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Student Resource

B-2: Physics

Copyright 2008 Aviation Australia


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, transferred, sold, or
otherwise disposed of, without the written permission of Aviation Australia.

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CONTENTS
Definitions

Student Resources

Introduction

What is Physics?

2.0-1

Matter

2.1-1

Statics

2.2.1-1

Kinetics

2.2.2-1

Dynamics

2.2.3-1

Fluid Dynamics

2.2.4-1

Thermodynamics

2.3-1

Optics (Light)

2.4-1

Wave Motion and Sound

2.5-1

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DEFINITIONS
Define

To describe the nature or basic qualities of.

To state the precise meaning of (a word or sense of a word).

State

Specify in words or writing.

To set forth in words; declare.

Identify

To establish the identity of.

List

Itemise.

Describe

Represent in words enabling hearer or reader to form an idea of an object or process.

To tell the facts, details, or particulars of something verbally or in writing.

Explain

Make known in detail.

Offer reason for cause and effect.

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STUDENT RESOURCES
Jeppesen General
Student Resource B-2

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INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this subject is to familiarise you with mathematics and physics associated
with aircraft design, manufacture and maintenance.
On completion of the following topics you will be able to:
Topic 2.1

Matter
Define the nature of matter regarding:
The chemical elements
Structure of atoms
Molecules.
Define chemical compounds.
Define matter in solid, liquid, and gaseous states.
Identify changes between states of matter and define the process.

Topic 2.2.1

Statics
Describe forces, moments and couples and represent the interaction of
these as a vector describing simple machines and mechanical advantage.
Describe the centre-of-gravity of a mass.
Describe the elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity to the
following:
Tension
Compression
Shear
Torsion.
Describe the nature and properties of solids, fluids, and gases.
Describe the action of pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).

Topic 2.2.2

Kinetics
Describe the following aspects of linear movement:
Uniform motion in a straight line
Motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity).
Describe the uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces) aspect
of rotational movement
Describe periodic motion and pendular movement.
Describe simple theory of the following:
Vibration
Harmonics
Resonance.
Describe velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.

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Dynamics
Describe the following with regard to mass:
Mass
Force
Inertia
Work
Power
Energy (potential, kinetic and total)
Resultant force and equilibrium
Heat
Efficiency.
Describe momentum and conservation of momentum.
Describe impulse.
Describe gyroscopic principles.
Describe friction, its nature and effects, and the coefficient of friction (rolling
resistance).

Topic 2.2.4.1 Fluid Dynamics (SG)


Describe specific gravity and density in relationship to fluids.
Topic 2.2.4.2 Fluid Dynamics (Viscosity)
Describe the following in relationship to fluids:
Viscosity - fluid resistance
Effects of streamlining
Effects of compressibility
Describe the following types of pressure:
Static
Dynamic
Total
State Bernoullis Theorem and describe the operation of a venturi.

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Thermodynamics
Describe temperature and the operation of thermometers.
Describe the following temperature scales:
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Kelvin.
Define Heat
Define specific heat and describe heat capacity
Describe the following methods of heat transfer:
Convection
Radiation
Conduction
Describe volumetric expansion
State the first and second laws of thermodynamics
Describe the following regarding gases:
Ideal gas laws
Specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure
Work done by expanding gas
Describe the following:
Isothermal expansion and compression
Adiabatic expansion and compression
Engine cycles
Constant volume and constant pressure
Refrigerators and heat pumps
Latent heats of fusion and evaporation
Thermal energy
Heat of combustion

Topic 2.4

Optics (Light)
Describe the nature of light and state the speed of light
Describe the laws of reflection and refraction:
Reflection at plane surfaces
Reflection by spherical surfaces
Refraction of light through various media
The use of lenses
Describe the nature and use of fibre optics.

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Wave Motion And Sound


Describe the nature of wave motion:
Mechanical waves
Sinusoidal wave motion
Interference phenomena
Describe the characteristics of sound:
Production
Intensity
Pitch
Quality
State the speed of sound and describe factors that affect it
Describe the Doppler Effect.

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WHAT IS PHYSICS?
Ever since Humankind developed the ability to ponder its existence, questions have been
asked concerning the nature of its environment. Latin, the language of the Roman Empire,
contained the word Physica for Nature, hence our use of Physics as the overall name of
the body of knowledge which attempts to describe the inanimate world.
We have become adept at observing and measuring the phenomena that surround us.
Certain individuals, e.g. Archimedes and Newton, through chance and circumstance, were
able to develop the relationships, between elements of these events, which are now called
the Laws of Physics.
In many cases, the absolute truths still elude us, and the scientific community has only
models to offer. For example, the origin of the Universe, or the Structure of the Atom.
Even so, we have now gained enough knowledge to create and control the technological
environment in which we live.
This course attempts to address the basics which serve to underpin most of the technical
knowledge that an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer needs. For organisational purposes,
Physics is divided up into a number of topics, however it is important to remember that nature
works its various strands of magic simultaneously.
The rest of this introduction endeavours to provide the reader with the absolute minimum of
knowledge with which to attack these separate topics.

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Origins of the Universe


Recent observations have given us the Big Bang Theory, which in its most basic form, tells
us that the space in which you and I, and the rest of the 1050 kg of matter exist, began as a
point source, and has expanded into what we call the Universe.
The universe has clumped together into Galaxies, and within these are Planetary Systems
associated with Stars.
The most frequently asked question when faced with this concept is:
OK, what was there before the Big Bang? Well, the simplest answer is nothing because
time itself came into existence and there is can be no concept of before. See Fig 1. There
are no time values for any universe size less than zero.

For all intents and purposes, our concept of time as a means by which we can measure the
rate at which events occur will suffice, and our studies will concentrate on those topics which
explain our everyday lives.

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Nature of the Universe


Apart from its size, what are the other characteristics or properties of the Universe as we
perceive it today? What does it contain?
We have already mentioned one - the 1050 kg of matter. The other is energy.

What is energy?
The Greek word, energos - means that by which activity is possible, so in non-physics
terms, it could be thought of as that which causes change. However, that is not measurable
enough for physicists.
We say that energy provides the capability to change the state of motion, or matter of some
object or other, and exists in many forms in a fixed amount. For example, kinetic energy is
the energy possessed by a moving mass capable of causing change, while potential energy
is the energy within a compressed spring which could cause change.
Energy used is always fully accounted for in terms of the activity produced.

What is matter?
The states of matter can be solid, liquid or gaseous, and each of these is related to the
amount of internal energy possessed by the matter being under consideration.
We can detect this internal energy, and call it heat. It was originally thought to be an invisible
fluid called caloric; however, we now know it is bound up in the vibratory motion of the basic
particles which make up matter, called atoms and molecules.
The amount of heat present depends on the quantity of matter, but how hot it is doesnt. We
express hotness as temperature and it is measured in degrees.
Our star, called the Sun, has radiated energy on to this planet all through its existence, and
all changes of state or motion we experience today, are only possible because of this
radiation, past and present.
An exception to this is the development and use of Atomic or Nuclear Energy, which involves
the conversion of matter into energy, in a similar way to that process used by stars.

Properties of Matter
Amounts of matter are measured in units of mass of which the standard is the kilogram, and
the presence of a mass affects space in two ways.
Firstly, there is the amount of space occupied by a certain mass. This is represented by its
size in three dimensions. The product of an objects length, width, and height is called
volume, and when all three dimensions are measured in metres, we get cubic metres.
Secondly, all masses in space attract each other to a certain degree, depending on their size
and distance apart. It is this property of mass that gives all objects on the giant mass we call
Planet Earth, (including us), weight. The Latin word meaning heavy was, gravitas, - hence
the property is now called, Gravity. Because the effects of gravity extend outwards from a
mass, the mass is said to have a Gravitational Field surrounding it.

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Density
To compare different types of matter, let us see how much of each occupies each cubic
metre of space, i.e. the number of kilograms of the substance per cubic metre. This derived
property thus measures the density of a particular substance, and we get the first relationship
between properties, i.e. our first Law of Physics:
Density

(d or p)

Mass m kg / m 3 ki log rams per cubic


Volume V

metre

As mentioned, the units kilogram and metre, are standardised, and most countries maintain
an organisation to ensure that they represent the same measurement at all times.
In Australia, this is the National Measurement Laboratory, located within the CSIRO Division
of Applied Physics in Sydney.
The unit kg/m3 is a derived unit.

Time
The measurement of space occupies three dimensions of the Universe, but is not sufficient
for us to include the progress of an event in that measurement.
For this we have the concept of time, often called the Fourth Dimension. Our ancestors
observed the cycles of nature, the passage of the sun etc. which gave them the initial units of
days and years.
The basic unit of time, the second, s is now fundamental and standardised.

Motion
With the concept of time, we can measure how a mass may change its position in space, in
other words, the idea of motion.
An object, (a mass), can be in particular state of motion:

At rest (not moving), zero metres per second, (0 m/s)

Changing its position at a constant rate, (i.e. a certain number of m/s)

Or, that rate could itself be changing with time, giving us m/s per second, (m/s2)

A constant rate of m/s is called speed or velocity


A constant rate of m/s per s is called acceleration
What is required to be able to change this State of motion?

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Energy and Force


English scientist, Isaac Newton (1642 1727), observed that if you gave a mass a push or a
pull, its state of motion changed.
For example, just going from at rest, to, moving meant an acceleration must have taken
place.
Energy has been used in this process, but not used up. The energy used to propel the object
still exists as the objects motion, (and in other forms that will be discussed later.)
The energy required to provide the push to change this state of motion was found to depend
on the mass contained in the object and the amount of acceleration.
More mass and/or more acceleration required more push.
To quantify this push or pull, Newton took the product of the mass and acceleration required,
and called it force, - that which is required to change motion state.

Force Mass Accelerat ion


This will give us another derived unit for force, the kg.m/s per s. Far too unwieldy, so
appropriately enough 1 kg.m/s per s, is actually called 1 Newton.
Forces are not always applied by direct contact with an object. Let us revisit gravity.
Should you be unlucky enough to be unsupported by the ground or a floor in the Earths
gravitation field, you will experience a change in motion state. (Fall!)
Ignoring for the moment that we have an atmosphere which actually slows thing up a bit, it
can be shown that we fall with an acceleration of 9.8 m/s per s. This is called the
acceleration due to gravity for Earth, and has its own symbol - g.
From above, Force = Mass x Acceleration, and when that acceleration is g, that force is
called your weight.

Weight Mass g (in Newtons)

To all intents and


purposes, g is constant
for all us Earth bound surface dwellers, so interchanging the words mass and weight does
not lead to short measures!

Pressure
Pushing on a surface (or just allowing weight to act on the surface) creates pressure.
It is defined as Force per unit area or:

P F / A N / m 2 or Pascals (Pa)
After Blaise Pascal (1623 - 1662)

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Work and Power


Energy was used during our application of force, and to help quantify what happens to this
energy, we take the product of the applied force and the distance moved during the change
of position, and call it work.
Work Force Dis tan ce moved

The work done equals the energy used, including the energy used to overcome any
resistance, e.g. friction and air resistance.
Another derived unit appears, the Newton Metre, better known as the Joule after James
Joule (1818 -1889), and can now be used as the standard unit for energy of any form.
Power is simply a measurement of the rate at which work is done or energy is used.

Energy Used
Power Work done or
J/s
Time
Time
Joules per second are called Watts, after James Watt (1736 1819), who experimented with
the work done by horses as they pulled barges around the canals of England.

1 horsepower

746 W

Initial Conclusions
So, what is physics? The study of matter and the activity it gets up to with the energy
available?
In its simplest form, the Universe can be said to be a collection of Matter and Energy, so that
may be as good an answer as any, but to be sure we must now start investigating things
further by in the more traditional manner topic by topic.
Initially, we will take a closer look at the structure of matter, both in its everyday and smallest
form. Then there will be more on how force can be put to good use and how different types of
motion can be analysed.
Different forms of energy are discussed, including Heat, Light, and Sound, to see how they
create the various phenomena that occur. The relationships between the Matter and Energy
could just as easily be called the Laws of Nature. Add Chance to the mix and maybe, just
maybe, the picture is complete.

PS What about Electricity?


Try to imagine a world without electricity! Not easy, however there has been no mention of it
so far in this introduction to Physics.
The use of electricity is so important that it has its own Module, (B1-3). However, it too has its
origins in nature, and will be briefly introduced when we look at the structure of matter in its
smallest forms. (Atoms and molecules)

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Fundamental Units
The System Internationale, (SI or Metric System) has been internationally agreed, but there
are many examples of the British System still used. For example, psi for pressure.
Property

Metric (SI)

British

Conversion

Mass

Kilogram kg

Slug

1 Slug = 14.59 KG

Length

metre M

Foot FT

1 FT = 0.305 M

Time

Second

Second

N/A

Force

Newton N

Pound LB

1 LB = 4.45 N

Pressure

Pascal pa

LB/SQ IN (PSI)

1 PA = 0.00015 PSI

Work/energy

Joule

Foot Pound

1 J = 0.738 FT.LB

Acceleration
due to gravity

9.81 m/s per S

32.2 FT/S PER S

N/A

Order of Magnitude
In the metric system, many prefixes are used to denote how many of any particular unit are
being used. The following table will be useful.

