMwnY'4: TeMaTH3HpoBaHHoe npanararensaoe *sauru-mat-a-, KOTOpoe naxomrr ce6e u:em.HOJIeKceMHoe COOTBeTCTBHe B .zq>.-~. (RV) saru-mant- «soopyaceaasra» saru-, MeTaTeJIbHhlM op~eM (.lIPOTHKaMH, CTpeJIaMH). Cp. ztanee aneJIJIaTHB iju~mant- «cHa6)ICeHHhlH CTpeJI8MID>, aHTPonOl'~ Ju-mata- H zpyrae OT

296

Ha3BaHHif oPY*HH C reM )ICe Cy<lJ<lJHKCOM: Ketumant-, Garma-vant-, a TaK)l(e Salya-, Salyanuya(OT po~CTBeHHOrO salya - «CTPeJIa» )65.

TOJIbKO B03Be~eHHe LaUpOJlUta1. K <lJopMe C u-3neHTe30H" cnpaaennnao nO,p;'1ep~BaeT.~ illMJrITi6, 06'bHCHHer p83JIH'lHe Lau~: La~7, ecJIH ~ 9 TOJIbKO He peWHTbCH aa aKT OT'iaHHHH (O'leBH;J;HO, 6eCCMhlCJIeHHhlH), ~OnyCTHB, 'ITO pe'lb aner 0 Ha3BaHHHX, 06pa30BaHHhlX OT p83HhlX H JIHWb C03ByqHbIX OCHOB.

T aKHM 06pa30M, HMH caBpOMaTOB

ceMallTH'lecKH C6JIH)I(aeTCH c 3THOHHMOM LKU9a1. B 06'bHCHeHHH 0. CeMepeHbH: "skuoa- «CTpeJIKH, JIy'lHHI<ID> < H. -e. "skudo-f",

Msr pacrronaraea HeCKOJIbKHMH JIHWb rHnO'reIWIecKHMH npHMepaMH AJUI ~<lJTOHra au B ~eBHeHpaHcKHX H3hlKax CTenHOH 30Hhl: CKH<lJ. LaUAI.O~ (Hdt. IV, 76, 6paT Aaaxapcac a), A i>XUta1. (IV, 6, 1, CKH<lJCKHHPO~, npOHCXOMIIu:HH

OT .JbmOKCaJI), N£ui><l (ibid. 17,2 H np., aapozr aa to{ cesepe CKH<lJHH, no fHnaHHCY); 0~aK03TI1M0JI0I'HH . 3THX CJIOB HeH3BecTHhl. C .rqJyrOH CTOPOHhl, HMH oztaoro H3 CKH<lJCKHX «uapeib' BpeMeHH CKH<lJCKOro noxozia ,[(apHH LK6macr1.~ (Hdt. IV, 120, 2; 128,

1 )69, HecMOTpH na orcyrcrsae 3THMOJIOrHH, ~OJDKHO OTpa)ICaTb 0, XOTII CTJI)I(eHHe ~H<lJTOHra, cxopee scero, orpazcaer caryamno B CKH<lJCKOM yace BpeMeHH Iepoaora, Bxrecre 3TH CB~ereJIbCTBa YKa3bIBaroT aa nepexo~ro craznno - Kor~a MOHo<lJTOHrH3au:HH ewe He yrsepaanacs (cp. HH)l(e nepcancxne H ~CKHe zraansre).

BMeCTe C reM, 3HaKOMCTBO C 3THOHHMOM H nepBbIH KOHTaKT C CaMHMH CaapOMaTaMH, a 3H8'1HT, H aaxpenneaae 3TOH <lJOPMhl B TPa~ ~OJl)l(Hhl 6hlJIH HMeTb MeCTO He n03)1(e nOCJIe~HerO ~eCHTHJleTHH VI B. (Hdt. IV, 120, 2; CM. ssmre). Caarerenscrsa HpaHCKHX H3hlKOB Ilepezraeii AaHH y .roro )l(e Tepozrora, a raiose y KTecHH yx83hlBaIDT na MOHO<lJTOHrH3au:HIO au C npespameaaea ero B 3BYK, MH3KHH 00 (~OJIrnH OTKpbITbIH 0): cpo roo~pUl)~ (Hdt. III, 70 H ztp.) < *Go-~< *Gau-~ 'P~UVTJ (Ctes. Jacoby, Fragmente ... , 688. F 15; Plut. Alex. 47 H np.) < *RoxSanii- < *RauxSnii- H T. zr.) H ztp.; BCTJ>e'laeTCH T8K)1(e ou < apaa, [til, KaK B l11.crcroU9VTJ~ H np., CM. HH)l(e. HMeeTCH, onaaso, H TaKOH npaaep, KaK ' Aptu - UKtl)<; < "Rta-uxta(Hdt. VII, 33 H np.)", npHTOM 'ITO ~<Pro~ B 3TOH n03HU:HH rpesecsosry He O'leHb CBOHCTBeHeH (OTKy~a «TPeMa» HM u). AKKa~cKHe nepezraxa V B., cofipanasre ,[(aH~aMaeBhlM, nO-B~OMY, <lJHKCHpyKlT nepexoznryio CTa~; cp. BaBHJI. Aria-u-pa-am-ma (BPeMH?) < *Arya-upama-71, Is-pau-du < *Spauda- (461 r.), Par-na-uh-ti-i < *Farnauxti- (437 r.; cp. 'Apta-uK'tfJ~)72, HO Gu-ba-ru H T.

n. ()?Ke 539 r.) = rco-f3puT]C; (o,!U{aKO 3JI<LM. Kambar-rna OTpIDKaer )lHqrIOHr, cp. TaIOKe Qa-u-ba-ra <*Gaubara-),Gu-uk-ka-a'<*Goka-<*Gauka-(417r.), Gu-su-ri < "Go-sura- < *Gau-siira- (HJIH narpomccerecsoe *-siiri-; 423-420 rr.), Is-ku-ti-ikku < *Sk6eika- < "Skaullika- (419 r.), Ru-su-un-dati H non, < *Roxsan-data- (HJIH *-dati-) < "Rauxsnadata- (429 r: H noaae, cp. 'pc.o1;avllY3. AHanorH'lH)'lO KapTHHY .naIOT, nO-BH.nHMOMY, MeHee nOKa3aTeJIbHbIe 3JIaMCKHe CBH.nereJIbCTBa H3 Ilepcenona, xoropsre '1aC'fHllHO MOryr OTpIDKaTh HC1OpH'leCKOe npOH3HOmeHHe H.Jlli HanHCaHHe74.

Y TBep)J(.neHHe Bp aanermrraiiaa 7S 0

aaaepmaarneacs MOHOcPToHrH3aU;HH au B .npeBHenepcH.ncKOM «He3a.nOJIrO no BpeMeHH )l;apHR I» He MO)J(er 6bITb npHHRTO. HaH60JIee B300meHHhlM H OTBe<IaIOm;HM .IJ:aHHhlM HCro'lHHKOB npe.nCTaBJUIerCR MHe 3aI<JIIO'IeHHe )l;aH.IJ:aMaeBa: «... no BceH BepoHTHoCTH, MOHOcPTOHrH3aU;HR HMeJIa MecTO He BO spesreaa )l;apHH I HJIH zro Hero, a BO BroPOH nOJIOBHHe V B . .no H. 3., soma rracan Teponor»?".

Ho H Bpaazreanrraiia He 0TPHI~aeT, 'ITO, aarrpaaep, B MH.nHHCKOM au Mor COXpaHHThCH, npH'leM erne .nOBOJIbHO npO.nOJDKHTeJIbHoe BpeMH. IIOMHMO BaBHJI. A-hu-ra-ma-az-da-' (B C06cTBeHHO .np.-nepc. - hu > u)17, .nOKa3aTeJIbCTBOM eMY CJl)')KHT K<X1taih<x, Ha3BaHHe osepa B ApMeHHH (aa CaMOM ztene B MH,llHH) Y Crpafosa (Xl, 13, 2 coll. 14, 8; HCro'IHHKRBHO He axeMeHH.nCKOro BpeMeHH) < *kapauta- «CHHHH», conOCTaBJUIeMoe C mons Capotes (H3 *K<X1tco'tT]C;) B ApMeHHH Y I1n:HHHR (n, h. V, 83)18, QllHaK>, KaKyKa3aJIX Marrensfeprep 79, K<X1t<X'il't<X HBJIReTCR JIHmb 3MeH.naU;HeH (B . zte CeH-Ma}JTeHa, 1818 r:): pyKOnHCH .naIOT l:1t<x1h<X(V)80.

IIo-HacTORIIJ;eMY nOKa3aTeJIbHbIe rpesecxae npasrepsr Bpaaneanrraiia .nIDKe He ynosraaaer: lC<xuvalCT] «nepcnzrcxaa ozreaczra», 3THMOJIOrH1fecKH - «BJIaC5I:HlIUa» (Aristoph. Vespae 1137, 1149 H zrp., CM. LSJ; 6JIH)J(e K 3THMOHY 'Y<XUvO:lCTJc; B nanapyce III B . .no H.3.81), 3JIaM. Kamna-ak-qa < .np.-HpaH. *gaunaka-, *Gaunaka- (cp. asecr. gaona- «BOJIOCbD» npa axxazt, gu-nak-ku < *gonaka:-82, 'PoOO-'YoUVfl H.np. C *gauna- (HH)J(e). Jpesa e.ll:Ba JIH MOrJIH 3aHMCTBOBaTh CJIOBO paaee 540-x rr:, xorna Manas A3HH somna B COCTaB Axexrenazrcxor! HMnepHH. CJIe.nyIOm;HH no XpOHOJIOrHH npHMep - ynOMHHYTOO yace 'AprnUlC'tT]C; Y Feponora (478 r.); ztanee, B03MO)J(HO, Tt8pa-UCftT]C;, KOMa.H.IzylOIUHif: nepcH.ll:CKHM <lmoroM B 6HTBe npa EBPHMe.n;OHTe (Me)J(Jzy 469 H 466 r., Ephor, Jacoby, Fragmente ... , 70. F 192; Diod. XI, 60, 6: ChlH Kcepxca); TO )J(e HMH HOCHrrH zrsa

XepconeccIalii c60pB1lK. BhIIlycl( 14 Ji£. nepcH.IJ:CKHX 1IOlII<OBQZJ;Qa B nepBOH 1lO1I0BHHe IV B 83. MH,l(. *Ciera-usta- (?) (y Kceaorporrra H B Hellenic~ Oxyrhynchia - PH.ll:OM C nepc. Ttoo<x-<P£PVflC; < *Cic;a-farnah-)84; cp. TaIOKe 'Ap't<x-6~0c; (Xen, An. II,4, 16; V, 35; Cyr. VI, 3,21), ecJIH H3 *Rtaujah(H3 *Rta-aujah-); O.ll:HaKO, BepOHIHO, H *Rta-vaza-

'l I

HJIH no.n.85

P aCCMOTpeHHble cKHcPcKHe H MH.ll:HHCKOnepcH.ncKHe .naHHhle He OCTaBJUIIOT COMHeHHii, 1f'IO au erne BnOJIHe Mor y.nep)J(HBaThCH no KpaHHeH Mepe.no nocnezmero .necHTHJIeTHH VI B. (BpeMeHH noxona )l,apHH) H B caBpOMaTCKOM.

E.nHHCTBeHHOe nperurrcraae HHrepnpeTau;HH MIOJIJIeHx0cP<i>a - <I>acMepa - IIIMHTTa 3aKJIIOl.J:aeTCH B TOM, 'ITO COOTBeTCTBYIOlliHH HpaHCKHH aneJIJIaTHB He .nOK)'MeHTHpOBaH. O'!u{aKO sam- HMeer HH.ll:OeBpOneHCKHe KOPHH, cp. roxrep. lCllA<X «CTpeJIbI, nepyasr 60rOB»86, a 06pa30BaHHOe, nO-BH.nHMOMY, OT saru- MWI Be.IJ:HiicKOro 60)J(ecTBa (O.nHO H3 HMeH Py.nPbI-IIIHBhl) S arva(Boop~eHHhlH C1peJIaMH?) cPOHerH1fecKH npHMO COOTBeTcTByeT aBeCT. Saurva-V, HMeHH rrpezmcznrrena .n3BOB, KOTOPbIH, npaazra, npencrasnea B «BH.neB.nare»5..~6JIa.naIOm;HM COBceM .npyrHMH CBOHCTBaMH (CM. Bartholomae, Altiranisches Worterbuch ... , Sp. 1568).

Bsnne Y)J(e rOBOpHJIOCb, 'ITO B nepanne IIceB.IJ:O-CKHJIaKa H Y 3B.noKca H3 KHH.na (nepaaa nOJIOBHHa IV B.) ynOMHHYThll:WJ.l.a't<Xt, )J(HIl)'IIJ;He no TaHaHCY, a HMeHHOB Espone (TIceB.no-CKHJIaK), T. e. K aanany OT Hero, no.n06HO caaposaaraxr B II£pl. <xepcov, 17. Ho y TIceB.no-CKHJIaKa CaBpOMaThI, aaasaaasre OT.neJIbHO OT CHpMaTOB, 06HTaIOT, KaK 3TO Y Fepozrora, K BOCTOKY OT Taaaaca. HeMe.nJIeHHO npaxczrxmaa aa yM noranxa, 'ITO IIceB.no-CKHJIaK H 3B.nOKC HMeJIH 06m;Hif HCTO'IHHK, B KOTOPOM l:upJ.l.a.'t<Xt 6:bIJIO HCKIDKeHHeM l:<xupoJ.l.a't<Xt HJIH L<XpJ.l.a't<Xt, 1f'IO npHBeJIO K JIO)J(HOH .nynJIHKa~HH 3THoHHMa88, onposepraerca ynOMHHaHHeM Syrmatae y IInHHHH (n. h. VI, 48), npH'leM n06JIH3OCTHOT Oxca (O'leM CM. HH)J(e )89.

