300828 Physics 1 Examples of Quiz Questions and Past Exam Papers with Solutions
This document contains:
1. A brief discussion about how to study physics
2. An example of all questions in the quiz banks for the four online assessable quizzes with solutions or suggestions as to how to solve them.
3. A sample Data Analysis Test which you will complete in your final laboratory class.
4. Exam papers from the last five years with solutions for the written questions and answers for the multiple choice questions
1
Contents
How to Study Physics 
4 
Examples of Multiple Choice Questions for Part A 
6 
Pass level questions on SI prefixes and Units Conversion 
6 
Advanced level questions on SI prefixes and Units Conversion 
7 
Advanced level questions on rounding off of calculated values and units 
8 
Pass level questions for introductory kinematics (Part 
9 
Advanced level questions for introductory kinematics (Part 
14 
Advanced questions on vector representation in kinematics (Part A) 
18 
Examples of Multiple Choice Questions for Part B
22
Pass level questions on calculating forces involving weight, acceleration and 
22 
Advanced level Questions in Dynamics for Part B 
28 
Pass level questions on Work and Kinetic 
33 
Advanced level Questions on Work, Energy and Power for Part B 
36 
Pass level questions on Momentum and Impulse for Part B 
40 
Examples of Multiple Choice Questions for Part C
44
Pass level questions on DC electricity, resistance and Ohm’s 
44 
Advanced level questions on electric fields, electrical potential and forces involving charges 
50 
Pass level questions on capacitance and storage of charge an energy 
52 
Advanced level questions on charging and discharging in resistorcapacitor 
53 
Pass level questions on magnetic fields and electric 
55 
Advanced level questions on magnetic fields and electric 
57 
Examples of Multiple Choice Questions for Part D
61
Advanced level questions on induced EMF and Faraday’s Law 
61 
Advanced level questions on inductance and resistorinductor circuits 
63 
Pass level questions on reactance, impedance, resonance and AC circuits 
65 
Pass level questions on wave motion 
68 
2
Pass level questions on refraction and refractive
69
Advanced level questions on refraction and refractive index 
71 
Pass level questions on lenses and image 
75 
Advanced level questions on lenses and image formation 
77 
Pass level questions diffraction of light by narrow slits and diffraction 
79 
Sample Data Analysis Test
Sample Data Analysis Test ANSWERS
2011 Exam Paper
86
91
97
2011 
Exam Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 
115 
2011 
Exam Solutions for Written Questions 
116 
2012 Exam Paper 
125 

2012 
Exam Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 
143 
2012 
Exam Solutions for Written Questions 
144 
2013 Exam Paper 
153 

2013 
Exam Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 
171 
2013 
Exam Solutions for Written Questions 
172 
2014 Exam Paper
180
2014 
Exam Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 
198 
2014 
Exam Solutions for Written Questions 
199 
2015 Exam Paper 
207 

