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EUROPEAN HELMETS, 1450-1650 Treasures from the Reserve Collection THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART EUROPEAN HELMETS, 1450-1650 Treasures from the Reserve Collection Stuart W. Pyhrr The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York CONTENTS Introduction 3 Catalogue 6 Marks and Inscriptions 46 Bibliography 48 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ‘Valuable advice and information concerning the helmets in this publication were generously offered by Helmut Nickel, Donald J. LaRocea, Morihiro Ogawa, and Nobuko Kajiani, allof the Metropolitan Muscum, aswell as by Claude Blair, ‘This publication is issued in conjunction with the exhibition “European Helmets, 1450-16507 held at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, fom January 2s, 2000 through January 2008 ‘This publication is made possible by the Grancsay Fund, Copyright © 2000 by The Metropolitan Museum of Art Published by The Metropolitan Muscum of Art, New York John P. O'Neill, Editor in Chief Pamela. Barr, Editor Peter Antony and Maureen Catbagan, Production Robert Weisberg, Design and Typesertng. All rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be repro- stuced or transmitted in any form o by any means, electronic ‘or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval sytem, without permission in writing from the publishers. ‘The photographs in this book were taken by Karin L, Willis of ‘The Photograph Studio, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Printed and bound at Malloy Lithographing, Inc. Walter J. Karcheski Jr, and the late Lionello G. Boccia Robert Carroll and Joshua Lee saw to the conservation and mounting of the helmets and Marilynn Doore processed the catalogue manuscript. Cover: see eat. no. 25, Illustration, p.s: “Close Helmets” from C. A. de Cosson and William Burges, Anciont Helmets and Examples of Mail: A Catalegue ofthe Objects Exhibited in the Rooms ofthe Royal Archacolegical Institute of Great Britian and Ireland ..., ill. W.G. B, Lewis (London, 1881), pl. ¢ Library of Congress Cataloguing: in-Publication Data Pyle, Stuart W. European helmets, 450-1650 / Stuare W. Pyhrr pcm, Catalog of an exhibition held at the Metropolitan Museum of Ar, Jan. 25, 000-Jan, 2001 Includes bibliographical references ISBN 0-87099-940-0 (pbk: alk. paper) 1. Helmets— Furope—Exhibitions. 2. Art meta-work, ‘Medieval—Exhibitions. 3. Art metal-work, Renaissance — Exhibitions. 4. Helmets — New York (State) —New York— Exhibitions. s. Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y) — Exhibitions. I. Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y). IL Title, NKeso9 Poe 2000 99-055746 INTRODUCTION Helmets, the earliest known form of body armor, remain an essential element of protection for the modern soldier and firefighter as well as the sports- man. In the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, European helmet design reached its apogee, with armorers creating headpieces in stecl of ingenious construction and powerful sculptural form. Whether intended for aristocratic mounted knights or humble infantrymen, helmets had to provide maximum defense for the most vital, and vulnerable, part of the body while offering reasonable comfort of wear with adequate sight and ventilation. The forging of a hel- met was thus the armorer’s greatest challenge and, very often, his finest achievement. Indeed, a well- made helmet balances the practical function of defense with the aesthetics of line and mass. Since the early nineteenth century, when the col- lecting of medieval and later arms and armor began in earnest, helmets have been the focus of study and pursuit by generations of antiquarians, historians, and collectors. The helmet is the most complete ele- ment of armor and therefore is eminently displayable as an independent work. Its form, construction, and. decoration are sure indications of its intended pur- pose—for war, sport, or parade—and provide con- siderable evidence ofits place and date of manufacture and perhaps even the rank and wealth of its owner. Helmets continue to fascinate collectors and museum visitors today. The stylized cranial and facial shapes of helmets and their brightly polished steel surfaces accord with the modern taste for abstraction; their mysterious masklike character and inevitable roman- tic associations with the heroes of chivalry broaden their appeal. Utilizing the Metropolitan Muscum’s outstanding, collection of arms and armor—in this case, items from the reserve collection that have long been out of public view—this exhibition explores the evolu- tion, technology, form, and fashion of European head defenses over two centuries, from 1450 to 1650. ‘These years marked the waning of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the modern era, when new tactics and improved weaponry revolutionized warfare, ultimately driving the fully armored knight off the battlefield. The armorer was continually challenged to devise new defenses to compensate for the increasing use and accuracy of firearms, which were commonplace on the battlefield by the early six- teenth century. He was also called upon to create new types of armor to outfit the growing number of differentiated mounted troops (heavy, medium, and light cavalry and, later, cuirassiers and harquebusiers) and infantrymen (pikemen and musketeers). His expertise was equally in demand in times of peace, when a variety of martial sports—notably the joust, tourney, and foot combat at the barriers—required specialized equipment. At the same time, national and regional styles were becoming more clearly dis- cernible, and Turkish influences in eastern Europe inspired the adoption of Oriental elements. Armor decoration also changed dramatically in this period, the late medieval practice of covering the plates with textile and metal appliqués being replaced by the development of integral decoration, worked directly into the steel surfaces, in the form of etching, engrav- ing, punching, embossing, and damascening. Helmets have been the subject of several studies— the earliest being the illustrated catalogue of the Uboldo collection in Milan (1841) and von Suttner’s monograph Der Helm (1853) —but seemingly of only two specialized exhibitions. The earlier of these was the landmark “Ancient Helmets and Examples of Mail” organized by the baron de Cosson and William Burges at the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in London in July 1880. Published the following year, the catalogue included line drawings of the most important items, all lent from private collections, and established a new standard of scholarsh included in that exhibition have since entered the ‘More than a dozen helmets Metropolitan Museum, two of which are in this exhibition (cat. nos. s4, 57). The second exhibition, organized by Bashford Dean, curator of Arms and Armor, was held at the Metropolitan Muscum in 1924 and, like its predecessor, comprised pieces from private collec- tions, in this case mostly from members of the Armor and Arms Club of New York. Unfortunately; no eat- alogue was produced. In announcing the exhibition in the Museums Bullerin (vol. 19, no. 7 (July 1924], pp. 162-63), Dean explained his choice of theme, which he hoped would demonstrate the evolution, variety, and intrinsic beauty of helmets while reveal- ing, “even to the casual visitor? the art of the armorer. ‘The present exhibition maintains these goals but has the added virtue of focusing on the Metropolitan's ‘own superb reserve holdings. Indeed, the toral col- lection numbers about four hundred separately cata- logued European helmets (exclusive of those