CBH.nereJIbCTBO 3B.nOKca 'COXpaHHJlOCb B HeBHHTHOH cnpasxe 3nHTOMbI CJIOBapH Crediaaa BH3aHTHHCKOro: l:uPJ.l.a't<Xt· oi lliupoJ.l.a't<Xt, roC; EUoo~oC; npcO'tq>" 1tO't<XJ.l.OV 't0l) T<xvatoo~

[l:UPJ.l.a't<Xt lC<X'tOtlC£lv - «Capsrarsr: casposrarsr, KaK 3B.nOKC B I-H KHHre: «(.nOJIHHY) pesa Taaaaca HaCeJIHIOT CHpMaThl». CJIOBa nOCJIe KOJIOHa RBJIHIOTCH l..(HTaTOH H, KaK noxassraaer accus. cum inf., B CBOIO o-repezrs, nepeJIO)J(eHHeM qbHX-TO cBe.neHHii (csopee scero, B 6e3JIH'lHOH cPopMe - <jl<Xo{v). He06hl'lHO szrecs TO, 'ITO CTaTbH 06 3THOHHMaX Credraa, KaK npaBHJIO, Ha'lHHaeT C

297

IJ& ToxracbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sarmatae - Synnatae

yt<838HIDI31HH'IecI«>H np~ea<HOCTH Ha~ HllH yxaasraaer CTpaHY, B KOTOPOH OH 06HTaeT (aanpaaep, S. V. ~apJ1Cx'tat· £eVO~ ~lCUet1COV; aOA.oYlCOt· £e~ ep*,lCTI~), nO;::J;06HO TOMy, KaK npa Ha3BaHHH MeCTHOCTH HJIH ropozta YKa3aHO MecIDHaXO)K,ZJ,eHHe HJIH npaaaanesoocn, TOMy HJIH HHOMy HaPO,zzy. Xors TeKCT Crerpana MO)l(eT 6blTh CHJIf>HO HCKIDKeH, T. K. OT 3nHTOMaTOpa MO)l(HO O)l(H;::J;aTb xero yrO;::J;HO (coxpameaae CJIOBapH Crediaaa npOH3BO;::J;HJIOCb 6eccHcTeMHO, T. e. 06bl'1HO '1HCTO MexaHH'lecKH H 6e3,lJYMH0), 60JIee '1eM BepOKIHO, 'ITO 3B;::J;OKC roBOPHJI 0 CHHOHHMHH, cp. S. V. MO\j101tta' 11 'A't'ttlCTt. a.1tO MO\j101to~. KaAAtJ1axO~ (fr. 351 Pf.). Pa3YMeeTcH, OTO)I(;::J;ecTBJIeHHIO HM capuaroa H CaBpOMaTOB He CTOHT npaaasars fomanoro 3Ha'leHIDl, OHO srorno 6blTh JIHillb yqeHoH I«>H~eH, Hcxonsnu;eH H3 CXO;::J;CTBa HaHMeHOBaHHH H ztpyrnx BHeillHHX xapaxrepacras: H re, H npyrae - HOMa.zn,I, 06HTa1OT B roM )l(e CTellHOM peraoae H nozt.

Bsrecre C TeM, i}lopMa ~UPJ1Cx'tat BblrnH,!UU TaK, KaK ecJIH 6bl OHa nepeaasana cpenaeapaacsoe COOTBeTCTBHe ~aupOJ1Cx'tat: C MOHoi}lTOHrH3aIU1eH au (> 6) > ii H yrparoii KOHe<lHOro -u OCHOBbl (*Siirmata- < *Sa'1'u-mata-), xoroporo HeT H B ~apJ1Cx'tat, npyrox sapaasrre 3THOHHMa 6e3 anearerasecsorc u (cp., O;::J;HaKO, HH)l(e).

B CapMaI'CKHX HMeHax rrepsux BeKOB H. 3. ;::J;OCTOBepHO 3ai}lHKCHpOBaHO, KIDKeTCH, 'IOJIbKO au > 6, xoropoe nepenaercs oueeotr", HO yHaCJIe;::J;oBaHHOe ii, KaK H U, OTpaX<eHO '1epe3 0, U91; aHaJIOrH'lHO - B OCeTHHCKOM: au > 6 (capssar; co) > .znrrop. 0 (HpOH. ii < 0)92.

B XOTaHCKOM - ii < 0, aaorna 093• B 6aKrpHHCKOM Haxo;::J;HM )];BORROH pednesc au: co [6]94 H 0[ii]9S.

B ai}lraHcKOM (nanrro) - 0 (cp. t6ma = 68KTP. 'tOXJ1avo), u (cp. yunj = 6mcrp. ycov~o)

B H3blKe nepe;::J;Hea3HaTCKHX apaanes Hapg,zzy C au > co 3aCBH;::J;eTeJIbCTBOBaHO 0'1) (ii): 'Pooo'Y0t>V11 (co BpeMeH .llapHH I, CM. Pape - Benseler), cl>pa'to-yot>VTJ (Hdt. VII, 224, 2), 'A}.o-YOUVTJ (Ctes. Jacoby, Fragmente ... , 688. F 15) K *gauna-96, npa lC/yauvCxlCTl < *gaunaka- (CM. ssnne), cp. ai}lI: 'Yuna < *gauna-; ntcrcrOt>eV11~ (Thuc. I, 115 H )];p., OKOJIO 4271:; Ctes. F 15 (53): ntcroOOVTJ~) < *PiSyau9na-97; Tept-'tot>XJ111~ (Ctes. F 15 (55); leg. Tstpt-Z) <; *'1rrI-tauxma-98; Mtepo~OU~CxV11~ (Arr. An. I, 16, 3 H np.) < *MiOra-baujana-99; ~ ou < ii cp. ~ucra (Aeschyl. Pers. 16 H np.) - JlP.-nepc. (:iisa.

KaK BH;::J;HM, pequrexcanas 0'1) < au BMeCTO 60JIee 06bl'IHoro co He 3aBHCHT OT IPoHeTH'IecKOro OKp~eHHH HCTOpH'IeCKoro ;::J;Hi}lTOHra. TaKHM 06pa30M, Mhl KOHcTaTHpyeM npaKTH'IeCKH

CHHXPOHHoe cymecrsoaaaae au H 6 < au Hapg,zzy C ii « (1) < au B HpaHCKHX H3blKaX Ilepenaea A3HH, BepOHTHO, KaK-TO pacnpe;::J;eJIeHHOe no ;::J;HaJIeKTaM1OO .

DYKBa 'I) H - peace - 0 nepen 6YKB8MH .lVUI cornacasrx C~ ~ rrepenaxa )];p.-HpaH. u; x:pOMe ~lCUA~ (CM. ssnne H npHM. 68) H )];pyrHX CKHIPcKHX ~HMepOB, cpo nepc. 'tUlCm < "tuxta-'?', Meya-B~ (Hdt. III, 70, 2 H np.: codd. -~t>~11~; t01J/ Syll.' 282 ir) < *Baga-buxSa-, 'Aprbxc«; (Ctes. F 5)

< *Rt-uka-102 H ztp., a111-olCl1~ (Hdt. I, 16,2 H np.) <~. *Dahyuka-103, Map06vtO~ (Hdt. VI, 43, 1

H )];p.) < "Marduniya-P',

.llJIH u*'" ii B axeMeHH;::J;CKHH ne,PHo;::J; MHe H3BeCTHO TOJIbKO 'Aptucupc«; < *1}fa:-siira-105; ciona )l(e, B03MO)I(H0, CKHi}l. oirc-copo; (Hdt. Iv, 59,2) HJIH I'otro-cupo; (Hesych.), rono-crup~ . v (Origen. C. Cels. VI, 39)106: K aBeCT. s6ra- L £1 «CHJIbHblH, MO~> (Bartholomae, Altiranisches Worterbuch ... , Sp. 1584 f.)107; cp. TaK)I(e KaJ1~t>crl1~ - )];p.-nepc. K-b-u-ji-i-y lKamb'ij_jiya-l,

ecJIH ae-aujiya-l'", H CKHi}l. T1>Pl1~ (Hdt. Iv, 11,4 H. \I ztp.) K **a- «6blCrpbIH, 6ypHbIH»I09; 6JIH3KO -I -q 'O'tCxcr1tll~ (Hdt. VII, 63) < *Hiita-aspa- (?)IIO. l

Kposre HeHa;::J;e)l(HOrO KaJ1~ucrl1~, npaxrepoa u ~ii, npoacxonsmero H3 au, KIDKeTCH, Her, HO (He roBOPH ~e 0 CK)';::J;OCTH MaTepHaJIa), cxopee scero, JIHIIIb nOTOMy, '110 Ha<:IaJIO MOHalP1OHrH3au;ID1 nepc. au npH6JIH3HTeJIbHO cosnanaer no BpeMeHH C rrpeapanreaaese HOH. u B [ii], '1eM H 06'bHCHHIOTCH aanacaaaa xepea ;::J;HrpalP 0'1) < nepc. ii < au B 'POOOYOUVTJ H ap.

Brrpoxesr, nOHCKH nO;::J;xO;::J;HJI(HX CJIY'laIO rrpauepoa B p0;::J;CTBeHHblX assncax 6JIH3KOrO BpeMeHH, BnOJIHe B03MO)l(HO, Boo6me He HMeIOT ocofioro CMbICJIa, nOCKOJIbK)' 06JIHK ~uPJ1Cx'tat ;::J;OJI)l(eH B H3BecTHOH Mepe orpaacars rperrasanaro

(cp. crt>PJ1a -a'to~ H npOH3BO;::J;Hble, CM. LSJ). AHaJIOrH'lHOH anarrramra Momo nO;::J;Bepr:H)'ThCH H ~apJ1Cx'tat (cp. <lPJ1a -ceroc); B ro )l(e BpeMH ~ ranoreaa 0 rpeuaaanaa o6'b.H:cHHeT«cHHKOny» -0-

B fup- J1Cx'tat, TaIOKe OTJIH'laIOJIlYlO HnOCJIe;::J;Hee,

H ~Up-J1Cx'tatlll OT ~aupo-J1Cx'tat, rne 0Tp8)l(eH -

u- nepsoii OCHOBbl1I2•

Bo BCID<OM cnysae Her OCHOBaHHif OTpLIBaTb ~UPJ1Cx'tat OT ~UPJ1Cx'tat 3THMOJIOrH'lecKH.

B npHHIJ;Hne, ~'I)PJ1Cx'tat MO)l(HO 6bIDO 6bl paCCMaI'pHBaTb B xasecrse i}lOPMbI 3THOHHMa rex )l(e casrsrx caBpOMaTOB, CMeHHBmeH 60JIee )];peBHIOIO ~UPJ1Cx'tat. A pa3JIH'leHHe capsraros H caBpOMaTOB y llceB;::J;o-CKHJIaKa 06'bHCHHTb KOMIIHIDlTHBHblM xapaxrepox ero CO'lHHeHHH, B I«>TOPOM HaCJIOHJIHCb zrpyr aa zrpyra ;::J;aHHble OT KOHl(a VI ;::J;O cepeznorsr IV B. ;::J;O H.3.

/' eX

1

298

1J

O,D;HaKO CBe.n:eHIDI IIrrHHIDI 0 Syrmatae 6rrH3 OKCa (CM. asnne), ezma JIH BOCXO.n:jlmHe K HCTOqHHKaM paasme BpeMeHH Anexcaanpa 113, YKa3bIBalOT aa TO, qTO nepezt HaMH 3THOHHMHqeCKHH .n:y6JIeT (OCKOJIKH 6bIJIOrO e.n:HHCTBa) aanoztofiae rOu'tCOV£<; « *Gutans, *Gutos - "ZOmb(H .n:p.-HCJI. Gautar - repMaHCKOe rtnessa B CKaH.n:HHaBHH); npasna, szrecs - He HC1Op~ecKOe pa3BHTHe (OTBJIeKMCb OT .n:p.-HCJI. pOTar:(H3Ma), a a6rrayr. DOJIee 6JIH3KHe napaJIJIeJIH ,D;aerCmmmCKHHMaTepHaJI: cp. npacnas. "Xurvat> XOP~<l'tOt H non, - 6aJIKaHCKHe XOpBaTbI, .n:p.pyc. XP'hRATH - <:CJIaBjlHCKOe nJIeMjI B paiione I1epeMhImJIHl C perynapaoii MeTaTe30H H CT.nOJIbCK. Charwaci, Chrwaci, (CJIaBmCKOe IUIeM.H: aa reppHTOpHH I10JIbnnr, .n:p. -xem. Charvaty (ronOHHM OT 3THOHHMa) C BTOp~HhIM j < *ilr (*X1 vat- < *X'bTVat-), KOlOphIH napaJIJIeJIbHO pa3BHJICH H B ,D;HaJIeKTe 6aJIKaHCKHX xopsaros, cp. C.-x. ffivdt1l4; TaKOro)Ke pona npacnas. "slavene, LKAa~TtVOt H .n:p.-pyc. CI\ORi;.HI .( IUIeM.H: aa osepe I1nbMe~ll5.

HwITO He MemaeT npe.n:nOJIO)KHTb, -rro xacrs CHpMa10B He n03)Ke cepemona IV B. npO.l(BHHYJIaCb H3 Cpe,D;HeH A3HH aa sanan H 060CHOBaJIaCb B HH30BbHX T aaaaca no ero «esponekcxroa» 6eperaM.

Cooraomeaae pa3HbIX «l>oPM 3THOHHMa H HX 3BOJIlOUHlO MO)KHO npencraears TaK:

, *sa~l}1-malfl:.lL<l1'>POJ.l<l'tcx.t) ~ *sar(u)mata-

(Lcx.~'t<:I)_-:',~'~-------- - <7

*sor u)mata- > *siir(u)mata-(?) (L'OPJ.l<l'tcx.t) ECJIH npHHHTb npezmonoaceaae 0 rpeuasanaa, L'Op~cx.t MO)KeT nepezranars *sor(u)mata-.

mOHHM *saurumata-/*sarumata -, KOTOPbIH nepaoaaxansao 6bIJI CaMOHa3BaHHeM xaxoro-ro KOHKpeTHOro IUIeMeHH (06 310M CBH,D;eTeJIbCTB)'eT CaM ero THII H ceMaHTHKa: .n:peBHeHmHe 3THOHHMhI 0606IUaIOmero xapaxrepa npe,D;CTaBJIjIJOT C060H qHCTYlO OCHOBY, KaK *arya- HJIH *saka-), CO BpeMeHeM CTaJI 06IUHM HMeHeM uenoro pxna 6JIH3KOpo.n:CTBeHHhIx nJIeMeH, KOqeBaBmHX B CTenHX OT ,n:oHa ,D;O Cpe,D;HeH A3HH H HOCHBillHX ocofisre Ha3BaHIDI (KaK cnaesue, smopsre .n:eJIHTCH aa pyCCKHX, nOJIHKOB, xexoa, CJIOBaKOB, 6OJIrap, cepfios, xopaaros H zrp.). I1oKa3aTeJIbHO YCTOH:qHBOe CJIOBOCOqeTaHHe «H3HrH -capxarsn HJIH «capMaThI-H3HrH» (Strab. VII, 3, 17: 01. 'I<l~'O'Y£<; Lcx.PJ.l<l'tcx.t; Plin. n. h. IV, 80: Iazyges Sarmatae; Tac. hist. III, 5: principes Sarmatarum Iazugum;Ann. XII, 29: eques e Sarmatis Iazugibus), KO'rOpoe, cy.1l:H no BceMY, BOCXO,D;HT K HOMeHKJImype caMHX H3HrOB, rne a.n:'beKTHBHOe *yazug « *Yazuka-: K aBeCT. yazu- 'MJIa.n.mHii:', .n:p.-HH.l(. yahu'MOJIO.n:OH; 3HeprHqHbIH'?116) CJIY)KHJIO

XepcoHeccKHii c60pHHK. BhIIIJCK 14 Jb

onpezteneaaea K .n:aBHO cy6CTaHTHBHpOBaBmeMYCH *sarumata- (K cy<pqmKcaUHH cpo 'Ancx.crt<lKcx.t, Polyb. X, 48,1; ·Avcx.pt<lKm, Strab. XI, 8,11, aapaay c'Av<lp£wt LKu9m, Ptol. Geogr. VI, 14, 13). CYIUecTBeHHo, qTO H3HrOB, nOCeJIHBmHXCH B Cpe.n:He.n:yHaHcKoH HH3MeHHOCTH, pHMCKHe nHCaTeJIH qaCTO Ha3hIBaIOT rrpOCTO Sarmatae, Lcx.pJ.l<l'tm; TPHM<PaJIbHhIHnnyn Sarmaticus Mapx ABpeJIHH rrony-ran B -recrs nofensi aan H3HraMH (cp. Casso Dio LXXI, 8,1; 13, 1 H SHA, Marc. Ant. 17,3). Toro ace THIIa KOM6HHHpOBaHHhlli 3THOHHM «napcxae capxarsr» - ~cx.crtA.£tOt Lcx.PJ.l<l'tcx.t (Strab. Ibid.; App. Mithr. 293, 06a pasa ynoMHHalOTCH B KOMnaHHH C H3HraMH, CM. npHM. 58), 6eccnopHo, KaJIbKa C capxarcxoro, KaK nOKa3bIBaeT eme 60JIee .n:peBHHH TepMHH ~cx.crtA."Wt LKU9cx.t y Teponora; ynoscraaanraeca nsmre Lcx.K<lpcx.'OKcx.t H ·Pco~oA.cx.voi HBJIjIJOTCH KOMrr03HTaMH, pa3BHBmHMHcH H3 COqeTaHHH

\.J

3THOHHMa (*saka- H *aryana-·: pacnrapenae

nepsa-raorc *arya-) H onpenenenaa K HeMY (KaK np.vnepc. saka tigraxauda L<lKcx.t Op90KOP'O~<lV'ttot H saka haumavarga = L<lKm 'AJ.l uP'YtOt, nycrs zraace OHH H He 6bIJIH caMOHa3BaHHHMH).