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Ambient Conditions
Atmospheric Pressure
We live at the bottom of an atmosphere comprising of a mixture of gaseous elements and
compounds called air. The weight of air acts over the surface of the planet causing it to be
under atmospheric pressure, according to the rule P = F/A.
Extending to 160,000 km, with a varying density depending on height, one atmosphere exerts
an average pressure, at sea level of 101,320 N/m2
i.e. 101,320 Pa, which is more commonly written as
1013.2 hPa (hectopasc als)

Alternatively, 1 bar = 100,000 Pa, so I atmosphere is 1.0132 bar or 1013.2 mb


In British units, 1 atmosphere is 14.7 lb/in2
One practical method of determining atmospheric pressure is to measure how high a column
of liquid can be supported by this pressure. (A barometer.)
It turns out to be 29.92 inches or 760 mm of mercury.
We feel no ill effect from this pressure because we are permeable enough to allow the
pressure inside us to equalise to this. Rapid ascents or descents through the atmosphere are
a different story, and aircraft are engineered to cope with this.

Ambient Temperature
The sun radiates its energy continuously on the planet and its atmosphere. Over time, this
ocean of air has settled into a complex series of weather patterns, one element of which is
the temperature at any given location.
This changes from place to place, and with your height above sea level.
The temperature is measuring the relative degree of hotness of one area over another and is
constantly changing as the day proceeds and the weather patterns shift.
At sea level, the temperature ranges from about -30 degrees Celsius to about +50C. At the
typical cruising height of a passenger jet, the temperature is just above -60C. More in Topic
3.

International Standard Atmosphere


The performance of any aircraft depends heavily on air density, and weve just seen that
density varies from location to location and with height, as the atmospheric pressure changes
with the time of day and weather experienced.
To create a benchmark against which aircraft performance can be measured, an International
Standard Atmosphere was defined. The essential features of the ISA are a sea level
temperature of 15C, and pressure equal to 1013.2 hPa.
Should the conditions be different from these at a particular location, then important
performance factors like take-off and landing distances can be easily calculated.

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TOPIC 2.1: MATTER


Matter refers to everything which occupies space, and has mass which exists in one of three
physical states, solid, liquid and gaseous. The total mass of the Universe is conserved, this
meaning it cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another. If you
burn 1kg of wood, you finish with 1 kg of ash, smoke, and other gases.
Before we can discuss the different properties of each state, let us look at how all forms of
matter are put together.
Matter itself is made up of small particles. The simplest forms of matter are the elements,
whose constituent particles are called atoms, as modeled below.
Atoms are largely space with a relatively dense nucleus made up of elementary particles,
protons and neutrons, and one or more shells of electrons at certain fixed distances. Each
shell represents an energy level within the atom.
It requires some two hundred million of them side by side to form a line a centimeter long.
Imagine the full stop at the end of this sentence. It is probably about 0.5 mm in diameter.
If that represents the nucleus, then the electrons in the first shell would be about 50 meters
away.

Within the atom, there are four Fundamental Interactions which give rise to all other physical
processes in the Universe. Simply described, and in order of increasing strength, they are:
1. Gravity; this is the same as already discussed, but very insignificant on the atomic scale.
2. The Weak Nuclear Interaction, which contributes to radio activity.
3. The Electromagnetic Interaction; acts between the nucleus and electrons and is the
source of electrical and magnetic energy.
4. The Strong Nuclear Interaction; holds the nuclei together.
To help analyse interaction 3, we say the proton has a positive electric charge, and the
electron, a negative electric charge, where charge is a fundamental property of matter at this
level, (in a similar way to mass at all levels.)

(The words electron and electricity come from the Greek word for amber, the first
substance investigated with some of the properties we now control so confidently today.)

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Elements are detailed in the Periodic Table. For example, pure copper is an element
because it is comprised only of copper atoms (Cu). An atom is the smallest part of an
element that retains the properties of that element.

Electrons surround the nucleus in successive groups or shells like spheres within spheres
A Copper atom has 2 electrons in its first or K shell, 8 in the second or L shell, and 18 in the
third or M shell, and one electron in its fourth (N) and final, outer shell.
Whether the outer shell is relatively empty, half full, or nearly full determines some of the
electrical properties of the element.
All atoms follow this rule:
Maximum number of electrons possible in each shell = 2n2 where n is the shell number.

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The Periodic Table of Elements


Each atom has an identifiable number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. In addition, every
atom has its own atomic number, as well as its own atomic mass (as depicted in the periodic
table below).

Copper has an Atomic Number of 29, because it has 29 protons. Its Atomic Mass is 63.55
amu, a more complex calculation involving averaging the mass of the total number of protons
and neutrons together. (Electron mass is 0.0005 times less than either a proton or a neutron,
and considered insignificant.)

I amu 1.6 10

- 27

kg

or 1kg 625,000,00 0,000,000, 000,000,00 0,000 amu


Ions
Atoms which have lost or gained an electron during a process. An atom losing an electron will
become positive, whilst an atom gaining an electron will become negative.

Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. The Atomic Number remains
the same, but the Atomic Mass changes.

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Compounds
There are 109 known elements currently, however most of the matter around us has been
formed by one or more elements combining in such a way to form completely new
substances called compounds.
This is called chemical bonding, and generally when atoms bond together, they share or
transfer electrons and form molecules.
Water is a compound because it is made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms (H2O). The same
is true of carbon dioxide (CO2) and common salt, sodium chloride (NaCl).
In the example of H2O (water), the oxygen atom has six electrons in its outer, or valence
shell. Because there is room for eight electrons in the valence shell, one oxygen atom can
combine with two hydrogen atoms by sharing the single electron from each hydrogen atom.

Figure 1 Water Molecule


A compound is matter in which all the molecules are identical, but the molecules are
comprised of different atoms in exact proportions. The two or more individual elements are
chemically combined to form a separate substance whose characteristics may be completely
different from the original element characteristics.

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A molecule can have:

Just one atom (helium)

Two atoms of the same element (oxygen O2)

Atoms of several different elements (water H2O)

Subscripts indicate number of particular atoms in the molecule Al2 O3 means two atoms of
aluminium and three atoms of oxygen in each molecule of alumina

Mixtures
A mixture is a mingled mass of two or more substances where each substance retains it own
individual characteristics. For example, the figure below is a representation of NaCl in H2O
(salty water).
Mixtures have varying ratios of ingredients that do not combine chemically as they do in a
compound.

Other examples of mixtures are, air (a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other
gases) and metal alloys.
Metal alloys sometimes change characteristics when the metals are merged. For example,
aluminium becomes stronger and harder when alloyed with certain other metals.

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This is a physical rather than a chemical combination, occurring at a microscopic scale.


The figure is a microscopic cross-section of a metal alloy showing crystalline structure.

Mixtures may be separated into the original substances

States of Matter
All atoms and molecules in matter are constantly in vibratory motion. The degree of motion
i.e. the internal kinetic energy possessed by the matter, determines its physical state. This
internal KE is what we know as heat. What we call temperature is, in fact, only a measure of
this molecular activity.
So, at the everyday scale of things, these elements, compounds and mixtures exist as solids
liquids or gases, depending on their internal energy or heat content.

Figure 2
The physical state of a compound has no affect on a compounds chemical structure. Ice,
water, and steam are all H2O.

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Solids
A solid has a definite volume and shape, and is independent of its container. For example, a
rock that is put into a jar does not reshape itself to form to the jar. In a solid there is very little
heat energy and, therefore, the molecules or atoms cannot move very far from their relative
position. For this reason a solid is incompressible, that is, has constant density.

Liquids
When heat energy is added to solid matter, its molecular movement increases. This causes
the molecules to overcome their rigid shape. When a material changes from a solid to a
liquid, the materials volume does not significantly change.
However, the material conforms to the shape of the container its held in. Liquids have
definite volume but not shape.
An example of this is molten steel. Although the molecules of a liquid are farther apart than
those of a solid, they are still not far enough apart to make compressing possible and liquids
are also considered incompressible.
In a liquid, the molecules still partially bond together. This bonding force is known as surface
tension and prevents liquids from expanding and spreading out in all directions. Surface
tension is evident when a container is filled.

Gas
As heat energy is continually added to a material, the molecular movement increases further
until the liquid reaches a point where surface tension can no longer hold the molecules down.
At this point the molecules escape, becoming gas or vapour. The amount of heat required to
change a liquid to a gas varies with different liquids.
Gases differ from solids and liquids in the fact that they have neither a definite shape nor
volume. Chemically, the molecules in a gas are exactly the same as they were in their solid
or liquid state. However, because the molecules in a gas are spread out, gasses are
compressible.

Flow
The same property that allows liquids and gases to adopt the shape of their containers, also
allows them to flow, and they can both be called fluids.

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TOPIC 2.2.1: STATICS


Forces
A force can be described as that which can produce a change in a bodys state of motion. An
application of force will:

start

stop

accelerate, or

decelerate,

a mass

If energy is available, then forces can be used to do work.


Force is an example of a VECTOR quantity that need magnitude (size) and direction to be
fully defined.

Most quantities are SCALARS and are defined with size only.
For example, temperature, length, and time.
Scale drawings are a convenient way to represent vectors.

Vector Addition

Activity Resolve a single force into horizontal and vertical components

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Sometimes, forces act at different directions on a body. In cases such as these, forces must
be resolved to calculate a resultant net force.

When an object does not change its state of motion or rest, the resultant of all the forces
acting on it is zero, and it is said to be in a state of equilibrium.
For example, if a car is being pushed at one end by a person and opposed at the other end
by a similar force, the car does not move. The sum of the positive and negative forces are
zero.

Activity. Why are the scales in the slide not in equilibrium?

Moments and Levers


Either side of the lever below, has a moment which is the force multiplied by the distance,
from the fulcrum, or pivot, (called the arm)

The system is balanced when the load moment and the effort moment are equal. If the effort
force is increased, the load will be raised.
The smaller effort force moves through a larger arc to raise the heavier load a small distance.
This is the principle behind leverage
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A lever is an example of a Simple Machine, which is a device used to gain a Mechanical


Advantage, MA,

Where MA Load
Effort
In other words, the multiplication of a force by the use of leverage.
The mechanical advantage of a first-class lever depends on the distance moved by effort
compared to load.
The purpose of a lever is to perform work, for a load (L) to be lifted by an effort (E), pivoting
around a fulcrum (F).
If the load moved is greater than the effort used, the machine has a positive MA.
An example of a first-class lever is a CROWBAR

The fulcrum is situated between the load and the effort, and the load is greater than the effort.
The lid only needs to be raised a short distance but your hand travels a larger distance
Hence leverage

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Examples of a second-class lever include cockpit control levers, such as a throttle or thrust
lever, and a simple wheelbarrow.

The load is situated between the fulcrum and the effort. The load is greater than the effort.
Positive MA.
An example of a third-class lever is the retraction mechanism on an aircraft landing gear

F
E

The effort is between the fulcrum and the load. The effort is greater than the load, and moves
through a smaller distance MA is less than 1
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Velocity Ratio

A Velocity Ratio is the direct ratio of two speeds that may be present in the same system.
For example, consider a pulley system that uses an MA of 4.
The operator will pull through a metre of rope to raise the load by 0.25m.
Therefore, the rope moves 4 times as fast as the load is being raised.
The velocity ratio is 4:1
So, MA = Distance Ratio = VR

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Couples
A couple is a type of moment which is derived from two equal forces acting in parallel but
opposite directions on two different points of a body.
To explain this concept, consider an aircraft flying straight and level. If a control input is made
to turn the aircraft to the left, a force is generated at both the left wing tip and the right wing tip
through the ailerons.

The forces are equal, but act in opposite direction.


The forces produce a torque or twisting force to the aircraft, causing it to turn.
If the wing span of the aircraft is b metres, then the torque produced by this couple is given
by:

T F b Nm
Other examples include taps and steering wheels.

Activity
Using the principle of moments, prove that T = F x b for an aeroplane of wingspan b.

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Centre of Gravity (CG)


The Centre of Gravity (CG or C of G) of a body is the point from where the weight appears
to act, irrespective of the bodys position.
The cg of regularly shaped bodies of uniform density is easy to find. It is simply the geometric
centre of the bodies

If an irregularly shaped solid is hung first from one point, and then from another point, its CG
is the intersection of the verticals passing through these points.
The entire weight of a body is considered to act down through the vertical passing through its
CG.
The body can be raised without toppling by an upward-acting force applied to the underside
of the body where the vertical exactly leaves it.
Application of the upward force at any other point would tend to tilt the body.
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Therefore sling or lift loads as near to the CG as possible.