2015 
Exam Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 
225 
2015 
Exam Solutions for Written Questions 
226 
3
How to Study Physics
You cannot learn physics by just listening to lectures or reading a text book in the same way that you cannot learn to play a piano by just reading a book on the subject. You need to practice solving physics problems. The more you practice the more you learn and the quicker you get at solving problems. By solving many problems you will begin to understand and appreciate the various ways that physical situations can me mathematically modelled and solved.
In this document a number of problems with solutions are given.
On the vUWS web site there are a number of practice tests containing multiple choice questions. After attempting these tests you can then look at your submissions and also see descriptions of how to solve them. This provides good practice at solving a range of questions in a limited time.
Additional problems from the text book for self study are suggested at the end of each set of lecture slides. Lectures are used to present the significant points of each topic but the challenge of a university education is to learn how to teach yourself. This is why a good text book is prescribed for this subject.
The best way to use the text book to do this is to start by looking at the example problems for each lecture to find out what sort of problems you will be expected to be able to solve. Depending on your previous experience, you may:
Know how to do the problems. Students who have studied 2 unit physics for the HSC can probably do this for many simpler problems, particularly in the first part of the subject. Be aware that some formulae will appear different from what you have previously learned (eg in HSC physics you may have written s = ut + ½at ^{2} whereas we use x = x _{0} + v _{0} t + ½at ^{2} ). Work through the problems for practice. You may think you know how to do them but you need to be sure of this. Make sure that you also read the relevant sections and look over the examples in the text.
Have some idea how to do the problems. If this is the case then work through the relevant examples given in the text book for practice and then reattempt the problems. You should also read the relevant sections of the text.
Have no idea how to solve the problems. In this case you should try to solve one
problem at a time. Read the relevant lecture notes and section of the text book and work through any relevant examples. The way to "read" a physics text book is to have a pen and piece of paper with you to sketch diagrams, write out equations and work through the theory as it is discussed. This helps you to identify the meanings of the symbols used. You should also try to fill in any missing lines of working between equations. For example as part of a derivation the text may say
" we can obtain an expression that does not contain time by substituting the
value of t from equation 3.7 into equation 3.9. This gives
should actually work through this derivation on your sheet of paper. Once you understand enough to solve one problem then do so. You can then move on to the next problem.
equation 3.11]". You
4
Note the order of events
First read the problem,
then look at the examples
then read the text.
It is an advantage to work through problems with one or two other students. Not only may other students help you but the process of explaining how to do a problem to someone else reinforces your own understanding. One of the best ways to learn is to teach!
5
Examples of Multiple Choice Questions for Part A
Pass level questions on SI prefixes and Units Conversion
The unit of power is the Watt, symbol W. 153.2 μW is equivalent to:
a. 1.532×10 ^{−}^{7} W
b. 1.532×10 ^{−}^{1} W
c. 1.532×10 ^{−}^{4} W
d. 1.532×10 ^{−}^{3} W
e. 1.532×10 ^{−}^{5} W
Answer: 153.2 μW = 153.2×10 ^{−}^{6} W = 1.532×10 ^{−}^{4} W. SI prefixes can be found inside the front cover and also in table 1.4 of the text.
The unit of energy is the Joule, symbol J. 5.792×10 ^{7} J is equivalent to:
a. 57.92 MJ
b. 579.2 MJ
c. 5.792 MJ
d. 5.792 GJ
e. 57.92 GJ
Answer: 5.792×10 ^{7} J = 57.92×10 ^{6} J = 57.92 MJ.
An imperial unit of length is the mile, abbreviation mi. 1 mi=1609 m and 1 hr=3600s. An old car has a maximum speed in 1 ^{s}^{t} gear of 6.0 mi.hr ^{−}^{1} , converted to m.s ^{−}^{1} this is nearest to:
a. 34.7 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 13.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 0.37 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 2.68 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 0.074 m.s ^{−}^{1}
m
s
6
An imperial unit of mass is the ounce, abbreviation oz. During 1975 the price of gold was quoted as US$172 per oz. At that time the exchange rate was A$1.00=US$1.32. Given 1.0000 oz = 0.02835 kg, the price of gold in A$.kg ^{−}^{1} at that time was nearest to:
a. A$4596 per kg
b. A$6067 per kg
c. A$8008 per kg
d. A$6437 per kg
e. A$3694 per kg
Answer:
A $
kg
An old unit of length is the foot, abbreviation ft. The flow rate of a glacier in some old records was recorded as 3.25 ft.yr ^{−}^{1} . 1 ft = 0.3048 m and 1 yr = 3.156×10 ^{7} s. Converted to m.s ^{−}^{1} the flow rate of this glacier would be nearest to:
a. 5.20x10 ^{−}^{8} m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 3.38x10 ^{−}^{7} m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 1.03x10 ^{−}^{7} m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 2.97x10 ^{−}^{9} m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 3.14x10 ^{−}^{8} m.s ^{−}^{1}
8
m
s
Advanced level questions on SI prefixes and Units Conversion
An imperial unit of mass is the ounce, abbreviation oz, and an imperial unit of length is the inch, abbreviation in. 1 oz = 0.02835 kg and 1 in = 0.0254 m. In an old book the density of an alloy is given as 4.75 oz.in ^{−}^{3} . Converted to SI units this is nearest to:
a. 208.7 kg.m ^{−}^{3}
b. 5.302 kg.m ^{−}^{3}
c. 5295 kg.m ^{−}^{3}
d. 5302 kg.m ^{−}^{3}
e. 8218 kg.m ^{−}^{3}
An imperial unit of length is the yard, abbreviation yd. 1 yd=0.9144 m and 1 min=60s. In some old records the flow rate of a river is described as 3800 yd ^{3} .min ^{−}^{1} . Expressed in SI units this is nearest to:
a. 58 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
b. 53 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
c. 21 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
d. 48 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
e. 69 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
Answer
7
An imperial unit of length is the foot, abbreviation ft. 1 ft =0.3048 m and 1 day = 86400 s. Gas production from an oil well is described as 2 300 000 ft ^{3} .day ^{−}^{1} . Expressed in SI units this is nearest to:
a. 0.75 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
b. 2.47 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
c. 8.11 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
d. 45.2 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
e. 60.6 m ^{3} .s ^{−}^{1}
Answer:
2300000
Advanced level questions on rounding off of calculated values and units.
If v = (21.4 ± 1.8) m.s ^{−}^{1} and t = (6.2 ± 0.7) s then the distance travelled by a particle starting from rest x = vt is correctly expressed with its precision as:
a. (132.7 ± 1.3) m
b. (132.7 ± 2.5) m
c. (133 ± 26) m
d. (132.68 ± 0.20) m
e. (133 ± 11) m
Answer:
xvt xvt
x
x
vt
vt
132.68
1.8
0.7
21.4
6.2
26.14
m
The uncertainty should then be rounded to 2 significant figures, because the leading digit is 3 or less, and the value rounded to match giving
x = (133 ± 26) m.
See pages 6 to 9 of the lab manual for further examples of calculation of
uncertainties.
If x = (21.4 ± 1.8) m.s ^{−}^{1} and t = (6.2 ± 0.7) s then the velocity of a particle starting from rest v = x/t is correctly expressed with its precision as:
a. (3.5 ± 1.3) m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. (3.5 ± 2.5) m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. (3.5 ± 0.7) m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. (3.45 ± 0.20) m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. (3.45 ± 0.29) m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer:
vxt
v
v
xt
v
xt
xt
3.452
1.8
0.7
21.4
6.2
0.680
1
ms .
The uncertainty should then be rounded to 1 significant figure, because the leading digit is 4 or greater, and the value rounded to match giving
v = (3.5 ± 0.7) m.s ^{−}^{1} .
The length of the side of a cube is x = (8.3 ± 0.3) cm. The volume of the cube V = x ^{3} is correctly expressed with its precision as:
a. (570 ± 60) cm ^{3}
b. (571 ± 21) cm ^{3}
8
c.
(571.8 ± 0.9) cm ^{3}
d. (570 ± 40) cm ^{3}
e. (570 ± 70) cm ^{3}
Answer:
The uncertainty should then be rounded to 1 significant figure, because the leading
digit is 4 or greater, and the value rounded to match giving
Vx
3
Vx
3
V
x
x
3 
571.79 