Ilpasna, <p~ecKOe 1O)K)J;eCTBO 3THOHHMOB, KaK H3BeCTHO, He 06H3aTeJIbHO npezmonaraer npaayro 3THOJIHHrBHCTHqeCKYlO CBH3b HJIH npeeMCTBeHHOCTb. A BOCXO.n:HilleMY K a~HOCTH MHeHHlO, -rro acropa-recxa capxrarsr HBJI.H:lOTCH TeM )Ke Hapo.n:OM HJIH, nsrpaacaacs COBpeMeHHhIM H3bIKOM, coaoxynccrsro HaH60JIee 6JIH3KO po.n:CTBeHHhIX IUIeMeH, -rro H CaBpOMaThI (TaKaH )Ke po.n:OIUIeMeHHaH rpyrma), ceii-rac 06bIqHO npOTHBOnOCTaBJI.H:lOT CBH,D;eTeJIhCTBa apxeonoraa o pa3JI~HHX HX MaTepHaJIbHhIX K)lJIb'I)1J H CMeHe (,D;8)Ke Heo,D;HOKpaTHOH) O.l(HOH K)lJIb'I)1JhI .n:pyroH. Ozmaxo HCHO H TO, qTO JIOKaJIbHbIe H XpOHOJIOr~ecKHe pa3JI~HH apxeOJIOr~eCKHX KYJIbTYP CaMH no ce6e He B COCTOHHHH onpoaepr-nyrs rHnOTe3Y 0 caBpOMaTCKOcapMaTCKOM npOCTpaHCTBeHHo-.n:HaJIeKTHOM KOHTHH)'YMe, eCJIH paccssarpaaars ero B ,D;HaXPOHHH (,D;OCTaroqHO COCJIaTbCH aa npHBe.n:eHHhIH ssnne nprorep CO "slavene, CI\oRiiHI H T . n.).

Lcx.'OpOJ.l<l'tm H np, 06pa30BaHO B comacaa C npaBHJIOM, .n:eHcTBoBaBIIIHM aa .n:peBHeHmeH CTa,D;HH HCTOPHH HH,D;OHpaHCKHX IDhIKOB: CY<P<PHKC -ma(n)t- npHCOe,D;HHHeTCH K U-, us-/u{-, peace K iOCHOBaM, ero BapHaHT -va(n)t- (rpes. *-FE;,v't-) - KO acess rrpOqHMll7. B .n:aJIbHeHmeM 3Ta ,D;HCTPH6yI.urn YTPa~aeT perynapaocrs, q10 aa HameM MarepHaJIe .n:eMOHCTPHpyIOT 'Icx.~a-J.l<l'tcx.t H 8tcrcx.- J.lcx.'tcx.t 118. Ho H caa no ce6e TaKOH THII

299

J~ TOXT8CbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sarmatae - Synnatae

06Pa30BaHIDI 3nfOHHMOB, KaK roBOPHJIOCh BbIIlIe, HBJUleTCH nmOJIOrWlecKH n03,D,HlfM. Eonee roro, y npyrax apaacxax aapoztos 3THOHHMbI C -mant-Ivant-, Ka)l(eTCH, HeH3BeCTHbI. TIO-BH.u.HMOMY, cnenyer rosopars 06 apeam.nosr cJIoBo06pa30BaTeJIhHOM .u.HaJIeKTH3Me, npWleM ·ICl~ClP.<l"tClt H EhoClP.Cl"tat 06pa30BaHbI ysce no Mo.u.eJIH *sa(u)ru-mata- (csoero poaa «Reimbildungen»), 3THH'IeCKOrO TepMHHa, noxpsmaamero COOOH H H3aMaTOB, H THCaMaroB, H MHOrHX zrpyrax.

XOTH e.u.HHCTBeHHhlM naMHTHHKOM H3hIKa

*saurumata-, CneUHaJIH3HpOBaJIaCh B Ka'leCTBe caMOHa3BaHHH ozraoro H3 HpaHCKHX KO'IeBbIX IIJIeMeH, HOCHBIIIHX ero HMH B xasecrse 061I1ero (cp. TaKYID )l(e CBH3h .lIP. -PYC. GI\OKtHE 'HJIhMeHCKHe CJIaBHHe', Cl106-aKU, Cl106eH-lIbl, Cl106-UHbl C 06IIUIM caMOHa3BaHHeM *slavene - LKACl~TJvoi; mtopxauu (turk) Ha3hIBaJIO cefis nJIeMH, C03,ZJ.aBIlIee B VI B. TIOPKCKHH xaraaar; TOUPKOt paHHeBH3aHIlllicKHXHcroPHKOB, 6aKIp. "t0pKO; TaK )l(e Ha3bIBaJIOCh O,ZJ.HO H3 Ory3CKHX IIJIeMeH (sepasre KJI06YKH) - zrp.vpyc. TOpKH < tork). 3ro IIJIeMH 06HTaJIO 3Ha'lHTeJIhHO BOCTO'lHee TeppHTOpHH

pacnpocrpaaenaa caBpOMaTOB, H3BeCTHbIX IIHCaTeJIHM VI-III BB . no H.3., TaK 'ITO '1aCTh HX, nOHBHBIlIaHCH aa Tarrance OKOJIO cepeznnrsr IV B. HJIH paasme, KaK rOBOpHJIOCh, 6hIJIa OTO)l(.u.eCTBJIeHa 3B.u.OKCOM C caapcxrarasra, cxopee scero, JIHIlIh 6JIaro.u.aPH C03ByqHlO H no 061I1HM COO6pa)l(eHHHM (ror zce 06pa3 )l(H3HH H T. n.).

CaBpOMaTOB HBJUleTCH HX 3THOHHM, H OH MO)l(eT KOe-'1TO .u.aTh )].JIH YCTaHOBJIeHHH 6JIH)I(aHIlIHX po.u.CTBeHHbIX CBH3eH HX H3bIKa. B npOTHBOnOJIO)I(HOCTh CKHcI>cKOMy (HMeHHO - H3bIKY «uapCKHX CKHcI>OB»), rne, no.u.06HO .u.peBHenepCH.u.CKOMY, npaapaa, S nan 0119, LClUPOP.<l"tClt H ztp. orpazcaer s < S (KaK B aBecTHHCKOM H I1pQ1lHX HpaHCKHX IDbIKaX). Orcrona

,

nOHHTHO, 'ITO, B '1aCTHOCTH, npezmonararcr CJIOBa llro xacaercx xpoHOJIOrHH, TO MbI nonysaea

I'eponora IV, 117: «.5I3bIKOM caaponarsr CJIe.u.yIOIIIYIO KapTHHY (KO BceM aar aa naao

nOJIh3Y1OTCH CKHcI>CKHM120, HO rOBOpHT aa HeM npH6aBJUlTh OroBOPKY «OKOJIO»):

H3.u.aBHa C 01IIH6KaMH (O"oAot1ci~oV'w;), TaK KaK 350 r . no H.3. (terminus ante quem):

aMa30HKH YCBOHJIH ero HenpaBHJIhHO» (rrepeson nepecenenae 'IaCTH CHpMaTOB C Oxca B

M.A. IIIHIlIOBOH). Bo scex H3BeCTHbIX H «eaponeacxae» 06JIaCTH, rrpnneraromae K

nOMaIOIQHXCH mrrepnperanaa CBH,ZJ.ereJIhCTBaX HH30BhHM Taaaaca (TIceB.u.o-CKHJIaK, 3B.u.OKC);

H3bIKa CapMa"IOB TaK)l(e HaxO.u.HM s < s . .l!:pyroe caapoxrarsr npO.u.OJI)l(aIOT)I(HTh B «A3HID) (ror ace

Ba)l(HeHIlIee, HO He CTOJIh npeaaee OTJIH'IHe TIceB.u.O-CKHJIaK, 3c1>op);

cxarpcxoro (H3hIKa «UapCKHX CKHcI>OB») OT 300--280 rr. no H.3.: HameCTBHH CaBpOMa"IOB

capuarcxoro: BOCT.-HpaH. 0 « npanpaa. d) He H3-3a Taaaaca, rrpasennrae K 06e3JIIO.u.eHHIO

nozee KOHUa VI B. nepemen B CKHcI>cKOM B I, a B OOJIhIlIeH'IaCTH CKHcI>HH (.D:HO.u.Op);

capMaTCKOM yaepacanca'?'. 300--190 rr . no H.3.: capsrarsr (caapouarsr) B

Hcropserecxa nepBH'IHaH (perynspaas) cI>opMa Macce npO.u.OJI)l(aIOT)I(HTh sa TaHaHCOM (.D:eMerpHii

*sarumata-, BnOJIHe B03MO)l(HO, cocymecrsoaana KaJIJIaTHHcKHii?), nOHBJlIDlCh B «Espone» JIHIlIh,ZJ.IDI

C *sa'Tumata-, HO C xasoro-ro BpeMeHH (He n03)Ke rpatiarenscxax naferos (IPE F 34315: 280 r.) HJIH

KOHUa IV - aasana III B . .u.o H.3.: IPE F 34315 H, pana cfopa .u.aHH C 3aBHCHMhIX rperecxax roponos

BepOHTHO, .l!:eMerpHH KaJIJIaTHHCKHH) CTaJIa (CaHH ztexpera B 'IeCTh Ilpororeaa: 200--190 rr.?)

e,ZJ.HHCTBeHHO yrrorpefiarerrsaoa, CMeHa O.u.HOH H, BepOHTHO, sapsapcxax IIJIeMeH;

cl>OPMhI .zqJyroH .u.OKa3hmaer, 'ITO 3Ta BapHaUHH He 235-200 rr: . zro H.3.: nepeceneaaepoxconaaos

CBH3aHa C TeM, 'ITO B O.u.HOM cnyxae OH CTaJI aa cesep CKHcI>HH Me)l(.u.y T aHaHCOM H

H3BeCTeH rpexass aenocpencraenxo OT ero DopHccI>eHoM; caapoaarsr Bee erne sa TaHaHCOM

HOCHTeJIeH, a B ztpyroa - xepes HHOH3bI'IHOe (3paroccl>eH);

nocpencrso. 179 r . zro H.3.: Far an, naps capvaroa,

cI>opMa *sorumata- (> *siirumata-?), )l(HBYIIIHX B «Espone», 3aKJIIO'IaeT zroronop C

B03 e :rare HCTOPWlecKOro pa3BHTHH /"}

Cl>apHaKOM I (TIoJIH6Hif)122. ,~

llPHMEQAHHH

1. ol{HeBHoA nyIb B YCJIOBHlIX CKHIjJHH Feponor orrpenenser B 200 CTa.1lHeB (Iv, 10 I, 3).

2. Cp. Silberman A (ed.). Pomponius Mela, Chorographie. - Paris, 1988, p. XXXIII suiv.

3. BCTpe'laJOIUeecH B HelIDTOpbIX nepeaonax H HCCJIe.1l0BaHHHX «soxpyr MeoTH.1lbD) - aneuenrapaas oIIm6Kl1, n:epi C aKKY3lITHBOM o603Ha'iaer «OIIDJIO».

4. B .llpyroM MeCTe (Iv, 88) IIJIHHHit nepeHOCHT caBPOMaTOB B EBPOny: OHH HIID6bI lKHayT OT osepa (HJIH peKH?) EYI«lc BbIIIle

300

XepconeccKHii c60pJIIIK. BblnyCK 14 J:t&

MeoTH,llbl no cocencrsy C eccezioaasra - a Buce vero super Maeotim Sauromatae et Essedones; no nofepescsro (Meorazisr) zro Tanaaca - MeOTbl H, HaKOHeQ, apauacnst, sa KOTOPblMH ysce Paneacxae ropsr. Ch'o npo'!{OIDKeHHe rryraaausr C reorpadiaea H :'tTHoreorpaqmeH eBponeHCKOH CKHQ>HH, KOTOpru! Ha'lHHaeTCli YlKe B rJI. 84: CHH,llHKa nepeaecnacs B EBPOny, npeBpaTHBIIIHCb B «06nacTh CKHQ>HIl» (regio Scythiae Sindica nominatur), Tunaaac (= IO. Eyr) anaaaer pYJ<OTBOpHbiM (sic!) YCTheM B 3!IJIHB EYKec II T. zt., CM.: Mallenhoff K. Deutsche Altertumskunde. III. - Berlin, 1892, s. 56 ff.; Kretschmer K. Scythia Sindica II RE. V. Sp. 224. O,!{HHM H3 HCTO'lHHKOB TIJlHHHlI 6bUI 3,!{eCb TIOMUOHIlH MeJIa II, 2: ... Scythae Scytharumque quis singuli oculi esse dicuntur Arimaspoe, ab eisEssedonesusque adMaeotida. huiusflexum Huces amnis secat.Agathyrsi et Sauromatae ambiunt n T.,!{. Ho npyroe CBH,llereJIbCTBO TIJlHHHlI (VIT, 12: ... supra Borysthenen Sauromatas), He CBlI3aHHOe C IV, 88, nO-BH,llHMOMy, nepenaer peansaue ,!{aHHble TOro BpeMeHH, xorzta caspossarsr (capaarsr) '!{eHcTBHTeJIbHO nepeCeJIIlJIHCb na TeppHTopHIO npell<HeH CKIlQ>HH; CM. HHlKe, K Strab. VII, 5, 7.

