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Title:

ECV 3213 Geomatic Engineering

Assignment
Subject Name and Code: Geomatic Engineering
(ECV3213)

Lecturer:

IR Foo

Due Date:

10/11/13

Submission Date:

10/11/13

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Table of Contents
How to overcome the obstructions to horizontal distance measurement (using tape) give 3 examples and
solution......................................................................................................................... 3
Instrument used............................................................................................................ 3
Procedure................................................................................................................ 5
Taping Over Level Ground........................................................................................... 5
Errors in Taping........................................................................................................ 6

Permanent tests and adjustments for accuracy in theodolite collimation in


Azimuth, Spire and plate level tests......................................................................7
1. Temporary Adjustments.............................................................................................. 7
2 - Permanent Adjustments.............................................................................................. 8
Collimation in Azimuth Test..................................................................................... 9
Plate level Test..................................................................................................... 9
Spire test............................................................................................................... 10

Digital Terrain Models & Digital Elevation Models.....................................................11


Methods for Obtaining Elevation Data Used to Produce Digital Terrain Models.....11
Digital Terrain Model Applications.........................................................................12
Description of instruments:................................................................................... 13
Checking the alteration of the Auto plumb............................................................14
Applications........................................................................................................... 14

References................................................................................................................ 16

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How to overcome the obstructions to horizontal distance measurement (using tape) give 3
examples and solution

Taping also known as chaining is useful to measure with a tape made of steel or artificial tape
usually made from plastic or fiberglass.
All tapes are fixed in length which is of 100 m, 50m, 30 m, and 20 m.
It is the most common used of measurement as it is a quick, easy and cheap method.
Taping is a method with lots of errors and mistakes. To get a high accuracy; steel tape are
graduated in mm and are calibrated under standard temperature of 20 degree and tension of 5kg.
Synthetic tape is exceptionally graduated in 10mm.
Instrument used
Measuring wheels: it is ideal to measure flat surfaces
such as streets, roads and highways. The measuring
wheel has a solid structure that makes it strong to
opposing weather conditions and other bad
environmental conditions. It automatically measures
up to 9999.9 meters.

- Measures only horizontal surfaces


- it is embedded with an automatic precision counter
- it has a very light weight
- Robust
-- If the wheel is moved frontward, it will increment, if rearward, it will deduct
- Automatic counter to 9999.9 m
- Embedded holders

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Tapes:
There are mainly 2 types of tapes used:
Steel tape

Steel tape measures are the most vital surveying equipment.

The measurements from steel tapes are categorized by their


unlimited resistance.

It is made of toughened and refined steel which are 13 mm wide.

One side has the cm-graduation printed (mm-graduation is printed on the


first 10 cm of the tape).

It is very easy to use

Artificial tape:

It has a shock proof flexible casing with a folding twisting handle


It has a width of 12mm.
It contains a PVC coated fiber glass
It is resistant to water and grease

Range Poles
Range poles are used to see long distance points and for lining up worker holding the tape
in a way to keep going in the correct way.

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Plumb Bobs
Plumb Bobs are fabricated of bronze and weight from 8 to 16 oz.
They have sharp disposable points and a hole at the top to which
the strings may be tied to the plumb bob.

Taping Pins
Taping pins are used to mark the ends of tapes at middle points while measuring the distance.

Procedure
Taping Over Level Ground
If taping is done on a smooth and level ground where there is a very little amount of underbrush,
the tape can be held on the ground itself to do the recording of data.
The front tape-person gives 1 taping pin with the back tape-person for some counting purposes
and to mark the starting point (if necessary). The front tape-person takes the zero end and walks
toward the other end.
As soon as the 30 m end of the tape reaches the back tape person; the back tape person calls to
stop the front tape-person. The back tape-person grips the 30 m mark at the first point and line up
the front tape-person (using hand signals) to his satisfactory. The front tape-person pins this
point. The back tape-person picks up his taping pin and front towards the front tape-person who
will now the process for the next 30m (this process will be repeated after each 30m). When the
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end of the line is reached, the distance from the last taping pin to the end point will normally be a
fractional part of the tape. This fractional distance is measured and added to the number of 30 m
lengths measured previously to give the final horizontal distance.

Errors in Taping
1. Alignment of tape the tape should be aligned on the line.
2. Tapes not horizontal if the tape is not held in the level position, an error may occur, which
will cause the surveyor to obtain distances that are too big.
3. Miscellaneous errors
a) Wind blowing plumb bobs.
b) Wind blowing tape to one side
c) Taping pins not set precisely where plumb bobs hit the ground.
4. Tape not calibrated, i.e., not exactly 30.000 m because of imperfect manufacture, stretching or
wear.
5. Temperature effects. Tapes are calibrated at 20 C. Steel tapes will expand and contract with
temperature changes.