mounted with armors) and is thus one of the largest and most diverse assemblages of its kind, The majority of the helmets, like the bulk of our European arms, come from three private collections: that of Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, duc de Dino, which was pur- chased en bloc in 19045 that given by William H. Riggs in 1913; and that of Bashford Dean, which was acquired by bequest, gift, and purchase in 1928-29, These in turn encompass items from the distinguished collections formed by earlier «generations of enthusiasts and connoisseurs, includ- ing Meyrick, Uboldo, Soltykoff, Ressman, Londes- borough, de Cosson, and Keasbey. While the Museum’s finest helmets are on perma- nent display in the Arms and Armor Galleri than two hundred remain in storage as a study and reference collection. Some of these duplicate types that are already in the galleries or are of compara- tively modest quality and others suffer from prob- ems of condition or excessive restoration. Many of them, however, ae of considerable interest because of their particular construction, form, or decoration or because of the presence of makers’ marks. Among these helmets are works of considerable artistic merit of which any muscum would be proud. These include the fluted German armet with its expressive mask visor (cat. no. 25), examples attributed to Kolman Helmschmid (cat. nos. 26, 27) and Kunz Lochner (cat. no. 30), and our newly acquired etched morion associated with the Brunswick court (cat. no. 48). Other examples, also richly decorated, have intrigu- ing historic associations, like the burgonets worn by the guard of Pier Luigi Farnese (cat. no. 32) and Pope Julius IIT (cat. no. 33) and the newly identified helmet of Vicenzo I Gonzaga, duke of Mantua (cat. ‘no. 58). Still others possess rare original textile linings -s, more (cat. nos. 55, 56, 70, 73) or represent large classes of unadorned practical head defenses, such as siege hel- mets (cat. nos. 71, 72), which are unlikely objects for display in an art muscum. The exhibition therefore offers a rare glimpse of an important, yet virtually unknown, collection of helmets, pieces that have sel- dom been exhibited or published. It is hoped that this illustrated checklist will thus be a useful reference tool for future research on the subject. Stuart W. Pyhrr EUROPEAN HELMETS, 1450-1650 1a Great Sallet Trlian, possibly late rath century Stee; weight ¢ Ib. 13 02. (2184 g) Ex coll: Historical Museum, Athens; Bashford Dean, ‘New York; Clarence Mackay, Roslyn, Long Island Gift of Stephen V. Grancsay 1942 425033 This helmet comes from an important group of late ‘medieval armor found in 1840 in the ruins of the Venetian fortress at Chalcis (then called Negroponte), on the Greek island of Euboca, which fll toa Turkish invasion in 1470. ‘The Chalcis hoard provides unique evidence ofthe armor ‘worn in the Italian colonies in the eastern Mediterranean, place of manufacture, whether oon the Italian mainland or in an eastern center, such as Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia), is disputed. The tall conical shape of this example suggests that it dates to the end of the fourteenth century, thus preceding by several decades the appearance of the more typical Italian sllets with rounded profiles, such as at. nos. 3 and 4, Unpublished 2V War Hat European, 1st cenrury(?) Stee weight 2Ib-13 02, (1264 8) Ex colts Maurice Chabrires and Auguste Frangois Ferdinand (Chabriees-Aelés, Lyon and Pais; Constantine Ressman, Florence; ‘Maurice de Tlleyrand-Périgord, due de Dino, Paris Rogers Fund, 104 ons.ase Said to have been found in Lake Morat, Switzerland, this hhelmet traditionally has been considered Swiss and of mid- fifteenth-eentury date, However, the presence of similarly large, deep helmets ofthis general type in fourteenth- and carly-ifteenth-century Italian paintings suggests that both the attribution and date are subject to further review. The stel surface retains traces ofits original tinning, an early form of rustproofing, De Coson 1p, no.B.7, pl 7; Dean 190s, p. 126, ig. 0B; Laing 1920-22 vol. 2p. 64 fig. 416. 4p Sallet Italian (Milan), ca. 1470-80 Steel; weight sb. 1402. (2658) Excoll: Constantine Ressman, Florence; Maurice de Tilleyrand- érigord, ue de Dino, Paris Rogers Fund, 1904 o4s.ast “The proportions of this helmet are notable, asi is tllr than ‘most examples and extends almost tothe shoulders. The rivet holes encircling the center of the bow! originally served as an attachment forthe lining, with apair of holes below on each side for the Y-shaped chin straps. Additional hoes around the ‘edge, one of them filed with a copper rivet, indicate that this ‘example was once covered with textile and fitted with gilt- ‘copper mounts in the Venetian style (se 5, tings that probably were added later in the helmets working life. “The bow! is stamped on the left side near the back with “Milanese-stylearmorers’ marks: two leters ([0?) beneath a «crown and below, struck twice, two letters (AO2) beneath a doublearmed cross. De Cason ron, mo. Bt, pl 7 <3 Sallet Italian (Milan), a. 1470-80 Stee; weight 6 Ib. 9 oz. (2989 g) -Bxeolls: Constantine Ressman, Florence; Maurice de Tlleyrand- Perigord, duc de Dino, Pris Rogers Fund, 1904 cag. “The term salt (from the Italian clata) is applied to a wide variety of fifteenth-century helmets that have open faces or, if visored, leave the lower face and neck exposed. This tall form of salletis typically Italian and is sometimes referred toasa barbute. Tis struck twice on the right side atthe back with the same armorer’s mark: two Gothie Ss beneath a split legged cross. The same mark is found alone, or in combina- ‘ion with other marks, on four other armor elements in the ‘Metropolitan Museum: two similar sallets (acc. nos. 14.2580, 49.1632) and two arm defenses (ac. nos. 29.1508, 9.150.137) Struck on the right cheek is the Lion of Saint Mark, a con- ‘rol mark that perhaps denotes the helmet’ former presence in the Venice arsenal. De Casson 101, no. Bs pl. 7 <5 Sallet “in the Venetian Style” Traian, ca. 460 Stee, gilt copper, exile; weight 4Ib, 12.02. (2144) Bxcolls: Count Gino Ciradella Vigodarzere, Villa Saonara, near ‘Padua; Lagi Grasi, Florence; Bashford Dean, New York ‘The Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Funds ftom various denors, 1929 29.1817 ‘Sallets covered with textile and mounted with decorative ‘metal appliqués were worn for parades and tournaments throughout Italy in the fifteenth century. The practice appar- ently was continued into the eighteenth century, particularly in Venice; hence these colorful helmets came to be called alla veneziana, The present example is covered with an old red velvet (but possibly applied in modern times) and mounted with a border of git-copper leaves, probably of seventeenth- century date (che leaves at the front and across the top are restorations). Unused rivet holes visible inside the bow indi- «ate thatthe helmet was once fitted with different appliqués. Dybrr 1994, pp. 17,20 0.28 <6 Sallet Italian (Milan) e. 1470-80 Steel; weight 3 Ib. 907. (1635 g) ‘Ex oll: Maurice de Tilleyrand-Pétigord, duc de Dino, Pais Rogers Fund, 904 43.280 ‘Numerous holes along the edge and atthe front and back indicate that this sll, like s, probably was mounted several times during its workin life with exile coverings and gilemetal appliqués inthe Venetian fashion, The bowls rough, unfinished edge suggests that it has been trimmed. ‘On the right side atthe back are thece Milanese-stylearmor- crs’ marks: BE(?) beneath a crown and below, struck twice, throe lecters (A over AP?) beneath a split-legged cross. The same marks are found on a slightly ealir ealian euirass in the Hisorisches