0.3 

62.00 
cm 
3 
8.3 
V
V = (570 ± 60) cm ^{3} .
Pass level questions for introductory kinematics (Part A).
0.10 s after the start of a race a sprinter's speed is 1.25 m.s ^{−}^{1} . 0.90 s after the start the speed is now 6.50 m.s ^{−}^{1} . The average acceleration during this interval is nearest to:
a. 5.3 m.s ^{−}^{2}
b. 12.5 m.s ^{−}^{2}
c. 7.2 m.s ^{−}^{2}
d. 9.7 m.s ^{−}^{2}
e. 6.6 m.s ^{−}^{2}
Answer:
average acceleration=
change in velocity
.
change in time
a
v
v 
2 
v 
1 

6.50 

1.25 

tt 2 
1 
0.90 

0.10 
t
6.6
ms
.
2
On a car trip the odometer shows a distance of 25 km 0.50 hours after the start of the journey. The odometer then shows 140 km 2.00 hours after the start. The average speed between these two measurements is nearest to:
a. 46 km.hr ^{−}^{1}
b. 50 km.hr ^{−}^{1}
c. 70 km.hr ^{−}^{1}
d. 77 km.hr ^{−}^{1}
e. 110 km.hr ^{−}^{1}
Answer:
average speed=
change in position
.
change in time
v
x
x 
2 
x 
1 

140 

25 

tt 2 
1 
2.00 

0.50 
t
77
km hr
.
1
A car is travelling at 22 m.s ^{−}^{1} (approx 79 kph). The car is travelling towards a set of traffic lights and 85 m from the lights the driver glances at a mobile phone for 2.50 s. When the driver looks back to the road ahead the distance to the traffic lights will now be nearest to:
a. 76 m
b. 55 m
c. 140 m
d. 44 m
e. 30 m
Answer: First calculate how far the driver travels while distracted
22
x vt
2.50 55 m
then calculate the distance left to the traffic lights
d = 85 – 55 = 30 m.
9
A sports car accelerates from rest with an average acceleration of 3.2 m.s ^{−}^{2} for 4.6 s. The average velocity of the car during this time is nearest to:
a. 0.7 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 14.7 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 7.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 29.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 33.9 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: This First calculate the distance covered by the car
x x v t at 0 0 0.5 3.2 4.6 33.86 m
0
0
_{2}
1
2
2
then calculate average velocity
x 
33.86 
1 

7.36 


v 

ms . 