The cg of an aircraft shifts if passengers, baggage, or equipment in the cabin move, or if
unequal amounts of fuel are used from tanks in opposite wings.
There is a range of acceptable CG positions between a forward limit and an aft limit.
This will ensure the aircraft remains controllable without becoming tail heavy or nose heavy.
Consider a perfectly circular disc of constant thickness and density with an axle through its
centre.
The disc will be balanced at all positions to which it may be rotated around its cg at the centre
of the axle.
But further to this, balance will be retained regardless of the number of weights that are
added to the disc, providing they are paired off diametrically with equal and opposite
moments.

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Balance of Rotating Components


Even with an object of regular shapea disc or wheel for instancethe thickness or other
dimensions may vary slightly because of manufacturing tolerances, or because of wear or
damage during use.
Also the density may not be perfectly uniform throughout the material. These factors may
mean the cg does not coincide with the geometric centre or axis of rotation.

The unbalanced condition will cause vibration during rotation. To rectify this problem the cg
must be shifted to make it the same point as the centre of rotation.
This can be done by adding small masses of material to the light side of the component, or by
removing small masses of material from its heavy side until it balances.

Figure above shows a propeller in a static balancing rig.

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The propellers supporting mandrel or spindle rolls freely on a pair of horizontal knife edges
with very little friction. This kind of balancing is also called mass balancing.
The heaviest blade moves downward. When perfectly balanced the propeller will remain
stationary in any position to which it is turned.
Care must be taken that even slight air movements do not cause wrong indication of balance
or imbalance.
Many other rotating components are balanced during manufacture.
Examples include landing-gear wheel assemblies, helicopter rotors, compressors, turbines,
fans, and the rotors in generators, magnetos, and gyroscopes.
Some of these may require re-balancing during reconditioning procedures following wear,
damage, or replacement of parts.
For a component spinning at very high speed even a tiny amount of unbalance may produce
excessive vibration.

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Stress, Strain and Elasticity


Stress is the force acting through a section of solid material and defined as force per unit
area.

Stress Force
Area
Strain is the deformation of the material as a result of the stress.
If the strain is less than the materials elastic limit, the elasticity of the material will allow it to
return to its natural length.
Strain below the elastic limit is directly proportional to the applied stress (Hookes Law).
Doubling stress will double the strain, (below the elastic limit)
If the cross sectional area of the bar is 2 sq m, then the stress will be

Stress

1000 9.8
2

4900 N/m

If it was 0.5 m long and extends by 2 mm, what is the strain?

Strain 2 100% 0.4 %


500

Tension describes forces that tend to pull an object apart.


Flexible steel cable used in aircraft control systems is an example of a component designed
to withstand tension loads.

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Compression is the resistance to an external force that tries to push an object together.
The weight of an aircraft causes compressive stress to the runway.
Aircraft riveting is performed using compressive forces.

When compression loads are applied to the rivet head, the rivet shank will expand until it fills
the hole and forms a butt to hold the materials together

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Shear Stress

Shear stresses occur when external forces distort a body so that adjacent layers of material
tend to slide over one another. Shear stress tries to slice a body apart.
Shear stress may also occur in fluids, for example a layer of oil or grease between two sliding
metal surfaces.
Some molecules of lubricant cling to each sliding surface. The subsequent layers of lubricant
tend to slide over each other to reduce friction between the metal surfaces.

An aeroplane wing or a helicopter rotor blade is very similar to a plank or board.


Aerodynamic and gravitational forces try to bend the wing or blade upwards and onwards.
Consequently, the top and bottom surfaces of the wing are under alternating compression
and tensile stresses and must be constructed to withstand the fatigue that could develop from
this situation.
During operation, moving parts experience a variety of loadings, caused by vibration,
changes of load, and temperature changes.
Repeated applications of small loads may eventually result in fatigue failure.
Fatigue failures are quite common in aircraft and motor cars, and are at least as common as
overload failures.

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Torsional Stress
Torsion or torque is a form of shear stress. If a twisting force is applied to a rod that is fixed at
one end, the twist will try and slide sections of material over each other.
The result is that, in the direction of the twist, there is compression stress and in the direction
opposite to the twist, tension stress develops.

A crack can originate at the point of highest tensile stress in a part.


Such a crack can grow progressively and the parts strength is reduced so much that it
suddenly breaks.

Residual Stress (Locked In Stress)


Abrupt or uneven temperature changes tend to cause internal stress.
This often occurs when heat-treating metals.
This effect often explains why a component fails in service even though its externally applied
stress levels are low.
Residual Stress can be beneficial. The controlled crazing of some car windscreens in a crash
or when hit by a stone, is achieved by building residual stress into the glass when the
windscreen is made.

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Pressure
Both liquids and gases are fluids, therefore the theory behind buoyancy and pressure in
liquids, such as water, and gases, such as air, is similar.
An important difference to remember, though, is that liquids are considered incompressible,
that is, have a constant density, while gases are compressible.

Pressure Between Solid Surfaces

Pressure is defined as:

Force per unit area


Pr essure Force N/m 2
Area

Using g = 10 m/s per s


Block

A , P 100 10 250 N/m 2


4

Block B, P 100 10 1000 N/m 2


1

This explains why high heel shoes do more damage to wooden floors, and wide wheels
distribute a cars weight over the tarmac.

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Pressure in Fluids
Pressure is still defined as Force per unit area, but in a fluid it is caused by the continual
bombardment of the molecules against the inside of the container
The pressure exerted by a column of liquid is determined by the vertical height of the column,
gravity, and the density of the fluid.
The pressure is not affected by the volume or shape of the liquid.

P gh
where p = density kg/m3
m = mass kg
h = depth m

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Density and Specific Gravity


Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.
A given volume of lead has many times the mass of the same volume of water.
When the density of other liquids are compared to water, a table of comparative densities or
specific gravities can be determined. (Jepp Gen p. 2-5)
Gasoline has a specific gravity of 0.72, which means its weight is 72% of the same amount of
water.
Gases are compared to air to obtain an SG.

Note The term Relative Density is used to compare the density of air at different altitudes to
sea level
The SG of aviation fuel varies due to a variety of factors such as:

refining process;

storage facilities;

ambient conditions.

Activity Fuelling Exercise 1


The refueller or engineer must check the SG of the fuel supply, to calculate how many litres
will provide the weight of fuel requested.
Weight

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Buoyancy
Archimedes principle states that an item placed in fluid will displace a volume of fluid equal to
its own volume.
Furthermore, the object submerged in the fluid is supported by a force equal to the weight of
the fluid displaced. This is the buoyancy force. Therefore if a body displaces more fluid than
its own weight it will float.

Three bodies of the same volume but of different SGs are shown either floating or
submerged in water:

Body A with SG of 0.25 only submerged


Body B with SG of 0.5 only submerged
Body C with SG of 2 will not float in water weight is d though
If tank were filled with fluid with SG greater than 2 Body A & B would float higher, & body C
would also float ships float higher in salt water than in fresh.
Lower density materials float on higher density materials.

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For example,

gasoline or oil will float on water; Water sinks to the bottom of a petrol tank.

ice will float on water;

lead will float on mercury but sink in water.

Use of Pressure for MA


Pascals law states, changes in pressure undiminished to all parts of the fluid and its
container.

Pascals Law can be used to provide Mechanical Advantage, e.g. A Hydraulic Jack. The
same volume of fluid is displaced at each end of the system

The same volume of fluid is displaced at each end of the system, 1 psi spread over 10 square
inches can support 10 lb so, MA = 10.
Note that the large piston will only move up 1/10 of the distance the small piston moves in.

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If a piston such as the above is used to drive in both directions an interesting situation occurs.
The same pressure provides different forces according to direction of travel due to the
differing area available.
This will also affect the speed at which the operation will occur

Measurement of Pressure
Atmospheric pressure at a location then depends on the weight of the column of air above
that location. Typically 14.7 psi at sea level up to 4.4.psi at 29,000 ft.
Gauge pressure reads pressure above (or below) atmospheric so Absolute Pressure is
Gauge Pressure plus Atmospheric Pressure.
Tyre pressure gauges read Gauge Pressure.
For passenger comfort, modern aircraft retain a cabin altitude equivalent to 8000 or 11 psi.
Cruising at 29,000 ft, the outside pressure is 4.4 psi.
Therefore, the structure of the aircraft is experiencing a differential pressure of
11 - 4.4 6.6 psi

This is a significant component of the total stress on the airframe

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Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases


Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume which is independent of its container.
In a solid the forces (bonds) that keep the atoms or molecules together are strong. Therefore,
a solid does not require outside support to maintain its shape.
Most metals are solids and as such are usually hard and strong and capable of being shaped
mechanically, (malleable and ductile).
Both liquids and gases are classified as fluids. At any point on the surface of a submerged
object, the force exerted by a fluid is perpendicular to the surface of the object.
The force exerted by the fluid on the walls of the container is perpendicular to the walls at all
points.
Although liquids and gases both share the common characteristics of fluids, they have
distinctive qualities of their own.
A liquid is regarded as incompressible, (fixed density) whereas a gas is comparatively easy
to compress.
A change in volume of a gas can easily be achieved by changes of temperature and/or
pressure.
A given mass of gas has no fixed volume and will expand continuously unless restrained by a
containing vessel.

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Page Intentionally Left Bank

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TOPIC 2.2: KINETICS


Kinetics is all about states of motion. We will look at how objects can transfer from place to
place, and in some cases have a motion whilst not actually getting anywhere!
Displacement and Distance

The aircraft may travel a total distance of 2 km as it veers left and right, but its
displacement, measured only as the difference between the start point and finish point,
will be less.

The displacement of the aircraft in an easterly direction only is less again

Displacement refers to the position of an object relative to its point of origin. This is different
to distance which is the total length travelled by an object from its point of origin.
Displacement takes direction into consideration, but distance does not care about direction.

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Speed and Velocity


A similar distinction can be made between speed and velocity.
They both refer to the distance travelled per unit of time, for example, miles per hour, metres
per second etc. However, velocity is a vector quantity, so direction is important.
Speed is a scalar quantity, so direction is irrelevant.
Average speed is distance travelled divided by time taken.

Average velocity is the final displacement divided by the total time.


Acceleration
When an object has an initial velocity then, after a period of time, that velocity has changed
(increased or decreased), the object is said to have accelerated.
Acceleration can be positive or negative. Negative acceleration is called deceleration.
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. Average acceleration is found by dividing the
change in velocity by the total time taken for this change to occur.
A formula can be used to represent this:

a v
t
(acceleration equals change in velocity divided by change in time)
or,

( v u)
t

where v = final velocity, u = initial velocity and t = time.


Acceleration is a vector, so a change in direction even when undertaken at constant speed, is
an acceleration.
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You will remember that force is defined as that which uses energy to produce a change in
motion state. NEWTON explored this and formulated his three famous Laws.
1. A body will remain at rest or continue its uniform motion in a straight line until acted upon
by an external net force
This law is a statement about INERTIA which is the property of mass that resists changes in
motion.
2. The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force applied to it and is inversely
proportional to the mass of the body.
This law is represented by the formula:
F = ma (force equals mass multiplied by acceleration).
Imagine an object at rest on a table. It will stay that way unless pushed. (Newton 1).
It is pushed forward by an external force and accelerates. (Newton 2) Stop the force and if
there was no further resistance it would continue for ever at its new speed.
In fact, there is friction, which provides another external force and the object decelerates and
stops. (Also Newton 2)
Now imagine a spacecraft outside our atmosphere. A single push will accelerate it to a new
velocity which it will maintain for ever, (or until it hits something!)
Alternatively, if the same craft was given a continuous push by a motor, it would continue to
accelerate reaching enormous velocities.
A special case of F = ma is W = mg, where g is the acceleration caused by the gravitational
attraction between the mass m and the Earth, equalling 9.8 m/s per sec, and produces the
force we call weight W.
3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The upward thrust of a rocket is the reaction to the force propelling the mass of hot gas
downward.
Stand on a skate board and throw a large mass away from yourself, and you will roll in the
opposite direction.
Linear Motion
Motion is said to be uniform if equal displacements occur in equal periods of time. In other
words constant velocity.

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Consider a body moving in a straight line. We have several relationships we can use.
Average

velocity

displaceme
time

nt

and

Average

speed distance
time

u
-t
v

and

where v = final velocity, u = initial velocity and t = time.

1 at 2
2

- 1 at 2
2

t
a

t
v

t
u

However for linear motion, distance and displacement will be the same, and we can extend
the above to include the following, where s = distance

v 2 u 2 2as
Circular Motion
In accordance with Newtons First Law, the object would shoot off on a straight path unless a
Centripetal Force is continually applied to keep it turning along the curve.
Newtons 3rd Law demands that there is a reaction the this force keeping the string in tension,
the Centrifugal Force.
The object is accelerated towards the centre of the orbit.
An object travelling along a curved path tends, at all instants, to fly off on the straight line that
forms a tangent to the curve of its path (if the string breaks, for example).