Museum, Lucerne, Switzerland. De Cosson ro, no. B.s, pl. &; Dean 1905, p. 128, figs. so, 66. <7 Sallet Italian(), in Franco-Burgunian stl, late ath century ‘Steel weight 3 Ib. 13 02. (1737 8) Exeolls.: Baron Vidal de Lery, Pris; Bashford Dean, New York ‘Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, ‘Request of Bashford Dean, 1928 29.1903 ‘This salle is one ofthe few surviving examples in the Franco-Burgundian fashion. Although constructed inthe contemporary Italian manner, with separate brow and tail plates, the pointed bow is characteristic of sales illustrated in French and Burguadian manuscripts and tapestries and of several surviving examples preserved in English churches. ‘The generally similar sallee preserved at Coventry Cathedsal ‘bears Milanese-style marks thought to be those of an Italian armorer working in Bruges who is also recorded as having an English clientele. Reportedly found ina river in France (the ‘Somme and Meuse are both cited sits source), our sllet was deeply corroded and has been extensively repaired. [New York rot, no, st, pl 28; Laking to20m22, vol 2, pp. 2-22, fi 360; Kienbusds and Gracy 1935, no. 34, pl 3 <3 Sallet Spanish c. 1450-1500 Stee; weight ¢ Ib. 8 oz. (2050 g) Ex coll: Maurice Talleyrand-Pétigord, duc de Dino, Pais Rogers Fund, 1904 43.19 Close-frting caplike helmets ofthis type, with cutouts for the ears, were worn by Spanish infantrymen during the sec- cond half ofthe fifteenth century. Unlike most known exam- piles, which have a strong median ridge from front to back, this sllet has a smooth hemispherical bow! that suggest one of the earlier (mid-century?) examples. Acquired in Spain in ‘the nineteenth century, itis sad to have eome from a tomb in Aragon. Now dark and heavily corroded, the surface was probably once brightly polished De Cason igo, no. Bb, pl. 8; Dean 190s, i 0k on Sallet Spanish or Kalan, late rth century Stee, paine; weight 2 Ib. 002, (1s g) [Ex coll: Bashford Dean, New York “The Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, ‘Funds from various donors, 1929 29.380 Intended for infantrymen, sallets of this distinctive type are found in large numbers in the armory ofthe dukes of ‘Medinaceli in the Museo Ejercto, Madrid. Some of them are struck with Milanese-style marks, suggesting they may have been made in Italy for export to Spain; alternately, they may have been made in Spain and marked in imitation of the more prestigious and expensive Italian originals. This example, which is unmarked, retains the fragment of an iron plume-holder(2) at the front and appears to have been painted Kienbusch and Grancsay 193, no. 52, pl. 35 Boca, Rosi, and Morin 198, . 78, l. 6. 10 10¥ ‘War Hat Spanish, late 1th century Stee, copper, textile; weight 3 Ib. 1202. (1697 8) Ex coll: Bashford Dean, New York Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Bequest of Bashford Dean, 1938 2935098 Lite is known about armor-making in Spain, and the major- ity of securely identifiable Spanish examples date from the lat fiftenth century. War hts ofthis type, with either round or Pointed bowls and deeply sloped brims, are uniquely Spanish and are frequently decorated with applied bands of git copper around the base ofthe bowl and the edge of the brim. The ‘Muscum’s helmet has lost dese appliqués, for which only rivet holes (now filed with modern copper rivets) remain. Struck thee times on the right side atthe back i an armor’ ‘mark: a crowned lett. The front ofthe bovis filled with 4 brow plate covered on its outer face with red textile, possibly part ofthe original ining. Unpuilishe. 11a Sallet German, c3. 1450-60 Steel; weight 6 Ib. 9 on. (29848) Ex coll: Count Eugen Czemin, Schloss Petersburg, Bohemia; Bashford Dean, New York Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Bequest of Bashford Dean, 1928 2940.0 This salle is notable for its exceptionally deep form. Despite heavy corrosion and damage by fire, it preserves its powerful sculptural presence. A similar example was excavated from, the city walls of Istanbul, which fll during the Ottoman siege of the Byzantine apital in May 1453. Kienbuscls and Graney 1933, no. 36 pl. 412 Sallet German, 3. 1470-80 Stee; weight 7 Ib. 2.0 (3232 8) Ex coll: Count Hans Wilczek, Schloss Kreuzenstei, near Vienna Bashford Dean, New York ‘The Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Funds from various danors, 1929 29.48. Generally shallow in form and covering only the upper half of the face, visored sallets were invariably complemented by a separate bevor, a defense covering the chin and throat that ‘was strapped around the back of the neck. German sallets typically have long pointed tals the angulariy of which reflects the late Gothic style. This example is stamped on the right side ofthe tal with an armorer’s mark: a rooster(?) within a shield. Kienbusch and Grancsay 193, no. 39, he. 13> Sallet German (Nuremberg), ca. 1490 Steel; weight 6 Ib. 207. (2769 8) Ex colle: Albert Denson, first baron Londesboroughs; Wiliam ienry Denison, cal of Londesborough; Maurice Chabrires and Auguste Frangois Ferdinand Chabriees-Aets, Lyon and Pais ‘Constantine Ressman, Florence; Maurice de Talleyrand-Péigoad, tue de Dino, Panis Rogers Fund, 1904 043.26 “The wide, fat comb suggests that this salle isa late example dating tothe end of the fifteenth century. The visor has been modified or may be associated. Te tai is unusually ong anc spatulate and is struck with ovo marks: that ofthe city of Nuremberg and an armorer’s mark in the shape ofa horse- shoe enclosing a lets, possibly that of Hans Griinewalt (€2. 1440-1503). Londesborough sale, Christie's, London, July 4-11, 1888, ot 448; de Cason 101, no. Bat, p75 Dean 1905, fi Sob 144 Sallet German or Austrian (Innsbruck), 2.810 Steel; weight ¢ Ib. 1302. (2172 8) Exeoll: Bashford Dean, New York ashford Dean Memorial Collection, Funds from various donors, 1929, 29.1834 Developing from the late Gothic German salle, character. ized by a horizontal profile and pointed tal, this erly- sixteenth-century example has a taller, rounder, and more nt, 90.14 rome ‘compact form, a transformation that reflects Italian infl- cence. The large visor, pierced for sight and ventilation, has an unmistakable masklike quality. Pairs of hols at the top and sides of the bow! allowed forthe ext ofthe lining laces, bby which the padded lining (now missing) could be adjusted from the outside for a comfortable fit. A similar salle in the ‘Mascun’s collection (ace. no. 29.18.35) bears the mark of ‘Hans Maysterter (active 08-30) of Innsbruck. Kicnbnc and Graney 1s, 49,4. “1s ‘Armet with Wrapper Tein. 1460-70 (armet) and tase (wrapper) ‘Steel; weight (armet) 8 Ib. (3618 g), (wrapper) 4 Ib. (180r g) [Ex coll: Marchesa di Salvo i erat, Palermo Rogers Fund, 920 204901 “The armet was the typical headpiece of the Italian mounted knight inthe fifteenth century. Completely enveloping the head, it was constructed of a bowl with separate brow rein- force, close-fiting cheekpieces hinged atthe sides and clos- ing atthe chin, and a pivoting visor. The armet usually was ‘worn with a secondary face defense, or wrapper, that covered the lower face and neck and prevented the visor from being, struck open. The wrapper strapped around the armet and ‘buckled at the back; the rondel projecting from the base of the bowl protected the straps and the closing of the check- pieces a the back. ‘The Muscum’s armet and wrapper are contemporary but associated. The bow i struck on cither side ofthe medial ridge at the back with a Brescian-style amorer’s mark consist- ing of th letters JA(?) beneath an abbreviation sign. The ‘wrapper bears the marks ofthe famous Missagtia family of “Milan used before 1432: the letters MY