t 
4.6 
7.4
ms
.
1
An aircraft touches down on a runway at 75 m.s ^{−}^{1} and immediately begins to brake with a deceleration of 3.2 m.s ^{−}^{2} . 15 s after touchdown its velocity will be nearest to:
a. 123 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 27 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 48 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 75 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 16 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer:
There are three basic equations of uniformly accelerated straight line motion.
x
v
2
v
v
x
0
v
0
2
0
v t
0
at
2
ax
1 2 at
x
2
0
In this question you are given v _{0} = 75 m.s ^{−}^{1} , a = −3.2 m.s ^{−}^{2} (note the negative sign, deceleration) and t = 15 s. Choose the appropriate equation and calculate v. (27 m.s ^{−}^{1} )
An aircraft touches down on a runway at 77 m.s ^{−}^{1} and immediately begins to brake with a deceleration of 2.9 m.s ^{−}^{2} . 7.5 s after touchdown the distance it has travelled down the runway will be nearest to:
a. 659 m
b. 496 m
c. 82 m
d. 159 m
e. 578 m
Answer:
See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above. In this question you are given v _{0} = 77 m.s ^{−}^{1} , a = −2.9 m.s ^{−}^{2} (note the negative sign, deceleration) and t = 7.5 s. You assume x _{0} = 0 m at the touchdown point. Choose
the appropriate equation and calculate x. (496 m)
10
An aircraft touches down on a runway at 73 m.s ^{−}^{1} and immediately begins to brake with a
deceleration of 3.9 m.s ^{−}^{2} . After it has travelled a distance of 440 m from the point of touchdown its velocity will be nearest to:
a. 44 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 94 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 59 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 14 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 69 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer:
There are three basic equations of uniformly accelerated straight line motion.
x
v
2
v
v
x
0
v
0
2
0
v t
0
at
2
ax
1 2 at
x
2
0
In this question you are given v _{0} = 77 m.s ^{−}^{1} , a = −3.9 m.s ^{−}^{2} (note the negative sign, deceleration) and x = 440 m. You assume x _{0} = 0 m at the touchdown point. Choose the appropriate equation and calculate v ^{2} , then remember to take the square root to get v.( 44 m.s ^{−}^{1} )
A car can accelerate at 2.1 m.s ^{−}^{2} . It is initially travelling at 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} when it passes through an intersection and it then accelerates for 3.5 s. The distance of the car from the intersection at the end of this time is nearest to:
a. 69 m
b. 56 m
c. 13 m
d. 43 m
e. 82 m
Answer:
See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above. In this question you are given a = 2.1 m.s ^{−}^{2} , v _{0} = 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} , and t = 3.5 s. You
assume x _{0} = 0 m at the intersection. Choose the appropriate equation and calculate x. (69 m)
A car can accelerate at 2.1 m.s ^{−}^{2} . It is initially travelling at 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} when it passes
through an intersection and it then accelerates for 3.5 s. The velocity of the car at the end
of this time is nearest to:
a. 21.6 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 7.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 8.7 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 28.9 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 23.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above. In this question you are given a = 2.1 m.s ^{−}^{2} , v _{0} = 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} , and t = 3.5 s. Choose
the appropriate equation and calculate v. (23.4 m.s ^{−}^{1} )
11
A freight train accelerates at a constant rate from rest and covers a distance of 150 m in 44 s. The acceleration of the train is nearest to:
a. 1.705 m.s ^{−}^{2}
b. 3.409 m.s ^{−}^{2}
c. 0.039 m.s ^{−}^{2}
d. 0.155 m.s ^{−}^{2}
e. 6.453 m.s ^{−}^{2}
Answer:
There are three basic equations of uniformly accelerated straight line motion.
x
v
2
v
v
x
0
v
0
2
0
v t
0
at
2
ax
1 2 at
x
2
0
Here you are given v _{0} = 0 m.s ^{−}^{1} as the train starts from rest, x = 150 m and
t = 44 s. You can also assume x _{0} = 0 m. You are asked to find a so choose the equation containing x, x _{0} , v _{0} , a and t, substitute in the values you know and rearrange it to make a the subject then calculate a. (0.155 m.s ^{−}^{2} )
A freight train accelerates at a constant rate from rest and reaches a velocity of 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} after covering a distance of 120 m. The acceleration of the train is nearest to:
a. 2.133 m.s ^{−}^{2}
b. 7.500 m.s ^{−}^{2}
c. 0.008 m.s ^{−}^{2}
d. 1.067 m.s ^{−}^{2}
e. 0.133 m.s ^{−}^{2}
Answer: See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above. Here you are given v _{0} = 0 m.s ^{−}^{1} , the train starts from rest, v = 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} and
x = 120 m. You can also assume x _{0} = 0 m. You are asked to find a so choose the
equation containing v, v _{0} , x, x _{0} and a, substitute in the values you know and
rearrange it to make a the subject and calculate it. (1.067 m.s ^{−}^{2} )
12
The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} . A rock is thrown vertically downwards from the top of a 25 m high building and hits the ground with a velocity of 29 m.s ^{−}^{1} . The velocity with which the rock was thrown is nearest to:
