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80 visualizzazioni20 pagineDesign for Column and Plate Buckling
compression member buckling

Jun 14, 2016

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Design for Column and Plate Buckling
compression member buckling

© All Rights Reserved

80 visualizzazioni

11 mi piace00 non mi piace

Design for Column and Plate Buckling
compression member buckling

© All Rights Reserved

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The critical buckling load for a long slender column was

previously obtained (see A10 and A11) by solving the governing

differential equation of equilibrium and is given by:

2 EI

Pcr c 2

L

where c is a constant depending upon the end conditions:

clamped-free: c=0.25

pinned-pinned: c=1

clamped-pinned: c=2

clamped-clamped: c=4

Equation can be written as a critical buckling stress, and can also

be put in terms of a non-dimensional ratio called slenderness ratio

as follows. The critical buckling stress is simply:

cr

Pcr

2 EI

2E

c 2 c 2

A

L A

L (A/ I)

I/A

(units of length)

2E

Equation becomes cr c 2

2 . So finally we write the

L (1/ )

Euler critical buckling stress as:

2E

E c

( L / )2

The term L / is non-dimensional and is known as the

slenderness ratio of the column.

found that the slenderness ratio must be "large" in order to obtain

acceptable correlation. What is large will be considered shortly.

For columns that have a cross-section such that the moments of

inertia are different about the two axes, the minimum moment of

y

inertia must be used. For example,

0.23

suppose we have an aluminum W4x0.15

cross-section. This is a cross-section that

is 4" deep and has a web that is 0.15"

x

3.54

thick. The top and bottom caps are 0.23"

0.15

thick and the shear web is 3.54" long. We

have the following section properties:

0.23

A 1.965 in 2 , I xx 5.62 in 4 , I yy 1.04 in 4 Consequently, the

column will buckle so that bending occurs about the y-axis (

I min 1.04 in 4 ).

the cross-section above that is pinned on each end (c=1) and

L=100". The radius of gyration is I min / A 0.727 " and the

slenderness ratio is equal to L / 100"/ 0.727" 137.6 . The

buckling stress becomes:

2E

2 (10.4 x106 psi )

E c

1

5, 425 psi

2

2

(L / )

(100"/ 0.727")

For a typical aluminum, we note that the yield stress is around

y 40,000 psi (or greater). Hence, buckling will occur well

before the yield stress is reached, and buckling for long, slender

columns (large L / ) is thus geometrically dominated, not material

yielding dominated.

For very short columns (small L / ), the column will not buckle

but simply compress, and a simple P / A model is sufficient.

Failure will then be due to yielding of the material.

nor a P/A model matches experimental results. Johnson's

solution is often used in the intermediate range and is given by

y ( L / ) 2

J y 1

2

4c E

is Euler's solution inverted

and offset by a constant ( y

=yield stress). If one graphs

equations and [For the case

of c=1 (pinned-pinned) and

aluminum with

E 10.4 Mpsi and

y 40 ksi ], we find that the

equations are equal and

tangent to each other at a

Euler

Johnson

Slenderness ratio

infinity when the slenderness ratio goes to zero, whereas Johnson's

solution is equal to y for an slenderness ratio of zero. The

tangent point can be found by setting the two solutions equal to

each other:

2

2

(

L

/

)

E

y

y

2

2

(L / )

4

c

equation:

( 2y )a 2 (4c 2 E y ) a 4c 2 4 E 2 0

which has the solution a 2c 2 ( E / y ) . Now L / a .

Hence, the slenderness ratio at the equal point is given by

L

2cE / y

equal

good for slenderness ratios greater then this value, while the

Johnson solution is good for slenderness ratios smaller than this

value. For the case of c=1 (pinned-pinned) and aluminum with

E 10.4 Mpsi and y 40 ksi , we have the following plot with

the equal point at

( L / )equal 71.64 .