5. Hecat. FGrHist. 1. F 216 CI!;,tj3<X'tott, CM. npHM. 7), Demetr. Call. FGrHist. 85. F 1 (ap. Ps.-Scymn. 878 sqq. Diller: 100;ot~6t'tott, BMeCTe co CCbUIKOH aa 3q>opa), Ptol. Geogr. V, 9, 16 sq. ('IaE,(](~Ct'tott) H ,!{p. TIpaBMJlbHOe '!TeHMe MOlKHO YCTaHOBHTb JlHlllb ex etymologia, HO <PoPMbl C MIO BO BCliKOM cnysae CJIe,!{YeT npezmoxecrs B sany Lotupo-~6t'tott, Lotp-~Ct'tott, Lup-~Ct'tott, 8taot-

~(]('tott, CM. HMlKe. . I{

6. CM. C JIHT. P. Fabre. La date de la redaction du Periple de Scylax II t.iltt etudes classiques 33. - 1965, p. 353-366. ; L t;:J (

7. B MMM «nepBblH ee napoa aa TIoHTe - CaBPOMaTbl». «TIOHT>} lIBJIlIeTCli aaecs, KOHe'lHO, 06JQHM 0603Ha'leHMeM scero peraoaa (KaK - <:»

aame «Cesepuoe TIpH'IepHOMOpbe}}), a He n06epelKbli tIepHoro MOpll; aHaJIOrH'IHO, aanpavep, Strab. II, 1,41; St. B. s.v. 1~tj36t'tott·

ea~ npo<; 'tC9 rr6v1X9 npocrex,e<; 't'fi LtvOn:'fi (Hecat. FGrHist. 1. F 216).

8. Jloxamnas nerenzta, HMelOlUalI TY lKe npapozry 'ITO npenanas, ,!{aBlIIHe nOBO,!{ K JIOKamnaQIlH KHMMepHHQeB aa Eocnope (oTKy.lla snarer Eocnopa- Kt~"lI!Pto<;, II Ha3BaHl!lI Kuiuepucov, Kiuuepu; II ztp.) H B HIl30BbllX Tapaca (Hdt. IV, 11,4),0 '1eM CM. Anexceea AIO., Ka'laJIOBa H.K., Toxracses C.P. KHMMepllHlIbl: 3THOK)'JlbTYpHali npaaannesenocrs. - CTI6., 1993, c. 30 CJIJI.; Tokhtas'ev S.R. Die Kimmerier in der antiken Uberlieferung II Hyperboreus 2/1. - 19966,;1. 25 ff.

9. ):IeMeTpllH YlKe 3HaeT 0 6aCTapHax B nensre ):IyHalI (F 2 apud Ps.-Scymn. 794 D.), nOllBHBlIIHXCli 3,!{eCb He pansme 20-x rr. ill B. no H.3., Cp.lI(yKHH M.E. 3a6bITbie 6acTapHbi II Stratum plus 5. - CaHKT-TIeTep6ypr-KHIIIHHeB-O,!{ecca, 1999, c. 76.

10. KaK 'Iepe'!{YJOTcJI Sarmaticus, Sarmatis H Sauromatae, -es B npoH3Be,!{eHHlIX OBH,llHlI nepaona H3rHaHl!lI, cp. AB. TIO'!{OCHHOB. OBH,llHH H TIpH'IepHOMOpbe II ):(peBHeHIIIHe rocynapcrsa aa reppnropaa CCCP. - M., 1984, C. 129 CJI. (HO HH pasy Sarmatae).

11. TIocJIe Ieponora B aHTH'IHOH JlHTepaTYPHOH Tpa,llHUHH aascerzta YCTaHOBHJIOCb npencraaneuae, 'ITO rpaaauea MHH H Eaponsi lIBJIlIeTCli Taaaac, TIceB,!{o-CKHMH (872 sqq.) namer; 'ITO TaHlI.I!c «snanaer ,llBYYCTHbIM nOTOKOM B (osepo) naasrsaesroe MeOTH,llOH H B KHMMepHHcKHH Eocnop». Ho OTCIO,!{a HeJlb3l1 3aKJlIO'IHTb, KaK nesoropue HCCJle,!{OBareJIH, 'ITO TlI.I!aHCOM HlI.3BaHa 3,!{eCb Ky6aHb. B HCTO'lHHKe TIceB,!{O-CKHMHa 0 Tanaace rOBOpHJIOCb npH6J1H3HTeJlbHO TaK lKe, KaK Y CTpa60Ha VII, 4, 5: YCThe osepa MeoTH,!{bJ, nassraaerca KHMMepHHcKHM Bocnopou, TIll. TeCHHHa paanenaer MHIO H EBPOny, KaK H TaHaHC, <aeKYJQHH C cesepasrx 06JIacTeH B osepo H ero ycrse; a HMeeT OH ,!{Ba anaaasounrx B osepo PYCJIID} H T. ,!{. (H3 Apreaanopa, CM. Baladin R. (ed.). Strabon. Geographie. Livre VIT (T. IV). Paris. 1989. P. 22); Ha,!{BHfaJOlJlYIOCJI no TeM lKe npH'IHHaM nyTaHHQY Haxo,!{MM y Appaaaa (Per. Ponti, 19, 1 Roos:

T aHaHC, pa3,lleJllllOJQHH MHIO H EBPOny, OTUpaBJIlIlICb OT Meoraau, snanaer B TIOHT; cp. Ps. -Arr. lOr 25 Diller: 'to aWllot tii<; Mottwnoo<; A\.I1~ l]'tOt 'ton TotvCtem<;, H3 nepanna Meaanna (p. 155, 25 Diller) C '!{06aBJIeHHeM CJIOB l]'tOt 'ton T(](v6tem<;) H YlKe BnOJIHe oQ>opMHBJJJYIOCli y Ilpoxonas, B. VITI, 4, 10 H 5, 5 (cp. Diller A The Tradition of Minor Greek Geographers. LancasterOxford. 1952, p. 104, Ill, 6e3 ysera MeCT TIceB,!{O-CKHMHa H CTpa60Ha H 6e3 06'bllCHeHHlI nenopasyaeaaa). AHaJIOfH'IHYIO nozrocnoay HMeeT cOO611leHHe IlJIHHI!lI (n. h. Iv, 87), ynoMHHaJOlllero caaoe Y3KOe MeCTO Eocnopa KHMMepHHcKoro, sepea xoropoe npoxonar rpaaaua MaTepHKOB: aa Eocnope naxonsrca ropona fepMHcHH, MHpMeKHit H BHYTpH ero OCTPOB Anorresa (et intus insulam Alopecen); aa CaMOM nene Anonexa IAnonexaa) -OCTpDB B nensre Taaaacat Strab, XI, 2,3; VII, 4, 5; Pto!. Geogr. ITI, 5, 16), CM. Illenoe ):I.E. TaHaHC II HHlKHHH ):IOH B Ill-I BB.,!{O H. 3. - M., 1970, C. 69 CJI.

12. Cp. Toxracses C.P. II CBO,!{ '!{peBHeHlIIHX nHCbMeHHbIX H3BeCTHH 0 cnaaanax I. - M., 1991, C. 339, KOMM. 29. 1.

13. CM. C JlHT.: BHHOrpa,llOB IOA, Mapseaso K.K., PorOB E.5l. Capaarsr H m6eJlb «BeJJHKOH CKHQ>HH}} II B):(H 3. - 1997, C. 101 CJlJI.; BHHOrpll,!{OB IO.r. Xepconeccxaa nexper 0 «HeCeHHH ):IHOHHCID) IOSPE r 343 H BTOplKeHHe capstaroa B CKHQ>HIO II B):IH 3.- 1997, C. 104 CJlJI.; BHHOrpa,llOB IO.A Ceaepaoe Ilpavepnouopse nocne naaenaa BeJIHKOH CKHQ>HH II Hyperboreus 5. - 1999, N2 1, C. 56-81; Mensenee ATI. PaHHHH lKeJIe3HblH BeK necocrermoro TIO,!{OHbli. - M., 1999, C. 145-152; Anexcees AID. XPOHOrpaQ>HJI EBponeHcKOH CKI!Q>IlH VII-IV BB. ,!{O H.3. - CTI6., 2003, C. 250 CJI.; He06xo'!{HMO OTMeTHTb TaKlKe BalKHYIO peQeH3HIO H.B. EpYliKO aa KHHI)' C.B. TIOJIHHa «Or CKHQ>HH K CapMaTHH» (KHeB, 1992) B: B):IH 1. -1995, C. 230-237, ocofi, - 235, H 60JIee pa3BepHYTOOH lKe. 0 coosrraax lll B.,!{O H. 3. B Cenepo-Sanaanou Ilpanepuoaopse z/ B.LU11. -1999, C. 76-91; fJIe60B B.Il. Eme pas 0 npo6JIeMe III BeKa,!{O H. 3. II Bocnopcxaa Q>eHOMeH II. - CTI6., 2002, C. 186-197.

14. CM. Flaschar H. in: Aristoteles. Werke in deutscher Ubersetzung. Bd. 18. - Berlin, 1972.$ 82, (c JIHT.).

15. 3THOHHM LotrI1Ct't(](t eme pas ynoaanaercs HM B KOHCneKTe n03,!{HeaHTH'IHOro HCTOPHKa OJIHMUHO'!{Opa, Cod. 80, p. 60b, I, caaponaroa HeT name.

16. ABTOPOM Vaticanus C'IHTaeTCli HCHroH H3 HHKeH; TIO OCHOBHOH HCTO'IHHK Q>JlOpeHTHHCKOro napaaoxcorpada (cp. npHM. 17), xoroporo B npoJJJJlOM 0lllH60'lHO H,lleHTl!Q>HQHpoBaJIH C nepanareraxoa COTHOHOM.

17. CM. Ohler H. Paradoxographi Florentini anonymi opusculum de aquis mirabilibus ... Diss. - Tuebing, 1913, p. 41, n.

18.0 BpeMeHH nepsoro aKTHBHOro BblCTYUJIeHI!lI capaaros B Ilonaenposse no CBe,!{eHI!lIM aHTH'IHbIX IIHCbMeHHbIX HCT01JHHKOB II ACf3 13. -1971, C. 45 CJI.

19. Rostowzew M. Skythien und der Bosporus. L - Berlin, 1931, S. 123 f. He 60Jlee ,!{OKll.3YeMO MHeHHe AH. Illernosa (Cesepo- 3ana,!{HblH KpbIM B aHTH'IHYIO snoxy - JI., 1978, C. 129), narapoaasurero paccxas 06 AMare nepBbIMH '!{eClITHJIeTHJlMH 1lI B., Ha'l8JlbHbIM TIanOM CKHQ>CKOro HarHCKa na Xepconec; sa HHM - <1>. Eosa. TIHcbMeHHbie HCTO'lHHKH 0 capaarax (IV -I BB. ,!{O H. 3.) II CTaTHCTH'IeCKal! 06pa60TKa norpeoansasrx n8MllTHHKOB MHaTcKoH Capsraraa. BblII. IT. - M., 1997, C. 37 (rrperennyiomas aa HOBeHlIIHH 0630p nnreparypasrx HCTO'lHHKOB, HO B ueJIOM 6ecIIOJIe3Hal! crarss).

20. Harmatta J. Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians. - Szeged, 1970, p. 16 ff

21. Cp. C JlHT. 3aHQeB IO.Il. CKHJIYP Hero QapcTBO II B,[{H 2. - 1999, C. 143; TIY3.llPOBCKHH AE. 3THH'IecKali HCTOPI!ll KPblMCKOH CKHQ>HH (IT B. ,!{O H.3. - ill B. H.3., II XC6. X. - CeBaCTOnOJlb, 1999, C. 210.

301

J~ TOxracbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sarmatae - Syrmatae

22. COrJIaCHO 3paroclJ>eay, nap8JIJIeJIb Tyne OTCTOHT OT napamreJUf Bopaopeaa (T. e. ero YCTWI) aa 11500 CTlI,llHeB, Strab. I, 4, 4.

23. Cp, Baladie. Op. cit p. 197, n. 1 ad p. 101. I'annapx (lIKMe OKOJIO 161-127 rr.) Mor aanacars 0 caepouarax K cesepy OT MCOTH,llb( (cp. HHlKe), passe 'ITO OCHOBbIBlISICb na COBepmeHHO ycrapeaurea HHCPOpMaIiHH, BO 'ITO Tpy,lIHO nosepars, oc06eHHO Y'IHTbIBlISI KaK HaytlHbli!: ypoaeas Farmapxa, TaK H TO, 'ITO peqb H,lIeT 0 nOJIeMHqeCKOM COqHHeHHH.

24. fO.llbl lKH3HH .lIOJIrolKHTeJIJI (Ps.-Luc. Macrob. 27) 3paroC(jxlHa B TOqHOCTH He YCTaHOBJIeHhI; HanHCaHHe «feorpa4>H'IecKHX 3aIIHCOIO) OTHOClIT KO BpeMeHH nOCJIe 235 r., KOma OH CTaJI sasenoaan, AlieKCaH,lIPHi!:cKOit 6H6J1MOTeKOit, 6J1MlKe K KOHIzy III B.

25. B VII, 3, 17 POKCOJIaHbI npeepamaiorca B O.llHO H3 nneaea 6acTaPHOB - CJIe.llCTBHe Hey;LlaqHoro coeaaneaas 3THorpruj>H'IecKOro 3KCKYPCa 0 OOCTapHax (H3 IIocH,lIoHHR, cornacao Eanazu.e, Op. cit. p. 20) H <pparMeHTa 06mereorpa<PHqeCKoi!: KOHCTpyKlIHH, onpe.lleJlJlIOmeD cesepaue npeaenu oi!:KYMeHbI: (nocne OnHCaHHR nJIeMeH Me)l(.lly EoPHC<PeHOM H HCTpoM) (<BHYTPH MaTepMKa - OOCTapHbI, cocezmae C rapereraxa H repMaHUaMH, 6myqH H CaMH nexoropsrx 06pa30M repMaHCKoro poaa, ztensnmeca aa MHorHe nneuena (qroA<X); BC.lIb aesoropue Ha3blBaIOTCR aTMOHaMH H CH,lIOHaMH, 3aHl1BIIIHe lKe IIeBKy, OCTpoB na Hcrpe, neBKHHaMH [aaecs - IIIOB Me)l(.lly 3KCUepIITaMH], POKCOJIaHbI lKe - casrsre ceaepaue, HaCeJlJlIOmHe paBHHHbI MelK.U)' TaHaHCOM H EopHc<peHoM. Bezn, BCR 06pameHHaR K cesepy (crpana) OT Fepuaaaa no Kacnas RBJlJleTCR PaBHHHOD, HacKOJIbKO Mbl 3HaeM; lKHBeT JIH KTO-TO asnue POKCOJIaHOB, Mbl He 3HaeM». OqeBH,lIHO, npaBHJIbHhlM 6blJl0 6bI: «POKCOJIaHbI lKe - canste ceaepnsre H3 napsapoa» (HJIM: 3.lIelIIHHX Hapo.D;OB) H T . .lI. H, cy.lllI no n. 5,7 H VII, 3, 17, npH6J1M3HTeJIbHO TaK H CTOllJIO B HCXO.llHOM TeKCTe c1'pa60HoBCKOfO sxcneprrra, 26. IIoHRTHR H caaoro TepMHHa «CapMaTHR» roma He cymeCTBOBaJIO, T. K. capMaTbl eme He aacenana Cesepaoe Ilpasepsovopse (CM. HHlKe); COOTBeTCTBeHHO Bee 3.lIelIIHHe Hapo.D;bI, OC06eHHO B reorpadiaxecxax KOHCTPYKUHRX rJI06aJIbHOro xapaxrepa, MOrJIH HMeHOBInbCR B006me (KOtV~) CKH<paMH (cp. Strab. XI, 8, 2: KOtVc$ ... ~K'6eoo; oVOjJ.<X'tt K<XAOOOtV, 0 qacm <<BOCTOqHbIX CKH<PoB»).

