an introduction
·to
susanne k. Zanger
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE LAWS OF THOUGHT
by George Boole
{;eorge Boole was one of the greatest mathematicians of the 19th century, and one of the most influential thinkers of all time. Not,. only did he make important contributions to differential equations and calculus of finite differences, he also was the discoverer of invariants, and the founder of modern symbolic logic. According to Bertrand Russell, "Pure mathematics was discovered by George Boole in his work published in 1854."
THE INVESTIGATION OF THE LAWS OF THOUGHT is the first exten sive statement of the modern view that mathematics is a pure deductive science that can be applied to various situations. Boole first showed how classical logic could be treated with algebraic terminology and operations, and then proceeded to· a general sym bolic method of logical inference; he also attempted to devise a calculus of probabilities which could be applied to situations hitherto considered beyond investigation.
The enormous range of this work can be seen from chapter head ings: Nature and Design of This Work; Signs and Their Laws; Deriva tion of Laws; Division of Propositions; Principles of Symbolical Reasoning; Interpretation; Elimination; Reduction; Methods of Abbre viation; Conditions of a Perfect Method; Secondary Propositions; Methods in Secondary Propositions; Clarke and Spinoza; Analysis; Aristotelian Logic; Theory of Probabilities; General Method in Prob abilities; Elementary Illustrations; Statistical Conditions; Problems ^{\} on Causes; Probability of Judgments; Constitution of the Intellect. This last chapter, Constitution of the Intellect, 'is a very significant analysis of the psychology of discovery a d !cientific method.
"A
lisher is to
CAN.
classic
of
pure
mathematics
and
symbolic
be thanked for making it availpble,"
^{·}^{.}
^{'}
logic
pub
SCIENTIFIC AMERI
the
Unabridged reproduction of 1854 edition, with corrections macf in
the text. xviii + 424pp. 5% x 8.
S28
Paperbound
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AN
INTRODUCTION
SYMBOLIC
by
SUSANNE
K.
LOGIC
LANGER
TO
DOVER
SECOND EDITION
(REVISED)
'
'
6265
f1v.
Augusto <!aUma, 133.
Sr!6re/oj!J: 19
·T•L: 31264991
Ectifi<ia
MatetJ
I32Z27Z87
PUBLICATIONS,
NEW
YORK
I
(
INC.
/,
FIRST
PUBLISHED
IN
SECOND EDITION,
I937
1953
COPYRIGHT 1953 BY SUSANNE K. LANGER
I I'IONTI·.D
ANI)
ll
UND
IN
TilE
U.S.A.
TO MY MOTHER ELSE U. KNAUTH


CONTENTS
PREFACE To the First Edition PREFACE To the Second Edition
INTRODUCTION
THE
STUDY
OF
CHAPTER I
FORMS
I. 
The Importance of Form 
2. 
Logical Form 
3· 
Structure 
_{4}_{·} 
Form and Content 
5· 
The Value of Analogy 
6. 
Abstraction 
_{7}_{·} 
Concepts 
8. 
Interpretation 
'9· 
The Field of Logic 
10. 
Logic and Philosophy 
THE
ESSENTIALS
OF
CHAPTER II
LOGICAL
STRUCTURE
I. Relations and Elements
PAGE
II
13
1 7
21
45
2. Terms and Degxee 3 _{·} Propositions
_{4} _{·} Natural Language and Logical Symbolism
5· Some Principles Governing Symbolic Expression 6. The Power of Symbols
CHAPTER
III
THE ESSENTIALS OF LOGICAL STRUCTURE (continued)
1.
2.
3·
Context
Concepts and Conceptions Formal Context The Universe of Discourse Constituent Relations
_{6}_{4}
_{6}
AN
INTRODUCTION
TO
SYMBOLIC
LOGIC
4· TruthValues 5· Related Propositions in a Formal Context
6.
7·
Constituent Relations and Logical Relations Systems Deductive Inductive Mixed
GENERALIZATION
CHAPTER
IV
I. Regularities of a System
2. Variables
_{3}_{·} Values
4·
5·
Propositional Forms The Quantifiers (a) and (3a)
PAGE
General Propositions The Economy of General Propositions The Formality of General Propositions
g. Quantified Terms in Natural Discourse
8.
6.
7·
CHAPTER 
V 