beneath a crown and below, struck twice, an.M beneath a splilegged cross. Both pieces were etched at a later date with arms said to be those of the Piombi (The visor is associated and the rondel is moder; the wrapper has been altered.) Unpublished. B 16> Armet Italian (Milan), 2.1490, with later additions ‘Stee, bras; weight 6 Ib. 707. (2903 g) Ex coll: Evelyn Whitehead, London; S. J. Whavell, London ‘Seymour Lucas, RA., London; Henry G. Keasbey, Eastbourne, England; George D. Pratt, New York Gift George D. Pratt, 1928 2742 The medieval English custom of a hanging a helmet over a tomb as part of the deceased’ funerary “achievement” con- tinued wel into the seventeenth century. Thanks to this prac- tice, numerous early helmets have been preserved. Like many “church helmets? this example is composite, being made up of old, reused parts assembled somewhat haphazardly for mortuary use. The bowl, which originally was fitted with a brow reinforce, and the cheekpieces are Italian. The right side of the bowl atthe back bears faint traces of three Milanese armorers’ marks: a crown surmounting letters and, struck twice below, a splitlegged cross enclosing rwo letters. (The visor and upper bevor are adapted from other helmets and the rondel is modem.) Lucas sale, Chrisie, London, May 27,13, lt 27; Laing 1920-2, vol. 2p. 88-9, fig. 442-C; Keay sale, American Art Callers, New York, December 5-6, 124 lo 30, p36; Py 994.22. 417 Armet Anglo-Flemish, ca 1:20 Steel; weight 6 Ib. (2721 g) Excoll: Peter Dale Ltd, London. Purchase, Bequest of Stephen V. Grancsay, by exchange, and Rogers Fund, 2985 198525933 Formerly part ofa funerary achievement hung over a knight’ tomb, this helmet originally appeared on the art ‘market surmounted with a spike intended to support a heraldic crest. The locaton of the chapel and the identity of| the knight are not recorded. ‘This late form of armet (now incomplete) originally had a pivoting visor and articulated collar lames. Several feature are especially noteworthy: the large cusped brow reinforce that overlaps a secondary reinforce covering the back ofthe bowls, the articulating lames covering the back ofthe neck; and the placement of the hinges of the checkpieces at the back rather than atthe top. While its overall form is Italianate, the armet’s unusual construction recalls other helmets found in English churches, some of which are thought to be of English oor Flemish manufacture. Anonyynous sale, Christie's, London, November 13,198, lot 7, il 4 18> ‘Tournament Helm Anglo-Flemish, ca. 1510-20 Stee; weight 10 Ib. 02. (4670 8) Ex coll: Adaber von Kolasinsi, Warsaw; Bashford Dean, New York Bashord Dean Memorial Collection, Funds from various donors, 1920 20119838 Helms bolted to the breast- and backplate and having large visors with multiple apertures for maximum sight and venti- lation were typically used both inthe tourney and in foot combat. The former was a mock combat fought by groups ‘of mounted contestants armed with lanees and rebated swords or clubs; in the latter, two armored contestants fought on foot within a wooden enclosure, the favored ‘weapons usually being polaxes or swords, their strokes care- fully monitored by referees. This helm bears faint traces of a ‘mark, an M surmounted by a crescent, which is thought to be that of Martin van Royne (active ea 500-1540), Flemish armorer who emigrated to England and was already master of the Royal Armor Workshops at Greenwich by 15s. The same mark appears on three other elements of armor in the ‘Metropolitan Muscum: an armer (acc. no. 29.182); an elbow defense, or couter (act. n0, 29.1581, where it is struck twice); and the front half ofa tournament helm (see cat. no. 19). Kolasinsk sale, Lepke, Berlin, March 27-3, 1017 lot 147s Kienbuach and Grancsay 1933, os pha; Las Angeles 9, na. 22; Nickel Py, and Taras 982, na 8 16 419 Front Half of a Tournament Helm [Anglo-Flemish, ca 510-20 Steel; Weight 9 Ib. 102, (4398 g) Exeolls: Albert Denison, frst Baron Londesborough; Wiliam Henry Denison, cal of Londesborough; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gift of William HL. Riggs, 1913 m4assre Constructed of two sturdy plates of steel capable of with- standing the blow of an opponent’ blunted lance, this front half of a helm for the joust was originally secured by pivots to the rear half (now missing) of lighter metal. The helm was bolted to the jouster’s cuirass, thus rendering the head and to180 rigid, The large ventilation opening on the right side is protected by a thick flange. Similar helms are recorded in English churches; this one is reputed to have come from Battle Abbey, Sussex. Traces of an armorer’s mark, apparently an M surmounted by a erescent, a8 on 18, are evident con te left side (only the tips of the erescent are discernible). London 1, p38, ne. 1000; Londesborough sale, Chrisie, London, July 4-11, 188, lt 430; Laking 1920-22, 0.2 p14, 8-48 420 Bowl of a Sallet Italian (probably Milan), ca. 110-15 Steel, gold; weight 2 Ib. 6 oz. (088 g) -Excoll: Bashford Dean, New York ‘Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, -Fands from various donors, 1929, 20.18.18 Etching with acid is known to have been used for the ‘embellishment of weapons since at leas the thirteenth cen- ‘tury, but the technique seems to have been applied to armor ‘beginning in the late fifteenth century, several decades before it was adopted asa printmaking technique. Formerly gilt, the etched decoration on this example includes bands of foliage et against a diagonally hatched background, Similar ‘omnament is found in contemporary Italian prints. The sallet ‘was probably fired witha large bellows visor pivoting at the sides and was intended for use by a light cavalryman. Unpublished. 21¥ Bowl of a Close-Helmet Italian (Milan or Brescia), a. 16 ‘Steel, go weight 5 Ib. 1107. (1679 ) Ex cols: Prince Piere Soltykof, Paris; Wiliam H, Riggs, Pars Gift of William H. Riggs, 1933 1425560 ‘This bow is the sole surviving fragment ofa rare etched and gil Italian close-helmet “in the German style” (alla tedesa). “The term refers to the channeled surfaces, or fluting, a deco- rative treatment characteristic of German armors of 1s10 £0 1430 (See cat. nos. 20, 22 23) that was enthusiastically imi- tated by Italian armorers. Struck a the back are two armoree’s ‘marks: an unusual monogram comprising the leters P and I supporting a 7(2) on a crossbar and a two-towered castle— perhaps the marks ofthe da Castello family of Brescia. After about 1520, for reasons unknown, Italian armorers generally discontinued the time-honored practice of marking their ‘wares; thus, the workshop of origin of few armors made after that date canbe identified. The roped comb isa feature dating after about 11s Lonisville 1932, no. 15 Flint 1967, no. 23 224 Close-Helmet for the Field Iralian (Milan), a. 155-30 Steel, weight Ib. 102. (30408) Ex cols: Prince Piere Soltykof, Pars; William H. Riggs, Pats Git of William H. Riggs, 1913 4255s ‘Supplanting the armet in the early sixteenth century, the close-helmet was intended for mounted use in the field and ‘ypically was constructed with a visor and bevor (lower face and chin defense) rotating on the same pivors atthe sides of the bowl. Although this close-helmet apparently is Taian in ‘origin, certain features, such as the stepped profile ofthe visor and the use ofa separate plate to complete the lower part ofthe ‘bowl at the back, recall helmets found in France and England, ‘This example may, therefore, have been intended for export north of the Alps. (The two front collar lames and the lower rear lame are modern, as is the lifting peg of the visor) Unpublided. "7 23> Armet German, ca. 1510-35 Steel weight 6 Ib. 307. (2799 8) Ex coll: Raoul Richards, Rome; Bacherea frm, Pars; “Maurice de Taleyrand-Périgord, duc de Dino, Paris Rogers Fund, 1994 043.262 While retaining earlier armet construction, with hinged ‘cheekpieces closing in front of the chin, this helmet also ‘exhibits features current in the early sixteenth century: fluted, surfaces, the lower edge of the helmet embossed 50 a8 0 ‘tum on the rim of the gorget, and a small “sparrow’s-beak” visor. A Moor’s head stamped on the right side ofthe visor ‘may be a mark of ownership, perhaps referring to the patr- ian Tucher family of Nuremberg, rather than the personal ‘mark of the armorer. (The right cheekpiece isa restoration.) Richarts sale, Giacomini et Capobianehi, Rome, March 2-2, 1890, ot 1028; de Cason 1g, no. B.2, pl. Laking 1920-22, ul 48.95, fis. 1076; Los Angeles 1s, no. 2. 