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Tangential
direction

Centripetal force is given by Newtons 2nd Law


F ma
mv
r

or mw 2 r

where m is mass, v is velocity, w is angular velocity (rpm) and r is the radius.


Therefore doubling the rpm, quadruples the centrifugal force, which in a grinding wheel, for
example, is trying to pull it apart! Observe RPM limits!
This is also one of the reasons a turbine blade creeps or elongates during operation.
Other aircraft components susceptible to centrifugal stresses are:

Propeller and Helicopter rotor blades

Wheels and tyres

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Orbits
The Earth orbits the Sun and the Moon orbits the Earth. In both cases the orbiting body uses
the centrifugal force created by their motion to balance the attraction of gravity.
The Space Shuttle and other satellites do exactly the same. The further from the Earth the
craft is, the slower the orbital rpm needs to be, however the linear velocity is greater.

Eventually at a height of about 22,300 miles, we have a Geosynchronous orbit, that is, an
orbit where the satellite speed matches the rotation of the Earth, and it stays over the same
spot.
The weightlessness experienced by an astronaut is a result of the same equilibrium.
His or her weight, is balanced by centrifugal force.

Activity:
Add the forces to the diagram.

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Periodic Motion
Periodic motion or simple harmonic motion refers to repeated motion, i.e. that which repeats
over time. For example, the mass on a spring (below) or a pendulum.
The simple pendulum consists of a weight hanging from a point by a string. If the weight is
set swinging, the oscillations are termed periodic motion, and the oscillations are predictable.

The energy contained in a body moving with SHM is called wave energy.

SHM occurs around an equilibrium position when a mass is subject to a linear restoring force.

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A linear restoring force is one that gets proportionally larger with displacement from the
equilibrium position.

Elasticity is the property of an object or material which causes it to be restored to its original
shape after distortion.
It is said to be more elastic if it restores itself more precisely to its original configuration a
piano wire is MORE elastic than a rubber band.
A mass on a spring is a good example when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which
tends to bring it back to its original length.
Below the elastic limit, the restoring force is proportional to the amount of stretch. (Hooke's
Law.)
The motion is sinusoidal and demonstrates a single natural or resonant frequency.
The amplitude is the maximum distance the mass moves from its equilibrium position. It
moves as far on one side as it does on the other.
The time that it takes to make one complete repetition or cycle is called the period of the
motion. We will usually measure the period in seconds.
Frequency is the number of cycles per second that an oscillator goes through. Frequency is
measured in "hertz" which means cycles per second.
Period and frequency are closely connected; they contain the same information:

T 1/f or f 1/T
The key feature of SHM is that the period or frequency of the motion does not depend on the
amplitude of the oscillation
From a practical viewpoint, this effect was used to make the first accurate clocks a
pendulum takes the same time to make one oscillation, even though the amplitude of the
oscillations damps with time the period does not change.
A pendulum s period T is given by:
T 2

[L/g]

where L is length

In reality, oscillations do not continue forever they gradually decrease their motion as
energy is lost to friction. You may want the sound caused by a piano or a guitar to continue in
this way.
But you want the oscillation of your car to stop immediately after going over a bump. Hence
the dampers, (shock absorbers.)

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Vibration is a term normally reserved for high frequency periodic motion


In an aircraft, rotating or reciprocal components such as engines and propellers produce
vibration which can be annoying and destructive.
Vibration experienced in an aircraft may originate from the engines, turbulence, or from flight
control flutter due to worn hinges or linkage bearings.
The constant vibration is annoying to flight crew and passengers.
Also, the structure of the aircraft and other components can vibrate in sympathy and
structural damage and component wear can occur.
Metal fatigue is an example of such structural damage.
Resonance
The natural or resonant frequency of an object is the frequency where that object vibrates
naturally, or without an external force.

If two objects have the same natural frequency and are joined to each other, when one of
them vibrates, it can transfer its wave energy to the other object making it vibrate.
This transfer of energy is known as resonance
Because resonance can induce vibration it can exert destructive forces on an aircraft. For
example, it is possible to have portions of an aircraft, such as the propeller, vibrate in
resonance at certain engine speeds.

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Harmonics
Harmonics exist as multiples of an original, natural frequency.
That is;

if the natural frequency is 100 Hz

the 1st harmonic is at 200 Hz

and the 2nd harmonic is at 300 Hz etc

Harmonics can resonate as well as natural frequencies

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TOPIC 2.2.3 DYNAMICS


One of the fundamental properties of the Universe is that it contains energy, which in turn can
be used to effect change. When that change is the state of motion of a mass, then a force
has been created.
Dynamics is the study of forces at work in motion, and the use of energy.

The Difference between Mass and Weight


The Earth is a large mass in space and there is a mutual attraction between it and everything
on its surface. Because the Earth is so much bigger than everything else, it seems like the
attraction is only one way.
Newtons Laws tell us that F mg
so when that force is the result of the acceleration due to gravity, g, we re-write this as:

W mg

weight N kg m/s per s


So, why do we say our weight is 70 kg and not 70 x 9.8 700 N?
Well, we shouldnt!
It has only become acceptable because, if we all stay on the Earth, the error becomes
constant.
Go to the moon, whose mass I/6 that of the Earth, and your weight will not be the same.
You will still have 70 kg of mass, but the weight reduces to

70 9.8 114 Newtons


6
Our earthly muscles, used to supporting 700 N, can make our 114 N body jump much higher.
Travel to Jupiter, (mass 2 times Earth) and you will weigh 70 x 9.8 x 2.5 1715 N
The same muscles will collapse under the stress of trying to support this force.

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Inertia
Inertia is the property of a mass which causes it to resist any change in its state of motion
Newtons first law of motion states:
A body will remain at rest or continue its uniform motion in a straight line until acted upon by
an external net force.

The larger the mass, the greater the inertia.

Work
When a force acts on an object, overcomes inertia, and sets it in motion, work is done.
Unless the object moves through a distance the work done is said to be zero.
Work done is found by the formula

W Fs
Where F = force, s = distance
The unit of work in the SI system is the joule, which equals 1 Newton metre (Nm)

Example:
If an object is moved 10 metres by a force of 100 newtons, the work is calculated as:
W Fs

W 100 10 (Nm)
W = 1 000 joules.
In the Imperial system of measurement, a measure of work is the foot-pound, the effort of
raising one pound of mass by one foot.

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Power
Power is the rate of doing work. When determining the amount of work done, the time
required to do the work is not considered. Power on the other hand takes time into
consideration.
For example, if a person climbs a flight of stairs, they perform the same amount of work
whether they walk up or run up. However, when the person runs up they are working at a
faster rate and therefore using more power.
PW/t
The unit SI unit of power is the watt. One watt is the power generated when one joule of work
is done in one second.
In the imperial system of measurement, power is expressed in foot/pounds per second and
one horsepower is equivalent to 550 foot/pounds per second and 746 Watts
Because Work Force distance
Power ac be written as Force distance
time
But distance divided by time is velocity
so Power

Force Velocity

P Fv (N m/s Watts)

Activity
The drag (air resistance) of an aircraft is 1500 N. What power is required to fly at 360 km/hr
(Ans in kW)
What is implied if you have a 230 kW motor?

Energy
Energy provides the capacity for work to be done and effect change. The SI unit of energy is
the joule.
One joule of energy can do one joule of work assuming there have been no losses like
friction.
An important concept when thinking about energy is the law of the conservation of energy
which states:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to
another.
For example, a car turns the chemical energy found in petrol into mechanical energy, heat
and sound.

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Potential Energy
The potential energy in a body or of a body means stored energy, stored in the body because
of its position, condition or chemical nature.
Even though an object is not doing work, it can still be capable of doing work. For example, a
mass held above the ground.
While it is being held it has no motion, so it is not doing work. If it is then released, it will fall
immediately, thus doing work.
(PE mgh )

Mass(kg)

accn due to gravity (9.8m/s 2 ) height(m)

Hydro electric power uses the energy stored by a mass of water flowing downhill.
A drum of gasoline, a stick of explosive, or a chocolate bar all contain potential energy,
because of their chemical composition.

Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is energy a body has because of its motion. If a body is held aloft and then
released, as it starts to fall to ground the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.
The formula for calculating kinetic energy is:

KE 1 mv 2 Joules ,
2
where m = mass (kg) and v velocity in m/s

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Total Energy
In accordance with the law of conservation of energy, the total energy does not change, but
potential energy can be transformed into kinetic energy and vice-versa.
A falling mass has maximum potential energy at highest elevation (PE = mgh). Kinetic energy
is zero because the body has no motion (KE = mv2).
Once the mass is released and starts falling, the potential energy starts to be converted to
kinetic energy.
Half way through its fall, the potential energy exactly equals the kinetic energy.
Then, at the instant the body strikes the floor, the kinetic energy is maximum.
It has no distance left to fall so potential energy is zero.

Friction

When objects move they usually roll or slide in contact with other objects or substances.
Such sliding or rolling contacts have resistance to the force that causes the motion. This
resistance is called friction.
In most industrial applications the minimisation of friction is sought, with lubricant, yet friction
between our shoes and the ground is necessary to be able to walk and run.
Likewise, it is the friction between tyres and the road and between brake rotors and discs that
helps slow down a vehicle.
The coefficient of friction refers to the differences in friction between various materials.
The higher the coefficient of friction (), the greater the resistance between two surfaces.
Lubrication reduces friction.
There are three types of friction
1. Starting or Static - Overcoming initial resistance until breakaway occurs.
2. Sliding - Resistance during steady motion.
3. Rolling - Single point contact resistance is less than sliding.
Still need some friction otherwise the wheel will not grip.
The amount of sliding friction can be calculated from the relationship
F N
where N is the reaction to the weight of the object from the surface on which it is sliding.
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From above it can be seen why pulling a box with a slight upward angle is easier that pushing
when your force may be slightly down on the box.
Consider an aircraft landing. Just after touchdown the wings are still supporting some of the
weight, and the friction between the wheels and the surface will be small and braking will be
inefficient.

W
F N
but N W L
F (W L )

The greater the lift, the smaller the friction.


Airflow spoilers are used to dump this lift and allow the pilot to begin braking earlier
Some example of are:
Steel on steel

0.09

Rubber tyre on airport runway

0.7 (dry) and 0.5 (wet)

Teflon on teflon

0.04

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Coefficients of rolling resistance are very small.


For example:
Rubber tyres on concrete

0.02

Roller bearings

0.001

Rolling one surface over another creates less friction than sliding one surface over another.

Heat
Heat is one of the most useful forms of energy because of its direct relationship with work,
and with the use of engines. Other types of energy can be transformed, in accordance with
the law of conservation of energy, into heat.

Heat is also found as a consequence of friction. The heat produced by friction is usually
unwanted.

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Efficiency
With any machinery, the efficiency is the ratio of work output to workor energy input. If 100
joules of work is put into a gear train and the output is 90 joules, the efficiency is said to be:

Efficiency

W (out)
100
W (in)

90
100 efficiency 90%
100

It is friction that primarily determines the efficiency of a machine, because the friction
between moving parts creates heat, sound and sometimes light.
All of these are classified as energy losses.
Reducing friction is usually accomplished by lubrication or streamlining.

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Momentum
Inertia has been defined as the tendency of a mass to resist changes in its state of motion.
Momentum however is the product of this inertia and the motion it already has.
There are two types of momentum, linear and angular.
Linear momentum is a measure of the tendency of a moving body to continue in motion along
a straight line. Momentum is defined as the product of the mass and velocity of a body.

M = mv.
Momentum is conserved, so if two masses m1 and m2 travelling at v1 and v2 collide, sticking
together, and continue as a single mass with new velocity v, then:
m 1 v 1 m 2 v 2 (m 1 m 2) v

(V is a vector, so direction is important)


Angular momentum is a measure of the tendency of a rotating body to continue to spin about
an axis.
M = mw where w is the rpm or angular velocity.
A spinning skater can vary her RPM by moving her arms in and out, changing the resistance
to her rotation

Extending her arms places their mass further from the axis of rotation and the resistance to
spin increases, reducing the rpm. Bringing them in brings their mass closer to the axis and
the rpm increases. That she somehow speeds up, seemingly gaining energy from
somewhere, is an illusion.

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It is actually due to the Conservation of Angular Momentum.

Impulse
If a force is applied to a moving body, that bodys state of motion is altered.
The momentum of the body is changed by an amount called the Impulse.

(Impulse) I = Ft (Force multiplied by time)


A spacecrafts burn i.e. applying thrust for a number of seconds is an example of an
Impulse

Activity
Consider a mass m acted on by a force F for t seconds. It changes velocity from u to v.
Show that the Impulse = Ft is equivalent to a change in momentum mu to mv.