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Permanent tests and adjustments for accuracy in


theodolite collimation in Azimuth, Spire and plate
level tests

The theodolite is a helpful tool used by the surveyors. The instrument is capable of finding both
perpendicular and flat angles, and when is combined with technical studies, it can also calculate
the horizontal distances and a differentiation elevations.

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What is an Adjustment?
Adjustment of a theodolite may be defined as the process of tightening or releasing of
transportable parts to prepare the instrument for accurate dimension.
The adjustments of a theodolite are of two kinds:1. Temporary Adjustments.
Temporary adjustments are essential for each setting up of the instrument and consist of
following:
a Centering: This is to center the apparatus precisely over the ground station which is specified
by optical plummet.

b - Leveling
It is to position the flat and upright axes in their place. It is directed by the central position of
plate level.
c - Removal of parallax
That is to bring the cross hairs and the objective in focus instantaneously

2 - Permanent Adjustments
These are to be tested at the beginning of a main development. The field party is expected only to
perform the test and adjustment, if it is required, it will be done by the trained employees for this
purpose in a workshop.
Permanent Adjustments for a theodolite have discussed below:
a - Plate level Adjustment
Its determination is that the bubble should remain central in all positions after the adjustment.
b - Horizontal axis Adjustment
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Its purpose is that the horizontal axis should remain horizontal after the instrument has been
cautiously leveled.
c - Line of collimation Adjustment
The line of collimation must pass through the point of intersection of cross hairs and optical
center of the object glass and line joining the intersection of cross hairs.

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Collimation in Azimuth Test


The instrument is fixed and leveled at a point O on an open field so as to have a free view for
about 90m on each side of the instrument.

The telescope (in normal position) is directed so as to bisect a mark say A at about 60m

from the apparatus.


The telescope is then reversed and a point B is set. If the apparatus is in adjustment, the
points A, O and B will be in the same line. But, assume that the line of sight makes an
angle 90 degree e instead of 90 degree with the plane axis, e being the error in
adjustment as shown with dotted lines in face left and face right positions in the figure
below. In the face left position the instrument will create a mark B1, whereas in face right

position, a mark B2 will be created.


The resultant error in the instrument is 4e.

Plate level Test

When in perfect adjustment, the plate bubbles once centered remain central for all positions of
the horizontal plate. If either or both the bubbles are not in the center of their run, then an
adjustment is required.

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The instrument is leveled. The telescope is rotated through 180 degree. If the bubble runs out of
the center, the adjustment is not in order. If it is so, count the number of graduations on the
bubble, tube by which the bubble has run out of its center.

Spire test
The theodolite is mounted and cautiously leveled at about 50m from a high building.30degrees is
the minimum vertical angle through which a point A on the building is bisected. Once the
telescope is dropped, a point B is fixed close to the ground. The surface is changed and point A is
sighted again. Then, the telescope is depressed. The ground point previously marked vertically
below the point A is where the line of sight will fall if the instrument is in adjustment. If this is
not the case, then another point B2 is fixed up adjacent to the ground (refer to the diagram
below). If the error in adjustment is found to be e, then B1 B2 will be of the same value as 2e.

Advantages
It does not occupy much space and has a negligible weight

A theodolite is also much more compressible and light. This makes it portable not only
from job to job, but also to travel around to make measurements. If widespread
measuring is to be done, it saves time to complete the work. When dealing with angles,
the ease of manipulating the machine can disturb the result of the measurements. This
also adds to the accuracy of the machine.

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Digital Terrain Models & Digital Elevation Models

Digital terrain models (DTMs), usually mentioned as digital elevation models (DEMs) are
essentially the same; a numerical illustration of ground surface landscape or terrain. There exist a
number of ways to set up digital terrain models; however, remote sensing is most desirably used
as compared to direct survey to obtain the latter. Aerial photography, also known as
photogrammetry, is another potential method for representing digital terrain models.
The measurement of accuracy of elevation at each point (also called absolute accuracy) as well
as that of the morphology displayed (also called relative accuracy) reflects the quality of a digital
terrain model which is derived by photogrammetry. Various aspects play a significant part for
excellence in DTM-derived products:

Expert operators who are skilled and qualified

Irregularities in the land surface

Sampling density (elevation data collection method)

Scanning

Grid resolution or pixel size

Vertical resolution

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Methods for Obtaining Elevation Data Used to Produce Digital


Terrain Models
Various techniques are used by Survey Graphics to gain elevation data, applied in creating digital
terrain models:

Real Time Kinematic GPS

Stereo photogrammetry

LIDAR

Theodolite or total station

Doppler radar

Focus variation

Inertial surveys

Digital Terrain Model Applications


Common procedures of digital terrain models consist of:

Removing land boundaries

Building up water flow or mass movement (for example avalanches and landslides)

Formation of aid maps

Interpretation of 3D visualizations

Construction of physical models (including raised-relief maps)

Reorganization of aerial photography or satellite imagery

Drop (terrain correction) of gravity measurements (gravimetry, physical geodesy)

Topography investigation in geomorphology and physical geography


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Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Engineering and infrastructure design

Global positioning systems (GPS)

Line-of-sight analysis

Base mapping, flight simulation or surface analysis

Precision farming and forestry

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS)

Auto safety / Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)

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Description of instruments:
(i) Two telescopes make up the instrument. The one at the top is an upward sighting telescope
and the one below is an optical plummet, used for focusing the instrument in the required
direction.
The line of vision through the top telescope is deflected from the horizontal, through 90 degrees
by a pentagonal prism. A micrometer knob positioned above the instrument controls the rotation
of the prism. To guarantee that the line of view is completely flat before being deflected up,
automatic compensator is used.