CLASSES 

I. 
Individuals and Classes 

2. 
Membership in a Class 

3· 
Concepts and Classes 

4· 
"Defining Forms" of Classes 

5· 
Classes and SubClasses 

6. 
The Notion of a "Unit Class" 

7· 
The Notion of a "Null Class" 

8. 
The Notion of a "Universe Class" 

g. 
Identity of Classes 

10. 
The Uniqueness of ^{"} I ^{"} and "o" 

CHAPTER 
VI 
PRINCIPAL
RELATIONS
AMONG
CLASSES
II2
I. The Relation of ClassInclusion
2. Consequences of the Definition of "<"
3· Partial Inclusion or Conjunction of Classes
CONTENTS
7
PAGE 

4· 
Joint Inclusion, or Disjunction of Classes 

5· 
The Principle of Dichotomy: A and A 

6. 
The Importance of Dichotomy: Negation 

7· 
The Ubiquity of the Null Class 

8. Complements of Sums and Products 

g. 
Equivalent Expressions 

CHAPTER 
VII 

THE 
UNIVERSE 
OF 
CLASSES 
157 
I. Relations and Predicates
2. Classes as Indispensable Constructs in a System
3·
4·
_{5}_{·}
Classes as "Primitive Concepts" in a System The Generalized System of Classes A Convenience of Symbolism: Logical Punctutrtion
THE
DEDUCTIVE
CHAPTER
SYSTEM
OF
VIII
CLASSES
1. 
The ClassSystem as a Deductive System 

2. 
Postulates and Theorems 

3· 
Truth and Validity 

4· 
Postulates for the System of Classes, K(a, b . 
. 
.)< _{2} 
5· 
Relations and Operations 

6. 
Operations as "Primitive Notions" 
7·
Postulates for the System, K(a, b
8. The "Calculus" of Classes
) +.
X� =
CHAPTER
IX
THE
ALGEBRA
OF
LOGIC
1. The Meaning of "Algebra," and its Relevance to the ClassCalculus
2. Further Discussion of the Postulates
and
Inference 4� Elementary Theorems Tautology, Absorption, Double Negation, Associa tion
3· Principles
of
Proof:
Substitution,
Application,
_{2}_{0}_{6}
s.
The Duality of + and x
_{8}
AN
INTRODUCTION
TO
SYMBOLIC
LOGIC
6. 
The Definition of <, and InclusionTheorems 

1· 
Comparison with Postulates for K(a, b 
)< 
8. 
Fundamental Traits of Boolean Algebra 
2
ABSTRACTION
AND
CHAPTER
X
INTERPRETATION
1.
Different Degrees of Formalization
2. Properties of Relations
PAGE
3 _{·} 
Postulates 
as Formal Definitions of Relations 
_{4}_{·} 
Boolean Algebra: the Calculus of Classes as a Formula 

