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2/21/2016

PowerPower ElectronicElectronic ConvertersConverters DCDC toto ACAC ConvertersConverters Dr.Dr. TahirTahir IzharIzhar
PowerPower ElectronicElectronic ConvertersConverters
DCDC toto ACAC ConvertersConverters
Dr.Dr. TahirTahir IzharIzhar
InverterInverter WaveformsWaveforms TheThe outputoutput voltagevoltage waveformswaveforms ofof invertersinverters areare
InverterInverter WaveformsWaveforms
TheThe outputoutput voltagevoltage waveformswaveforms ofof invertersinverters areare seldomseldom
ideal.ideal.
The ideal waveform is usually a sinusoidal because it
The ideal waveform is usually a sinusoidal because it
ensures constant and continuous flow of power.
ensures constant and continuous flow of power.
The actual inverter waveforms
The actual inverter waveforms
are more commonly,
are more commonly,
square,square, quasiquasi--square, PWM or some other train of
square, PWM or some other train of
pulses.pulses.
TheThe behaviorbehavior ofof thethe powerpower systemsystem cancan easilyeasily bebe
understoodunderstood ifif waveformswaveforms areare representedrepresented inin termsterms ofof
ideal sinusoidal fundamental component at power
ideal sinusoidal fundamental component at power
frequency,frequency, plusplus aa seriesseries ofof harmonics.harmonics.
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DCDC toto ACAC ConverterConverter DCDC toto ACAC converterconverter isis aa powerpower electronicelectronic circuit
DCDC toto ACAC ConverterConverter
DCDC toto ACAC converterconverter isis aa powerpower electronicelectronic
circuit that converter DC power into AC
circuit that converter DC power into AC
power.power.
If the power flow is only in
If the power flow is only in
one direction
one direction
the converter is operating as and inverter.
the converter is operating as and inverter.
However, it is
However, it is
possible to operate the
possible to operate the
converterconverter inin twotwo oror fourfour quadrants.quadrants.
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Inverter Building Block Inverter Building Block TheThe powerpower semiconductorsemiconductor buildingbuilding
Inverter Building Block
Inverter Building Block
TheThe powerpower semiconductorsemiconductor buildingbuilding blockblock
forfor inverterinverter isis referredreferred asas inverterinverter leg.leg.
Two switching devices are connected in
Two switching devices are connected in
series across the DC power supply as
series across the DC power supply as
shown.shown.
TwoTwo antianti--parallelparallel diodesdiodes areare connectedconnected
across the semiconductor switching
across the semiconductor switching
devices.devices.
TheThe outputoutput terminalterminal RR cancan bebe connectedconnected toto
the positive or negative rail by
the positive or negative rail by
switching
switching
onon eithereither thethe upperupper oror lowerlower device.device.
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Inverter Building Block Inverter Building Block ItIt isis aa fourfour quadrantquadrant switchswitch duedue toto thethe
Inverter Building Block
Inverter Building Block
ItIt isis aa fourfour quadrantquadrant switchswitch duedue toto thethe
bidirectionalbidirectional currentcurrent capability.capability.
For low power, 1
For low power, 1--phase applications, a
phase applications, a
midmid pointpoint
GG is provided by means of two
is provided by means of two
capacitorscapacitors andand thethe loadload isis connectedconnected
betweenbetween RR andand GG
This circuit is known as half bridge
This circuit is known as half bridge
inverter.inverter.
ForFor highhigh powerpower singlesingle phasephase oror polypoly phasephase
applications, more than one inverter leg is
applications, more than one inverter leg is
used.used.
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33--Phase Inverter Bridge Phase Inverter Bridge For three phase inverter, three inverter legs are used
33--Phase Inverter Bridge
Phase Inverter Bridge
For three phase inverter, three inverter legs are used
as shown below.
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HH--BridgeBridge InverterInverter InIn singlesingle phasephase fullfull bridgebridge configuration,configuration, twotwo
HH--BridgeBridge InverterInverter
InIn singlesingle phasephase fullfull bridgebridge configuration,configuration, twotwo inverterinverter legslegs
are used and the load is connected across the middle
are used and the load is connected across the middle
pointspoints ofof thethe seriesseries connectedconnected switches.switches.
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33--Phase Inverter Bridge Phase Inverter Bridge For most high power multi-leg inverter, the point G
33--Phase Inverter Bridge
Phase Inverter Bridge
For most high power multi-leg
inverter, the point G is not a physical
point but only a notational point of
reference.
The waveforms at output points of
inverter legs w.r.t. point G are known
as pole waveforms.
Pole waveforms are different form load voltage
waveforms.
The most common application of DC/AC inverter is to drive
AC motors at variable speed i.e. VFDs .
VFDs can be used for: Traction, Pumps, Compressors,
Servo, wire-draw lines, Steel re-rolling, paper-rolling,
conveyor drive, textile, and machine tools.
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Analysis of Basic H Analysis of Basic H--BridgeBridge WhenWhen diagonaldiagonal switchesswitches openopen andand
Analysis of Basic H
Analysis of Basic H--BridgeBridge
WhenWhen diagonaldiagonal switchesswitches openopen andand
closescloses simultaneously,simultaneously, thethe acac
voltagevoltage isis producedproduced acrossacross thethe loadload
resistor.resistor.