27. Cp, Lasserre (ed.). Strabon. Geographie. Livre Xl (T. VITI). Paris. 1975. P. U.

28. C1'pa60H laMeHHJI «caapoaaros» 3paroc<PeHa na 60JIee cOBpeMeHHbJit TepMHH (TaK lKe - B XI, 2, 1). Cp. VII, 3, 13: CKH<pbI, OOCTapHbl H CaBPOMaTbl, HO H «CKH<PcKHD H capMaTCKHD aapon B311Tblit B ueJIOM» B VII, 4, 8 - B o60HX CJI}"lalIX H3 IIocH,lloHHR (Baladie, Op. cit p. 20).

29. Cp, TaKlKe Strab. Il, 5,31; XI, 2, 1; B OCHOBe MOryT JIelKlITb COO6meHHR apone Hellan. (Jacoby E (ed.). Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, 4. F 69: «asnne CHH,lIOB - MCOTbI-CKH<pbl»).

30. Cp, VTI, 2, 4, me non «MeCTHOCTRMH no EopHC<PeHY H K cesepy OT IIoHTa», HeCOMHeHHO, nO.lljJa:3YMeBaeTCR ra lKe HaH60JIee cesepaaa OM8CTb CKH<pHH, me, no 3paTOC<peay, lKHJIM POKCOJIaHbI, HO C1'pa60H (H3 IIocH,lIoHHlI?), nomcyscs HOBeitlIIHMH .lIaHHbIMH, noxemaer ee na napannenn 3JIb6bl.

3l. AfiaeB B.H. CKH<Po-capMaTCKHe HapeqHR II OCHOBbI HPaHCKOro R3blI<03HaHHR. ~peBHeHpaHcKHe R3bIKH. - M., 1979, C. 334; cp, HHlKe, npHM. 40. Ilepsoe TOqHO zrarapoeanaoe CBH,lIeTeJIbCTBO capaar; 1- HMR capaarczoro napa rcX't<XAO<; (Polyb, XXVI, 6, 13), HO OHO He HMeeT HlI,llelKHoil: 3THMOJIOmH. B KOHue IV B . .lIO H.3. naps CHpaKOB, KOTOpbIX npHqHCJlJlIOT K paHHeCapMaTCKHM nJIeMeHaM (cp. TOXTaCbCB C.P. Bocnop H CHH.lIHKa B snoxy Jleaxoaa I II B~H 3. - 2004, C. 178 H npHM. 144), HOCHJI HMR 'Apt-cpcXpVTJ<; (Diodor, xx, 22, 4) < *Arya-farna(hh B KOTOpoM rpynna ry eme COxpaIDIJIaCb.

32. Cpo npHM. 92. COnOCTaBJIeHHe capMaT. Ip-Bu; Ip-<XJ.l-j3o,¥('tou] (KEH 124220; < *V-rra-ham-busta-; cp, Au-Boooro; 127825; 1.;'_' RecK. Ambultan, Gombocz Z. O~es et Iazyges II Revue des etUdes hongroises 1-2. - 1925, p. 9: leg. Ambustan < *Ham-bust~a-) C ~ IAj3to<; (IPE P 836' OJIbBHR) YKalhiBaeT aa B03MOlKHOCTb cnopaznorecxoro nepexozia r> I non BJIHRHHeM i B CJIe.llYlOmeM cnore, KaK

B OCeTHHCKOM, cp, talm < *Sarmi- (A6aeB B.H. HcroPHKo-3THMOJIOmqeCKHH CJIOBapb OCCTHHCKOro R3blKa Ill. - M.-JI., 1958-1989,

C. 226) a np,

33. Cp. Schwyzer Ed. Griechische Grammatik. 1. - Munchen, 1953, S. 262 ff.

34. Cp. Mtepo-ilcX'tT]<; BMecTO Mt9pa-ilcX'tT]<;, Pe~<xvo<; (osesaaao, no-rpesecsor HMR 'lJIeHHJIOCb He Peu-PotJ.<X~ KaK BhIXO.llHT 3THMOJIOmqeCKH (CM. npHM. 37), a Peuoo-uuvoq) H T. n.

35. CM. C JIHT.: Vasmer M. Untersuchungen uber die altesten Wohnsitze dec Slaven I II Die Iranier in SiidruBIand. - Lpz., 1923, S. 49.

36. Beposrao, Ilocanonaa, CM. Baladik, Op. cit. p. 20.

37. Bo BTOPOM KOMnOHeHTe, BepolITHO, *-narya-, HO OCTaJIbHoe HCliCHO. Peua/~o MOlKeT nepeaasars *rev(a)x§" < * raivaxS" (<PopMaJIbHO -c coxpanreaaex *1'(1)> eu); cp. nepc. Peo-~1.9pTJ~ (Xen, Cyr. VITI, 8,4; AIr. An. I, 12,8 H ztp.) < *Raiva-miSra- (Hinz W. Ahiranisches Spracbgut der Nebenilberlieferungen. - Wiesbaden, 1975, S. 196: '60raTbJit 6JIarO.l1apR MHrpC' HJIH non; cp.-nepc. Rev-mihr, Gignoux Ph. Noms propres sassanides en moyen-perse epigraphique (Iranisches Personennamenbuch. II12). - Wien, 1986, p. 154; Ta lKe OCHOBa, aeposrao, B capxar. Peo-poucevoc (lPE P 103); Peu-pouopoc (HO 9010111), C *raman-l*riimar- 'noKoil:, MHP' BO sropoa sacra (cp. P<x~<xv-<x'Yo~ 886 H, nO-BH,lIHMOMy, B A~CJ)-p<x~<Xpo~ IPE P 262). O.llHaKO conOCTaBJIeHHe Peu~t-v<XAot C lliKOt-P<XUK<Xt : 'PeUK<X-vcXAot (HHlKe) H, B03MOlKHO, raicee capssar, ~e'llp-<X'Y B KEH 109912 (V B.) H fu'llpo<p<X; 698 (TI B.; 3THMOJIOmH 3THX HMeH TOlKe He BblRCHeHbI) CTaBHT HOBbIe aonpocsr. Ilepexozi eu > <Xu BCTpeqaeTCR B rpesecsoa JIHIIIb B nepH<pepHDHbIX .lIHaJIeKTax (aneacx., .lIeJIb<fI., apxazt., aproccx., .lIOp. (Tepa): <XF < eF, Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik ... , S. 198) H B KODHe (TOlKe nOCJIe p), HO TOJIbKO B .lIBYX CJIOBax: epauvcXc.o, epauvT]-r% < epeuv" < *peFv" B HlI,llnHCRX C I B . .lIO H.3., emneTCKHX nanapycax C I B. H. 3., B Cerrryaraare H HOBOM 3aseTe (Blass E, Debrunner A., Rehkopf F. Grammatik: des neutestamentlichen Griechisch. - Gottingen, 1984, S. 24 f. § 30. 4; Bauer w., Aland K., Aland B. Griechisch-deutsches Worterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments. BerlinNew York, 19886. Sp. 620 f.), AaU1CcX (Schwyzer Griechische Grammatik ... , S. 198). Ho pezrox H nepexozt B npoTHBOnOJIOlKHOM aarrpaaneaaa <xu > eu; 'YAeu1Ct~6~ B nanapycax TIl-IV BB. (Schwyzer Griechische Grammatik ... , S. 198), AeuK<xv1.T] (aapaay C roMep. AauK"), KOTOpoe 06bllCHlieTCR C6JUflKeHHeM C AeUKO<; (Chantraine P. Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque. TI. - Paris, 1968, p. 623), H 3THMOJIOrH'leCKH nescaoe ne're'llpov (B03MOlKHO, ranepxoppexraaa <popMa.llJlll ne't<X'Ilpov, Chantraine, Dictionnaire ... , TIl, p. 891 suiv.). C.lIeJIaTb BbI60p noxoraer TO, 'ITO .lIH<ProHr ai COXpaHlIJICli B capaarcxax .lIHaJIeKTaX He TOJIbKO Ha'lana TI B . .lIO H.3. (cp. llit't<X-<p<Xpv-, HHlKe), HO .lIalKe BO TI-Ill BB. H.3. (HeCKOJIbKO npHMepoB CM. B npHM. 40): eu B PeuoOTpalKaeT He ev < aiv, a <pm<yJIbTaTHBHoe CYlKeHHe [a], T. e. npoHCXO.lIHT H3 <xu < av (*Rav(a)ka-). AHaJIOmqHoe xepeztoeaane B 3THOHHMe HIDICHe.llYHalicKHX KeJIbTOB: evtot ... 'tOil<; T<x'Ilp1.C1KO~ ... TeUp1.aKOU~ ... qxxcn (Strab. VII, 3, 2), BepOliTHO, TOlKe lIBJlJleTCR <paKTOM rpexecaoro Jl3blKa (no JII06e3HOMY }'Ka3aHHIO A.H. <I>aJIHJIeeBa, B KeJibTCKOM au .lIOJllKeH 6bIJI COXpaHHTbClI: *taur-isk-). TaKHM 06pa30M, Peu.;tv<xAOt MOlKHO paccvarpasars KaK MBa JIM He caaoe pamree CBH,lIeTeJibCTBO <xu [av] > eu lev] B KOitHe. O.llHaKO Heo5WiCHHMoe aa rpesecxojl rtonse or (B 3TO BpeMR aasaaaerca nepexozt [oi] > [iil) B Potpouupo; B TOM lKe nOCBlImeHHH AxHJIJIy HO 9016' me 3acBH,lIeTeJibCTBoBaHO HanHCaHHe PeupOjJ.<XpO<; (TOT lKe aropanoul; paanaxaerca H opporperpaa .lIBalK.lIhI aanacaaaoro naTpoHHMHKIl: Let1t£A<X'YOU H 1:tx"), nOlKanyit, ysaasraaer aa orpaxeaae KaKHX-TO 6JIMlKe HeH3BecmbIX OC06eHHOCTeit capstarcsoro

302

XepcoHeccKBii c60pllHK. BhIIlyCK 14 It-.

npoasaotueaaa (O'leBH,lUfo, etne 3HaKOMOro Pespoaapy KOTOPblli JIH'IHO COCTaBJlJlJI - eypa1jfe - pyKOnHCHbm OpHnlHaJI HlI,lInHcH), npezmonararomax, KIDKeTClI, 'ITO C)')ICeHHe av > ev (H ztenee B [0]) HMeJIO MeCTO)')ICe B capMaTCKOM (3aMe'laHHe H3,lIaTeJIeH HO, 'ITO «nepezroaaaae eu H or BnOJIHe ,lIOnyCTHMO ,lIJIJI ororo BpeMeHH;; HenOHliTHO, a CCbIJIKa na rpaMMaTH'IecKHH osepx AM. ,1:(OBllT)'pll B KEH 01llH60'lHa).

38. MO)ICHO 6b1JIO 6bI npezmonoaorrs Menrre3y, Cpo B PYKonHCliX Crpsfoaa VII, 2, 4: 'Pa~avCtA.ou<;, 'Pa~vCtA.ou<; H ztp, ,lIJIJI oaaaaaureroca nepenacuaxax He non CHJIY 'PwI;oA.avou<;; HO Ha3BaHHlI pacxonsrcs H B nepaox cnore (00 H EU), npH'IeM EU (KaK H au B 1:aKCtpauKat, HH)lCe) HHKaK He MO)ICeT cxpsraars au, KOTOPbm KO II B. ,lI0 H.3. (K KOTOpoM)' OTHOCliTCli ,lIaHHble CTpa60Ha»)')ICe ,lIaBHO MOHrnPTOHrH3HPOBaJICli BO scex HpaHCKHX 1I3blKaX (CM. HH)lCe).

39. CM. KOMMeHTapHil Jlarsnueaa B IPE II. Add., p. 268 ad N2 862, aocnpoaaaeaeaasrn B KEH.

40. B ITatptcraA.o<; ('1aCTO aa Eocnope, Ha'lHHaJI C KOHl.\a II B. ,lI0 H.3., KEH 266 H ztp.) napszry C A. coxpaaaercs rpynna pt; npHXQlIHTCli npeanonoaorn, BJIHlIHHe 60cnopcKOro ,lIHHaCTH'IecKOro HMeHH ITatptcr6001]C;, nO,ll,lle~aHHOe,llHCCHMHJIlITHBHOli TeH,lleHl.\Heli

(cp. Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik ... , S. 258). Cpo Il1]pt![ HJIH (KaK B KEH) Il1]pt?£-'··4_, cpla~lO{uc;?l KEH 128229 (228 r. H.3., l~., OT'IeCTBO CTHpaHa, 1:"t\)pavo<;: capaarcxoe HMlI); aa KaMHe ,lIOCTltrO'lHO MeCTa,llJIJI BOCCTaHOBJIeHHlI IT 1]pt!taA.ou; K at : 1J cp, Kat va- 'V ~ap9D<; : K1JvE-~ap9o<; (IPE P 913; 3334, npaxepno 'roro )ICe BpeMeHH) < * Kaina-xsaera-. Bepoarao, K roa )ICe OCHOBe capsrar.

ITatpaKD<; (KEH 480) H Il1]paKD<; H3 OJIbBHH (IPE P 995), y,lIep)ICaBIIIHe ,lIHcpToHr, aecuorps aa nanenne CPHHaJIbHOro -i B OCHOBe. B03MO)KHO, pe'lb H,lIeT 0 rHnOKOPHCTHKaX OT KOMn03HTOB C *pairi_ spozre Ilatpt-cr6001jc;; cp, ,lIp.-HH,lI. rHnoKOpHCTHKH Parila-, Upaka-,

-ika-, -ila- OT HMeH C npecpHKCaMH pari-, upa-, Velze J. A van. Names of Persons in Early Sanscrit Literature (Proefschrift ... Rijksuniv.

te Utrecht. 1938), p. 109, 158. N. 618; 109.

41. I1paHcKHe HMeHa-3THHKOHbI HJIH COKpaII\eHHll KOMn03HTOB C 3THOHHMH'IeCKOli ocaonoa CM. Schmitt R. Persepolitanisches II KZ 87. - 1973,$.20 f.; Mayrhofer M. Onomastica Persepolitana. - Wien, 1973, ~ 281.

42. I1Ml1, OTp8)KaIOlI\ee ,lIeHCTBHTeJIbHOe npoacxoaoienae ,lIHHacTHH, Bocnpoh'3BO,llHT apXaH3HpyIOII\ee ynOTpc6JIeHHe 1:o;uPOIlCt'tat BMeCTO UxpJ.lCt't01:t B rpesecxoa nareparype.

43. K ~ > o cp, Toxracses C.P. 113 OHOMaCTHKH Cesepaoro Ilpaxepaoaopsa: X-XVII 1/ Hyperboreus 6/1. - 2000, C. 130 H npaa. 29 (sztecs no aeztocxorpy rosoparca 0 peBKCHHaJIax B OJIbBHliCKOM zrexpere B '1eCTh Ilpororeaa).

