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30 Section Five — The Earth and the Atmosphere The Earth's Structure QI Draw a simple diagram of the Earth's structure in the space below. Label the crust, mantle and core and write a brief description of each. Q2___The map below on the left shows where most of the world’s earthquakes take place. = main earthquake zones Compare this map to the one on the right showing the tectonic plates. What do you notice about the main earthquake zones? Q3___ How do scientists predict volcanic eruptions and earthquakes? ‘Complete the table to show what evidence can be collected, and comment on its relial Evidence How reliable is #7 Earthquake Voleanio eruption TOP TIPS: jhavs tne problem with ‘evidence’ predicting earthquakes and volcanic eruptions — it's nowhere near 100% reliable. There may be shed-loads of people living near a volcano or a fault line — it'd be impossible to evacuate them all every time scientists thought there might possibly be an eruption or an earthquake some time soon — it just wouldn't work Section Five — The Earth and the Atmosphere Evidence for Plate Tectonics QI Choose from the words below to complete the paragraph. Car ee Bee ee ar eta All the continents were once joined in a huge land mass called , Itis now believed that this land mass slowly split up to form the ,., . This is the theory of |... oe _. Itexplains why continents thousands of miles apart have identical... . _.and Fossils of the prehistoric fern Glossopteris have been found in India, Australia, Africa, South America and Antarctica. Suggest why this distribution cannot be explained by seed dispersal. b) What would be a better explanation of this? The diagram shows rack sequences |_| from four different continents. Which two continents do you think ps were joined at one time? Explain your answer. Continent A —ContinentB_ Continent Continent D Suggest what other evidence you could look for in the rocks to back this up. Describe two other pieces of evidence (apart from that found in rocks) which support the theory that the continents were once all joined. 1. Section Five — The Earth and the Atmosphere The Three Different Types of Rock Join up each rock type with the correct method of formation and an example. ROCK TYPE METHOD OF FORMATION EXAMPLE oe formed from layers of sediment ‘granite formed when magma cools limestone formed under intense heat and pressure marble Q2 Circle the correct words to complete the passage below. Metamorphic / Igneous rock is formed when magma pushes up into (or through) the crust / mantle and cools. If the magma cools before it reaches the surface it will cool slowly / quickly, forming big / small crystals. This rock is known as extrusive / intrusive igneous rock. Examples of this are basalt / granite and gabbro / rhyolite, However the magma that reaches the surface will cool slowly / quickly, forming big / small crystals. This rock is known as extrusive / intrusive igneous rock. Examples of this are basalt / granite and gabbro / rhyolite. Q3_ Erica notices that the stonework of her local church contains tiny fragments of sea shells. ) Suggest an explanation for this. b) Describe how sedimentary rock is ‘cemented’ together. © Powdered limestone and powdered marble react with other chemicals, such as hydrochloric acid, in an identical fashion. Explain this You might think that rocks are just boring lumps of... rock. But you'd be wrong — rocks are actually boring lumps of different kinds of rock. And the kind of rock they are depends on how they're formed — and this is the stuff you need to make sure you know. _ Section Five — The Earth and the Atmosphere