5 
Other Interpretations of the Boolean Formula 

6. 
The TwoValued Algebra 
THE
CALCULUS
OF
CHAPTER
XI
PROPOSITIONS
1. Properties of Logical Relations and Operations
2. Propositional Interpretation of Boolean Algebra
_{3}_{·}
The
Propositional
Calculus
as
an
Algebra
of
Values
4·
_{5}_{·}
6.The Significance of a Propositional Calculus
The Notion of "Material Implication"
The "Reflexiveness" of a Propositional Calculus
Truth
CH/LPTER
XII
THE ASSUMPTIONS OF PRINCIPIA
MATHEMATICA
266
_{2}_{8} _{7}
I. Limitations and Defects of the "Propositional" Algebra
2. Assertion and Negation
_{3}_{.}
The Calculus of Elementary Propositions of Principia
Mathematica
4· The Most Important Theorems Involving V,
_{5} _{·}
and:::>
The
Definition
of
Conjunction, and Some Important
Theorems
6.The
Definition of Equivalence, and Some Important
Theorems•
CONTENTS
9
:>
LOGISTICS
CHAPTER
XIII
I. The Pul)ose of Logistics 2. The Primtive Ideas of Mathematics 3· Functions
_{4}_{·} Assumptiors for a Calculus of General Propositions 5· The Definitims _{o}_{f} _{"}_{C}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{"} _{a}_{n}_{d} "Membership" 6. The Definiti01 _{o}_{f} "Relation"
1·
8.
The Structure of Principia Mathematica
The Value of Logic for Science and Philosophy
SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND T
LOGIC OF THE SYLLOGISM
PROOFS
OF
THEOREMS
I
_{A}_{N}_{D}
APPENDIX
_{C}
_{I} _{I}_{b}
THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF TRUTHTABLES
SUGGESTIONS 
FOR 
FURTHER 
STUDY 
INDEX 
PAGE
3I2
_{3}_{4}_{0}
350
352
3 .56
3 61
PRE I'ACE
TO
THE
FIRST
EDITION
SYMBOLIC LO;IC is a relatively new subject, and the easiest
methods of a?proach have not yet been determined. In
point of arran!ement, therefore, this Introduction has no
the need of
_{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{o}_{f} perfect innocence
to a possible un<.erstanding _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} literature, has
become acute andcommanding. But, although my text has no predecessor, it has had at
least one inspirer: ny debt to Professor Sheffer of Harvard _{i}_{s} too great to be expr�s ed in any detailed acknowledgments. _{T}_{h}_{e} underlying ideas of e bookits emphasis upon system,
its progress from the spe c to the general, from the general
to the abstract, its whole reatment of logic as a science of formsall this is due to his · fluence. How many lesser ideas _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} derive from him I am u able to say; it is the mark of a
great teacher that one cann�t render to him the things
that are his. They become par\ of one's own mentality, and
ultimately of the intellectual commonwealth. To my friend Professor Paul Henle I wish to express my
heartiest thanks for his kindness and patience in reading the entire manuscript, uncovering various errors, and checking
all the algebraic formulae. He has suggested many improve
ments, and sometimes found simpler or briefer explanations or formal demonstrations. I would also thank Dr. Henry S.
Leonard for some excellent suggestions, �nd for reading a part of the proof.
predecessor. Th\t
is just why it was written:
some systematic _{g}_{u}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{,} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{e}
S. K.
L.
PRElA.CE TO THE SECOND EDITION
WHE::>r THIS booc _{w}_{a}_{s} written, there was no systematic textbook of symlolic _{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c} _{i}_{n} English except the Symbolic Logic of Lewis a�d Langford. Perhaps Couturat ' s little Summary, The Algtbra _{o}_{f} _{L}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{,} could also be regarded as a text, in that it se, forth a system developed by various persons, notably De l{organ, _{B}_{o}_{o}_{l}_{e}_{,} and Schroeder, making no claim for itself to _{o}_{i} _{i}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{;} _{b}_{u}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{\}_{v}_{a}_{s}_{,} after all, an outline rather than an troduction. For the rest, every exposition was still in nnection with a contribution:
Lewis ' s Survey of Symbolic ogic had been written mainly to propose the system of "st "ct implication," Russell raised many questions he did not cl ^{·} m to settle, Quine was almost completely original ; and eve the most "digested" work (Lewis and Langford) entered i o no elementary discussion of the basic logical notions \neralization, abstraction, relation, form, system. Such fundamental concepts were taken for granted. They have always been taken for granted in that paragon of pure sciences, mathematics. It is the exceptional student of mathematics who knows why " +" is classed as an operation and '' ='' as a relation, or, indeed, why his exercises are called "examples" ; or who understands, even at a fairly advanced stage of technical proficiency, just how algebra is related to arithmetic. His training is entirely in techniques and their application to problems; arithmetic, geometry and algebra are related for him only by the fact that their several techniques may converge on one and the same problem ; that is to say, they are related practically but not intellec tually. The mathematics books used in schools dwell almost · exclusively on rules of operation. The prestige of mathematics is so great that logic, in emulating its method, tended to follow its pedagogy as well. _{T}_{h}_{e} excellent textbooks of logic that have appeared during
14
AN
INTRODUCTION
TO
SYMBOLIC :tOGIC