44. CM. C JIHT.: Vasmer, Untersuchungen ... ,,~ 49.

45. AIl. Meneenes (Meztsezrea A.Il. PaHHHli )lCeJIe3Hblli BeK JIeCOCTenHoro Iloaoass ... , C. 150) cnpaaennaso nozrsepioraaer; 'ITO ,l(HO,llOp rOBOpHT He 0 3aBOeBaHHH, a 06 onycToIIIeHHH CKHCPHH H HCTpe6JIeHHH «no6e)K,lleHHbIX B BoliHe;; (Ka'ta1t0A.EIl1Jgev'ta<;). 46. CM. JIHT. B npHM. 13 H HH)lCe, npHM. 50. C POKCOJIaHaMH 3paroccpeHa MO)KHO 6bIJIO 6bI CB1I3ltrb npaxue H KOCBeHHble CBH,lIeTeJIhCTBa npacyrcrsas capsraron B JIeCOCTenHOM Ilcnoase H npHJIeraIOlI\HX CTenHbIX paaoaax, 0 KOTOPbIX CM.: Menaenes All. K sonpocy 0 BpeMeHH nOllBJIeHHlI capaaros B neCOCTenHOM Ilononse 1/ Ilpo6JIeMbI xpononorna capuarcxoa KYJIbryPbI. - Caparos, 1993, C. 29 en.

47. )I HaMepeHHo H36eraI03,lIeCb H HH)lCe 06cy)K,lleHHlI scero KJIY6Ka npo6neM, CBlI3aHHbIX C 3THM ,lIeKpeTOM, T. K. TIO cnocotiao 3aBeCTH CJIHiliKOM ,lIaJIeKO. Il03TOM)' ,lIaJIbHeliIIIee H3nO)ICeHHe ,lIaHO B Te3HCHoli cpopMe H 6e3 KaKOli-JIH60 ,lIHCKYCCHH. Ha Moil sarnszt, nexper 6bIJI H3,lIaH B KOHl.\e III HJIH Ha'laJIe II B. ,lI0 H.3. H co061I\aeT 0 C06bITHlIX C KOHl.\a III HJIH py6e)ICa III/II BB. H npauepao ,lI0 190 r. ,lI0 H.3.

48. EcJIH 1:atO<; B KEH 88 (II B.) lIBJlJleTClI, KaK 06bI'IHO C'IHTIUOT, HMeHeM-3THHKOHOM apone Peixn vaA.D<;, HOMHHaTHB ,lIOJI)KeH 6bITh 1:o;tOt.

49. Haafonee H3BeCTHOM)' TOJIKOBaHHIO - K ztp-npaa, *xSay- 'CHlITb', 'npaaan,' HJIH non, (coOTBeTCTBeHHO *xSaya- H "xsaita-), KaK B HMeHax CKHCPCKHX pO,llOHa'laJIbHHKOB 'Ap1t6-~a'l<;, KoA.Ct-~atc;, At1t6-~at<; (EpayH <1>. Pa3bICKaHHlI B 06naCTH roTo-cnaBlIHCKHX OTHOlIIeHHH. - CIl6., 1899, C. 94 cn.; A6aeB, Cxado-capaarcxae Hape'lHll ... , C. 310, 340; Harmatta, Studies in the History ... , p. 94 f., Add. 107), npensrcrsyer CU2Ma BMeCTO O)ICH,lIaeMOH KCU: COOTBeTCTBHe zip-nparr. xs- : o- (B '1aCTHOCTH, B cnosax OT TOH )ICe OCHOBbI "xsay-) acrpeaaerca TOJIbKO B nepenasax zrpeanenepcanciorx H MH,lIHlicKHX enos (cra'tp1tl1<; < *xSaerapa-, 1:a"tpa(36r:tl1<; < *XSa9rapata- H T. n.), orpazcaa Ha'laBIIIHlicli nepexozi xs- > s-, xapaxrepaua ,lIJIlI aananaoapaaciorx 1I3blKOB. CCblJIKa Asaeaa aa fu-rpaK1j<; y Appaana (Anab. rv, 4, 8: naps cpe,llHea3HltrCKHXCKHCPOB, T. e. CaKOB) neztoxaaarensaa, T. K. HMlI CTaJIO H3BeCTHO rpesaa, KOHe'lHO, sepes nepcaacxoe nocpeztcrao, B BOCTO'lHOHPaHCKHX 1I3blKaX npesne- H cpezmeapaacsnro nepaonoe (CM. 0630p: 3,l1eJIbMaH ,1:(.11. Cpaauarensaaa rpaMMaTHKa BOCTO'lHOHpaHCKHX 1I3bIKOB. <1>oHOJIOrHlI. - M., 1986, c. 116 cn.) OH, KpOMe n03,l1HO 3acpHKCHPOBaHHOro XOTaHCKOro, H3BeCTeH TOJIbKO B 6aKTpHlicKOM, npH'IeM JIHIIIh C KYIIIaHCKOro BpeMeHH; CBH,lIeTeJIhCTBO II B. ,lI0 H.3. B rpesecsoa 3aIIHCH naer xs; 3aBpavvo<; < *Xsa9riin (Grenet F. L' onomastique iranienne a Ai-Khanum II BCH 107. - 1983, p. 380); B capMaTCKOM xS COXpaHlIeTCli BO acex n03HI.\HlIX (06 oco60M cnyxae ~cr B aanayre - PEU~lVaA.O\ : PeucrtvaA.o<;, CM. npHM. 43:

Kone6aHHe B CaMOM rpesecxoa) HJIH, KaK B OceTHHCKOM, cosnaaaer C xs; CM.: Zgusta L. Die Personennamen griechischer Stadte der nordlichen Schwarzmeerkuste, - Praha, 1955, § 384; Harmatta, Studies in the History ... , p. 94 (aanpaxep, 3<xp9avo<; KEH 128711 = 6aKTp. 3a9pavvo<;); Cpo TaK)lCe 31]q>apvouyou/hsyprnwg (*Xse-furnug), HMlI H6epHlicKoro uapa II B. H.3., CY,llll no BceMy, capaarcxoro npoHCXO)K,lleHHlI, Ileperena f. B. APMa3CKalI 6HJIHHrBa. - T6HJIHCH, 1941, c. 22 cn.; Donner H., R611ig W. Kanaanaische und ararnaische Inschriften. - Wiesbaden, 1962, N~ 276.

50. Ilo BCeH BH,lIHMOCTH, ,lIa)Ke sa Taaaacou HJIH B npHneraIOII1HX K ero HH30BbliM esponeacxax 06nacTlIx; cp. BHHOrpa,llOB, Xepcoaeccxaa ztexper ... , c. 123 cn., npHM. 96; BHHOrpa.nOB, Cesepaoe Ilpavepaoaopse ... , c. 76. B.Il. Fnefon (Fnefioa, Eme pas o npofirresse III BeKa,110 H. 3 ... , C. 194) rnmrer 06 «apxeonorasecsoa JIaKYHe npH6JIH3HTeJIbHO OT aasana HJIH nepson TpeTH III B. ,lI0

H.3. ,lI0 py6e)ICa III-II B[B];; na HH)lCHeM ,1:(OHY, xorna szrecs BHOBb nOllBJIlIIOTCli naMllTHHKH, npaxaanexaurae, no ero MHeHHIO, HOBOil BOJIHe CapMaTOB.

51. K 061I\eil xapaxrepacrnxe CH~HH terra deserta «<.nHKoe none») B npescnea CKHCPHH C Hj~a III ,lI0 cepeztaasr II B. CM. Anexceea, XPOHOrpaCPHll ... , C. 251\fHHorpa.noB, XepcOHeCCKHli ztexper ... , c. 123 cn.; BHHOrpa.n01 Cesepaoe Ilpmepaoaopse ... , c. 67 en,

52. CM. Baaorpanoa IO.r. Ilonarusecsas HCTOPHli OJIbBHilcKOro nOJIHca. - M., 1989, c. 230 CJIJI. (pasaen «Ilporeicropar CKHnypID;). Ilo HOBeHIIIHM .D;aHHbIM, BpeMli npaBJIeHHlI CKHJIYpa onpeztensercs MelK.llY 130 H 114/113 IT. ,lI0 H. 3., CM. C lIHT.: 3aill.\eB IO. II. Heanorn, CKHcpCKHli. - CHMcpeponOJIb, 2003, c. 43. Cp, Gavrilov A.K. Das Diophantosdekret und Strabon II Hyperboreus 2/1. -

1996, s. 159-168.

53. BHHOrpa.nOB IO.f., 3aHI.\eB IO.Il. HOBblH 3nHrpacpH'IeCKHli naMllTHHK H3 Heanons CKHCPCKOro II Apxeonoria l , - 2003, c. 46 CJIJI.;

303

J~ TmcracbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sarmatae - Syrmatae

3aiiueB, HearIOJIb CKH«PcKllit ... , c. 43 CJI., 52,110, pHC. 40.

54. Bnpoxeu, (<MeoTbI», C KOTOpblMH BoeB8JI Cxanyp, BnOJIHe B03MOlKHO, aa caMOM J1eJIe lIBJIlIIOTCli 06HTaBWHMH no (BOCTO'lHbIM?) 6eper8M MeOTMJlbI CapM8faMH; K 3TOH MbICJIH Htl3asHCHMo npHWeJI H IO.A Banorpaaos (YCTHo). YnOMHHaHHe <PPIIKHHueB onpeJleJIeHHo )'K83bIB8eT aa CBlI3H CKH<pHH CKHnyp8 C 38JIYHaHCKOH CKH<pHeH.

55. Baladie, Op. cit. p. 20; cp, VII, 3, 13 H BblIIIe, npHM. 28. Haase, HO Hey6emrrem.Ho - BHHOrpa,nOB, XCPCOHecCKHH J1cKpeT ... , C. 122, npHM. 89 (lIK06bI 3paroc¢eH).

56. BHHOrpa,!lOB, TIOJIHTHqecK8lI HCTOpHll ... , C. 231.

57. Baladie, Op. cit. P. 22.

58. Ibid., II, 5, 30; 31; III, 2, 4; 3, 13; VII, 3, 13;App. Mithr. 71,234, 293, 594; Casso Dio LN, 20, 3; LV, 30,4 H T . .11. HaH60JIee lIPKHH npHMep qepeJlOBaHHlI Tp8,1lHUHoHHoro H aosoro HaHMCHOBaHHH HaxOJIHM B napa.1IJIeJIbHbIX CBH,lICTeJlbCTBllX Anrmaaa H Crpa60Ifa:

fuupolJ.IXWV 01: UjXxcri.A.elOl KIXt. 'Io:~uyec;, App. Mithr. 293; oi 10:~uyec; L!XpI!O:'lXXl KIXt OljXxcri.A.elOl A.ey4J_evol, Strab. VII, 3, 17. .

59. A6aeB, CKH¢o-cafN8fCKHe aaperaa ... , C. 305: lliupOllO:1Xln: (<MO)J(CT 6b1Tb = OC. saw-tm-a-tt' qepHOPYKHe' HJIH . cM)TJIoPYKHe' »; L.~ cp, OH :>Ke. HCTOPHKO-3THMOJIOrHqeCKHH CJIOBaPb III ... , C. 43, rzre 3THOHHM conocraafserca C HMeHeM Sauromaces (Amm. Marc.

XXVII, 12,4: quis auctoritas Romana praefecit Hiberiae), J1P.-rpY3. Saurmag, Surmag, .lIp.-apM. Surmag: «Bepo»THO = oc. saw-sam 'CM)TJIOPYKHH' + cyq,q,. -ag». To )J(e HM» Haxo,nHM B oceTHHCKOM - Sawrmeeg (rrpaseneao Y JI.3. Mcepaaana: K 60cnopcKoH OHOMaCTHKe II I06HJIeHHbIH c60pHHK B qeCTb Be, <1>. MHJlJIepa. - M., 1900, C. 25), HCTOJIKOBarb KOTOpoe H3 saw-lm(ag) ~e TOqHO l';:p HeB03MOlKHO. ""-

60. O)J(H,lIaJIOCb 6b1 qrO-HH6)'J1b spone *fuUCXPI.I.IX'lXX1., XOT», npa )J(eJIaHHH, MO)J(HO npennoaosom, MCTare3y.

61. TIoqeMY 'qepHbrn' .lIOJl)J(HO C~HTb nOJIO)J(HTeJIbHOH KOHHOTaUHeH? KpacHBblMH cqHTaJIHCb 6eJIble PYKH, npHqeM 'oo.JIb!it' B TaKHX 0603HaqeHHlIX lIBJ1l1JIC» CHHOHHMOM 'xpscusoro' (CM. Wackernagel J. Kleine Schriften. Gottingen. - 1953, S. 355 ff.): aaecr, aurusa.bazu- '6eJIOPYK8li' (0 KpacHBbIX .lIeBYIIIKax), rpes. A.eUKOOA.eVoc; 'OOJIOJIOKOTH8lI' (roaep., 0 Iepe H cMepTHbIX :>KeHIUHHax), A.eUK01tl!XUC; 'TO )J(e' «(SAl! A.euK'IJ KIXl. KIXAT), Hesych.); Cpo T8K)J(e AeUKIX01tlC; 'c OOJIbIM IUHTOM' (X 293, 3nHTeT .[(eH<p06a). Ho xpacora 6oroB H ~eH 6b1J18 npeHMYIIIeCTBeHHo HHOro CBOHCTBa, OHH 6bIJIH 'MOmHoPYKHe', '.lIoJIroPYKHe' - anecr, ujra.bazu(MHTpa), capssar, OupyJ3«~oc; (IPE P 95.; 1018), .lIp.-HH.lI. ugrabahu- (Hanpa), asecr, dar'go.bazu- !3apaTyIIlTpa); scrpesaercs, npaana, H 'KpacHBOPYKHH' (Hnztpa; .lIp.-HH,lI. subahu-) H 1I0.ll., HO BCI! )J(e He 'OOJIOPYKHH' H ~ TeM 60JIee He 'xepnopyxaa".

62. Mullenhoff Deutsche Altertumskunde. III (CM. IIpHM. 4), S. 120. Anm. **; 128; Justi F. Iranisches Namenbuch. - Marburg., 1895, s.293.

63. VaSIIIer, Untersuchungen ... , S. 51.

64. Schmitt R. Onomastica Iranica Platonica /I AHNAIKA .. FS fur Carl Werner Muller. - Stuttgart-Lpz., 1996, S. 90 f; 3.lIeCb )J(e CM. KpHTHK)' npyrax 3ac~BaIOmHX ynOMHHaHHlI 3THMOJIOrHH.

65. VeIZe, N8IIIes ... , p. 86 ff .. (

66. Schmitt, Onomastica IranicaPlatonica ... , s 91. 3T0 nO.llMCTHJI~e <1>acMep (ibid.): «Zum Lautlichen vgl." )AA.!Xvoi:61 )AA.!Xuvov 0p0C;" (cp. S. 31, Kl )AAIXV01.), XOTlI 3TO qreHHe qacTH pyKOIIHceH TITOJIeMe» aeztocroeepao (CM. KOMMeHT~JHH MIOJIJIepa K Geogr. III, 5, 5 H St. B.~(7AA.!Xv6c;· c5poc; LapI.l.IX'tiac;), a U-3neHTe3bI (B OTJIHqHe OT -i-) B *aryana- (>_:t ~voi), aoorime rosopa, H He

J10JllKHO 6b1Tb. _) \

67. 3neHTel'lfllecKllit -u-( H -i-) <pHKCHpyCTCli BO MHOrHX HpaHCKHXH3bIKllX, B TOM qHCJIe B CafN8fCKOM .lIHaJIeKTe - npeznce OceTHHCIQ)ro, CM. Eilers W Verbreitung und Fortleben alter Epenthese II Commemoration Cyrus. Actes du Congres de Shiraz, 1971 I. - TeheranLiege, 1974 (B8)J(eH, rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M, M8fepHaJI); A6aeB, HCTOPHKO-3THMOJIOmqeCKHH CJIOBapb ... I, C. 476; II, c. 114; Bailey H.W. A Range ofIranica II WB. Henning Memorial Volume. - London, 1970, p. 23; Benveniste E. Etudes sur la langue ossete (Paris 1959) 8 suiv.; Bielmeier R. Historische Untersuchungen zum Erb- und Lehnwortschatzanteil im ossetischen Grundwortschatz. - Frankfurt a. M., 1977, S. 42; Hcaes M.H. OceTHHcKHH »3bIK II OCHOBbI HpaHCKOrO 1I3bIK03HaHH». HOBoHpaHcKHe 1I3bIKH. BOCTOqH8lI rpyrma, - M., 1987, C. 557 CJI., 575 CJI.