a. 36.5 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 22.1 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 18.7 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 24.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 26.8 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above. Here you are given a = g = 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , x = 25 m and v = 29 m.s ^{−}^{1} and. You can also
assume x _{0} = 0 m at the top of the building. You are asked to find v _{0} so choose the equation containing v, v _{0} , x, x _{0} and a, substitute in the values you know and rearrange it to make v _{0} the subject. (18.7 m.s ^{−}^{1} )
The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} . A rock is thrown vertically downwards from the top of a 25 m high building and takes 1.9 s to reach the ground. The velocity with which the rock was thrown is nearest to:
a. 2.6 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 2.3 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 22.5 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 3.8 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 13.2 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: Start with one of the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated straight line motion.
x
v
2
v
v
x
0
v
0
2
0
v t
0
at
2
ax
1 2 at
x
2
0
Here you are given a = g = 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , x = 25 m and t = 1.9 s. You can also assume
x _{0} = 0 m at the top of the building. You are asked to find v _{0} so choose the equation
containing x, x
0,
v _{0} , t and a, substitute in the values you know and rearrange it to
make v _{0} the subject. (3.8 m.s ^{−}^{1} )
The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} . A rock is thrown vertically downwards from the top of a building with a velocity of 5.2 m.s ^{−}^{1} and strikes the ground with a velocity of 20.6 m.s ^{−}^{1} . The height of the building is nearest to:
a. 34.0 m
b. 23.0 m
c. 40.5 m
d. 12.1 m
e. 20.3 m
Answer: See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above. Here you are given a = g = 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , v _{0} = 5.2 m.s ^{−}^{1} and v = 20.6 m.s ^{−}^{1} . You can
also assume x _{0} = 0 m at the top of the building. You are asked to find x so choose the equation containing v, v _{0} , x, x _{0} and a, substitute in the values you know and rearrange it to make x the subject. (20.3 m)
13
A car is cruising at 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} when it begins to accelerate to overtake a truck. 5 s after
starting to accelerate it has covered a distance of 105 m. The acceleration of the car is nearest to:
a. 0.76 m.s ^{−}^{2}
b. 1.22 m.s ^{−}^{2}
c. 3.20 m.s ^{−}^{2}
d. 8.40 m.s ^{−}^{2}
e. 2.00 m.s ^{−}^{2}
Answer: See the three basic equations of uniformly accelerated motion above.
Here you are given v _{0} = 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} , t = 5 s and x = 105 m. You can also assume x _{0} = 0 m. You are asked to find a so choose the equation containing x, x _{0} , v _{0} , a and t, substitute in the values you know and rearrange it to make a the subject. (2.00 m.s ^{−}^{2} )
Advanced level questions for introductory kinematics (Part A).
A car has an initial speed of 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} when a truck rolls out of a driveway 15 m ahead of
it. The driver takes 0.35 s to react before applying the brakes and the car then skids a
deceleration of 8.0 m.s ^{−}^{2} before hitting the truck. The velocity of the car as it hits the truck
is nearest to:
a. 13.2 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 10.3 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 22.3 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 12.9 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 4.0 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: This is a multi step question. First calculate the distance the car goes at constant velocity while the driver reacts. This is just v _{0} t = 16x0.35 = 5.6 m. At the point the brakes are applied you now have x _{0} = 5.6 m, x = 15 m, v _{0} = 16 m.s ^{−}^{1} and a = −8.0 m.s ^{−}^{2} , note the negative sign
because it is decelerating. Using
2
v
v 2ax x
0
2
0
determine v. (10.3 m.s ^{−}^{1} )
A car has an initial speed of 15 m.s ^{−}^{1} when a truck rolls out of a driveway 18 m ahead of
it. The driver takes 0.35 s to react before applying the brakes. If the car is to just be able
to stop before hitting the truck the deceleration of the car will be nearest to:
a. 6.3 m.s ^{−}^{2}
b. 8.8 m.s ^{−}^{2}
c. 3.1 m.s ^{−}^{2}
d. 4.8 m.s ^{−}^{2}
e. 0.6 m.s ^{−}^{2}
Answer: This is a multi step question. First calculate the distance the car goes at constant velocity while the driver reacts. This is just v _{0} t = 15x0.35 = 5.25 m. At the point the brakes are applied you now have x _{0} = 5.25 m, x = 18 m, v _{0} = 15 m.s ^{−}^{1} and v = 0 m.s ^{−}^{2} , the final velocity is zero
because the car just stops. Using
2
v
v 2ax x
0
2
0
determine a. (8.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} )
14
A rock is dropped down a very deep mine shaft and the sound of it hitting the bottom is
heard 4.2 s later. If the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{1} and the speed of sound is
341 m.s ^{−}^{1} the depth of the mine shaft is nearest to:
a. 146 m
b. 86 m
c. 17 m
d. 81 m
e. 77 m
Answer: This is a multi−step problem. Assume the depth of the mine is x m. The time taken to fall down the mine is t _{1} and
is related to x by
The time taken for the sound to come back is t _{2} and is related to x by x v t
where v _{s} is the speed of sound. The total time of flight is t _{1} + t _{2} = 4.2 s. You now have to solve three equations with three unknowns, x, t _{1} and t _{2} . The