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A Simple Gyroscope
A gyroscope is any rotating mass. A useful example is the type consisting of a rotor mounted
on gimbals, so that its supporting platform or case can be turned in one or more planes
around the rotor without changing the rotors plane of rotation.
Like all rotating masses, the gyroscope has two fundamental characteristics. These are
gyroscopic inertia (rigidity in space) and precession.

Gyroscopic rigidity
This is the natural property of any rotating mass to resist changes to its plane of rotation
unless an external force causes a change.
This is the reason a spinning top or coin remains upright until it runs down.
If the rotor is in a case securely fitted to the airframe, it will show changes of aircraft attitude.
This is the basis for the instrument called the Artificial Horizon or Attitude Indicator.

Precession
This the change of the plane of rotation caused by an external force.
If a force is applied to the rotating mass, overcoming the natural rigidity, then its plane of
rotation will deflect 900 in the direction of rotation.

Pushing the nose of this aircraft down causes the prop to swing the whole airframe left.
If the rotor is aligned nose to tail it will deflect when the aircraft is turned, and measure Rate
of Turn

Try these with the bike wheel!!


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TOPIC 2.2.4: FLUID DYNAMICS


PHYSICAL NATURE OF MATTER
Matter is composed of several molecules. The molecule is the smallest unit of a substance that
exhibits the physical and chemical properties of the substance. Furthermore, all molecules of a
particular substance are exactly alike and unique to that substance.
Matter may exist in one of three physical states, solid, liquid, and gaseous. All matter exists in one
of these states. A physical state refers to the physical condition of a compound and has no affect
on a compounds chemical structure. In other words, ice, water, and steam are all H2O and the
same type of matter appears in all of these states.
Characteristics of Matter
Solid

Liquid

Gas

Definite Shape
- Independent of the container

Indefinite Shape
- takes the shape of the container

Indefinite Shape
- takes the shape of the container

Define Volume

Define Volume

Indefinite Volume

Not easily compressible


- little free space between particles

Not easily compressible


- little free space between particles

Compressible
- lots of free space between particles

Does not flow easily


- particles cannot move past one
another

Flows easily
Flows easily
- particles can move past one another - particles can move past one another

All atoms and molecules in matter are constantly in motion. This motion is caused by the heat
energy in the material. The degree of motion determines the physical state of matter.

DENSITY
The density of a substance is its weight per unit volume.
The density of solids and liquids varies with temperature. However, the density of a gas varies with
temperature and pressure. To find the density of a substance, divide the weight of the substance by
its volume. This results in a weight per unit volume.
Density = Weight / Volume
For example, the liquid which fills a certain container weighs 1,497.6 pounds. The container is 4
feet long, 3 feet wide and 2 feet deep. Therefore, its volume is 24 cubic feet (4 ft. x 3 ft. x 2 ft.).
Based on this, the liquids density is 62.4 lbs/ ft.
62.4 pounds per cubic foot = 1,497.6 / 24 ft

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Because the density of solids and liquids vary with temperature, a standard temperature of 4C is
used when measuring the density of each. Although temperature changes do not change the
weight of a substance, they do change the volume of a substance through thermal expansion or
contraction. This changes a substances weight per unit volume.
When measuring the density of a gas, temperature and pressure must be considered. Pressure is
more critical when measuring the density of gases than it is for other substances. The density of a
gas increases in direct proportion to the pressure exerted on it.
Standard conditions for the measurement of the densities of gases have been established at 0C
for temperature and a pressure of 76 cm of mercury (Hg) (This is the average pressure of the
atmosphere at sea level). Density is computed based on these conditions for all gases.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY (S.G.)


It is often necessary to compare the density of one substance with that of another. For this reason,
a standard is needed from which all other materials can be compared. The standard when
comparing the densities of all liquids and solids is water at 4C. The standard for gases is air.
In physics the word specific refers to a ratio. Therefore, specific gravity is calculated by comparing
the weight of a definite volume of substance with the weight of an equal volume of water. The
following formulas are used to find specific gravity (sp. gr.) of liquids and solids:

sp. gr. = weight of a substance / weight of equal volume of water.

sp. gr. = Density of a substance / density of water.

The same formulas are used to find the density of gases by substituting air for water.
Specific gravity is not expressed in units, but as a pure number. For example, if a certain hydraulic
liquid has a specific gravity of 0.8, 1 cubic foot of the liquid weighs 0.8 times as much as 1 cubic
foot of water.
Specific gravity is independent of the size of the sample under consideration and varies only with
the substance the sample is made of.
A device called a hydrometer is used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. This device has a
tubular- shaped glass float contained in a larger glass tube. The float is weighted and has a
vertically graduated scale.

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The scale is read at the surface of the liquid in which the float is immersed. When filled with a liquid
having a density greater than pure water, the float rises and indicates a greater specific gravity. For
liquids of lesser density, the float sinks.

VISCOSITY IN LIQUIDS
Viscosity is one of the most important properties of hydraulic fluids. It is a measure of a fluids
resistance to flow. A liquid, such as gasoline, which flows easily has a low viscosity; and a liquid,
such as tar, which flows slowly has a high viscosity.

The viscosity of a liquid is affected by changes in temperature and pressure. As the temperature of
a liquid increases, its viscosity decreases. That is, a liquid flows more easily when it is hot than
when it is cold. The viscosity of a liquid increases as the pressure on the liquid increases. A
satisfactory liquid for a hydraulic system must be thick enough to give a good seal at pumps,
motors, valves, and so on. These components depend on close fits for creating and maintaining
pressure. Any internal leakage through these clearances results in loss of pressure, instantaneous
control, and pump efficiency.

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Leakage losses are greater with thinner liquids (low viscosity). A liquid that is too thin will also allow
rapid wearing of moving parts, or of parts that operate under heavy loads. On the other hand, if the
liquid is too thick (viscosity too high), the internal friction of the liquid will cause an increase in the
liquids flow resistance through clearances of closely fitted parts, lines, and internal passages. This
results in pressure drops throughout the system, sluggish operation of the equipment and an
increase in power consumption.

VISCOSITY IN GASES
The term Viscosity is used mostly in regard to liquids, especially oils, but it also applies to gases.
The viscosity of air is a consideration in aerodynamics.
When the temperature of a gas rises, it becomes more viscous. In other words, the viscosity of
gases varies directly with temperature, and the viscosity of liquids varies inversely with
temperature.

VISCOSITY INDEX
The viscosity index (V.I.) of an oil is a number that indicates the effect of temperature changes on
the viscosity of the oil. A low V.I. signifies a relatively large change of viscosity with changes of
temperature. In other words, the oil becomes extremely thin at high temperatures and extremely
thick at low temperatures. On the other hand, a high V.I. signifies relatively little change in viscosity
over a wide temperature range.
An ideal oil for most purposes is one that maintains a constant viscosity throughout temperature
changes. The importance of the V.I. can be shown easily by considering automotive lubricants. An
oil having a high V.I. resists excessive thickening when the engine is cold and, consequently,
promotes rapid starting and prompt circulation; it resists excessive thinning when the motor is hot
and thus provides full lubrication and prevents excessive oil consumption.
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Another example of the importance of the V.I. is the need for a high V.I. hydraulic oil for aircraft,
since hydraulic control systems may be exposed to temperatures ranging from below 65F at high
altitudes to over 100F on the ground.

For the proper operation of the hydraulic control system, the hydraulic fluid must have a sufficiently
high V.I. to perform its functions at the extremes of the expected temperature range.
STREAMLINING
All three objects have the same cross-sectional area.
A flat shape fights air flow and causes more drag or resistance.
A curved shape allows air to flow smoothly around it.
Streamlining is the shaping of an object, such as an aircraft body or wing, to reduce the amount of
drag or resistance air, due to viscosity, to motion through a stream of air.

Streamlining reduces the amount of resistance and increases lift.


To produce less resistance for subsonic streamlining:

The front of the object should be well rounded

The body should gradually curve back from the midsection to a tapered rear section

COMPRESSIBILITY
The terms compressibility and incompressibility describe the ability of molecules in a fluid to be
compacted or compressed (made more dense) and their ability to bounce back to their original
density, in other words, their "springiness."
An incompressible fluid cannot be compressed and has relatively constant density throughout.
Liquid is an incompressible fluid.

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A gaseous fluid such as air, on the other hand, can be either compressible or incompressible.

EFFECTS OF COMPRESSIBILITY
Generally, for theoretical and experimental purposes, gases are assumed to be incompressible
when they are moving at low speeds--under approximately 220 miles per hour. The motion of the
object travelling through the air at such speed does not affect the density of the air. This
assumption has been useful in aerodynamics when studying the behaviour of air in relation to
airfoils and other objects moving through the air at slower speeds.
However, when aircraft began travelling faster than 220 miles per hour, assumptions regarding the
air through which they flew that were true at slower speeds were no longer valid. At high speeds
some of the energy of the quickly moving aircraft goes into compressing the fluid (the air) and
changing its density. The air at higher altitudes where these aircraft fly also has lower density than
air nearer to the Earth's surface. The airflow is now compressible, and aerodynamic theories have
had to reflect this. Aerodynamic theories relating to compressible airflow characteristics and
behaviour are considerably more complex than theories relating to incompressible airflow.
At lower altitudes, air has a higher density and is considered incompressible for theoretical and
experimental purposes.

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STATIC, DYNAMIC AND TOTAL PRESSURE


When an aircraft flies, it travels through a fluid (air) which has a certain atmospheric pressure due
to the weight of the atmosphere (static pressure).
The aircraft also has forward, dynamic, motion which means that it is striking air molecules at a rate
proportional to its speed (dynamic pressure).
The sum of the static and dynamic pressure is the total pressure (Pt or P0), also known as the total
pitot pressure, stagnation pressure of the fluid.
Aircraft use pitot tubes to measure airspeed.

Static pressure is the actual pressure of the fluid, which is associated not with its motion but with its
state. In aircraft, static pressure is open to the atmosphere and is measured perpendicularto the
airflow through a hole in the wall.
Dynamic Pressure is parallel to the flow of air and can be expressed as: q = rV, where r is the
fluid density and V is the fluid velocity.

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Static pressure is used to calculate aircraft altitude.

MEASURING DYNAMIC PRESSURE


Total pressure is fed to the inside of the sealed capsule. As the static pressure varies in the case,
the sealed capsule expands or contracts. This is equivalent to: pV2 = Total Pressure P
A suitable link can moves an indicator as required.
q = rV is then used to calculate airspeed in flight:

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BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE
The Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli developed a principle that explains the
relationship between potential and kinetic energy in a fluid.
All matter contains potential energy and/or kinetic energy. In a fluid, the potential energy is that
caused by the pressure of the fluid, while the kinetic energy is that caused by the fluids movement.
Although the energy cannot be created or destroyed, it is possible to exchange potential energy for
kinetic energy or vice versa.

In Figure a tube is shown in which the cross-sectional area gradually decreases to a minimum
diameter in its center section. A tube constructed in this manner is called a venturi, or venturi
tube. Where the cross-sectional area is decreasing, the passageway is referred to as a converging
duct. As the passageway starts to spread out, it is referred to as a diverging duct.
The venturi is used to illustrate Bernoullis principle, which states that: the static pressure of a fluid
(liquid or gas) decreases at points where the velocity of the fluid increases, provided no energy is
added to nor taken away from the fluid.
As a liquid (fluid) flows through the venturi tube, the gauges at points A, B, and C are
positioned to register the velocity and the static pressure of the liquid.
In the wide section of the venturi (points A and C in Figure), the liquid moves at low velocity,
producing a high static pressure, as indicated by the pressure gauge. As the tube narrows in the
center, it must contain the same volume of fluid as the two end areas.
In the narrow section(points B), the liquid moves at a higher velocity, producing a lower pressure
than that at points A and C, indicated by the velocity gauge reading high and the pressure gauge
reading low.

BERNOULLI'S THEOREM EQUATION


Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely
denoted as Bernoulli's equation. In fact, there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for
different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows (e.g.
most liquid flows) and also for compressible flows (e.g. gases) moving at low Mach numbers. More
advanced forms may in some cases be applied to compressible flows at higher Mach numbers
The slide shows one of many forms of Bernoulli's equation which appears in many physics, fluid
mechanics, and airplane textbooks:
Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure = Total Pressure = Constant
Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states that in
a steady flow the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at

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all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy
remain constant.

VENTURI EFFECT
The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a
constricted section of pipe. The fluid velocity must increase through the constriction to satisfy the
equation of continuity, while its pressure must decrease due to conservation of energy: the gain in
kinetic energy is balanced by a drop in pressure.
An equation for the drop in pressure due to the Venturi effect may be derived from a combination of
Bernoulli's principle and the equation of continuity.
The limiting case of the venturi effect is choked flow, in which a constriction in a pipe or channel
limits the total flow rate through the channel, because the pressure cannot drop below zero in the
constriction.