(ii)The micrometer knob is distributed into 100 partitions and the barrel bears a graduation of 8
to 12. A micrometer setting of 10.00 should give a perpendicular line of prospect if the tool is in
correction. One revolution of Micrometer will revolve the prism through an angle, the tangent of
which is 0.001, that is, 3.5 minutes. Therefore, one division on the micrometer will coincide to
an angle whose tangent is 0.00001, that is, 2 seconds.
iv) The Auto plumb is built-in on to a traverse base with a gliding head, and is similar to traverse
targets or a theodolite. The instrument is focused over a spot and evened out in the similarly as a
conventional theodolite. The downward sighting telescope is the visual plummet and, since it
does not comprise of a compensator, its accuracy relies on the leveling of the instrument.
v) The device can be resolved through angles of 90 degrees by the spring loaded pawl engaging
the indentations on the silver ring.
(a)

Technique of manipulation:

(i) the apparatus is mounted above a station and leveled in the same way as a theodolite.
(ii) The micrometer is adjusted at 10.00, situating the line of vision vertical.
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(iii) Detection through the top telescope determines the ends of the distinct crosshair against
certain objectives set up straight overhead. A line is drawn.
(iv) The apparatus is revolved through 90 degrees and the process is done over again.
(v) The crossing of the line formed is a point, right overhead the ground mark.

Checking the alteration of the Auto plumb


(i) the apparatus is fixed up and leveled in the typical way and the micrometer adjusted to 10.00.
(ii) Spotting through the top telescope mark an objective attached right above as earlier.
(iii) The apparatus is rotated through 180 degrees and the line previously formed overhead is
sighted on. The coincidence of the two lines reflects the adjustment in the apparatus.

(iv) A humbler method is to establish a micrometer reading of 10.00 and to vision up on all four
surfaces. If the apparatus is out of modification then the formed lines would be as described
below and it is simple to control the center of the square created.

Applications
The Auto plumb can be utilized for relocating grid points perpendicularly up or down, or for
inspection of the verticality of a prevailing construction.

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(i)Vertical control of a structure during construction


Once the ground floor slab is decanted, comparative to the structured grid, a subordinate setting
out grid should be set up.
Plumbing points should be marked in comparison with this secondary grid and in locations
which facilitate inspection. If purpose-made openings are not acceptable, then sight lines can be
prepared in lift shafts, service apertures, etc.
For the allocation of the grid from floor to floor, the Auto plumb is mounted over every
plumbing point in turn and the point moved as described earlier (b). Plywood flooring or alike
can be used straight up if the construction is of strengthened concrete. The plumbed point could
be relocated through by hitting a nail exactly over the formwork
Theodolite and tape are used to check the plumbing points thus relocated. The secondary grid
can be built out from them if there is satisfaction.
Allocation of the grid to further bases overhead it will be essential to leave holes in the floor
slab usually 150-200 mm square. Precaution should be taken to shield the holes with steel
cover to avoid mishaps when not in usage.
This technique may not be applied in every condition but the elementary ideologies of relocating
and inspecting grids should be followed.
(ii) To inspect the verticality of a current construction
the adjacent to surface to be tested is fixed up.
The offset scale interacting with the structures surface and site is positioned so as to be
analyzed through the down sighting telescope. A scale reading S1 is noted down.

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The micrometer drum is fixed up to produce a vertical plane sight for the offset scale on higher
surface of construction. A reading S2 is then noted down.
The inaccuracy in plumb of that surface is represented by the subtraction of S1-S2.
A method of inspecting the verticality using a plumb bob is shown in the diagram below:

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References

http://books.google.com.my/books?
id=NYUEeDJcVbEC&pg=PA138&lpg=PA138&dq=collimation+in+azimuth+te
st++surveying&source=bl&ots=e76sFiX0nJ&sig=8mvaanPLBYUFva1FB06DV4pg8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zAiAUtzIOMK4rgfY0IHoAg&redir_esc=y#v=twopage&
q=collimation%20in%20azimuth%20test%20%20surveying&f=true
extracted on the 8/11/13

http://www.ehow.com/list_7485333_advantagestheodolite.html#ixzz2kHvlwdDd extracted on the 8/11/13

http://www.surveygraphics.com.au/dtm-dem extracted on the 8/11/13

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