simplest method is to equate the first 2 equations to get
x
1
2
gt
2
1
.
s
2
1
2
gt
g
2
v
s
t
2
1
.
v t
s
2
2
12
t
At this point plug in the numbers and substitute into the 3 ^{r}^{d} equation which becomes a quadratic equation in t _{1} . Solve for t _{1} and use this result back into the first equation to calculate x. (77 m)
A rock is thrown vertically upwards with a velocity of 30 m.s ^{−}^{1} from the top of a 25 m high
building. When it falls back down it just misses the building and falls to the ground. The
acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s
−2
. The total time of flight of the rock is nearest to:
a. 5.13 s
b. 0.74 s
c. 6.87 s
d. 7.49 s
e. 6.12 s
Answer: There are several ways to do this problem. You could find the time taken to reach maximum height, then calculate this height and find the time taken to fall back to the ground, adding these two times gives the total time of flight. Alternatively, taking positive as upwards and setting the origin at the base of the building you are given v _{0} = 30 m.s ^{−}^{1} , x _{0} = 25 m, a = −9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , note the sign, and x
= 0, final position is the base of the building. Substitute these values into
x x
0
v t
0
1
2
at
2 . You can then solve the quadratic equation to find t. The positive
root is the correct result. (6.87 s)
15
A road train consists of a truck and 4 trailers and has a total length of 52 m. It is travelling
along a straight stretch of road at 30 m.s ^{−}^{1} (approx 108 kph) when a car travelling at 33 m.s ^{−}^{1} (119 kph) approaches from behind. The car pulls out to pass when it is 10 m behind the back of the road train and then pulls back in after passing it when it is 10 m in front of the road train. The total distance covered by the car while it is overtaking is nearest to:
a. 682 m
b. 72 m
c. 720 m
d. 792 m
e. 572 m
Answer: There are a couple of ways to solve this problem. One is to write the distance covered by the truck as x = v _{T} t = 30t. During this time the car has to travel
this distance plus the length of the road train plus an additional 20 m. I.e. x + 52 +20 = v _{C} t = 33t. This gives 2 equations and 2 unknowns. Solve for x, the distance travelled by the truck, but remember to add on the extra distance covered by the car. (792 m)
A 
ball is thrown with a velocity of 12 m.s ^{−}^{1} horizontally from the roof of a 17 m tall building. 
If 
the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , the distance from the base of the building 
where the ball hits the ground is nearest to:
a. 13.8 m
b. 41.6 m
c. 20.8 m
d. 12.9 m
e. 22.4 m
Answer: The initial vertical component of the velocity of the ball is zero so the simplest way to do this question is to firstly calculate the time taken for the ball to
fall a distance of 17 m (t = 1.863 s) and then calculate the distance travelled horizontally at 12 m.s ^{−}^{1} during this time (22.4 m)
A 
ball is thrown with a velocity of 12 m.s ^{−}^{1} horizontally from the roof of a 17 m tall building. 
If 
the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , the velocity of the ball when it hits the 
ground is nearest to:
a. 21.8 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 18.3 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 30.3 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 17.6 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 24.0 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: The initial vertical component of the velocity is zero so firstly calculate the
vertical component of the velocity after the ball has fallen 17 m(18.3 m.s ^{−}^{1} ) vertically downwards, and then calculate the magnitude of the total velocity as
v
21.8
ms
.
1
16
A soccer ball is kicked at an angle of 26° above the horizontal and it travels a distance of
38 m before hitting the ground. If air friction is ignored and the acceleration due to gravity
is taken as 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , the initial velocity of the ball is nearest to:
a. 20.6 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 47.3 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 24.5 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 17.1 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 21.7 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: There are several ways to do this problem. The simplest is to follow the working in example 3−8 of the text which derives a horizontal range formula
A soccer ball is kicked at an angle of 26° above the horizontal with an initial velocity of 17
m.s ^{−}^{1} . If air friction is ignored and the acceleration due to gravity is taken as 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} , the time of flight of the ball until it hits the ground is nearest to:
*a. 1.52 s
b. 0.76 s
c. 1.73 s
d. 3.47 s
e. 3.12 s Answer: There are several ways to do this problem. The simplest way is to first find the initial vertical component of the velocity of the ball
v
0
y
v
0
sin
17sin 26
7.452
ms
.
1
and then calculate how long it takes to reach
maximum height, i.e. how long for the vertical component of the velocity to slow to
zero
The total time of flight will be double this because the object then has to return to
the ground. t _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} = 2t = 1.52 s.
v
v
0 0
7.452
v
v
0
at
t
s
, note the sign of the acceleration.
a
9.8
0.760
17
Advanced questions on vector representation in kinematics (Part A)
A ship sails 54 km 35° West of North and then alters course and sails 71 km 55° South of
West. The magnitude of its displacement from the starting point is nearest to:
a. 125 km
b. 73 km
c. 17 km
d. 103 km
e. 63 km