the last fifteen years (see the supplementary nM' list appended to "Suggestions for further reading") _{t}_{e}_{J}_{d} similarly to emphasize techniquestransformation, _{i}_{J}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} consis tencytests, decisionprocedureswithout Jetailed explana tions of the concepts involved. Now, matnematics has such obvious practical uses that to learn its _{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{k}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{t} understanding _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{i}_{fi}_{c}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{1} entirely silly ; but may the same be said of symbolic logic. ' Is the manipulation of its symbols of such practical imf')rtance that students should learn to perform logical _{o}_{p:}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} even without knowing or questioning their co ceptual foundations? It seems to me that despite its pr tical uses, which are still coming to light in unexpected q rters, its chief value is con ceptual. Through the influenc of the various positivistic schools of philosophy, which e certainly the most promi nent and perhaps the most romising schools today, our scholars and educators are s imbued with methodology that they value the new logic p marily for its codification of the rules of inference. But tha is only one of its contributions to human thought, and even to science ; method can be over emphasized, and tends to be so in our intellectual life. Symbolic logic is an instrument of exact thought, both analytic and constructive ; its mission, accordingly, is not only to validate scientific methods, but also to clarify the semantic confusions that beset the popular mind as well as the professional philosopher at the present time. "Semantics" (blessed word!) is in dire need of responsible analysis and skilful handling, and symbolic logic is the most effective preparation I can think of for a frontal attack on the pathetic muddles of modern philosophical thought. It blasts natural misconceptions with every move, not by a process of "de bunking," but by purposeful and lucid construction of ideas. Because this book seeks to present in clear, stepwise fashion the elementary concepts of logic, it cannot encompass as much technical material as other textbooks do. But today that is not a serious embarrassment, because it may be
supplemented
a standard text.
One
of the
'Y
most useful
devices
now ge·erally
taughtthe
construction
of "truth
tables" to test t�
e legitimacy of constructs
in a truthvalue
systemis
incluled
in
edition
this
as Appendix C.
The
reading list for
fu ther study has
been brought
date.
to
up
For the rest, �o re'isions have been
made except to correct
especially
errors,
major
in
Chapter
<
IV, which
error
.
mystenou�ly escape� the
several readers
of
the
script,
and
has
necessitated
a ht le
actual rewriting.
Apart
from these
details, the book is unthangeda
book for the student
who
ha: no teac�er, or fo� tl
teacher who has to meet too many
naiVe questions for his co
fort. As such it is still
alone in its
�lass, at least for English r
ders ; and in the belief
that there
always a real need for at
IS
east one such book
I send my
Introduction
out anew.
PR}FACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
^{j} ^{u}^{l}^{y} ^{1}^{9}^{5}^{2}^{.}
'
_{1} _{5}
s. K. L.
l
I N TRODUCTION
THE first thing that strikes the student of symbolic logic is that it has developed along several apparently unrelated lines : (r) the symbolic expression of traditional logic ; (z) the invention of various algebras such as the algebra of logic, and with this the study of postulational technique ; (3) the derivation of mathematics from a set of partially or wholly _{"}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{"} postulates ; (4) the investigation of the "laws of thought," and formal deduction of logical principles them selves. Every worker in the field drifts into one or another of these specialized endeavours. To a novice, it is hard to see what are the aims, principles, and procedures of logic per se, and what relations the several branches bear to it and to each other. Underlying them all is the principle of generality which culminates in the attainment of abstractions. The several branches of logic are so many stud£es in pmerali.�ation. The aims of logical research may vary with the interests of different investigatorsone may be interested in the validity of Aristotelian logic, another in that of mathematics, a third in the canons of science, a fourth in the relation between mathematics and science or mathematics and classical logic, etc., etc.but the procedure is everywhere the same : it is progressive systematization and generalization. Likewise, the criterion of success is the same : it is the discovery of abstract forms. The latter interest distinguishes logic from natural science, which is in search of general but not abstract formulae, i.e. formulae for concrete facts. In order to prepare the reader for further study in any branch of symbolic logic, I have undertaken to discuss the characteristics of logical science as such, and show precisely how the branches spring from a parent trunk ; to lay down the principles governing all symbolic usage, and to introduce him specifically to the most important systems of symboliza
<8
AN
IN tUCTION TO
S YMBOLIC
LOGIC
,
tion. To this end it is necessary for the student to have plenty of exercise in the actual manipulation of symbols.
Nothing else can overcome their initial mystery. Symbolic logic, like mathematics, is a technique as well as a theory, and cannot be learned entirely by contemplation. The book is built around the two great classic feats of
symbolic logic :
