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What is pump?
A pump can be defined as a device which
transfers the input mechanical energy of motor
or of an engine into pressure energy or kinetic
energy or both of a fluid.
Simply a pump is a device which converts
the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy of
a fluid.

Centrifugal pump: Components of centrifugal pump are as follows:

1. Impeller : It is a wheel or a rotor having a series of
backward curved vanes or blades.
2. Casing : It has to perform two functions, to guide
water from entry to exit of impeller and other is to help
partly in converting the kinetic energy of liquid into
pressure energy.
3. Suction pipe : The pipe which connects the sump
to the eye of impeller is called suction pipe.

4. Delivery pipe : The pipe which connects the

outlet of pump up to point it delivers the liquid to
required height is called delivery pipe.
The centrifugal pump can be shown as in fig.

Working of centrifugal pump:Centrifugal pump works on the principle

that when a certain mass of liquid is made
to rotate along the impeller from the
central axis of rotation , it impresses a
centrifugal head .
It causes the water to move radially
outwards at higher velocity and cause the
water to rise to a higher level.
The motion of water is restricted by
casing of pump., it results into pressure
build up.
In addition, the change in angular
momentum of liquid during its flow
results into increase in pressure head.

Classification of centrifugal pump:Based on working head :

Based on the range of working head the
pump are classified as :
1. Low head pumps (up to a head of 15m).
Usually these pumps do not have guide vanes.
2. Medium head pumps (15m to 40m head).
These pump usually provided with guide vanes.
3. High head pumps (>40m head). These are
multistage pumps since a single impeller pump
cannot build a pressure more than 40m head.

Based on type of casing:

The shape of casing is designed so as to reduce the loss of
kinetic head to minimum. Based on the shape of casing used,
the pumps are classified as:
1.Volute pump:
As shown in fig. a volute pump or
constant velocity pump is there.
the cross section is so designed to give
a constant velocity in volute of spiral
In such case a volute casing the loss of
energy is considerably reduce compared
to circular casing.
However, the conversion of kinetic
energy into pressure energy is not
possible. Due to this, efficiency of pump
increases slightly.

(b) Vortex pump:

An improvement of design of Volute pump is as
shown in fig.
In annular space called vortex chamber there is a
free vortex in which the velocity of flow of liquid falls
as it passes into this chamber from impeller outlet to
entry of volute passage.
Due to decrease in velocity the pressure increases
radially from centre outwards.
The drawbacks of this arrangement is that to get
an efficient chamber the dimensions became excessive
and the pump becomes bulky and expensive.

(c) Diffuser pump:Fig. shows a diffuser or turbine pump which is

similar to the vortex volute pump, but a diffuser
ring with guide vanes is fixed in annular space.
Functions of guide vanes is to guide the liquid
leaving the impeller in streamlined diverging
passages into the volute chamber from where it
flows to delivery pipe.
In case, of multistage pumps the liquid from
volute chamber flows into the eye of impeller of
the next stage pump and the final stage volute
discharges into delivery pipe.
The guide vane passage so formed have an
increasing cross sectional area which reduces the
velocity of flow. Hence, the partial kinetic energy
of the liquid is converted into pressure energy.

Based on liquid handled :

Depending on the type and viscosity to be handled, a pump
uses three types of impellers, accordingly the pumps are
classified as follows:
1. Shrouded or enclosed impeller :
The plates on entry side is called crown plate and the plate or
shaft side is called base plate.
This arrangement provides better guidance for liquid to flow and
prevents leaking of liquid from blade tips from one passage to another
passage with high efficiency.
(b) Semi open impeller :
These impellers have a plate only on back side called based plate.
Such an arrangement helps in dealing liquids mixed with fibrous
(c) Open impeller :
These type of impeller do not have cover plate on either side of
vanes. Therefore, the vanes of an open impeller are open from both side.

Based on relative direction of flow through impeller :

Based on the direction of flow of liquid through the
impeller the pumps are classified as :
(a) Radial flow pump:
Most of the centrifugal pumps are radial flow type in
which the liquid flow in impeller in radial direction only.
In this type of impeller the liquid enters at the center of
impeller axially and then it flows radially over impeller blades
upon outer periphery.
(b) Mixed flow pump:
It is the modification of radial flow impeller in which the
flow is the combination of axial and radial flow and the impeller
resembles the propeller of a ship.
(c) Axial flow pump:
In axial flow pump the direction of flow of liquid through
its impeller is in the axial direction only from inlet to exit.

Based on number of entrances to impeller :

The centrifugal pumps based on numbers of
entrances to the impeller can be classified as
(a)Single entry impeller:
in this pump the liquid enters only from one
side into the impeller from suction pipe. This is also
called as single suction pump.
(b) Double entry pump:
In these pump entry to impeller is from both
sides of impeller. In such pumps the axial thrust is
negligible. They are also called double suction pumps.

Based on numbers of impeller per shaft :

Based on number of impellers used per
shaft the pumps are classified as:
(a) Single stage pump:
It has one impeller and it is suitable for heads
up to 40m.
(b) Multistage pump:
These pumps uses two or more numbers of
impellers in series depending upon the head
requirements. In these pumps the discharge of one
pump from casing enters into the eye of impeller of
the next pump in series.

Based on shaft position :

Based on shaft position, the pump can be
classified as :
(a) Horizontal shaft pump:
Usually the centrifugal pumps are with
horizontal shaft.
(b) Vertical shaft pump:
These pumps are designed for specific
applications and to save space.