424 Close-Helmet for the Field ‘German (Nuremberg), 2.1520 Seel; weight 6 Ib (3709 g) Ex coll: Boy, Pais; Wiliam H, Riggs, Paris Gift of William H. Riggs, 1913 t4assao Although luted surfies generally characterize German armor of about 1s10-30, smooth-surfaced hamesses were equally commonplace and were more quickly and cheaply manufac ‘tured, This helmets fited with a new form of visor, one of claborately forged “bellows” shape, whereas the articulated neck lames look back to earlier sllet construction (see cat no. 14). The righe sie of the bevor is struck on the outside ‘with the arms of Nuremberg; inside the same plate is a stamped N within a pearled circle, another Nuremberg con- trol mark. Along with Augsburg, the city of Nuremberg ‘was a major center for armor manufacture in Germany and ‘was especially renowned for its fluted harnesses. Unpublished, 26> Closed Burgonet Acibuted to Kolman Helschmid(c470-12) German Augaburg)yc 125-30 Stel; weight 616. 1002 (3008 8) Ex coll: Guillermo Casanova, margués de Dos Aguas, ale, Spain Gift of George D. Pratt, 927 2799.8 ‘This helmet type combines features common to burgonets, ‘notably the projecting peak and falling buf, with close helmet construction, in which all elements ofthe face defense pivot together atthe sides of the bowl Closed burgonets in the fluted style are particularly rare. Ths finely made example is etched in the manner of Daniel Hopfer (1470-1536) of ‘Augsburg and may have been made by Kolman Helmschmid, the leading Augsburg armorer of his generation, with whom Hopfer seems to have been associated Dean 1928, p. 16, fi. 45 Granccay 1938, p. 180 425 Armet German (Nuremberg) or Austrian (Innsbruck), ca. 1320-25, Steel; weight 7 Ib. 2 07. (3234 8) Excolls: Albert Denison, fst Baron Londesborough; Wiliam: Henry Denison, ear of Londesborough; William H. Riggs, Pats Gift of William H. Riggs, 1915 r4ass62 Helmets fitted with masklke visors were a popular German fashion about st0 t0 1540. Visors forged as humorous or grotesque human masks were often worn in tournaments held during the exuberant pre-Lenten (Shrovetide) festivals, celebrations somewhat akin to modern Mardi Gras. Tae deep cuts on the left side ofthis example suggest tha it was used ina mock batle, or tourney, fought by groups of horsemen armed with lances and swords. The helmet’s poweful sculp- tural form, technical accomplishment, and imaginative con- ception demonstrate the armorer’s virtuosity London 187s, cat. no. 650(2); Londesborough sale, Chrisie’, London, July $-11, 1888, lot 465; New Orleans 106, no. 19. 9 27> Close-Helmet fora Boy Attributed to Kolman Helmschmid (1470-1532) German (Augsburg), 324-30 See; weight 41b-4.02 (931) Ex coll: Sir Andrew Fontaine, Narford Hal, Norfolk, England; Wiliam H. Rigs, Paris Gite of Wiliam H. Riggs, 1083 14.6621 “Male children of aristocratic Families were traditionally trained in the ars of horsemanship and fencing and began ‘wearing armor at an early age. This finely wrought helmet, the openwork visor of which is clearly not intended for dangerous spor, was made for a boy. Th distinctive one- piece visor, with its curved profile and etched ornament in the syle of Daniel Hopfer, recalls ate works by Kolman “Helmschmid of Augsburg. Fontaine sale, Christie's, London, June 16-1, 1884, lot 560. 28> Burgonet ‘German (Augsburg), c2 1540-40 Stee; weight 4b. so. (23518) Bxcolls: Bécoulr, Paris; William H, Riggs, Pais Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 913 1425556 ‘This burgonet belongs toa series of virtually identical exam- ples having three raised and engrailed combs that were sworn by the guards attached to a noble German or Austrian house, Several helmets bear the mark of Augsburg and that of Desiderius Helmschmid (113-1579), the city’s leading armorer in this period the Metropolitan’s burgonet is unmarked), Pairs of hoes inthe bowl suggest that the surface was covered “with fabric, stitched in place, leaving only the tall combs ‘exposed. The forging ofa helmet bow with three tall combs froma single plate of stel required considerable sill; the challenge was also met by Italian armorers, who created tiple ‘combed burgonets for the Farnese guard (se ca. 0. 32). (The cheekpieces are modern replacements mace by the ‘Museum's armorer Leonard Heinrich in 1932) Bécouler ale, Hitel Drowot, Pais, June 6-9, 188, lt 90 29> Burgonet German (probably Augsburg), <2 1540-50 Stet, brass weight ¢ Ib. 02 (19548) Excolls: Theodore Winter, Munich; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 1013 4.25042 “The decoration ofthis helmet is attributable tothe Augsburg, ‘etcher Ulrich Holamann (recorded 1534-62). The position of| the plume-holder atthe side ofthe bow, rather than at the buck, is unusual and perhaps reflects an Oriental influence. Unpublished. 30> Burgonet Atributed to Kunz Lohner (8110-167) ‘German (Nuremberg), 140-40 Stel; weight 3 Ibs Ex coll: Prince Pier Soko, Pais; Gite of Wiliam H. Riggs, 1913 425.038 ‘The peak is struck with the city arms of Nuremberg, The finely etched decoration, particularly the merman on either side ofthe bowl, recalls signed works by Kunz Lochner, ‘Nuremberg’s leading armorer in the mic-sixteenth century. Unpublished. Sia Burgonet all’Antica Telian (Milan) 195-40 Stel, gold ser weight 3.2 oz. (tg) Ex colls; Monsieur Pluquet, Bayeaua(?); William H. Riggs, Pacis Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 193, 14.2597 (Classically inspired helmets embossed in high relief, sometimes | in the form of fantastic beasts, were a specialty of Milanese armorers in the 1308 and 1540. Unlike etching, embossing, thinned and weakened the steel and compromised its deflec- tive qualities, so the technique generally was limited to armors intended for ceremonial wear. While this burgone falls far short of the high standard of modeling and finish typical ‘of works by Filippo Negroli (ca. 110-1579) or his cousin et, nos, fre Giovan Paolo (ca. 113-1569), the lading masters of armor allantica (in the antique manner”), it nevertheless remains a characteristic example of this lasscizing Renaissance art form. The helmet i forged from a singe plate of steel, the surfaces retaining only faint traces ofthe original ire-gilding, and silver damascened details. Allow 135, p. 78; LAr pour tous, as ear (1882), no. so, p. 2222, Figs. 4848-50; Dean 1, p55 Sealin 10,p29, fi. 20 32a Burgonet for the Farnese Guard Telia, ca 1545 Sect, go, bras; weight 2 Ib. 1 02 (12328) Ex coll: Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, due de Dino, Pars Rogers Fund, 1904 o#s.a19 This triple-combed burgonet is part of an extensive series of similarly embossed parade helmets thought to have been ‘made for the guard of Pier Luigi Farnese (1525-1547), who ruled briefly as duke of Parma and Piacenza in 154s until his assassination in 1547. The fleur-de-lis at the sides isthe heraldic emblem of the Farnese family. Ninety-six helmets Of this type were recorded in an inventory ofthe Farnese armory in 1731, twenty-four of which are today in the ‘Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. De Cason 12. BPs. 2 33> Burgonct of the Guard of Pope Julius IIL Italian (Brescia), 2 1350-35 Stee, gold, bras; weight 3 Ib. 14.02 (178 g) Ex coll: Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, duc de Dino, Pas Rogers Fund, 1904 ongana ‘The bold and colorful decoration, etched and gilt on a blued _gr0und, includes a medaltion containing the profile portrait of Pope Julius II (Giovanni Maria del Monte, 1487-155 lected pope in 150) surmounted by the stylized three-lobed mountain ‘of the del Monte arms. The style and technique of the deco- ration anticipate the Brescian-made armors tritionally worn by the Papal Swiss Guard from the late sixteenth century. ‘De Cason 11, no. B31, pl. 9; Dean sve, p13, fig. 49D; Laing 1920-22, 0.4 p. 164-65, fig. 1248; Houston 1960, no. 71 Flint 1967, no. 2, ill. 34¥ Burgonet Italian (Mila), 2. 