masterpiece of Messrs. Whitehead and Russell, Principia Mathematica. Its chief aim is to prepare the student to understand the thought and procedure of these two very distinct developments of logic, and to see the connection between them. Most introductions to symbolic logic treat them without relation to each other ; the student, who has mastered the algebraic symbolism and "postulational" method of Boole and Schroeder and feels reasonably familiar with the algebra as a system, suddenly finds himself at a new beginning, confronted with an entirely new realm of ideation, new symbols, new aims. Pedagogically, the transi tion is hard to effect. Therefore, this whole book has been planned to show very precisely that "algebra of logic" and _{"}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{"} are all of a piece, and just how, why, and where they have diverged both in appearance and in sense. The present work endeavours to be both a textbook of symbolic logic and an essay on that logic. It is essential that the student should learn both to "do" logic, and to know precisely what he is doing. Therefore the exposition of method is interspersed throughout with discussion of the principles and general import of the procedure. The actual material presented should enable him, at the end of a systematic course of study, to tackle the monographic literature of symbolic logic, and pursue it either in the direction of mathematics, or of postulational theory, or of logistic. Furthermore, it should in some measure prepare students of philosophy to understand the epistemological problems which arise in contemporary philosophy of nature,
as presented by Poincare, Mach, Reichenbach, Carnap,
the BooleSchroeder algebra, and the logistic
INTRODUCTION
end _{i}_{t} _{e}_{m}_{p}_{h}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{s}
_{T}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s}
' _{a}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.}
_{R}_{u}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{l}_{,} _{W}_{h}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{d}
d
bT
·
'
lt�es
construction; the
an
1
possl
of logical
principles
the
funddme�tal
.
_{;} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} conc:pti�n�,
limits of formalization
_{s}_{l}_{m}_{p}_{h}_{c}_{l}_{t}_{y}_{,} _{�}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{�}_{l}_{t}_{y}_{,}
of formulae, criteria of clarity,
types
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{ff}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} between fecund and _{s}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{l}_{e} _{n}_{o}_{�}_{w}_{n}_{s}_{.}
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{a}_{l}_{l}_{,}
to show _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{g} _{o}_{f} _{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{C} _{o}_{n}
.
this connection _{i}_{t} _{s}_{e}_{e}_{k}_{s}
In
of nature.
natural science and philosophy
Although it _{i}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{s} _{a} text for a course _{m} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{h}_{c}
no
it
pre�upposes
though
_{a} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}
course,
(usually
logic
mtroductory
also
as
should
serve
it
training)
revious
�eading for a course _{i}_{n} _{p}_{h}_{i}_{l}_{o}_{s}_{o}_{p}_{h}_{y}
or a course of
_{o}_{f} _{n}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{,}
_{g}_{r}_{a}_{d}_{u}_{�}_{�}_{e}
_{f}_{o}_{r}
_{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{,}
or
for
' philosophy
_{u}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{r}
general
monograp lC
im?ortant
the
to
a key
seeking
students
_{I}_{t} _{a}_{l}_{m}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{�}_{k}_{e} _{n}_{o}
.
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{.}
literature of symbolic logic
mathematics for
_{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{,} _{s}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} _{o}_{r}
of
technical knowledge
ranted, but to develop every idea fro� _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{m}_{o}_{n}
also
to
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{u}_{s}_{e}_{f}_{u}_{l}
comprehensible
may be
it
that
so
sense,
the
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{m}_{a}_{n} who desires a general dlscusslo� of
·
.
.
technique, and results _{o}_{f} _{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{h}_{c} logic.
_{p}_{u}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{,} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{,}
l
g
.
19
.
I
AN INTRODUCTION TO SYMBOLIC LOGIC
CHAPTER
THE
STUDY
OF
I
FORMS
I. THE IMPORTANCE OF FORM
All knowledge, all sciences and arts have their beginning in the recognition that ordinary, familiar things may take on different forms. Our earliest experience of nature brings this fact to our notice ; we see water freezing into a trans lucent block, or the snow which fell from heaven changing to water before our very eyes. A little reflection makes us aware of further changes. Where do snow and rain come from ? From the vaporous masses we call clouds, the white mists that float in the air, and as the snow or rain descends those clouds dissolve. They have turned to water, or to
white flakes. Where did the clouds come from ? They are
made by some process of transformation from the waters of the earth. Different forms of the same thing may be so widely diverse in appearance that it is hard to think of them as essentially the same substance. All science tries to reduce the diversity of things in the
world to mere differences of appearance, and treats as many things as possible as variants of the same stuff. When Benjamin Franklin found out that lightning is one form of electricity, he made a scientific discovery, which proved to be but a step in a very great science, for an
amazing number of things can be reduced to this same fundamental "something," this protean substance called "electricity": the force that holds the firmament together,
the
the crackle of a eat ' s fur, the heat in a flatiron,
flickering Northern Aurora. Electricity is one of the essential things in the world that can take on a vast variety
22
AN
ILDUCTION
TO
S YMBOLIC
LOGIC
of forms. It�
its
not
thing,
other
wide
mutability makes
makes
nature interesting,
But if
forms
and
we could
of one
each
over
ultimate oneness
appreciate
then we
at
all;
its
would
science possible.
forms
different
as different
have no
way of relating them to
why sliding our
feet
we would
not know
a
rug makes 
the 
brass doorknob 
give off 
a spark 
at 
our 

