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Unit Commitment:

A MCDM case study

Joergen T. Haahr
Technical University of Denmark

Tinkle Chugh
University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

Viktor Slednev
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

Problem definition
To supply power from various units at each hour so that demand can
be meet
-In least cost
-In maximum reliability
-In maximum smoothness

Criteria:
Variables:

Cost

Reliability

Smoothness

Power production (MWh): P(i,h)


1 if unit i is used to produce power
Y (i, h)
0 else
Y (i, h)
1 If unit i is started in hour h

Y (i, h)

If unit is stopped in hour h

Parameters: hourly demand: d(h), Maximum Power, Minimum Power, Up


Ramp, Down Ramp, Linear Cost, Fix_Cost, Starting Cost, Stopping Cost

Model and optimization formulation

Cost P(i, h) LC Y (i, h) FC Y (i, h) startCost Y (i, h) stopCost


i

Re liability Y (i, h)
i

Smoothness Y (i, h)
i

P(i, h) d (h)

Y (i, h) MinPower (i ) P(i, h) Y (i, h) MaxPower (i ) i, h


DR(i ) P(i, h) P(i, h 1) UR(i ) i, h
Y (i, h) Y (i, h) Y (i, h 1) Y (i, h) i, h

R(i, h) d (h) * SR

R(i, h) UR(i )Y (i, h) i, h


P(i, h) P(i, h 1) R(i, h) UR(i ) i, h
Y (i, h) Y (i, h) i, h
Y (i, h) 1 Y (i, h 1) i, h

Payoff matrix
Cost
1162830
1817475
1687815

Reliability Smoothness
83
10
166
8
90
4

Cost

Reliability

Smoothness

1162830

83

10

1355045

166

1236925

96

MCDM approaches
Weighted sum method:
Minimize
w1*Cost + w2*Reliability + w3*Smoothness
Subject to
wi 1
i

() Constraint method:
Minimize
Cost
Subject to
Reliability 1

Contd
Weighted sum method:
Minimize
w1*Cost + w2*Reliability + w3*Smoothness
Subject to
wi 1
i

() Constraint method:
Minimize
Cost
Subject to
Reliability 2

3 D weighted sum

3 D epsilon constraint

Decision maker preferences

13579-

equally important
something more important
clearly more important
much more important
exactly more important

Society weights

w1 = 0.151007, w2 = 0.184564, w3 = 0.66443

Comparison of weights

Compromise programming

1 , =

=1

, = max

()

=1.

()

Cost

Reliability Smoothness

1162830

83

10

1355045

166

1236925

96

min
.

()
( = 1, . , )

w1 = 0.151007
w2 = 0.184564
w3 = 0.66443

Compromise Programming

Goal programming
Goal Type

Significance

Minimise

Achieve at most the target level

pi

Achieve at least the tartget level

ni

Achieve the target level exactly

ni+pi

Goals z 0.1 | z zi* |


*
i

=
=1

+ =

wi (1 / 3) i
Cost

Subject to:
= 1, ,
= 1, ,

*
i

Reliability Smoothness

1162830

83

10

1355045

166

1236925

96

Goal programming
= 1

=1

+d

+ = = 1, ,

,
= 1, ,

( = 1, . , )


( = 1, . , )

Concluding Remarks
Model formulation
Basic MCDM approaches: weighted sum and constraint
method
Payoff Matrix
Role of decision maker
Group decision making
Interactive approach: reference point method
Compromise programming
Goal programming
Heuristic approaches
Metaheuristic approaches

Thank You