1560-70 Stel, gol, silver, ene; weight 41. (1815 8) -Excolls= Marqués de Bosch, Valencia, Spin Maurice de “aleyrand-Péigord, duc de Dino, Pacis Rogers Fund 1904 43.205 4 Richly damascened in gold and silver, this helmets decorated with five oval vignettes depicting exotic scenes, with Oriental figures on land and ships and oared galleys at sea. The exten- sive pictorial use of damascening on a smooth, rather than. embossed, surface is highly unusual bu relates to damascened jon furniture made in Milan in the second half of the sx- teenth century. The shape ofthe burgonet is aso noteworthy, the arched comb alluding to ancient Roman helmets. (The left cheekpiece is missing) De Cason 101, no. Bar, pls. 35> Helmet Crest for the Burgonet of Sforza Pallavicino Traian (Milan), ca. 369 Stee, gold; weight 1b. 807, (675g) Ex colls.: Max and Maurice Rosenheim, London; Clarence ‘Mackay, Rosiya, Long Island; George H. Warren, Newport, Rhode Island Gift of Mes. George H. Warren, in memory of her husband, 1972| ieoees ‘The helmet crest asa badge of identity became a necessity in the thirteenth century, when European knights began to ‘wear helmets that covered ther faces. By the sixteenth cen- tury the use of crests tended to be limited to tournaments and funerary decorations in churches. For practical reasons _most crests were fashioned from lightweight materials, such as gessoed and painted leather or wood, whereas this rare «example is of gold-damascened iron. The seven-headed ‘Hycdra was the personal device of Sforza Pallavicino (ca. 110-1885), a soldier who served in the imperial, papal, and Venetian armies. This crest, which is 7% inches in height, was intended to surmount a richly embossed and damascened helmet (now State Hermitage, Saint Petersburg) 36> Close-Helmet for the Field Westem European. 1359 See; weight Ib. 4.02. (26568) x coll: Ralph Bernal; Wiliam Meyrick; Leonard Brassey; ‘Clarence Mackay, Roslyn, Long Island Gift of Stephen VGrancsay, 042 #5047 ‘The rows of raised lobes along the sides ofthe comb and the edges of the visor and upper bevor are highly unusual, as is the boldly dentated edge of the comb. Combining Italian and German features, this helmet defies easy attribution. (The collar lames are missing.) Bernal sale, Christe’ London, March se-April 30,1, lt 29385 Meyrick 1860, na Brasey sale, Chrisie’, London, February 21, 1922, 4 shat bears the same Hydra emblem. (The rear portion of the tail appears to be an inaccurate restoration.) Renbrim sale, Sel’, London, April 30-May 4, 193, lo 478; Mav 104, pp. 3-38, pl. son; Tarassuk 138, pp. 28-30, fi. 5. 374 Closed Burgonet Probably Austrian (Innsbruck), ca. 1350-60 Stet, gold, brass; weight 6 Ib. 1102. (3037 8) Excolls: Prince PiereSoltyoff, Paris; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs 1913 4a3s4 ‘The openwork visor, which allowed maximum ventilation while providing excellent protection from cuts, originally could be closed by a falling buff (now missing), which fitted over the pierced studs on either side ofthe bevor. The clegantly shaped bowl and scalloped edges of the plates recall Innsbruck armors made in the 1508 and early 1605. (The rear collar lames are old but associated.) Unpublished, 26 384 Closed Burgonet Telianc.360 Stel, god; weight 8b. « 02. (9758) Ex cols: Marchesa de Salvo di eras, Palermo; Bashford Dean, New York ashford Dean Memovil Collection, Giftof Mis Harter M. Dean, 1929 aos ‘The etched decoration is nearly identical to that on another burgonet in the collection (cat. no. 39), which suggests that both were etched in the same workshop. Los Angeles 19, 0.2. 439 Burgonet Taian (Milan?) c.1360 Steck gold weight bo (185 Exoll: Maurice de llyrand Perigord de de Dino, Pais Rogers Fund, 1904 oegaat ‘The etched and gilt omament, consisting of elegantly drawn foliate scrolls on a background of circles, matches that on the ‘contemporary field armor of Comelio Bentivogtio (Kunst- historisches Museum, Vienna), a soldier in the service of the dukes of Ferrara. Both presumably were made in the same ‘workshop, one that appears to have specialized in fabricating arms for the Ferrarese court Similar etching is seen on eat. nos 38 and 40. De Cason 1901, no. B.28. 440 Close-Helmet for the Field Italiana, 180-70 See, gold; weigh 9 Ib. 102 (4158) Ex cols: Sefano Barn, Florence; moe J. Whawell, Eastbourne and London; Theodore Offerman, New York Gite of Christian A. Zabriskie, 957 rato In the 1605 it became fashionable in Italy to cover an armor ‘with multiple narrow bands of foliate omament, a practice ‘atried to the extreme in this example. The presence of a large reinforcing brow plate on a close-helmet of this date is highly unusual, bt itis found on similarly decorated armors made for the court at Ferrara. (The front collar James are missing.) Laking 1920-22, vol. , pp 11-12, fig. 198; New York 1931, ta. 78; Offerman sale, American Are Assocation-Anderson Galleries Inc, New Yor, November 1-1, ty, lot 2p il 7 41> Close-Helmet for the Field and Tourney Ttalian (Brescia?) «3. 560-65 Steel, gold; weight 6 Ib. 1302. (3080 g) Ex coll: Marchesa di Salvo di Ferrara, Palermo Rogers Fund, 1020 rosea ‘The style and design of the etched ornament are typically Brescian, though the confinement of the trophies to multiple narrow bands is highly unusual. The presence of a threaded hhole on the right side of the upper bevor indicates that this hhelmet was fitted witha reinforce, presumably for use in the tourey. The three front collar lames are associated; their decoration indicates that they belong to a large armor gami- ‘ure in the Real Armeria, Madrid, made in 1544 by Desiderius Helmschmid and etched by Ulrich Holzmann, both of Augsburg, for Emperor Charles V. Flint 1967, no. 26, il 28 442 Pointed Morion Tein (Milan) €2 1§60-70 Stee, gold ser; weight 1. 