68. Szemerenyi O. Iranica II ZDMG 101. - 1951, p. 212-219; Idem. Four Old Iranian Ethnic N8IIIes: Scythian - Skudra - SogdianSaka II SB 371. - Wien, 1980, p. 17. N. 35; 18 ff Cp. ~e Mullenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde III ... , S. 120. Anm. ***.

69. B 120,2 TaKqRTaeTCliBABCT MPz, aBp1HDRSV -KOO1tIXOlC;. B 128,2 KOO1tIXOlC;.lIaIOT MPDR SV(KOHTaMHH8UHlI!). TaKHM 06pa30M, CTeMMlITHqecKH sepaoe sreaae He YCTaHOBHTb. BHeIIIHHe IIPHqHHbI HCK8)J(eHHlI OqeBH,lIHbI: B nepsoa cnysae nepezt HMeHeM CTOHT ej3otcri.A.e1>e, 80 BTOpoM - TpXe; TaKHM 06p830M, pe% H,lICT HJIH 0 ranJIO~HH (noCJIe.llOBaTeJIbHOCTb JIYHapHbIX 8 He), HJIH o .lIHTTOrpa¢HH. H3.lIaTeJIH TpIl,llHUHOHHO H He 003 OCHOBaHHH npe,llIIOqHTaIOT L =c;.

70. Schmitt R. Medisches und persisches Sprachgut bei Herodot II ZDMG 11 . - 1967, S. 129; Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut..., S. 216.

71. Cp. M 19pcD1tcX<nTJC; (S1rab. XVI, 3, 5, BpeMli .[(apHli ill; T8K)J(e na KepaMHqecKHX KJIeHMax CHHonbI ill B., Conovici N. Les timbres amphoriques. 2. Sinope. II Histria. VIII. - Bucarcst-Paris, 1998, p. 123, N2 417-418; j3o:o'tljC;: 114, N2 365) < *Mi6ra-upastli-, Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut..., S. 168.

72. Dandamayev M. A Iranians in Achaemenid Babylonia I Costa Mesa. - Cal.-N.Y., 1992, p. 32, 87, 109.

73. Idid., p. 72 f., 80, 87, 118.

74. Mayrhofer. M. Die altiranischen N8IIIen. 1. Die avestischen N8IIIen (Iranisches Personennamenbuch. I/l) .. - Wien, 1979, S. 100; .[(aH.lIaMaeB MA II B,[(H 1. - 1961, C. 108 CJI.; Hoffmann K. Aufsatze zur Indoiranistik. II. - Wiesbaden, 1976, S. 643 ff. (3JI8MCKHe .lIaHHble roeopsr 0 COXpaHeHHH au).

75. Brandenstein W, Mayrhofer M. Handbuch des Altpersischen. - Wiesbaden, 1964, S. 29.

76. TaM )J(e, C. 109 (CM. IIpHM. 75). K .lIaHHbIM npeaaenepcaacsott KJIHHOIIHCH Cpo Mayrhofer M. Das A1tpersische seit 1964 1/ W.B. Henning Memorial Volume. - London, 1970, S. 281 f.; MaHpxo¢ep paccnarpaaaer nporaaopesaasre .lIaHHble KJlHHOIIHCH H HHOH3bNHbIX HCTOqHHKOB KaK CBH,lICTeJIbCTBO cymeCTBOBaHHlI COI.IHOJIeKTHbIX pa3JIHqHH, CCbIJlIDICb, BCJIe.ll 38 KOHllepoM (Indo-Iranian Journal. VIII. - 1965, p. 302) aa ananorunaue JIarHHCKHe <paKTbI (CM. TPOHCKHH H.M. Hcropasecxaa rpaMMarHKa JIaTHHCKOro 1I3blKa. - M., 200P, C. 81 CJI.): «Die archaisch-medisierende Hofsprache zur Zeit der frshen Inschriften besassjedoch offenbar noch lail lalv ... ».

77. « ... geht auf das Med. zuruckl», Brandenstein, Mayrhofer, Handbuch des Altpersischen .... , S. 29.

78. Ibid., S. 30, 129, C rryranauea, CM. Mittelberger H. Zum Altpersichen II Die Sprache XI. - 1965, S. 108. Anm. 53·.

79. Mittelberger, Zum Altpersichen ... , S. 108; Cp, Schmid WP. II IF 69. - 1964. 263.

304

Xepcoo:ecl:KHii c60pJlllK, BhIIlYCK 14 JJ:.

80. CM. B H:maHHH lD. JIacceppa (1975, Coil. Bude), KOTOpbIA orsepraer 31)' KOHDeKTypy.

81. Greek and Demotic Texts from the Zenon Archive I Ed. P.W Pes1rnan. - Leiden, 1980, N25128•

82. CM. C IDIT. Schwyzer Ed. Iranisches II Zeitschr. f. Indoiranistik 6. - 1928, s. 234-243; Benveniste E. Titres et noms propres en iranien ancien. - Paris, 1966, p. 122; Schmitt R. «Meconnaissance» altiranischen Sprachgutes im Griechischen II Glotta 49. - 1971, s. 104 f.; Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut..., s. 105; cpo I1BaHqHK Al1. KHMMepHiiI-Ibl. }:\peBHeBOCTOqHble QHBHIDI3auHH H crenaue KOqeBHHKH B VIll-VII BB . .LIO H. 3. - M., 1996, c. 145 CJI.

83. Xen. Hell. III, 4, 25; Ages. 1,35 H .LIp.: 395 r.; Hell. Ox. Jacoby, Fragmente ... , 66. F 1: 385 r.; Ael. v. h. 1,21: 367 r.

84. l1HOO, HO cpoHeTHqeCKH e.LIBa IDI B03MOlKHOO TOJIKOBaHHe npe.LIJIOlKHJIlD. !OCTH (J usti, Iranisches N amenbuch ... , s. 164); sa HHM - Mayrhofer, Die altiranischen Namen ... , s. 257 (8. 1876); Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut ... , s. 75 (*Ci8rii-valIi§ta-). C .LIpyroH eroponu, Appaaa (An. III, 8, 5) ynoxanaer HMlI nOJIKOBO.LIQa }:\apHli III Mt6pCtucr"t1]~, KOTOpoe XHHQ (Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut ... , s. 303) COnOCTaBJIlleT c Mt6pcOO"t1]~ y Krecas (Jacoby, Fragmente 688. F 15 (55), .LI06aBJIlllI eIIIe apaM. Mtrwhst c peKOHcTpYK1\HeH *Mi8riivahiSta-. Iloxoxe, pe% H.L\eT 06 HMeHax c pa3JlliqHbIMH BTOpblMH KOMnOHeHTaMH.

85. Cp, .LIp.-HpaH. * Arya-vaza- (Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut. .. , S. 41), asecr, VaZiispa-, Mayrhofer, Die altiranischen Namen ... , s.93.

86. Chantraine P. Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque. II. - Paris, 1968, p. 524; cpo Mayrhofer M. Etymologisches Worterbuch des Altindoarischen. II. - Heidelberg, 1993, S. 618.

87. Eappoy T. CaHCKpHT. - M., 1976, C. 176.

88. Cp, asnne, Sauromatae Gynaecocratumenoe KaK qaCTb Sarmatae y I1JIHHHll.

89. Ho CaMO no ce6e npe.LIDOJIolKeHHe 06 06IIIeM HCTOqHHKe I1ceB.LIo-CKHJIaKa H 3B.LIOKCa BnOIDIe seposrao, OC06eHHO yqHTblBall, srro

o6a asropa - coBpeMeHHHKH. ..

90. Cp., nanpseaep, Bc.opCXKO~ (KEH 117941) < *Bauraka-; B<opo-j3a.p<XK~ (128731) < *Baura-biiraka- 'CKaqymHH na rHe.LIbtx(KOHll"; Bropo-1jICt~0~ (IPE P 10110' OJIbBHll) < *Baura-rsa-ca- (?; cp. .l-Ip.-HpaH. *Vira-fSa- (?), Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut..., S. 262); lIBHO cxiaa lKe BopCtcr1to~ KEH 123716 (K 3TOH rpynne HMeH CM. C IDIT. Huyse Ph. Gab es eine Lautentwicklung IkJ > Ix! im «SkythoSarmatischen»? II Hyperboreus 4/1. - 1998, S. 180 f.); roocrCtKo~ (KEH 127817' 127924) < *GauSaka- (Vasmer, Untersuchungen ... , S. 37); PCt6Ct-yOlcrO~ (IPE P 917 H .LIp.) < *Ra8a-gauSa- (CM. Mayrhofer M. in: Brandenstein W Die Abstammungssagen der Skythen / I Wiener Zft. f. Kunde d. Morgen!. 52. 1953/1955, S. 207; Brandenstein, Mayrhofer, Handbuch ... , S. 121); lcOOCt~ (KEH 36 E35, 706) < *Yauda-; lcOO-eCJll-Cty~ (IPE r 134, OJIbBHll) < *YOd-esm-ag < "Yauda-aisma-ka- 'CpalKaIOIIIHHCliliPOCTHO' (Weber D. Zwei pontisch-iranische Personennamen II Die Sprache 12. - 1966, S. 90 f.); BCtyoo-crCtu~ LoGUCt-tOlcrOU (KEH 128218) < *Sava-yauza-, K asecr, sava-, -ah- 'nOJIb3a' HIDI savah- 'CHJIa, MOIIIb' (cp . .l-Ip.-HH.LI. savas-; Mayrhofer, Die altiranischen Namen ... , S. 74, K asecr. Sauuah-) H .LIp.-HPaH. *yauza- 'BOJIHeHHe, B036YlK.LIeHHe' (cp. Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut..., S. 275); LOlpCXKO~ (7312; SEG XXVIII. 641: Lc.op[Ctxe) < *Sauraka-, cp, ocer . narop, sorun 'expellere, npecnenosan,'. MHJIJIep Bc.O, K HpaHCKOMY 3JIeMeH1)' B npHnOHTHHCKHX rpenecxax H3,l-InHCliX II11AK 47. - 1913, C. 90; Vasmer, Untersuchungen ... , S. 53; A6aeB, CKH<po-capMaTCKHe Hape~ ... , C. 303 (s. V. «CKHCP» sor [!]); OH lKe. I1CTOPHKO-3THMOJIOrHqeCKHH CJIOBapb IlL, C. 173; Bailey H.W II BSOAS 21. - 19536 p. 531; Schmid W P. Rez.: Zgusta. Pers.11 Beitrage zur Namenforschung 7. - 1956, S. 209; HHaqe -EapTOJIOM3, (Bartholomae Chr. Altiranisches Worterbuch. - Strassburg, 1904, sp. 1680); OIIIH60qHO - Mcepaaau (CM. npHM. 59). I1pe.LIJIolKeHHOO A6aeBbIM (CKHcpo-capMaTCKHe HapeqHll ... , C. 299) 06blIcHeHHe Acrqxopouyo~ (IPE P 2051 = HO 102), Acr1tCtupouKt~ (H3,l-IllHCb na reMMe H3 ApMa3H-MuxeThI, H6ePHHCKHH naraanrx II B., apaxs. 'sprwg B Ha,LInHCH napa MHXp.LIIITa, csma lDapaCMaHa orryna lKe) H nporofiynr;

,j1 ')Acr1tapoux H3 * Aspa-rauka- HeCOCTOlITeJIbHO (CM. nonpofiaee Schmitt R. Iranica Protobulgarica II LB XXVII (1). - 1985, p. 21; 31, ( Anm. 106; Idem. Iranica Protobulgarica suppleta II FS Johannes Schropfer zum 80. Geburtstag. - Munchen, 1991, S. 365 ff.). Ha nOM cpoHe xacro acrpenaiomaaca B nareparype (CM. C JIHT. Harmatta, Studies in the History ... , p. 82 ff.) TIHMOJIOmli capsrarcsoro 3THOHHMa " Aoocoi < * aUrusa- '6eJIbIH' (OCeT . .LIHrOp. ors), He MOlKeT CqHTIITbCli CKOJIbKO-HH6y,nb .l-IOCTOBepHoH, XOTll Acr1tCt'\)pOUKt~, B03MOlKHO, orpaxcaer CPOPMY C 3neHTe30H (* Aspa'r-uk; HIDI * Aspa-wruk"), a Acr<propouyo~ MOlKeT 6bITb <PoPMOH YlKe co CTlllKeHHeM BTOPHqHOro .LIH<pToHra (* Asporuk), eCIDI TOJIbKO Ol He CTOHT 3,LIeCb BMeCTO O.

91. Cp, HMeHa co "stura- '60JIbIIlOH': L'tOPCtVT) (KEH 744), L'top-I1Ct~ (128015), E'tO-cro:paK~ (CM. K 1) Hapll,ll)' co L't'IlPave TavocrCtAOU (KEH 708, K *tanii- 'corpus'). LUI3A.e[(t)Ctyo(u)~ (KEH 1137 E1), Luf3Al: (11811), LUI3Ar{CtyO- (1209; OCTaTOK HHlKHeH xacra aJlbtPbl BH.LIeH aa KaMHe), LUI3AtCtyO~ (KpyrIDIKOBa ItT. HOBbIe anarpadnrsecxae naMllTHHKH H3 rOprHnIIHH II B}:\l12. - 1967, C. 193, N2 911; EoJITyHoBa Al1. Ha.LIllHCH Ioprannaa II H3 IX. - 1971, C. 14, C BOCCTaHOBJIeHHeM KEH 1137 E1), nO-BH.LIHMoMy, *Subriya-ka-, K .LIp.-HpaH. *subra- 'CBeTJIblH, lIPKHH', apM. surb 'qHCTblli', 'CBllTOH' (H3 napp., Benveniste E. Elements parthes en armenien II Revue des etudes armeniennes, I. - 1964, p. 2), .LIp.-HH.LI. subh- 'yspanrars', subhra-, subhri- 'yKpameHHbIH, KpacHBbIH, 6JIeCTlllJIHH', 'liCHblli', 'qIfCTblli', HMeHaSubha-, Subhra-, narpoaauanecsoe Saubhr-eya- H.LIp. (HilkaA. Die altindischen Personennamen. - Breslau, 1910, S. 125; Velze, Names ... , p. 54 f., H TaM lKe [po 84] Subhan-gada-); coxpameaae KOMn03HTa (K cm. *-iya- cp, Mayrhofer, Die altiranischen Namen ... , S. 286 [11.1.7.3.13]; OupytO<; KEH 362,126218 < *1!g-r-iya- [Zgusta, Die Personennamen ... , § 441, cp. 679] OT *ug-ra-) HIDI npsuo K *sub-r-iya- 'yKpaII1eHHe' (<<cpanap»?)?; cp. CaHCKp. Sekhara-ka- K sekhara- '.l-IHa,LIeMa', Hilka, Die altindischen Personennamen ... , S. 156.