touch, 
or 
why 
the lightning has 
a preference 
for 
metal 

crosses 
on 
churchsteeples, nor see 
any connection 
what 
ever
between
these
two
causal facts.
of knowledge,
We have
two kinds
which may
and
called
about
senses
sort
its mother's breast,
knows
it has
by acquaint
be
respectively
them.
give
of knowledge
its
these objects
what Bertrand Russell has
knowledge
that
of
things,
knowledge
which
our
a
thingthe
wall.
It
The former is
us,
usual
the
look and
a
view
direct
intimacy
feel
of
own bed,
window
and
hunger
smell and
of its
and
baby has
of
just
ceiling
as it
knows
or toothache;
called "knowledge
ance" 
of certain things, a most 
direct 
and sensuous know 
ledge. 
Yet the baby cannot be said to 
know anything about 

beds, 
food, houses, or toothaches. 
To 
know anything about 
an
how
object
it
is
what sort
is
to know
how
it
is. To
made
of
up, how
thing it
related
functions, etc., in
have knowledge about it
short,
it
is
to its
surroundings,
know
we must
to
know more than the direct sensuous quality of "this stuff"; 

we must 
know what particular shape the stuff 
is taking 
in 

the 
case 
of 
this thing. 
A child 
may 
know the 
taste and 

feeling of 
a 
scrambled 
egg, without knowing that it is 
an 

egg 
which 
has been scrambled; 
in that case, 
he will not 

associate 
it 
with a boiled 
egg or an omelette. 
He does not 

know that 
these are different forms 
of the 
same thing. 
Neither
egg
the
does
is
a
he
know that
in
its raw,
fresh,
pristine
form
of
chicken,
and
by
natural
more distant
state
relationship an incipient 
chickendinner. 

The 
only 
way we can 
do business 
at 
all with a rapidly 

changing, shifting, surprising 
world 
is 
to 
discover the 
most 

general 
laws 
of its transformations. 
The 
very word "trans 
I
L
THg
STUDY
OF FORMS
23
formation"
form.
of
matter,
remains
Whenever
found
to
material,
variation belongs to
tells
us
what we
of
science
are
is
dealing with'l
the
most
of
striking demon
from
which
changes.
changes
The
growth
stration
the importance
stuff,
or
when
of forms as
whatever
distinguished
we
of
a
call
that
thing
science,
one
substance,
"the
same"
we may
some principle
as just
the
form
truly claim
by which
so
to have a
we have
are related
or
new
different things
of
each other
and
many forms
that
can
be
substrate,
as
a
everything
treated
that science.
2. LoGICAL 
FoRM 

Not all the sciences deal with material things. 
Philology, 

for instance, 
deals with the 
relations 
among words, and 

although the 
production of 
a 
word 
in speech 
or writing 

always has a 
material aspectinvolving paper and ink, 
or 

movement 
of 
speech organsthis 
aspect 
is 
not what 

interests the philologist. When 
the word undergoes changes 
of 
form, 
as for instance 
the 
word 
"pater" to 
"pere" 
and 