02. (348) Ex coll: Chars Sten, Paris; Wiliam H. Riggs, Pars Gift of Willa H. Riggs, 915 4.35620 In contrast to the bold sculptural forms of earlier Milanese parade armor (for example, cat. no. 41), embossed armor ‘made in the second half ofthe sixteenth century was flatter and more pictorial, often with entire figural scenes from prints reproduced on the ste! surfaces, The costumes are invariably gold-damascened, the skin ofthe figures is silvered, This example is embossed on both sides with variant scenes depicting the Roman hero Mucius Scaevola placing his hand in the fire before King Porsena. ‘This distinctive form of lightweight infantryman’s helmet, characterized by an almond-shaped bow! with turned-back point at the apex and a short brim, is referred to in contem- porary English documents as a “Spanish morion?” The term alludes to the common use of such helmets by Spanish troops rather than thei place of manufacture, which was usually Italy. Sein sale, Galerie Georges Patt, Pars, May 10-14, 1886, lor il. 43a Pointed Morion Traian (Brestia), e,170-80 Stee, bras; weight 3 Ib. 3.02. (1449 8) Excoll: Auguste Hency, Pars; Wiliam H. Riggs, Pars Gi of William H. Riggs, 1915, 142s ‘The etched decoration includes a rampant lion, the heraldic emblem of the north Italian city of Brescia. Above the lion isa double-armed cross symbolizing the venerated reliquary of the Holy Cross in Bresci’s cathedral, and to the sides are Saints Faustino and Giovita, protectors of the city. After “Milan, Brescia was the largest producer of armor in Italy, and this helmet, which is one ofa series of identical exam- ples, provides concrete evidence ofthe Brescian style of armor decoration. Henry sale, Hétel Drowot, Pris, April 9-22, 188, lt 11, 444 Pointed Morion Traian (Milan), 2.590 Stel, gold, brass; weight 2 Ib. 1102 (128 8) Exeolls: Prince Pierre Solykof, Paris; Wiliam H. Riggs, Pars (Gift of Wiliam H, Riggs, 1918 14.2529 ‘The etched and gilt omament on this morion is typical of Milanese armor of 1570-90. The decoration, which covers virtually the entire surface, consists of vertical bands ofinter- Jaced strapwork forming knots and cartouches enclosing, hhuman or allegorical figures alternating with bands of to phies. The etching is deep and precise, allowing the gilt oma- ‘ment to stand in reef against the darkened pebble ground. Hagerstown 1955, no 25. 45> Pointed Morion Tealian (Brescia), 1990 Stel brass; weight 5B 30. 0407 8) Ex coll: Prine Pier Soltykof, Paris; Wiliam 1. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 915 4.28078 Although worn with age, this elaborately etched morion is particularly interesting forthe mark stuck a the front of its brim—the Lion of Saint Mark, the Venetian contro stamp. ‘Venice had subjugated the armor-manufacturing city of Brescia in the fifcenth century, and, a a result, Brescia became ‘the main supplier of armor used in Venetian service. Similarly ‘marked morions are preserved in the former arsenal ofthe ‘Serenissima in the Palazzo Ducale, Venice. The ornament, consisting of allover strapwork interlace enclosing trophies ‘of arms, isin the French tase. Unpublished. 30 446 Burgonet in Oriental Fashion German (probably Nuremberg) 2.1560 Stel, gold, bras; weight 21. (895g) Excoll: Maurice Tllerand-Pérgord, duc de Dino, Paris Rogers Fund, 904 ona Despite the persistent threat of Turkish invasion in the sia teenth century, the courts in eastern and Central Europe ‘were attracted to the exotic and colorful costumes and mil tary equipment oftheir Ottoman enemies. Tournaments and parades in Turkish, or related Hungarian, fashion were held at the Hapsburg courts in Vienna and Prague by the mid- sixteenth century. This helmet provides evidence of that taste, as its fluted conical bowl, peak with sliding nasal (missing), large shaped cheekpieces (missing), and articulated neck plates (several missing) were copied directly from contempo- rary Turkish models. The surfaces are etched and gilt overall with decoration based on “Moresque” ormament of Oriental inspiration A similar burgonet dated 1561, coming from the armory of the Princes Radziwill, isin Wawel Castle, Cracow. De Cason ios, no. Bl 8; Barchensi 1, p. 0, fi. 447 Burgonet in Oriental Fashion German (probably Augsburg) late sth century Steel, god, bronze, las weight 602 (10768) Ex ols. Fréie Spitzer, Pais; Wiliam 1, Riggs, aris ‘Gift of Willam H, Riggs, 915 1425601 ‘This finely etched, gilt, and jeweled burgonet recalls the sumptuously embellished helmet and cuirass acquired in Augsburg and offered in 590 by the imperial court in Vienna as tribute to the Ortoman sultan. The Museum’s helmet ‘once was completed by large shaped cheekpieces in the ‘Turkish fashion. ‘Spier 192, vo. 6, p11, no. 37 ilk; Spitzer sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Pais, June ro-14, 1895, lot 3. 448 ‘Comb Morion German (Brunswick?) 2, 460-68 Steel weight 1b. 8 02. (2040 8) ‘Excolls: B. Kuntz, Vienna; Stephen V. Granesay, Brooklyn; John F. Hayward, London; David G. Alexander Purchase, The Sulzberger Foundation Inc. and Ronald S, Lauder Gifts, 1999 1999.62 ‘An outstanding example of northern German etched armor, this morion appears to have been made at the courtof the dukes of Brunswick, where the finest armors were typically decorated with lively figural subjects drawn from ancient history and the Bible. The let side of the comb shows shield ‘emblazoned with three small shields; these traditional arms of the painter’s guild suggest that this helmet was an etcher's “masterpiece” required for matriculation into the guild. The orion, formed in two halves joined along the edge ofthe comb, is one ofthe earliest examples of two-part construction, which became widespread in the late sixteenth century (see, for example, cat. nos. 49-$2, 61-69, 71-72). [New York 0, 0.9, Alletown 1964 0.95 Hayward sal Sothcty’s London, November, 1983, lor 26, ills Pyke 1999, P28 a 49> Burgonet for the Guard of the Counts Khevenhiiller 2u Aichelberg. German, 2.80 Stel, lead, paint; weight 41b.1 02 (2178 g) Ex coll: Bashfrd Dean, New York ‘Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Git of Edward S. Harknes, 1920 29.56.46 “The acorn and oak leaves embossed on the sides ofthe bow! are emblems of the noble Austrian family Khevenbiiller 20 Aichelberg (Aichel is German for “acorn”). A series of “black-and-white” armors mounted with similarly deco- rated burgonets or morions is preserved in the family’s castle of Hochosterwitz, near Klagentiirt, in the Austrian state of Carinthia. Lange numbers of standardized armors decorated with raised and brightly polished bands set off by the black- painted recessed surfaces were made for the German infantry (Landesknech) in the second half ofthe sixteenth century. ‘The majority were fabricated in Nuremberg, though similar hharnesses were also made in the north (inthe region of 2 Brunswick) and even in Innsbruck. This example is unuswal, in that its decoration is specific to its owner. Unpublished, 450 ‘Comb Morion, German (Brunswick?) a. 580-90 Stel, brass, leather; weight 3b. 1 02. (1771) Excall: De Bittner, Dresden; William H. Riggs, Pais Gilt of Wiliam H. Riggs, 1018 14.35.655 “This morion matches a breastplate in the Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin, the deeply pointed waistline of which suggests a date for both pieces about 1s80-90. The breastplate copies in steel a civilian doublet of textile, com- plete with buttons down the center. The decoration of raised bands outlined by rows of punched circles can thus be inter- preted as an imitation ofthe strips of metallic braids applied ‘over the seams ofa textile costume. The high comb, deep V- shaped brim, and prominent use of decorative bras washers evoke comparisons with northern German armor ofthe so: called Brunswick school. Unpublished. Sia ‘Comb Morion German, ca, 1600 Stee, lead, textile; weight 416. (189 g) Ex coll: Gregory Nycander, Ljngsile, Sweden Rogers Fund, 1928 28.951 This example is one of a series of morions etched with the arms of the cooper’s guild: a pair of compasses opened. above a short handled cooper's ax and supported by two goats. Helmets emblazoned with the heraldic arms of an individual ruler an aristocratic house, or even a municipality are commonplace (see, for example, cat: n0s. 32, 33,43, 49), but this group isthe only one recorded as bearing the emblem ‘ofa craft guild. These helmets are traditionally said to come from Cologne. Unpublished. S2a ‘Comb Morion German, ca. 1600 Steel, ead; weight» Ib. 1102. (1224 8) Bx coll: Hesssches Landesmaseum, Darmstadt; “Hans Miller Hicker, Darmstadt; Bashford Dean, New York -Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Funds from various donors, 929 29.18.48 ‘This helmet is one ofa series of etched motions that appar- ently were worn by the guard of the dukes of Hesse; the ‘Metropolitan has one other example (acc. no. 29.18.48) and there are a dozen preserved in the Hessisches Landes- ‘museum, Darmstadt, Judging from the similarity in form, the use of the same rosette-shaped lead washers beneath the lining rivets on exterior, and the pattern and style of etched, decoration, the Darmstadt series was fabricated in the same center a8 51. Unpublished. 