Note that this plot, and the

resultant slenderness ratio

Use Johnson Use Euler

L / where the Euler and

Johnson models are equal, is

a function of column end

conditions (c) and the

material being used ( E and

Slenderness ratio

y ). Hence, the

determination of which model to use (Euler or Johnson) must be

determined for each problem. For this material (typical aluminum)

( L / ) 71.64 , Euler's solution will over estimate the critical

stress. For ( L / ) 71.64 , Johnson's solution will under estimate

the critical stress.

Example: Consider the case of a column 20" long (L=20") with

the same W4x0.15 cross-section ( 0.727") and aluminum

material as before ( E 10.4 Mpsi and y 40 ksi ). The

slenderness ratio for the column is equal to:

L / 20"/ 0.727" 27.52 . The transition point on the two curves

L

2cE / y 71.64 . Hence, this

is given by

transition

indicates that one should use the Johnson solution since

27.52<71.64. Johnson's solution gives the critical buckling stress

y ( L / ) 2

37,049 psi

J y 1

as:

2

4

c

In the notes by Prof. Pollock (see A11), the buckling of flat plates

was briefly discussed. This included flat plates subjected to inplane compression or shear. Also, due to bending loads, but note

that the bending moment was about an axis perpendicular to the

plate; not the usual plate bending discussed in A05 where the

bending moment is about an x or y axis which lies in the plane of

the plate.

The buckling load for a flat plate is obtained by starting with the

governing differential equation for displacements for a plate as was

derived in A05 but modified so as to include the coupling between

in-plane and out-of-plane displacements (as was done for the

column in A10). For a particular set of edge boundary conditions,

a series solution of sine and cosine functions is assumed that

satisfy the governing differential equation. As for the column, the

result is an eigenvalue problem that must be solved to determine

10

bending moment). Much of the early work on the subject was

done by Gerard and Becker and is reported in Handbook of

Structural Stability, NACA TN 3781, 1957, and also in

Introduction to Structural Stability Theory, Gerard, McGraw-Hill,

1962.

The result of their work is still utilized today. Although the finite

element method may be used to predict bucking and collapse of

plates and more complex structures, it is quite computer intensive

and not done often in practice (because it requires the solution of

nonlinear equations of equilibrium).

11

Consider a flat plate of thickness 't", dimensions a and b, and

subjected to in-plane compression as shown below.

b

a

Note that "b" is width of the plate (edge where the load is applied),

and "a" is the length of the plate. Gerard's solution for a flat plate

in compression with various edge boundaries can be summarized

with the following equation:

2

2 kc E t

cr

2 b

12(1 )

The constant kc is compressive buckling coefficient and is a

function of the edge boundary conditions and (a/b).

12

13

Note that there are 5 edge condition cases presented for the

unloaded edges (length of "a"); and for each of these cases a curve

for the loaded edges (width of "b") being either clamped or simply

supported. Notation is: c=clamped, ss=simply supported, f=free.

Each one of the "scalloped" portions of a curve in Fig. C5.2 is the

solution for a particular buckling mode: n=1 (half sine wave), n=2

(full sine wave), etc. For clamped, would be cosine waves.

n=1

n=2

n=3

For the top curve (Case A, loaded edges clamped), you can identify

up to n=7. Thus for (a/b)=2, the plate will buckle with n=3, i.e.,

sin(3 x / a) where x is the coordinate axis in the direction of load

application (a direction).

14

A 90"x60" flat plate with square tube stiffeners as shown below is

to withstand an in-plane load of 40 lbf/in. All plate edges are

assumed to be fully clamped. The material for both the plate and

tubes is aluminum with a

Young's modulus of 10.4

Mpsi, Poisson's ratio of

0.3, yield stress of 40 ksi

and specific weight of

0.098 lbf/in^3.