92. Cp. bor: biir 'lKeJITbIH', igosun : qiisyn 'CJIbIIllaTb', qos : qns 'yxo', HMlI Quseeg (cp. roocrcxK~ CM. npaa. 91); ozon : iizyn 'YKaqHBaTb pefeaxa' < *yauz-; CM. 0630p: 3.L1eJIbMaH, CpaBHHTeJIbHal! rpasoaaraxa ... , C. 73 CJI.

93. Emmerick R.L. The Vowel Phonemes in Khotanese II FS for Oswald Szemerenyi. 1. II Studies in the Theory. and History of Linguistic Science 4. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory. 2. - Amsterdam, 1979, p. 244 f

94. Cp., aanpaaep, ooproyo < *drauga, IOlAO = capuar; IOlOCt~ (CM. npau. 91) < *Yauda-, poocro < *raucah-, cr'tOOpo < *staura-, ~o < *aujah-(Sims-Williams N. Bactrian Documents from Northern Afghanistan. I II Corpus inscriptionum Iranicarum. IIIVI. - Oxford, 2000, Glossary, p. 172-236. S. vv.). HaH60JIee zrpesaee CBH.l-IeTeJIbCTBO B rpesecson H3,l-InHCH H3 Taxr-a-Caaraaa (E.A JIHTBHHCKHH, lO.f. BHHOrpa.IIOB, H.P. I1HqIfKllH. BOTHB ATpoCOKa H3 xpaaa Oxca B Cesepaoa EaKTpHH II B}:\H 4. - 1985, C. 94 (= SEG. XXXV. 1480, II B . .l-IO H.3.».LIaeT 6: A'!flOOOlKT]~ < *Atr-s6ka- (cp. aBeCT. atrs.saoka-), Grenet. L'onomastique iranienne a. Ai-Khanum ... , p. 376, nr. 15.

95. Cp, yol3 < *gauba-, lcroq3oM> < *sapauda-, 'tOXI1CXVO < "tauxman-, 'tOXI1tyo < *tauxmaka-; yo1Yo < *(-)gaunaka-, HO H YOJYYO, YOlV~O < *gaunI-Ciya-; aHaJIOrHqHO - crcxyovoo/crCtyOlvoo < *ciyiit-gauna-, Sims-Williams, Bactrian Documents ... , Glossary. S. VV. 96. Benveniste, Titres..., p. 121 suiv.

305

J~ TOJcraCbeB C.P. Sauromatae - Sannatae - Synnatae

97. Ibid., p. 123 suiv.; Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut .• , s. 192; Mayrhofer, Die altiranischen Namen •.. , s. 71.

98. Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch ... , p. 323; Hinz, A1tiranisches Sprachgut..., s. 237.

99. Benveniste, Titres ... , p. 114 suiv,

100. <l>opMbI C ou aa Mecre .l1p.-HpaH. au Bbl3blBlUOT He.l10)'MeHHe HCCJIe.l10BaTe.JIe~ (cp. Schwyzer, Iranisches ... , s. 241. Anm. 1)'.l111B IIOB0.l1.llJll1.l10ra,l10K 0 .l1H<pToHrH'IeCKOM IIpoH3HOllleHHH ou B HOHHHCKOM (CM. C JIHT.: Schmitt, Medisches und persisches Sprachgut ..• s. 136, Anm. 139); QLlHaKO. KaK BH,l1HO H3 IIpHBe.neHHbIX IIpHMepoB. OHO acrpesaercs H 1I0CJIe fepQLIOTB, IIpH'IeM B He3aBHCHMbIX OT Hero HCTO'IHHKaX.

101. Schmitt, Medisches und persisches Sprachgut..., s. 138.Anm. 165; Hinz, A1tiranisches Sprachgut ..• s. 238.

102. Schmitt R. Die Wiedergabe iranischer Namen bei Ktesias von Knidos im Vergleich zur sonstigen griechischen bberlieferung II Prolegomena to the Sources on the History of Pre-Islamic Central Asia. - Budapest, 1979, s. 127; cp. Huyse, Gab es eine Lautentwicklung ...• s. 174; BlIpo'leM, CJIe.l1yeT Y'lHTbmaTh rpeI.1H3I1UHIO, cp. HMeHa aa 'Aptu-.

103. Schmitt R. Deiokes II Anzeiger Osterr. Akad. Wiss. 110. Jg. - 1973. s. 137-147.

104. CM. Schmitt, Medisches und persisches Sprachgut..., s. 120 ff H passim.

105. Fraenkel M. Die Inschriften von Pergamon. I-II. - Berlin, 1890-1895.613 A4: 'Op6~ 'Apw.cri\pou. "to 'revloc; BlXJcTpwC;; Ctes. Jacoby, Die Fragmente, 688. F 13(9): 'YplCavwc;, H zrp., CM. Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch ...• s. 37 f.; Zwanziger R. Studien zur Nebenilberlieferung iranischer Personennamen in den griechischen Inschriften Kleinasiens (M8IIIHHOIIHCH8ji .l1HCC.). - Wien, 1975, s. 64; Hinz, A1tiranisches Sprachgut. .. , s. 215; BaBHJI. Ar-ta-sur-ru, Dandamayev, Iranians ... , p. 44. Cornacao Xoase (Huyse, Gab es eine Lautentwicklung ...• s. 175. Anm. 43) • .llJllI HCKOHHOro .l1p.-HpaH. ii B rpexecxoa Ha,l1elKHO 38CBH,l1ereJIhCTBOBaHbI B paaaee BpeMji TOJIbKO :Eooocx H 'Apw.criJpoo; (OIllH60'lHO I.1HTHpyeT KaK 'Apw.croi>paC;).

106. IIOCJIe.l1HHji <PopMa (rOrrO-, O'leBH.l1HO, H3 rOITO-) 1I0.l1KpeIIJIji·eT 'ITeHHe Iecaxas, <1>oPMB, 3aCBH.l1eTeJIbCTBOBaHHM pyKOlIHCjiMH fePQLIoTB, aeposrao, jiBJIjieTCH O'leHb .l1peBHHM (BOCXO,l1jiIllHM K 0611.1eMY apXeTHIIy 06eHX stirpes) HCKIDKeHHeM 1I0.l1 BJIRjiHHeM ot 1:0<;. or'tT]; coaepnreaao HelIpIUlZl0IIQLl06HO. 'ITO F - CTOHT BMeCTO dU2aMMbl, KaK npe.l1nOJIOlKHJI f. KaJIJIeH6epr. a sa HHM X. P03eH (ed. Hdt, 1987). Bo BCjiKOM cnysae -crupoc; TeKCTOJIOm'leCKH He BbI3b1BaeT COMHeHH~.

107. Marquart J. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte von Eran. II. - Lpz., 1905, s. 90; Vasmer, Untersuchungen ...• s. 13.

108. CM. Mayrhofer Die altiranischen Namen ...• s. 23; B nOJIb3Y .l1H<pTOHra CM. Idem. Uber die Verschriftung desAltpersischen II KZ 102. - 1989 (1990), s. 183; npOTHB - Schmitt, Onomastica Iranica Platonica ..• s. 87: « ... da iran. "au durch griech. 0) (wie in roof>puTJc; .•. ) reflektiert sein milsste».

109. Vasmer, Untersuchungen ... , s. 20, 61 f.

1l0. Schmitt, Medisches und persisches Sprachgut ...• s. 134 f

111. Orrranenae -u BHCXO.l1e nepsoa OCHoBbl)')Ke B Ha'l8JIe III B. (:Eap~a"tCXl B IPE P 343H; CM. npHM. 13) npe,llCTIIBJIjieTClI M8JIOBepollTHblM, XOTji rasaa mnOTe3B, 6blTh MOlKeT, JIyqIIIe OOwlCHHJIa 6b1 HC'Ie3HOBeHHe <PopMbI 3THOHHMa C u-:meHTe30H.

112. B HCTO'lHHKaX scrpeuaerca H 3THMOJIOm3al.1Hji :Ecx~a"tCXl OT crcxUpcx 'HII.1epHl.1a' (crcxiJpcxc; O!t~cx"t' exo~ H zip., CM. Grasberger L. Die griechischen Stichnamen. - Wurzburg, 18832, s. 25); jiCHO, O.l1HaKO. 'ITO OHa He Morna 0Ka38Th HHKllKOro BJIHjiHIDI aa YTBeplIC.lleHHe B rpe'leCKOM 3TOH <PopMbI, HO JIHlllb HCX0.l1HJIa H3 aee,

113. M.B. IIbHHKOB (Cpe.l1HHl1 A.3Rji B aHTH'IHOH reorpa<PH'IeCIDH Tp8.l1HI.1HH. - M., 1997. c. 148 CJIJI., C OIllH60'lHOH mrrepnperauaea <pparMeHTa 31U10Kca 0 CHpMarax na c. 150) He 6e3 OCHOBaHHH npezmonaraer; 'ITO ztaaasre IIJIHHRji BOCXO,l1jiT K Fanrrapxy 'Iepe3 nocpeacrso xaprsr Mapsa BHnCaHRji Arpanrrsr. O.l1HaKO B TOM. 'ITO xacaercx KOHKpeTHbIX 3THOreorpa<pH'IeCKHX CBe.l1eHHH, Fannapx 6a3HPOB8JICji ensa JIH He HCKJIIO'l:HTeJIbHO na MaTepH8JIaX 3paTOC<PeHa (CM. asnue 0 POKCOJIaHax).

114. CM. C JIHT. Toxracsea C.P. ,npeBHeHIlIHe CBH,l1eTeJIbCTBa CJIaBHHcKOro H3blKa aa E8JIKaHax II OcHOBbi 6aJIKaHCKOro H3bIID3H8HRji 2. - CII6., 1998, c. 41.

U5. 06blQHM peKOHCTPYKL1Rji IIpaCJIaB. *slovc!ine lIBJD1eTCR <pHKI.1He~: BH3aHTH~CKHe rpenecxae H JIaTHHCKHe CBH,l1eTeJIhCTBa .l10K83bmaIOT OTCyTCTBHe caaoro 3BYKa [0] BO BeeXH3BeCTHbIX CJIaBHHCKHX ,l1H8JIeKTax.l18)!(e B VI-VII BB. (B JIYlIllleM cnysae cymeCTBOB8JI [4]), CM. Toxracses, ,npeBHeHlIIHe CBH,l1ereJIbCTBa .. , c. 45.

116. CM. Vasmer, Untersuchungen ... , c. 40.

117. Wackernagel J .• Debrunner A Altindische Grammatik. U12. - Gottingen, 1954, s. 880 ff.; Hoffmann K. Aufsatze zur Indoiranistik. 1. - Wiesbaden, 1975, s. 311 if.

118. Ho H8H60JIee ztpeanee CBH,l1eTeJIbCTBO - 1 I~l-I36t.w.l (reKare~), COOTHOllleHHe KOTOporo C <PopMaMH aa -a-mat- (I Icx~cx-~a"tCXl H ztp.) HenOHHTHO, oraenaer .l1peBHeMY npaaany upaIUIB, H3BeCTHOMY eziaa JIH He HCKJIIO'IHTeJIbHO B .l1peBHeHH,l1H~cKOM.

119. Cp, CKH<p .... Aplcxnei.9TJc; < *Arya-pai8a(h)- 'apHiicKOro 06JIHKa', Scolopitus H3 *:ElCoAo-nei.9TJc; < *Skula-paiea(h)- 'CKH<f>cIDro 06JIHKa' (HJIH *:ElCOAO-1tl9TJc; < *Skula-pi8-a- 'yxpaureaae CKH<PoB', K *pi8- C TeMarH3aI.1He~, cp, aae CT. pis- 'yxpaureaae') H :E1tCXp'Ycxnei.91]c; < *Sparga-paiea(h)- 'nQLI06HbIH (IOHOMY) nofiery' (7) npa aBeCT. paes- "yxpanrars ', 'pacxpannraan,' H O.l1HOKOpeHHOM (a-e. *peik'-) OCCT . ztarop, finsun 'rracan,' < "j.Ji(n)s- < *pi(n)S- (A6aeB, MCTOpHKO-3THMoJIom'lecKHH CJIOBapb 1..., c. 501). CM. fpaHTOBCKHH 3A PaHHHlI HCTOPRji HpaHCKHX nJIeMeH Ilepennea Asaa. - M., 1970. c. 162; BHT'IaK K.T. CKH<f>cKH~ H3bIK: onsrr OnHCaHIDI II B.5I 5. - 1992, c. 55 CJI. MMji :E1t<Xp"(CX1ti.cr1]C; (Hdt, 1,211, 3), KOTOpoe HOCHJI MaccareTCKHH uapeaax, csnr uapausr TOMHPHC, npeztcraanaer co60H rHnOKopHCTHK *Sparga-p-ica- OT 'roro )ICe ·Sparga-paiSa- (K CY!M>HKCIlUHH cp. Mayrhofer, Die aItiranischen Namen ... , s. 284, 285 f.) HJIH *Sparga-pis-a- < "Sparga-pis- (cp. aBeCT. pis-). ECJIH cKH<f>cKHH TeoHHM (DOlWcrUPOC; .l1eiiCTBHTeJIbHO cozrepsorr IDMnOHeHT *siira- « *siira-; CM. ssnne), IDHe'lHhlM HCTO'IHHKOM HH<PopMllUHH Iepoaora 6bUI CKH<f>cKH~ .l1H8JIeKT, OTJIH'lHbIH OT H3b1Ka <<I.1apcKHX CKH<PoB» (cornacno Tepozrory 3TO 60)ICeCTBO UO'lHT8JIH Bee CKH<pbI).

120. Co6CTBeHHo, pe'lb H,l1eT 0 ji3b1Ke <<I.1apcKHX CKH<PoB}}. T. K. caapossarsr UPOH301IDlH OT 6p8KDB aMa30HOK C IOHOlllaMH H3 <<I.1apcKHX CKH<PoB}}.

121. Cp, CKH<p. :ErilATJc; <:: *Skula- < *Sku~a-; (K COtiCTBeHHo cKH<f>cID~ <Pope HX HMeHH, cp, npHM. 41) <PopMa 3THOHHMa Skuoa- 3a<f>HKcHpoBaHa 60JIee .l1peBHHMH HCTO'lHHKaMH B BH,l1e aKKlI,ll. Iskuz-, rpex. :EJCi>eCXt; CM. ssnne H npHM. 68, 119 (Scolopitus), H .l18JIee C JIHT. BHT'IaK. CKH<f>cKH~ 1I3b1K. C. 52 CJI.

122.5.1 finaroztapea BceM CBOHM .l1PY3bHM H KOJIJIeraM, xoropsre cnOC06CTBOBaJIH HanHCaHHIO 3TO~ CTaIbH - H .l1eJIbHbIMH COBeTaMH, H nOMOIUbIO C nareparypoa. II~e scero, H .l10JIlKeH H83BaTh A 10. AJIeKceeBB, C. II. COJIOBbeBB, B. <1>. CTOJI6y H O. B. Illaposa.

306

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