Answer: This is a vector addition problem. You can do it by sketching the two vectors as shown below, calculating the angle θ between them and using the cosine rule to find the magnitude of the resultant R. Alternatively you can calculate the x and y components of each vector, add them to get the components of the resultant and then calculate the magnitude of the resultant. (73 km), See further examples in Lecture 3.
W W
N N
S S
E
E
A ship sails 54 km 42° West of North and then alters course and sails 71 km 31° South of
West. Its direction from the starting point is nearest to:
a. 17° East of South
b. 73° East of South
c. 88° West of North
d. 72° North of East
e. 82° West of North
Answer: This is also a vector addition problem. You can do it by sketching the two vectors as shown below, calculating the angle θ between them and using the cosine rule to find the magnitude of the resultant. You then need to use either the
sine or cosine rule to calculate the angle shown and use this together with the
direction of that vector to determine the direction of the resultant _{}_{.} (88° West of
North).
vector, add them to get the components of the resultant and then calculate the
angle of the resultant with the x axis using tan
Alternatively you can calculate the x and y components of each
R
y
R
x
_{.}
71 71
18
A ship sails 54 km 35° West of North and then drops its anchor. A second ship sails 71 km 55° South of West from the same starting position. The magnitude of the displacement between the ships is now nearest to:
a. 125 km
b. 103 km
c. 17 km
d. 73 km
e. 63 km
Answer: This is a vector subtraction problem. You can do it by sketching the two vectors, calculating the angle θ between them and using the cosine rule to find the magnitude of the distance D between their end points (103 km). Alternatively you can calculate the x and y components of each vector, subtract them to get the components of the resultant and then calculate the magnitude of the resultant.
D D
W W
N N
S S
E
E
The x component of a velocity is 15.2 m.s ^{−}^{1} and the y component is −13.3 m.s ^{−}^{1} . The velocity can also be described as:
a. 20.2 
−41.2° m.s ^{−}^{1} 
b. 20.2 
41.2° m.s ^{−}^{1} 
c. 20.2 
−48.8° m.s ^{−}^{1} 
d. 28.5 
−48.8° m.s ^{−}^{1} 
e. 28.5 
−61.0° m.s ^{−}^{1} 
Answer: The magnitude of the vector is given by
v
15.2
2
13.3
2
The direction is given by
tan
20.2
ms
.
v
y
v
x
1
tan
1
13.3
15.2
41.2
.
(20.2 −41.2° m.s ^{−}^{1} ). Pay particular attention to the sign of the x and y components to make sure that you get the quadrant of the answer correct.
19
A velocity is described in polar coordinates as 21.0 163° m.s ^{−}^{1} . The x and y components of this velocity are:
a. v _{x} = −6.1 m.s ^{−}^{1} , v _{y} = −20.1m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. v _{x} = 6.1 m.s ^{−}^{1} ,
c. v _{x} = 20.1 m.s ^{−}^{1} , v _{y} = −6.1 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. v _{x} = −6.1 m.s ^{−}^{1} ,
e. v _{x} = −20.1 m.s ^{−}^{1} , v _{y} = 6.1 m.s ^{−}^{1}
v _{y} = −20.1 m.s ^{−}^{1}
v _{y} = 20.1 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer: The components are given by
v
x
v
v
v
v
cos
sin
21.0cos 163
20.1
ms
.
21.0sin 163
6.1
ms
.
1
1
An aircraft is heading east at 133 m.s ^{−}^{1} relative to the air. The air is moving west at 42
m.s ^{−}^{1} relative to the ground. A car on a road below the aircraft is heading east at 28 m.s ^{−}^{1} relative to the ground. The magnitude of the velocity of the aircraft relative to the car is nearest to:
a. 63 m.s ^{−}^{1} east
b. 147 m.s ^{−}^{1} east
c. 119 m.s ^{−}^{1} east
d. 203 m.s ^{−}^{1} east
e. 105 m.s ^{−}^{1} east
Answer: This is a one dimensional vector problem involving relative velocities. The
velocity of the aircraft relative to the ground is given by
v
aircraft rel to ground
vv
aircraft rel to air
air
.
The velocity of the aircraft relative to the car is then given by
v
aircraft rel to car
v
aircraft rel to ground
v v
car
aircraft rel to air
vv
air
car
If we take east as the positive direction we can write
v
133
42
28
63
ms
.
1
. I.e. 63 m.s ^{−}^{1} east
aircraft rel to car
20
An aircraft is has a velocity of 78 m.s ^{−}^{1} 35° West of North relative to the air, however its velocity relative to the ground is 74 m.s ^{−}^{1} 25° West of North The magnitude of the velocity of the air relative to the ground is nearest to:
a. 152.0 m.s ^{−}^{1}
b. 51.4 m.s ^{−}^{1}
c. 13.8 m.s ^{−}^{1}
d. 4.0 m.s ^{−}^{1}
e. 107.5 m.s ^{−}^{1}
Answer This is a two dimensional vector problem. We can start by writing
v
aircraft rel to ground
=v
aircraft rel to air
+v
air
v
air
=v
aircraft rel to ground
v
aircraft rel to air
remember
this is a vector problem so is a vector 78 m.s ^{−}^{1} 35° East of South.
The answer is given by sketching the vector sum as shown below, finding the angle θ as shown (10°) and using the cosine rule to find the magnitude of the resultant yielding v _{a}_{i}_{r} = 13.8 m.s ^{−}^{1}
v
aircraft rel to air
W W
N N
S S
E
E
21
Examples of Multiple Choice Questions for Part B
Pass level questions on calculating forces involving weight, acceleration and friction.
An elevator has a mass of 950 kg, the tension in the cable is 10.5 kN and the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} . The acceleration of the elevator is nearest to:
a. upwards at 1.25 m.s ^{−}^{2}
b. downwards at 1.25 m.s ^{−}^{2}
c. upwards at 11.05 m.s ^{−}^{2}
d. upwards at 0.11 m.s ^{−}^{2}
e. downwards at 0.11 m.s ^{−}^{2}
Answer: Taking positive as upwards the nett force acting on
_{t}_{h}_{e}
the acceleration is then given by
_{e}_{l}_{e}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{i}_{s} F T W T mg 15000 950 9.8 1190 N
F 
1190 
2 