Referring to the diagram shown, using Bernoulli's equation in the case of incompressible flows
(such as the flow of water or other liquid, or low speed flow of gas), the relationship of the pressure
P of a fluid to its velocity V would be given by:

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where is the density of the fluid, v1 is the (slower) fluid velocity where the pipe is wider (point 1),
v2 is the (faster) fluid velocity where the pipe is narrower (point 2). This assumes the flowing fluid
(or other substance) is not significantly compressible - even though pressure varies, the density is
assumed to remain approximately constant.
The Venturi effect is named after Giovanni Battista Venturi, (17461822), an Italian physicist.
Venturis are found in many applications.
The piston forces air through the venturi in figure so the pressure at the throat drops. Atmospheric
pressure in the round container (reservoir) is now greater, and the liquid (red) travels up the tube,
joins the airstream, and is sprayed.

An extension of Bernoullis Theorem is the basis of how some of the lift is generated by aircraft
wings, propellers and helicopter rotor blades.
The top of the wing roughly approximates to half of a venturi. The air passing over the top surface
of the wing moves at a higher velocity. The higher velocity causes a decreased pressure there, and
a pressure difference between upper and lower wing surfaces contributes to the force known as
lift.
Note: Leading edges experience total pressure, not dynamic pressure only.

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TOPIC 2.3: THERMODYNAMICS


Earlier energy was described as that property of the Universe which can cause change.
Through the application of force, work is done.
Every star radiates the energy it develops internally, and any associated planets at the
appropriate distance can absorb and use this energy to evolve accordingly.
Heat is one form of energy, and in many cases the production of heat and its subsequent
release can do useful work.
The Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only
converted from one form to another.
Energy concerning the application, loss or transfer of heat is termed thermal energy.
According to the law of conservation of energy, thermal energy cannot be created or
destroyed, but it is converted from, and to, other forms of energy.
For example, thermal energy may be created from electrical, chemical, mechanical or nuclear
energy.
It can be converted to mechanical or kinetic energy. The heat in a thermal process can also
add energy to chemical reactions.
Although all substances can absorb and radiate heat energy, it is the gases that can most
easily turn this into useful work. The work done by an expanding gas is one of the basic
principles behind propulsion.

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Heat Transfer
Conduction
Conduction requires physical contact between a body having a high level of heat energy and
a body having a lower level of heat energy.
When a cold object comes into contact with a hotter object, the action of the molecules in the
hot material transfers some of their energy to the molecules in the colder material.
Similarly, if one part of a body is heated then the energy will be transferred internally
molecule to molecule as they become more agitated.
Eventually the activity of the molecules in the two materials becomes equalised and thus the
temperatures also equalise, before falling as heat is lost to the surroundings.
An example of heat transfer by conduction is the removal of heat from an engine cylinder by
cooling fins.

The combustion of gasoline in the cylinder releases heat which is conducted to the cylinder
head and cooling fins.
The heat is then conducted to the cooler air and carried away.

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Convection
Convection is the process by which heat is transferred by bulk movement of a fluid.
As fluid is heated by a heat source, it becomes less dense and rises, being replaced by
cooler fluid.
Heating water in a kettle, heating air in a house and the circulation of atmospheric heat are
examples of convection.

Convection currents
The handle of the saucepan is made from a material that does not conduct heat very well.
Therefore the handle will stay relatively cool while the metallic saucepan becomes hot.

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Radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation refers to the emission of energy from the surface of most objects,
and is related to the acceleration of charged particles.
EMR is energy propagation by periodic variation of the electric E, and magnetic field M,
strengths caused by the acceleration of charged particles.
There are charged particles within the molecules that make up a substance. The nature of
the motion possessed by these particles is acceleration because they constantly change
direction.

These are not mechanical waves, but they display similar behaviour, and are able to travel
through vacuum. The M and E waves are perpendicular to each other.
At a certain frequency of this wave motion, approx 1013 Hz, the energy is propagated as heat.
(Actually called Infra-Red as it is just lower than red light)

All the energy we receive from the sun has been radiated to us across 93 million miles of
vacuum.
There is no need for intermediate matter to transfer radiant energy.
Only a small part of the energy we receive from the sun is light. Much of the rest is radiant
heat.
Conduction and convection take place relatively slowly while radiation takes place at the
speed of light.
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Kinetic Theory of Matter


It was discovered that the smallest particles of most substances, molecules, are constantly in
random motion. (For elements, read atoms.)
Heat is described as the kinetic energy associated with this motion
The more heat energy there is in a material, the faster its molecules move, and changes will
occur to the substance.

Initially solids will expand as their molecules take up more space with the movement.
Railway tracks have expansion joints fitted to allow the track to move under hot sun.
Expansion is calculated using the formula
E = kL(T2 T1)
Where L is the original size, T2 -T1 is the temperature difference, and k is the Co-efficient of
Linear Expansion for the material. Jeppesen Gen p. 2-18
Remember, if two dissimilar substances are joined and heated, they will expand at different
rates and create stress in the structure. (Bi-metallic strip)

The two metals in the bi-metallic strip expand different amounts with heating. Hence the strip
bends with temperature changes.
The bending operates the electrical contacts for thermostats, and keeps the clock wheel in
balance for constant speed at differing temperatures.
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Change of State
Eventually, as heat is added, the same molecules have become so far apart that the
substance changes state to a liquid.
Keep heating the material and it changes state again and becomes a gas. The molecules are
so far apart now that they become independent of each other.
Remember our goal is to understand the transfer of energy (as heat), to effect change by the
application of force. It is fairly simple to see using incompressible substances such as solids,
(hitting something with a hammer!), and liquids. (Hydraulic Systems)
For gasses, which are compressible, it is more complicated and we must investigate the
behaviour of gasses as they absorb and release heat before we see how they help create
propulsion.
Firstly though, some terminology:

Units of Heat
Calorie (cal): one calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram
of water by one degree Celsius.
British thermal unit (Btu): one Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of
one pound of water by on degree Fahrenheit.
Joule (J): the SI unit for all forms of energy. Energy provides the capacity for work to be done.
One joule of energy can do one joule of work.
The heat produced by burning one litre of gasoline is about 8 x 106 cal, 3 x 104 Btu, or 3 x 107
J (30 MJ).

Temperature
Temperature represents the degree of heat possessed by one mass over another. When
heat flows from one body to another, the hotter is said to be at a higher temperature.
However, a cup of water at 90C contains less heat than a swimming pool at 20C.
For this reason we define two properties, one called the Specific Heat of a substance, and
the other, the Heat Capacity. (Jeppesen General p. 2-30)

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Specific Heat and Heat Capacity


The specific heat of a substance is the number of calories required to raise the temperature
of 1 gram of the substance by 1C.
Or, the number of Btus required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of the substance by 1F.
Water is used as the benchmark as it takes 1 calorie to raise 1 gram of water by 1C. Other
substances, notably metals, take very much less energy to raise their temperature.
The high specific heat of water is why ocean temperature does not vary as much as land
temperature.
This allows the oceans and large lakes of the earth to act as heat sinks or temperature
stabilisers.
The heat capacity C of a substance is the amount of heat required to change its temperature
by one degree, and has units of energy per degree.

Temperature Scales
Temperature represents the average kinetic energy of molecules and is measured in degrees
().
There are four main temperature scales:

degrees Celsius (C),

degrees Fahrenheit (F),

degrees Rankine (R) and

Kelvin (K).

With the Kelvin scale, the unit degrees and its symbol() is not used. It is said that water
boils at 373 K.
Thermometers are used to measure temperature and they are constructed using the fact that
changes of state occur at a constant temperature.

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The heat added during change of state is not used to expand the substance so mercury in a
thin glass tube will expand and contract between the temperature of melting ice and boiling
water
This provides fixed marks to relate other temperatures to.
Calling the melting point of pure ice 0 , and the boiling point of pure water 100 gives us the
Centigrade or Celsius scale divided into 100 increments.
The Kelvin scale also has 100 increments between the freezing and boiling point of water,
but zero on the Kelvin scale represents the minimum temperature at which molecular activity
ceases, (absolute zero). This point is equivalent to 273C.
To convert temperatures between Kelvin and Celsius scales is relatively easy:
K = C + 273
C = K - 273
The Fahrenheit scale has 180 increments between the freezing point and boiling point of
water. The freezing point is at 32F and the boiling point is 212F.
The Rankine scale has the same number of increments but, like the Kelvin scale, uses
absolute zero as the zero point for the scale. This point corresponds to -460F.
Therefore, to convert between these two scales, the following formulas are used:
R = F + 460
F = R 460
To convert between Kelvin/Celsius to Rankine/Fahrenheit takes a little more calculation.
Because there are 5 Kelvin units for every 9 Rankine degrees and both scales start at
absolute zero, the formulae for converting them are:
K = 5/9 R
R = 9/5 K
There are 5 Celsius degrees to every 9 Fahrenheit degrees. To convert between these
scales, the same fractional factors apply, but because 0C = 32F, the formulas are:
F = 9/5 C + 32
C = 5/9 (F 32)

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Latent and Sensible Heat


A thermometer is constructed using the change of state of water. It was noted that the
mercury does not expand or contract during the change of state. This is because the heat
added once the change has begun, is used to overcome the bonding forces rather than
change the temperature of the water.
Once the water starts to boil, the heat that enters the water is used to convert the liquid into a
gas and the temperature of the water remains constant until all the liquid has evaporated.
No temperature change occurs during the change of state, even though heat is added. This
heat that causes a substance to change its state with no change in temperature is known as
latent heat.
The amount of heat required to boil, or vaporise, the liquid is called the latent heat of
vaporisation (or evaporation).
The amount of heat required to melt a solid is called the latent heat of fusion.
Sensible heat is heat, when applied, causes a temperature change that can be detected.
Latent heat is used to break down intermolecular bonds, and sensible heat is stored in
intermolecular forces, increasing kinetic energy of the molecules.
If heat is extracted from a substance then the changes of state will eventually occur the other
way.
The amount of heat extracted to condense a vapour is still called the latent heat of
vaporisation (or evaporation). And,
The amount of heat extracted to solidify a liquid is still called the latent heat of fusion.
Example:

540 calories of latent heat will cause one gram of water at 100C to change to steam at
100C.
One gram of steam at 100C condenses to liquid water at 100C if it loses 540 calories of
heat.
100 calories of heat changes one gram of water at 0C to one gram of water at 100C.
(Sensible heat)

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Latent Heat and the Refrigeration Cycle.


The compressed gas heats up as it is pressurized
The coils on the back of the refrigerator let the hot ammonia gas dissipate its heat.
The ammonia gas condenses into ammonia liquid (dark blue) at high pressure
The high-pressure ammonia liquid flows through the expansion valve.
The liquid ammonia immediately boils and vaporizes using its own latent heat (light blue), its
temperature dropping to -27 F. This makes the inside of the refrigerator cold.
The cold ammonia gas is sucked up by the compressor, and the cycle repeats

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Air-Conditioning (Cold Cycle)

Air-Conditioning (Reverse Cycle) Heat Pump

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Gas Laws
It has been stated that gasses differ from solids and liquids by being compressible. This
affects how they transmit forces that can use the thermal energy to effect change by doing
useful work.
The work done by an expanding gas in an engine is a prime example. Before looking at
actual power plants, we must investigate the general behavior of a confined quantity of gas
subjected to changes of pressure and temperature.
Boyles Law
A gas can be easily compressed. As it is compressed, its pressure increases and its volume
decreases, assuming temperature remains constant.
This is because the same number of molecules are bombarding a smaller area, as the
volume of the container decreases.
In reality, the compression raises the temperature, but if the container is cooled, then the ratio
holds.
If the volume is halved, the pressure doubles.
This relationship acts in accordance with Boyles Law which states that the volume of a
confined body of gas varies inversely as pressure varies, assuming temperature remains
constant.

This can be expressed by the formula:

V1
V2

P2
P1

(Temperature constant)
This is called an Isothermal process. That is, a process taking place at constant temperature.
Charles Law
Just as changes in gas volume are related to pressure changes, they are also related to
temperature changes.
This characteristic is explained by Charles Law which states that the volume of a gas varies
in direct proportion to its temperature, assuming pressure remains constant.
V1 T1

V2 T2

(Pressure constant)
In other words, heating a quantity of gas in a very flexible container will cause the container
to increase in size.
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Doubling the temperature will approximately double the volume and vice versa.

If a gas is confined in a solid container, so that the volume remains constant, Charles Law
becomes:
P1 T1

P2 T2

(Volume constant)
Welding gas bottles left out in the sun could over pressurise, hence the need for relief valves.
BBQ gas suddenly released to a lower pressure feels very cold on your fingers.
The temperature change could occur without the addition of external heat, or removal of heat
by external means.
A temperature change like this is called an adiabatic process. Another example is the
increase in cylinder temperature when the fill rate is too high.