The output AC is a square wave
The output AC is a square wave
consistingconsisting ofof fundamentalfundamental
componentcomponent plusplus harmonics.harmonics.
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Analysis of Basic H--BridgeBridge Analysis of Basic H WeWe cancan seesee thatthat thethe amplitudeamplitude ofof
Analysis of Basic H--BridgeBridge
Analysis of Basic H
WeWe cancan seesee thatthat thethe amplitudeamplitude ofof fundamentalfundamental componentcomponent
decreasesdecreases asas thethe pulsepulse widthwidth decreases.decreases.
However, the percentage harmonics increases as the
However, the percentage harmonics increases as the
pulsepulse widthwidth decreases.decreases.
This type of inverter is known as tri
This type of inverter is known as tri--statestate inverterinverter becausebecause
the output
the output
can be +V+V DCDC ,, -- VV DCDC ,, oror ZeroZero
can be
The third state can be obtained
The third state can be obtained
either by closing the upper
either by closing the upper
two switches or lower two switches of the H
two switches or lower two switches of the H--Bridge.Bridge.
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Analysis of Basic H--BridgeBridge Analysis of Basic H SometimesSometimes aa variablevariable ACAC outputoutput isis
Analysis of Basic H--BridgeBridge
Analysis of Basic H
SometimesSometimes aa variablevariable ACAC outputoutput isis requiredrequired formform thethe inverter.inverter.
TheThe amplitudeamplitude ofof thethe fundamentalfundamental componentcomponent cancan bebe controlledcontrolled byby
changingchanging thethe inputinput DCDC voltagevoltage source.source.
This scheme requires a complicated system consisting of phase
This scheme requires a complicated system consisting of phase
controlled AC/DC converter or switch--modemode DC/DCDC/DC converter.converter.
controlled AC/DC converter or switch
The output amplitude of fundamental can also be changed by changing
The output amplitude of fundamental can also be changed by changing
the pulse width as shown below.
the pulse width as shown below.
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HarmonicHarmonic CancellationCancellation IfIf twotwo squaresquare waveswaves havinghaving aa phasephase shiftshift
HarmonicHarmonic CancellationCancellation
IfIf twotwo squaresquare waveswaves havinghaving aa
phasephase shiftshift ofof 6060 oo areare added,added, thethe
resultingresulting wavewave isis aa quasiquasi--squaresquare
wave.wave.
The triplen
The triplen
harmonics are absent
harmonics are absent
from the spectrum of quasi--squaresquare
from the spectrum of quasi
wave.wave.
This can be achieved practically by
This can be achieved practically by
connectingconnecting twotwo inverterinverter bridgesbridges inin
seriesseries asas shown.shown.
CancellationCancellation ofof 33 rdrd andand 55 thth
harmonicsharmonics simultaneouslysimultaneously isis
possible by operating the bridges
possible by operating the bridges
inin tritri--statestate
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HarmonicHarmonic CancellationCancellation 77 thth andand 1111 thth harmonicsharmonics cancan bebe cancelledcancelled
HarmonicHarmonic CancellationCancellation
77 thth andand 1111 thth harmonicsharmonics cancan bebe cancelledcancelled byby usingusing fourfour
bridgesbridges inin series.series.
However, generation of stepped voltage waveform requires
However, generation of stepped voltage waveform requires
complex power circuit with large number of power switching
complex power circuit with large number of power switching
devices.devices.
The overall cost increases due to increased number of
The overall cost increases due to increased number of
switching devices and their associated drive circuitry.
switching devices and their associated drive circuitry.
However, cheap low voltage low frequency power
However, cheap low voltage low frequency power
semiconductorsemiconductor devicesdevices cancan bebe employed.employed.
PulsePulse WidthWidth ModulationModulation TechniqueTechnique cancan alsoalso bebe usedused toto
generate near sinusoidal voltage waveform.
generate near sinusoidal voltage waveform.
In PWM inverter, the number of switches are minimum but
In PWM inverter, the number of switches are minimum but
they are operated at high switching frequencies.
they are operated at high switching frequencies.
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Thank Thank you you ForFor youryour attentionattention 1515
Thank
Thank
you
you
ForFor youryour attentionattention
1515
Modulation Strategies in PWM Modulation Strategies in PWM InIn voltagevoltage sourcesource inverters,inverters, thethe
Modulation Strategies in PWM
Modulation Strategies in PWM
InIn voltagevoltage sourcesource inverters,inverters, thethe sinusoidalsinusoidal outputoutput isis
producedproduced throughthrough PWM.PWM.
The PWM strategies can be classified as follows:
The PWM strategies can be classified as follows:
NaturalNatural Sampling:Sampling: widely used
widely used
with analog electronics
with analog electronics
RegularRegular Sampling:Sampling: simplified version that gives easier
simplified version that gives easier
implementationimplementation whenwhen micromicro--controllerscontrollers areare
used.used.
OptimizedOptimized PWM:PWM:
basedbased onon minimizationminimization ofof certaincertain
performanceperformance criteria.criteria. ExampleExample isis SelectiveSelective
harmonicharmonic reduction.reduction.
SpaceSpace VectorVector
another simplified technique ideal
another simplified technique ideal
Modulation:Modulation:
for micro processor implementation.
for micro processor implementation.
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