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Klasifikasi dan ciri-ciri Chordata,

klasifikasi, ciri-ciri dan hubungan


kekerabatan Vertebrata
PHYLUM CHORDATA

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
• BODY SIMMETRY : BILATERAL
• COELOM
• TRIPOBLASTIC
• DIGESTIVE SYSTEM COMPOSES MOUTH,
ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, INTESTINE, ANUS
• DEUTEROSTOMIA
• REPRODUCTION SYSTEM: SEXUAL
(MOSTLY) AND ASEXUAL (SOME
UROCHORDATE)
DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS
PHYLUM CHORDATA

Notochord
-
Dorsal nerve cord
-
Pharyngeal gill slits / Pharyngeal pouch
-
Post-anal tail.
-

These attributes are always found in the larval


forms or early embryo (although they may be
absent in the adult).
1) The Notochord
• The notochord is mainly
composed of fibrous
connective tissue
• In animals like
ourselves, bony
• For those animals in structures called
which it persists into the vertebrae develop
adult form, the notochord
provides support (it acts near the notochord
like our backbone) and and eventually replace
increases swimming it during
efficiency embryogenesis
2) Pharyngeal Gill Slits
• Pharyngeal gill slits are cuts
in the pharynx that connect to • The morphological
a cavity surrounding the equivalent of gill silts
pharynx
are seen briefly during
our own development
• For organisms in which they
remain in the adult, they are (weeks 4-5), but they
often elaborated into usually close or
respiratory structures (and develop into other
are sometimes involved in
filtering food during feeding). structures
3) The Postanal Tail
• Chordates, on the other
hand, follow the anus with a
tail of variable length (again,
• In all the phyla we have an adaptation for
studied up to this point, locomotion).
the anus was terminal (at
the tip of the tail) • In us, the tail is short and
fused (the coccyx at the base
of your spine).
4) Hollow Dorsal Nerve Cord
• Our nerve cord, like that of other
chordates is hollow (even in the adult).

• Well, what else is there to say?!?!?


Let’s start at the very beginning . . .

• Phylum Chordata is divided into three


subphyla:

– Subphylum Urochordata
– Subphylum Cephalochordata
– Subphylum Vertebrata
Subphylum Urochordata (Tunikata)
Defining Characteristic :
• Notocorord and dorsal nerve cord present
only in larval stage, being reabsorbed at
metamorphosis
Contoh: Molgula sp.
General featuree
• Reproduction: sexual and asexual
(Thaliacea)
• Excretory system: Mostly (diffusi) some
have specialized organ (renal sacs, renal
vessicles)
• Nerve system composes of brain and
cerebral ganglion
Subphylum Urochordata
• At first glance, you might mistake this creature
for a sponge.
• Adult tunicates look like small sacs (about 3 cm
tall) and are stationary, lacking a nerve cord, a
notochord, and a post-anal tail.
• Lacking three of the four distinguishing
hallmarks of the chordates, it would seem
impossible for these animals to be placed in
phylum Chordata.
Subphylum Urochordata
• However, tunicates begin
life in a larval state, which
have a post-anal tail, a
nerve cord, and a
notochord.

• Therefore, these
immobile animals with
tadpole-like larvae are
considered chordates.
Subphylum Urochordata

• Urochordates have a
notochord that extends
from just behind the tail to
the head (rather than from
head to tail; Urochordata
means "tail-cord")
• Many urochordates are
more commonly referred
to as “sea squirts”
Subphylum Urochordata

• The body of an adult tunicate is quite simple, being essentially a sack


with large gill structures that form two siphons through which water
enters and exits. Water is filtered inside the sack-shaped body.
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Defining Characteristics :
 Notochord and nerve cord are found along
entire length of body and persist throughout
the life cycle;
 The notocord is contractile, composed of
longitudinal series of flattened disc containing
myosin
Example:Amphioxus sp.
Subphylum Vertebrata
DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

• Vertebral column, or a chain of bony


elements (vertebrae). The vertebral column
more or less replaces the notochord as the
chief "stiffener" of the body in locomotion.
• Cranium (brain case)
• Mostly possess paired appendages and
limb girdle
Subfilum Vertebrata
Ciri-ciri :
1. Bony or cartilaginous vertebrae (columna
vertebralis) surrounding spinal cord; notochord in all
embryonic stages, persisting in some of the fish
Interdorsal
Spinal cord
Basiodorsal
Notocord
Agnata
Spinal cord
Basiodorsal
Interdorsal
Basioventral
Gnatostomata
Karakter lain yang dimiliki oleh Vertebrata
2. Dua pasang anggota badan
3. Modifikasi kulit menjadi sisik, bulu dan rambut
4. Selom yang berisi organ2 visceral
5. Skeleton dalam (endo skeleton) yang terdiri dari skeleton utama (aksial)
dan skeleton tambahan (apendikular)
6. Sistem peredaran darah tertutup dengan jantung bersekat (atrium dan
ventrikel) dan pembuluh darah
8. Sistem respirasi dengan paru-paru atau insang
9. Sistem ekskresi dengan unti fungsional nefron.Sistem ini berhubungan
dekat dengan sistim reproduksi dan menggunakan saluran bersama
10. Relatively large brain plus a unique set
of sensory and motor cranial nerves;
Klasifikasi vertebrata

Superclass Agnata
- Class Myxini
- Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Superclass Gnatostomata
- Class Chondrichthyes
- Class Sarcopterygii Sometime both classes were combined
- Class Actinopterygii into a Class Osteichthyes

Class Amphibia
Class Reptilia
Class Aves
Class Mamalia
Klasifikasi ini disusun berdasarkan Nelson (1994), Zug (1993),
Ernst & Barbour (1989), Wilson & Reeder (1993)
Evolusi Vertebrata