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Engine Works & Wears

Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Single Fuel System

Function of Fuel System


Meters the amount
of fuel to achieve
desired power
Regulates engine
speed and timing
sequence
Helps control
emissions

Fuel System Operation

Types of Fuel Systems


Pump & Line

Current Scroll Fuel System


New Scroll Fuel System
Sleeve Metering Fuel System (SMFS)
Program Electronic Engine Controls (PEEC)

1973
CSFS

Pre 1970 1970

1981
MUI

1975

1983
NSFS

1980

1988E
UI

1985

1990

Unit Injection

1994
HEUI

1995

MUI
EUI
HEUI
Common
Rail
(Single Fuel)

2000

2005

Timeline
1974
SMFS

1987
PEEC

2004
Rail

Fuel Delivery - History

Pre-Combustion (PC)
Direct Injection (DI)
Fuel Line

Fuel Line
Fuel Injector

Electrical Wire

Fuel Injector

Glow Plug
Pre-Combustion

Fuel Injector
Housing

Nozzle
Assembly

Piston

Piston

Heat Plug

Pre-Combustion

Mechanically
Controlled
Unit Injector

Direct Injection
Pencil Style

Direct Injection
Unit Injector

Sleeve Metering Fuel System

Barrel
Fill Port

Plunger

Sleeve
Spill Port

Filling

Begin
Injection

Continue
Injection

End
Injection

Scroll Metering Fuel System


Pump & line governor
Few moving parts
Simple mechanical governor
Easy starting & service
More tolerant of dirt
Economical

MUI System

A unit injector is positioned


above each cylinder
A mechanically actuated
governor controls fuel rate
(scroll metered) with
flyweights and springs
Timing is fixed

EUI System
A unit injector is
positioned above each
cylinder
An Electronic Control
Module (ECM) controls
fuel rate and timing
Injectors are
mechanically actuated by
a camshaft

EUI - Injector Fill


Without pressure from
the rocker arm, a
spring keeps the
plunger retracted
Fuel flows into the
injector through the
fill / spill port, past the
solenoid valve and into
the barrel

EUI - Injection
On a signal from the
ECM, the solenoid
closes the fuel valve
Pressure elevates at
the tip to the 5,500 psi
needed to unseat the
valve
Injection begins

EUI - Injection
Fuel continues to inject
until the ECM signals the
solenoid to open the valve
Injection timing and
duration is controlled by the
ECM

HEUI System
A unit injector is positioned
above each cylinder
An Electronic Control Module
(ECM) controls fuel rate,
timing, and injection pressure
The injector is hydraulically
actuated

Cat Fuel System Single Fuel

Fuel Manifold

Pump

C6.6

Injector

Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes


Short unit injector life due to excessive abrasive particles in
the fuel
Abrasive particles damage sealing surfaces causing leakage of
high pressure fuel and low engine power
Abrasive particles are inherent in most fuels
Most particles can be removed by using High Efficiency filters
Injector seizure due to excess water in the fuel
Always small amounts of water in fuel, which is harmless
Excess water in fuel reduces the lubricating film strength of fuel
and causes seizure of the injector plunger and barrel
Maximum amount of allowable water in fuel is 0.1%

Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes


Injector sticking or seizure due to fuel overheating
Fuel in the injector cooks and produces varnish which
causes components to stick or seize
Viscosity of hot fuel is inadequate and the fuel film
thickness will not provide adequate protection against
scuffing or seizure of the plunger and barrel
Fuel overheating can be caused by operating in extreme
ambient temperatures. An auxiliary fuel cooler installed in
the fuel supply line to the cylinder heads may be required
to limit fuel temperatures
Running fuel tank too low, or running out of fuel causes
the fuel to cycle through the engine too frequently and
becomes very hot. This can be avoided by keeping the
fuel tank levels at full or above

Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes


Poor quality oil
Fuel may be low in viscosity or lubricity. Fuel which is old
or oxidized often contains excessive gums or resins which
promotes injector sticking or seizure.

Effect of Work Environment

Dust
Temperature/Climate
Hours of continuous operation
Terrain

System Improvement
Reduce system damage caused by fuel
Water Separator
Primary Fuel Filter
Bypass Flow

Minimize tip failure caused by aeration


Maintain fuel supply pressure

Stripping Out Water


Water Separator
Second line of defense
All free water
87% emulsified water
Injector damage

Removing Larger Debris


Primary Fuel Filter
10+ micron particle retention
prevents premature secondary
fuel filter plugging
protects fuel transfer pump

Remove Fine Abrasives


Secondary Fuel Filter
2 micron and larger
98% efficient
Reduces wear on fuel injectors and pumps
Essential for higher pressure systems
Extends life of older systems as well

Double Filter/Double Life


Series filtration
Second filter safety net
Second filtering pass
Filter failure
- Double injector wear life

Engine Works & Wears

Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics

Air Intake & Exhaust System Functions


Inlet air from air
cleaners

Boost air at 300


- 400
Inlet air from air
cleaners

Exhaust out
Air manifold
From exhaust ports
at cylinder heads

Provide adequate
quantities of clean
filtered intake air

Removes exhaust gases from the


cylinders and reduces exhaust noise

Compresses the
intake air into the
cylinders in order to
product more power

Air System

Air System Components


Precleaner
Air Filters
Filter Service
Indicator
Turbochargers
Aftercooler
Intake & Exhaust
Manifolds
Muffler

Air System Operation

Flow
1.
2.
3.
4.

Precleaner
Air Filters
Turbocharger
Intake Manifold &
Cylinder Head(s)
5. Combustion
Chamber
6. Exhaust Manifold

Wear

Turbocharger
Bearings
Seals

Air System Wear & Failure Causes


Single most common problem dust ingestion
Causes accelerated abrasive wear of piston rings & liners
Most often caused by inlet leaks around flexible joints in
air inlet piping
May also be caused by defective/damaged air filters, or
poor maintenance practices

Plugged air filters


Turbo failures
Coolant to air leaks in the aftercooler
Hydraulic lock