90

60

the plate thickness (t), the

number of added stiffeners

running parallel to the 90" edge and size of the stiffeners. The

stiffeners are square tubes that have a wall thickness equal to that

chosen for the plate. As many stiffeners as desired may be used, so

long as the total cross-sectional area of the stiffeners does not

15

exceed 30% of the area of plate (area over which the load is

applied - on one end).

The added stiffeners will relieve some of the load from the plate.

The amount of load carried by the square tubes depends on the

cross-sectional area of each tube and that of the plate. You may

reduce the amount of the edge loading on the plate, accordingly.

Similarly, the addition of stiffeners breaks the plate into two or

more smaller plates that are constrained along all four edges.

Small tubes (less than 1.5" x 1.5") can be taken act as simply

supported constraints for the plate (on edges parallel to tubes).

Tubes larger than this size act as clamped constraints for the plate.

large stiffeners

small stiffeners

16

stiffener spacing and solve for plate thickness t, or 2) assume the

plate thickness t and solve for the stiffener spacing.

Suppose we start the design with a 2" x 2" stiffener every 20" (total

of 2 stiffeners). This will mean that the plate size between

stiffeners is b=20" (and the length is a=90").

2

t

t

b=20

the tubes within the 20" length is AT 2(1" 2" 1")t 8" t (same

as area of one tube). The total area is 28t. We assume that the load

carried of the plate and tubes will be in the ratio of their areas.

Hence the load carried by the plate is

17

And the load carried by the tubes is

Ntubes 40 lbf / in(8 / 28) 11.43 lbf / in

The problem stated that the edges are clamped where the loads are

applied. Since we have chosen 2"x2" tubes, we assume these are

large enough so that they provide a clamped edge for the plate

along their length. Hence the 90" x 20" is assumed to be clamped

on all edges. From Gerard's plot, we choose Case A and the

a 90"

4.5 , we find that kc 7.2 . Gerard's

dashed curve. For

b 20"

equation for plates with in-plane compression is

2

2 kc E t

cr

. The plate must carry 28.57 lbf/in of load;

2 b

12(1 )

hence the allowable stress is cr N p / t 28.57(lbf / in) / t .

Substituting into Gerard's equation gives:

18

2

t

20"

12(1 (0.3) )

Solving for t gives: t 0.055"

compressive load that it must carry (neglecting that it is attached to

the plate).

Area of tube: At ; 8"(.055") 0.44in 2 (using nominal dimensions

only)

Moment of inertia (about centroid and axis parallel to plate):

I 2 .055"(2")3 /12 2"(.055")3 /12 (2" x.055")(1") 2 0.293in 4

L

90"

110

Slenderness ratio:

0.816"

Now determine which column equation to use: Euler or Johnson.

19

L

6

2

cE

/

2(4)(10.4

x

10

psi ) /(40ksi ) 143

y

transition

Since the slenderness ratio for the tube is 110, which is less than

143, then the Johnson equation should be used. Johnson's equation

gives the buckling stress as

y ( L / ) 2

40ksi(110) 2

40ksi 1

J y 1

28, 200 psi

2

2

6

4

c

E

4(4) (10.4 x10 psi )

and the compressive load is P / A 91.4lbf / 0.44in 2 208 psi

Note: 208 psi J 28, 212 psi and 208 psi y 40ksi .

20

With this design, when the plate buckles, the stiffened plate will

still carry significantly more load (via the tube stiffeners).

Weight of the stiffened plate as designed:

Plate only: (60")(90")(0.055")(0.098lbf / in3 ) 29.11lb

Tubes (2 of them at 20" spacing, each 2" square):

2[(90")(0.44in 2 )(0.098lbf / in3 )] 7.76lb

Hence, stiffened plate weighs 36.87 lb.

Short Design Project:

1. Review my work for accuracy.

2. Determine a better design (less total weight for stiffened plate)

following T. Pollock's requirements on tube size and associated

boundary condition on plate due to tube size (see further A11).

Due: Wednesday, April 18

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