F 
1.25 



ma 
a 

m . s 

, 
m 
950 
. I.e. 1.25 m.s ^{−}^{2} upwards.
=
=
mg
mg
The total mass of a freight train is 1500 tonnes and the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m.s ^{−}^{2} . The tractive force supplied by the locomotive when hauling the train up a 1 in 33 grade is nearest to:
a. 153 kN
b. 45 kN
c. 455 kN
d. 15 kN
e. 445 kN
Answer: First find the slope
tan
h
1
l
,
33
1.7357
.
The component of the weight force parallel to the slope that the train needs to
overcome is
F
mg sin 1500 10 9.8 sin1.7351 445.310 N 445 kN
3
3
h h
22
The jet engines of an aircraft supply a thrust of 85 kN on takeoff along a level runway. If the mass of the aircraft is 45 tonnes, the time taken from rest for it to reach takeoff speed of 69 m.s ^{−}^{1} is nearest to:
a. 130 s
b. 37 s
c. 19 s
d. 73 s
e. 69 s
Answer: First find the acceleration
the time to accelerate to takeoff speed from rest using
F 
85000 
2 

1.889 


a 

m . s 

m 
45000 
F
ma ,
v v at
0
,
69
0
1.889 ,
a
a
69
1.889
37
s
then find
A car of mass 1400 kg can accelerate from 16.7 m.s ^{−}^{1} (60 kph) to 22.2 m.s ^{−}^{1} (80 kph) in
2.7 s. The average horizontal force exerted by the road on the tyres is nearest to:
a. 687 N
b. 10370 N
c. 8659 N
d. 2852 N
e. 11494 N
Answer: First find the average acceleration,
_{c}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} F ma
a
v
t
1400 2.037 2852 N
22.2
16.7
2.7
2.037
ms
.
2
, then
A car travelling at 16.7 m.s ^{−}^{1} (60 kph) crashes into a tree and the front of the car crumples
decelerating it over a distance of 1.20 m. The force exerted by the seatbelt on a driver of
mass 75 kg is nearest to:
a. 8.72 kN
b. 112.5 kN
c. 0.12 kN
d. 12.6 kN
e. 0.52 kN
Answer: First find the acceleration using
22
v
v
0
2 a
x
x
0
0
2
16.7
2
2
a
1.20
0.00
a
16.7
2
2
1.20
116.2
ms
.
2
then calculate the force F ma 75116.2 8715 N . The magnitude of the
force is thus 8.72 kN
23
A cricket ball has a mass of 160 g and is hit by a batsman at 36 m.s ^{−}^{1} and is caught by a
fielder who "gathers" the ball and decelerates it over a distance of 15 cm. The average force exerted by the fielder on the ball is nearest to:
a. 15.6 N
b. 6.9 N
c. 691 N
d. 1555 N
e. 6912 N
Answer: First find the acceleration of the ball. You are given v _{0} = 36 m.s ^{−}^{1} ,
v = 0.0 m.s ^{−}^{1} (the ball is stopped), take x _{0} = 0.0 m then x = 0.15 m.
2
2
2
v
a
v
0
2
v
2
0
v
2
x
x
0
ax
x
0
4320
m s
.
2
Then calculate the magnitude of the force F = ma = 0.160×4320 = 691 N
A car of mass 1500 starting from rest covers a distance of 400 m in 16.5 s. The average
horizontal force exerted by the road on the tyres is nearest to:
Then calculate the magnitude of the force F = ma = 1500×2.94 ≈ 4410 N
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