"father" 
and 
"padre," this cannot 
be taken to mean 
that 
it changes 
its shape, 
as 
an 
egg changes 
shape 
when 
it 
is 

scrambled. 
The meaning 
of "form" 
is stretched 
beyond 
its 

common connotation 
of 
shape. Likewise, 
in the science 
or 
art of musical composition we 
speak of a rondo 
form, 
sonata 

form, hymn 
form, and 
no one thinks of 
a material 
shape. 
Musical form is
So
not
recognize
material;
it
a wider
we
must
is
sense of
orderliness,
the
but
not
shape.
word than the
geometric 
sense 
of physical shape. And 
indeed, we 
admit 

this wider 
sense 
in ordinary 
parlance; 
we speak 
of 
"for 

mality" 
in 
social 
intercourse, 
of "good 
form" 
in athletics, 

of "formalism" 
in literature, 
music, 
or 
dancing. Certainly 
we cannot refer to the
shape
of a dinner or a poem or a dance.
In 
this wider sense, anything may 
be said to have 
form 
that 

follows 
a 
pattern of 
any 
sort, exhibits 
order, internal 
con 

nection; 
our many 
synonyms for "form" indicate 
how 
wide
the range
of
this notion
really is.
We
speak of physical,
I
AN
I o/RODUCTION TO 
SYMBOLIC LOGIC 

grammatical, social fo rms; of 
psychological types ; norms of 

conduct, of beauty, of intelligence; fa shions in clothing, 

behaviour; speech, designs new 
of automobiles motor or 

boats; architectural plans, 
the plans or 
for a festival; 

pattern, standard, mode, and 
many other 
words signify 

essentially the thing same 
in specialized 
subtle usage or 

variations of meaning. But 
all these words refer to "form" 

in that most general sense 
in which we are 
going to use it 

here. 

It is this most general 
sense which we 
always give 
to 

the word in logic. Therefore it from "form" 
I shall call it "logical form," 

to distinguish 
in any more restricted sense, 

particularly its usual connotation of physical 
shape. 
3· STRUCTURE
"Logical form"
is
a
highly general
notion,
and
like
all
generalizations, 
it 
covers 
a 
large number of 
particular 

ideas. But if these 
various 
particular ideas may all 
be 
called 
by
one
general
name,
they
must
have
somethingsome
general featurein common. But 
what is common to, say, 

the form 
of declensions 
and 
conjugations in a language, 

and the topography of 
a continent? Both are "forms" 
in 

the logical sense. What bridge can be thrown across the gap 

between such widely diverse 
notions as the shape of 
the 

continent, 
and the orderly sequence of wordendings in the 

language? 
Is there any justification for applying the same 

name to such different matters? 

The bridge that connects 
all the various meanings 

of formfrom geometric form 
to the form of ritual 
or 

etiquetteis the notion 
of structure. The logical form 
of 

a thing is 
the way that thing 
is constructed, the way it 
is 
put
together.
Any
definite
been
thing
that has
This
put
a
does
definite
not
form
of
is con
course,
somebody;
structed in
a
that
it
has
way.
deliberately
mean,
by
together
forms 
may 
be 
preconceived, 
or they may 
be 
natural, 
or 

accidental. 
The 
famous 
"Old 
Man of 
the 
Mountain" 
in 
THE
STUDY
OF
FORMS
New
together like
then there is a
eyes, a large projection, exactly as a nose projects,
piece, a
as eyebrows do,
Hampshire
is
a human
an
accidental
a piece
gap
rockformation,
juts
out
just
like
the hollow
is beneath
put
a little,
of the
a straight
the lip,
profile;
fissure beneath
it, as
the mouth
another straight piece ending 
in 
a projection 
with 
a 
great 

overhang 
that resembles the 
projection 
of 
a strong 
chin 

and jaw. 
The outline of the 
rock 
is made 
up like 
a 
human 
fros�
have accidentally constructed the "Old Man of the Mountam"
common
Nature
crude structure
the infinitesimal dynamic
must not
with
previously
very recog
"put
of
no
flake
with
is full
out
profile;
the
powers
of
natureglacier,
water,
and
of granite; the
human flesh,
of most
cliff, which
has nothing else in
man
by
its form.
yet resembles a
elaborate constructs, from the
a geological fault to
electrons
in an
of strata in
pattern
make
something
separate.
nizable
together";
water.
They
process
fact,
construct.
of
of protons and
the
mistake
of
atom. One
associating
of
"structure" always
that
were
of
been
put together out
A
snowflake is a
individual
parts,
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