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General Gas Law


In reality, if the container is at all flexible, then P, T, and V will change simultaneously.
The general gas law is derived by combining Boyles and Charles laws.
It is expressed by the equation:
P1 V 1 P2 V 2

T1
T2

Temps and Pressures must be absolute values to avoid negative values

Thermal Energy and Laws of Thermodynamics


The first law of thermodynamics is similar to the law of conservation of energy:
Heat energy cannot be destroyed; it can only be changed from one form of energy to another.
For example, the heat energy of combustion in an engine is transformed into mechanical
energy, but there are losses or inefficiencies as some of the energy is transformed to sound
energy.
The second law of thermodynamics states that heat cannot flow from a body of a given
temperature to a body of a higher temperature. That is, heat will only flow from a warmer
body to a cooler body.
This is a logical process and the theory behind it is used in car radiators, heat exchangers, oil
coolers etc.
We can now look at how we make heat work for us
Heat of Combustion
Any time fuel is burnt (combustion), heat is produced. Sometimes the heat is useful and
sometimes the heat is unwanted. We say that heat is a by-product of the combustion
process.
Combustion can range from lighting a match through to the furnace of a coal-fired power
station.
Combustion can use liquid, solid or gaseous fuel.
The domestic fireplace is desirable combustion!
When fuel is burnt in a combustion engine to produce power, the presence of heat is
inevitable. Often heat is wasted and needs to be dissipated for the engine to work optimally.
For example, most car engines have water circulating around the engine. The water is cooled
by a radiator, allowing the engine temperature to remain within a specified range. If too much
heat is allowed to build up, the engine can be damaged.
In a gas turbine (jet) engine, the heat of combustion is necessary to expand gases and do
work while flowing through the engine.
It is the higher volume of gas which drives a turbine, making the engine self-sustaining and it
is the gas which contributes to the reactive force of thrust.
Nevertheless, it is also important for gas turbine engines for maximum operating
temperatures to be observed.
Materials used for construction of engine components cannot withstand temperatures above
a certain range
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Work Done by Expanding Gases


Sometimes heat is not an unwanted by-product of combustion. Sometimes the expansion of
gas created by the heat is the prime purpose for the combustion.
For example, when a gun fires a bullet, the heat produced by the ignition of a small
pyrotechnic charge increases the volume of gas available to push the bullet out of the barrel.
Heat is necessary for the process to occur.
Likewise, a gas turbine engine relies on heat to expand gas. The expanded volume of gas
drives the engine turbines and contributes to the reactive force of thrust.
In this sense, expanding gases do work similar to other mechanical processes
Remember, work is calculated by multiplying the force applied by distance:
W = Fs.
The greater the force applied to an object or the greater the distance an object moves, the
more work has been done.
If expanding gases in a rifle create a force of 10,000 newtons and move a bullet 0.5 metres
along the barrel of the rifle:
W =

FS

10,000 X 0.5

5,000 JOULES OF WORK HAS BEEN


EXPENDED

Remember, also, that power is the time rate of doing work. A man may expend 5,000 joules
pushing a wheelbarrow for 1 hour. The rifle has expended the 5,000 joules in a split second.
It has generated a great deal more power than the wheelbarrow man.
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Ideal Heat Engine Gas Cycles


During compression of a gas, the molecules of the gas are squeezed so that the empty space
between them is reduced.
The total molecular content may not change, but the space available for their motion is
reduced.
Therefore, the collisions between the molecules themselves and between molecules and the
walls of the container are greatly increased.
It is this increased kinetic activity which causes a temperature rise in a compressed gas.

In both piston engines and gas turbine engines, the compression of air is necessary before
fuel is introduced and ignited.
In both these types of engines there is a significant increase in temperature of the air medium
due to this compression process.

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Piston Engine. (Otto Cycle)


A typical piston engine turns reciprocating motion into rotary motion to drive a propeller in a
four cycle operation as shown below.

Crankshaft
Intake
Air and fuel are sucked into the cylinder through the intake valve.
Compression
This mixture (15:1) is adiabatically compressed into a smaller volume. (Charles Law)
Power
The compressed mixture is ignited with a spark plug and the piston is forced down by the
sudden expansion of hot gas, which cools adiabatically.
Exhaust.
The exhaust gases are forced out of the exhaust valve by the ascending piston which then
descends in the next intake stroke.
It is standard practice to have multiple cylinders connected to the same crankshaft to
increase the number of power strokes per revolution.

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Plotting how pressure varies with volume shows how the cycle develops its power.

The work done by the engine is equal to the enclosed area of the graph, Power is work/time
so more rpm = more power.
Note that the combustion process occurs at approximately constant volume, (3 - 4 on the
graph), so the Piston engine is called a Constant Volume engine.

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Gas Turbine Engine (Brayton Cycle)


A gas turbine is similar to a piston in that it compresses a mixture of air and fuel which is
burnt to release its energy. However, the cycle differs from there.

Intake
Air only is drawn in directly, at the front.
Compression
This air is gradually squeezed into a smaller volume through a series of compressing fans.
Power
Fuel is added into a combustion chamber where, once ignited during the start procedure, it is
continuously burnt with the compressed air.
The expanding hot gas proceeds through another series of fans, (turbines) forcing them to
rotate. The power part of the cycle.
The turbines are connected back to the compressor causing it to keep rotating and
continually supply air for combustion. This uses about 50% of the power generated leaving
plenty to provide thrust.
Exhaust
The hot gasses leave the engine through a suitably shaped duct providing thrust because of
the acceleration given to the mass of air originally taken in.

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Once again, plot P against V:


This time the combustion takes place at approximately constant pressure, (B C)
Hence the name Constant Pressure cycle
The gas turbine cycle can deliver its power in more than one way.
Turbojet
All thrust is delivered via the exhaust, as above picture.
Turboprop
Extra turbines transfer the power to a propeller.

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Turbofan
The extra turbines transfer the power to a multi-bladed and shrouded fan which accelerates
the air mass similarly to a propeller. About 70% of the thrust is from the fan
FAN

SHROUD
Turboshaft
These are similar to turboprops and fan engine in that they utilizes extra turbines to deliver
the power to a variety of applications, such as electrical generators, ships propellers, and
helicopter rotors.

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Development of Thrust
F = ma (Newtons 2nd Law) and it can be shown that all of these engines provide thrust by
accelerating a mass of air.

Fm

( V U)
t

which can be written

m
(V - U)
t

m
is the mass flow rate of air in kg/s,
t
U is the air initial velocity as it enters the engine
V is the velocity at which the exhaust leaves.
A prop provides a large mass of air with a small acceleration
A pure jet provides a small mass of air with a large acceleration

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TOPIC 2.4: OPTICS (LIGHT)


The Nature Of Light
Visible light is Electromagnetic Radiation that is detectable by the human eye.
EMR is energy propagation by periodic variation of the electric E, and magnetic field B,
strengths caused by the acceleration of charged particles.

These are not mechanical waves, but they display similar behaviour, and are able to travel
through vacuum.
The speed of EMR propagation c, commonly called the speed of light is 3 x 108 m/s in a
vacuum. (300,000 km/s or 186,000 mph.)
Visible light, (often called white light) actually comprises of all of the EMR between 400 and
700 nm. (nanometres.) That is, between blue and red in the spectrum.

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The sense of sight is due to the fact our EM detectors (eyes) pick up the energy reflected
from objects and transmit it to the brain.
The colour we see depends on the source of light and the atomic structure of the material
reflecting it. Electrons either absorb the energy or re- radiate it, (scatter or reflect.)
As an example: we see grass as being green because it uses Chlorophyll to change light into
energy. Chlorophyll absorbs the blue and red colors of the spectrum and reflects the green.
The green is reflected back out to the viewer.
The sky is blue because atmospheric dust absorbs all the energies except blue.
Anything that is black, absorbs all colours of light, so reflect no colours at all.
White objects do not absorb any light so just reflect back the incoming light. So if you were to
shine a blue light on a white object, the white object would appear blue.
You may have experienced this when sitting in the sun. If you are wearing a white shirt, the
shirt will remain relatively cool to the touch. However, if you are wearing a black shirt, you will
find that the shirt feels relatively hot to the touch.
Black absorbs all the light energies and frequencies of the spectrum whereas white does not.

Wave or Particle?
Light is assumed to be wave-based, but there is also evidence that light is composed of
particles with mass. (photons).
Some of the evidence that light is composed of particles is:

Light is affected by gravity it is bent around large planets, so must have mass.

Light exerts a force, - light from the sun causes the deflection of comet tails;

Light can generate a photoelectric effect.

Some of the evidence that light is composed of waves is:

Light can be reflected and refracted;

Light can be dispersed, broken down into spectral components meaning that each
colour has a different wavelength;

Polarisation and Polaroid lenses blocking out one plane of light waves;

Light experiences a Doppler effect (red shift).

The analysis of light uses a combination of the two behaviours with great success.

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Reflection of Light
Reflection of light and other electromagnetic radiation occurs when waves encounter a
boundary that does not absorb the radiations energy and bounces the waves off the surface.

The incoming wave is known as the incident wave and the wave that is bounced from the
surface is called the reflected wave.
The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
The angles are measured against a line perpendicular to the surface of the reflective
material, called the normal.

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Refraction
When light waves pass from one transparent medium to another, they change velocity and
direction.
The angle of refraction is dependent on the density of the material through which the light
passes. For example, when light travels from air to water, it slows down and bends towards
the normal.

Most substances have a refraction index n which gives an indication of their density, how
much the light slows down and, therefore, how much the light bends through the substance.
The higher the refractive index number, the denser the material and the more the light will
slow down and refract or bend as it passes through the substance.

n=

speed of light in a vacuum


speed of light in material

n=

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sin
sin r

Also
Snells Law

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A person may see a fish in the water but, in reality, the fish is in a different position because
the light from the image is refracted as it leaves the water.

Example OF N

Air is

1.00029

Diamond is

2.42

Glass is

1.5 TO 1.7

Ice is

1.31

Water is

1.33

Total Internal Reflection


As the incidence angle i, increases, less and less energy is refracted and more is reflected.
At the Critical Angle, 100% of the light is reflected and Total Internal Reflection is occurring.
This phenomenon is important in the design of fibre optic cable.

Activity: Add i and r to the above diagram

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Dispersion
The index of refraction also varies with the wavelength of the radiation.
If white light enters a prism, the different wavelengths of the component colours are refracted
by different amounts.
This is termed dispersion.

A rainbow is the cumulative effect of sunlight being dispersed through a large number of
raindrops.

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Polarisation
The rope will be vibrating up-and-down, side-to-side, and all the directions in-between, giving
it a really complex overall motion.
Now, suppose you passed the rope through a vertical slit. The rope is a really snug fit in the
slit. The only vibrations still happening on the other side of the slit will be vertical ones. All the
others will have been prevented by the slit.

What emerges from the slit could be described as "plane polarised radiation", because the
vibrations are only in a single (vertical) plane.
Now look at the possibility of

But if the second slit is at 90 to the first one, the string will stop vibrating entirely to the right
of the second slit.
The second slit will only let through horizontal vibrations - and there aren't any. The energy is
completely polarized.

Polarising sunglasses etc. do the optical equivalent of this using certain materials in place of
the slits, to reduce the energy of the radiation, and cut glare.

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Mirrors and Lenses


Plane Mirrors

Reflection off a plane surface: Note direction of energy propagation gets reversed
If we have an extended object, this will create an image. To find out where the image appears
to be, extend the line of sight
To get the sensation of depth, we need binocular vision

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This is based on angle of incidence = angle of reflection

Spherical Mirrors
This is true even if the surface is curved: for example cut from a sphere.
E.g. concave mirrors: different areas of the mirror reflect the wave according to the local
angle of incidence.

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This is reversible: if we have a source at the centre of a curved mirror, a plane wave is
reflected.

Focal length of a mirror


f = R/2 (Approx)
This means that light from infinity is focussed a distance f away.
Convex mirrors cause waves to diverge.

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Note that these behave as if there is a focus behind the mirror. Driving and security mirrors
are convex to increase coverage. For accurate focusing, a parabolic mirror is required.

Activity
Light from the centre of a spherical mirror is reflected back there (why?)

Lenses
The use of lenses is an application of refraction Light is bent as it passes through transparent
material of different densities.
The velocity of light changes and we get a refractive index.
velocity
velocity

in medium
in medium

sin i
1
n and n
sin r
2

We have already seen how a single surface refracts. All optical instruments have at least 2
surfaces. A prism deflects light via two successive refractions according to Snell's law

sin 1 n.sin 2 entering

the prism

And
sin 3 n.sin 4 exiting

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We can build up a lens from a series of prisms.

We could add a 2nd prism, to deviate light more, so that two rays go to the same place

More prisms are added and ground smooth.

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There are a variety of lenses, but essentially they are:

converging or positive (convex)

diverging or negative (concave)

The most important quantity for a lens is the focal length f: i.e. how far from the lens do
parallel rays get focused.

Concave lenses cause light to diverge, but the rays can be traced back to an (imaginary)
focus

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Images, real and virtual


Real images are those where light actually converges, whereas virtual images are locations
from where light appears to have converged.
Real images occur when objects are placed outside the focal length of a converging lens or
outside the focal length of a converging mirror. A real image is illustrated below. Note that it is
magnified, but inverted.

A real image has to be where the light is, which means in front of a mirror, or behind a lens.)
Virtual images are formed by diverging lenses. Image is upright but diminished.

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If a convex lens does not focus the light passing through it at a single focal point, the image
will not be sharp .This is termed spherical aberration and is common in less expensive
lenses.
Sometimes the human eye does not focus images well enough on the back of the eye, the
retina. In these cases spectacles, contact lenses or corrective surgery can be used.

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Optical Fibre Cable


An optical fibre is a thin strand of high quality glass. Very little light is absorbed in the glass.
Light getting in at one end is totally internally reflected (refer earlier in the package for an
explanation), even when the fibre is bent.
Optical fibres are used in telecommunication because they can carry enormous amounts of
information in light pulses transmitted through them. This information is carried at very high
speed about 2/3rds the speed of light.
Many optical fibres are combined to form an optical fibre cable.
Fibre optics are also used in medicine in flexible inspection probes which can carry a low
heat light source and transmit images back to an eyepiece or video screen.
Real optical fibre glass cable so pure that light visible through it, even when many
kilometers long thickness comparable to that of single human hair
Laser at end of cable switches on & off to send digital bits billions of bits per second
Multiple lasers different colors (frequencies) multiple signals on same fibre
Capable of carrying a signal quite a distance 100 km

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TOPIC 2.5: WAVE MOTION AND SOUND


Wave Motion
When energy is transferred by the passage of a periodic disturbance through an elastic
medium, it is said to be in Wave Motion.
Energy sent down a rope can cause change, (do work by applying a force), at the far end.

Water crashes onto a beach with tremendous power, showing just how much energy has
been transmitted.
Neither the rope or individual water particles move in the direction that the energy is
transmitted. However, they both move up and down between minimum and maximum
amplitudes of displacement.
These waves are called transverse, and can be represented by a graph of the values of Sin
between 0 and 360. (Sinusoidal wave motion)

Activity
Complete the above diagram as per the PowerPoint.

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Energy can be propagated through an elastic medium as well as along it, by a series of
density changes.
The maximum amplitude is at the region of maximum density, called a compression, and the
minimum amplitude is at the region of minimum density, called a rarefraction.
These are called compression or longitudinal waves and are a set of pulses through a
medium.
However, they can be mapped as sinusoidal waves.
Sound waves are compression waves because they use the mechanical action of molecules
to transfer their action through a medium.
For this reason, sound waves cannot travel through a vacuum.

compression

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A compression sound wave, for example from a tuning fork.

Compression wave mapped as a sine wave


Light waves are different again. They are the type of Electromagnetic Radiation that is
detectable by the human eye.
EMR is energy propagation by periodic variation of the electric and magnetic field strengths
caused by the acceleration of charged particles.
They are not mechanical waves, but they display similar behaviour, and are able to travel
through vacuum.
Properties of Waves
All waves have an amplitude, a wavelength, a frequency and a period.

Amplitude distance between crests


(maximum displacement) and troughs,
(minimum displacement)

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Wavelength lambda

Frequency f - the number of wavelengths


occurring per second.
The period is the time taken for one cycle to complete and equals 1/f
The speed of energy propagation is V and given by

V f

Example
At sea, the distance and time between successive waves is measured to be approximately
200 m and 10 s respectively. At what speed is the energy being propagated?

V 200

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1
20m/s
10

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Wave Behaviour
Reflection and Refraction
A system of waves will change direction when it changes speed for any reason. (Refraction)
If the system encounters a solid barrier, the energy will be reflected.

Diffraction
If the obstacle has an edge then the wave system will bend and start a new system at that
point. This explains how we can hear around corners.
The nature of light waves has been proven by experiments showing the diffraction of light.

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Interference Phenomena (Superposition)


When waves converge, their effect is algebraically added.
For example, if a sine wave is overlaid on another sine wave of identical amplitude and
frequency, it will produce a sinusoidal wave of same frequency but double the amplitude.
Similarly, if a sine wave was overlaid on another sine wave exactly half a phase out of
synchronisation, the result would be the two waves would cancel themselves out.

(Noise cancelling technology uses this phenomena)


In Youngs double slit experiment, a light source illuminates slits in a screen and a small
amount of light passes through them, diffracting at the slit edges.

The pattern of light displayed on a second screen shows the constructive and destructive
interference of the converging semi-circles of light waves.
Bright bands appear as the light waves coincide. Dark bands are indicative of the amplitude
of the waves cancelling themselves out.

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Standing Waves
Standing waves are formed when a wave interferes with its own reflection. This will occur
when the medium is secured at both ends like a guitar string or a structural member.

The animation to the left depicts two waves moving through a medium in opposite directions.

(Label colours)

The blue wave is moving to the right and the green wave is moving to the left.
As is the case in any situation in which two waves meet while moving along the same
medium, interference will occur.
The blue wave and the green wave will interfere to form a new wave pattern known as the
resultant. The resultant in the animation below is shown in black.
The resultant is merely the result of the two individual waves - the blue wave and the green
wave - added together in accordance with the principle of superposition.
The point where the standing wave has no amplitude is called the node, and the point of
maximum amplitude is called the antinode.
Standing waves are formed when a fundamental wave (the longest wavelength that can fit in
a tube or on a string) is subjected to interference and a harmonic wave is produced (a
multiple of the original, fundamental wave).

Fundamental or 1st harmonic

1st overtone or 2nd harmonic

2nd overtone or 3rd harmonic


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Resonance can set up a standing wave in a piece of structure, and cause fatigue at the
antinodes. Consider the following example.
Designers of aircraft must be seriously concerned about the phenomenon of resonant
frequency because if a certain component of an aeroplane or helicopter is caused to vibrate
at its resonant frequency the amplitude of the vibration can become very large and the
component will destroy itself by vibration.
Let us examine the case of a helicopter which has a tail boom with a natural or resonant
frequency of 3 Hz. That is, if you were to strike the boom with your fist it would oscillate once
each second. The normal rotational speed of the rotor is 400 RPM and the helicopter has 3
blades on its main rotor.
Each time a rotor blade moves over the tail boom the blade is going to cause a downward
pulse of air to strike the tail boom. The designer must determine the speed at which the
pulses will be equal to the resonant frequency of the boom. One cycle per second is
equivalent to 60 cycles/minute.
To make the tail boom vibrate at 3Hz, a three bladed rotor needs to rotate at 1 rev per sec or
1x 60=60 rpm. All harmonics of 3 Hz will also resonate, so rpms of 60 x 2, 60 x 3, 60 x 4 etc
should also be avoided for long periods of time.
The natural frequency of vibration is also an extremely important consideration in designing
the wings, horizontal and vertical stabilizers of an aircraft.
The designer must be certain that the resonant frequency when the surface is bent is
different from that resonant frequency when it is twisted. If that is not the case, an
aerodynamic interaction with the elasticity of the surface can result in "flutter" which can
cause the surface to fracture in a fraction of a second after it begins.
Beats
Suppose we tune two strings of a guitar to vibrate at almost, but not quite, the same
frequency. Plucked simultaneously, the volume of the sound produced by them appears to
rise and fall continuously. This rise and fall has a fixed frequency called the beat frequency.
What is happening is that the sound waves produced by the two guitar strings interfere and
our ears detect the variation of the resultant intensity. Maximum intensity is heard when the
waves add together (interfere constructively) and minimum intensity is heard when the waves
cancel each other out (interfere destructively).
We can see what is happening by adding together the two separate waves as shown in the
diagram below. The resultant, obtained by the principle of superposition, is shown.

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A similar phenomenon occurs when two or more propellers are rotating at slightly different
rpms. Pilots will use their ears to synchronise props, and eliminate the annoying beat
frequency.
Sound
Sound waves are usually defined as pressure waves of frequencies which our brains can
interpret. The eardrum would be affected by all pressure waves, but only those frequencies,
between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, are heard by most humans.
The pitch of a sound is directly related to the frequency.
Sound waves originate in some vibrating body such as the oscillation of a person's vocal
cords or the periodic rotation of a plane s propeller and travel through the air or some other
material medium.
As the source of sound vibrates, the air surrounding the source is periodically compressed
and rarefied (made less dense), as discussed earlier.
This periodic change in the atmospheric density and therefore pressure, moves forward with
a definite speed of propagation called the "speed of sound".
The speed of sound in air is dependent on the temperature of the air. This is not surprising
since the molecules of air move faster in their random motion if the temperature is higher.
Thus we should expect these pressure waves to move somewhat more rapidly in warmer air.
If an ear and its eardrum are in the vicinity of a sound wave, the air which strikes that
eardrum has a periodically changing atmospheric pressure. If the frequency of the sound is
middle C (256 Hz), and the atmospheric pressure that day is 14.7 Ibs/in2, 256 times, each
second the air pressure is slightly above 14.7 Ibs/in2 and 256 times each second thepressure is slightly below 14.7 Ibs/in2.
It should be emphasized that "slightly" means very small. The human ear is a remarkably
sensitive instrument. It can detect air pressure variations as small as about 0,000000005
Ibs./in.2!
Sound travels faster in liquids, and even faster still, in solids.

Intensity of Sound
Intensity is determined by the amplitude of the sound wave and is measured in Watts per
metre2 , however it is more convenient to express a sound as a relative quantity called
Intensity Level.
The intensity level (IL) of sound waves is measured in a unit called the decibel (after
Alexander Graham Bell).
The relationship is defined as:
1L 10log

l
l0

decibels

dB (An increase of a factor of 10 is 1 Bel)

The intensity, (10), is the intensity of the "threshold of hearing", the softest sound that the
average human ear can detect, and is standardised at 10-12 Watts/m2
I is the intensity of the sound we are measuring.

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Example:
Engine noise is measured as 10 -5 Watts/sq m.

It should be noted that 120 db is the threshold of pain". Sound of this intensity is painful to
the normal ear. If the ear is continuously subjected to sound of this intensity, ear damage and
hearing loss can result.

Those who work in the aviation industry should take precautionary measures and wear ear
protectors.
The intensity of sound decreases inversely with the square of the distance from the source of
sound.
Therefore, doubling the distance from a source of sound decreases the intensity to one-fourth
of the previous value.
A worker who is suddenly subjected to a very intense sound with unprotected ears should
move as quickly as possible away from the sound of the source.

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Quality
Quality or timbre of sound depends on the nature of the harmonics present. You will recall
that harmonics are numerical multiples of the original frequency.
In the figure below,, 196 Hz is the fundamental, and each instrument has a different sound
due to the influence of its own harmonics.

The tuning fork is a pure note, while the other sounds are affected by different harmonics
present.

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Speed of Sound
Sound waves have been identified as longitudinal compression waves travelling through an
elastic medium, of which air is a good example.
These waves propagate at a speed which varies according to the medium through which it
travels.
Speed of sound in air varies according to atmospheric temperature.
In normal atmospheric conditions at sea level, it is 660 kt which equates to about 340 m/s, or
1,224 km/h.
An aircraft creates disturbances to the air as it moves through it. These disturbances act like
sound waves and travel at the same speed, but are of insufficient intensity to be detected by
the human ear.

Less than speed of sound


Subsonic

More than speed of sound


Supersonic
If the aircraft is moving at the speed of sound, then these disturbances cannot propagate
away from the airframe and pile up, creating the phenomenon known as a shock wave, which
is intense enough to be heard. The sonic boom.
The Sound Barrier is the extremely large increase in air resistance which occurs at this
point.

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Mach Number
At high speeds the aerodynamic forces depend on the Mach number.

Flight Mach Number

Aircraft TAS
Local Speed of Sound

The speed of sound in a medium varies with the properties especially density and
temperature. For air, the local speed of sound a given by:-

a 39

T Kts.

(Where T is the temperature in Kelvin)


The figure below shows the local speed of sound at different altitudes.

Example:
At 50,000 ft
The local speed of sound is 574 kt. If the aircraft TAS is 600 kt, then,

Flight Mach Number

600
1.05
574

At 10,000 ft
The local speed of sound is 639 kt. If the aircraft TAS is 600 kt, then,

Flight Mach Number

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600
0.94
639

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DOPPLER EFFECT

When a source of sound is not moving, the sound waves radiate out from the source like
ripples in a pond. A above.
When the source of sound moves, however, the frequency (and pitch) ahead of the source
becomes higher than the frequency behind it. B above.

Activity:
Label diagram B to show the regions of lower and higher frequency sound
This change in frequency is called the Doppler effect. It accounts for the sound of sirens,
motorbikes, and aircraft etc. becoming higher pitched as they approach, then decreasing in
pitch as the vehicle passes.
Any energy propagated by means of wave motion is subject to the Doppler effect.
Examples include light, which helped astronomers develop the Big Bang model, and radio
waves, which provide navigational information.

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