3 Sap Close-Helmet for the Tilt Austrian (nnsbeuck), ca. 180-96 Stee, leather, textile; weight 7 Ib. oz (3328) Bx olls:C.A. de Cosson; Henry G. Keasbey, Eastbourne, England; George D. Pratt, New York [Bequest of George D. Prat, 1935 4814930 CClose-helmets forthe tt were typically fitted witha large ven- tilation door on the right side ofthe upper bevor, whereas the left sce, wiich was more exposed to an opponent's lance, was covered by a reinforce (grandguard) bolted to the breastplate. This example retains its original leather lining straps and adjustable shock absorbing cross-straps arranged as an X inside the bowl. To the ends ofthese straps were attached thin laces that passed through holes atthe back of the bowl and allowed the wearer to adjust the tension on the straps. The eather-covered lining at the chin is preserved. The _gracefi lines of the bowl and the pairs of lightly engraved lines around the edges ofthe plates recall helmets made in the imperial court workshops at Innsbruck. (The brow reinforce is missing; the long threaded bolt at the front, intended to affix the grandguard, isa later modification.) ae Cason and Brest no. $6, Kens sale American Are Galeries, New York December 6, ol 38, “ 453 Close-Helmet for the Field German (possibly Augsburg), dated 596(?) Stee, gold, bras; weight 9 Ib oz. (4210 g) Excoll: Bashford Dean, New York ‘Basford Dean Memorial Collection, Gift of Mrs. Harriet M, Dean, 1029 Although now marred by corrosion, the etched and gilt deco ration on this helmet is of high quality. I is exceptional in that the etcher inscribed his name atthe base ofthe bowl, Martin] Schmidt, and added the date, 1504, twice on the bot- tom rear collar lame. Few etcher’s signatures are known, ancl this ated example by Schmid, who is otherwise unrecorded, appears to be unique. Unpublished. 55> Close-Helmet for the Tournament German (probably Augsburg), late roth century Stee, eather, tet; weight 1 Ib. 6 oz. (4700 8) Excolls: Prince Pierre Soltykofl, Paris; Wiliara H. Rigas, Pars Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 013 4.25548 ‘This helmet scems to have been designed for foot combat at the barrier, a sport in which pairs of contestants wearing armor only to the waist (hitting below the bele was forbid- den) fought with pikes or swords over a separating wooden barrier. A brow reinforce was originally riveted to the visor. ‘The long threaded bolt projecting from the upper bevor is a later working life addition apparently intended to affix a reinforce (buff) for mounted use in the tourney. The bow! and bevor retain thei original linen-covered padded linings and shock-absorbing suspension straps between the bow! and the lining, Flin 1967, no. 28 56> ‘Close-Helmet for the Tournament on Foot German (Dresden?) ca 1640-0 Steel, leather, textile; weight 9b. 1 02. (4105 8) Bx coll: John Stoneacre Elis, Westchester, New York John Stoneacre Elis Collection, Gift of Mrs. Elis and ‘Augustus Van Home Ellis, 1896 96.58 This helmet belongs to a series of foot-combat armors made for the Saxon court at Dresden during the reign of Prince- Elector Johann Georg I (1611-56). Numerous cuts on the left side give evidence of its active service in knightly contests ‘The helmet bow! retains portions ofits origina lining straps and cross-straps and the bevor has its chin pad of canvas stuffed with cotton. Dean 1905 . 188, fig. 98. S7a Sallet and Buff for a Rennzeug in the Saxon Fashion ‘German, <2. 70-1600 Stee; weight 10 Ib. 307. (4598 2) Exeolls: Berard Brocas; John Walker Bailey; W. Bailey; Cosson; William H. Riggs, Pats Gift of William H. Riggs, 195 425589 ‘The long-taled German sallet was out of fashion as afield hhetmet by the early sixteenth century, but it continued to be used thereafter forthe Scharfienmen, ajoust fought between, ‘wo contestants with sharp rather than blunted) lances in an ‘pen field. Specially designed armors for this contest, Known. as Rennzeuge, included sallets bolted a the front to a buff— a larg rigid defense covering the lower face and neck—which in turn was bolted to the breastplate so that the head and. "upper body remained immoble. This sllet and buff belong, to a distinctive series of Rennceuge made for use in the Saxon court at Dresden, Although unmarked, they are thought to have been made by the court armorers at Annaberg, in the Saxon territories. Two complete harnesses of tis type are in the Metropolitan Museum’s collection (ace. nos. 6.92.3, 4). ‘Bras sal, Gage Robins, London, Marc 19, 8-8 de Cason and Burges tr 1,32 303 Lamon 1890, p16, 70. 36 58 Close-Helmet of Vincenzo I Gonzaga Telia (Milan), 3.1587 Stel, gold, silver; weight 1b. 1 0. (27012) Excolls: Prince A.P Basilewsky, Pars; Polyearpe Charles Séchan, Pars; Wiliam H. Rigas, Paris Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 1913 14.28.007 Although incomplete—the face defense and collar lames are 1missing—this helmet is nevertheless an outstanding example of late-sixteenth-century Milanese armor. Its rch decoration, which is chiseled, punched, and damascened in gold and silver, includes eagles, crowns, and a monogram comprising the letters V and F (or VFL). An armor with identical decoration appears in a portrait of Vincenzo I Gonzaga (1362-1612), duke of Mantua (Palazzo Ducale, Mantua), thought to have been painted about 1587, the year of his accession. Other portions of this armor, which appears 0 have been a large gamiture intended for field, mounted tournament, and foot combat atthe barriers, are preserved in the Musée de fArmée, Paris, and the Armeria Reale, Turin. Bases sale, Heel Drowt, Pars, April 26, 86, fot 2, il Sein sae, tel Drowt, Pars, February 22-Mareh 17, lo 47 Sor Close-Helmet for the Tournament on Foot Traian (Milan), 2. 1600-1610 Steel, gold weight 11 Ib. 1 07 (5360 g) Excolls: Prince A. P. Basilewsky, Paris; Wiliam H, Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 19 4.25598 Foot combat atthe barriers, while strictly a friendly sport, ‘required sturdy armor, particularly the helmet. This example ‘weighs almost twelve pounds. The overall reticulated pattern is characteristic of Milanese armor decoration about 1600, particularly of the Master ofthe Castle, an anonymous armorer (or workshop) using the etched motif of a castle as a mark. ‘On this helmet, foliate strapwork forms lozenges alternately filled with trophies of arms, palms passing through crowns, and flaming thunderbolts, the etched ornament brilliantly fire-gilt against a stippled darkened ground (the original col- oring is preserved at the front of the bow! beneath the visor). ‘The identical pattern is found on a left arm defense for the joust, also in the Metropolitan (ace. no. 14.25.825), These ‘nwo elements belong toa large garniture of armor compris- ing pieces for tournament on horse and on foot; the armor for foot combat, now in the Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan, completed by the Museum's helmet. Bases sale Hotel Drowat, Pari, Apri 26,1, lt 24). at. no. s, front of bow! (detail) 7 60a Close-Helmet for the Tournament on Foot Italian (Milan) or Spanish (Eugui}, ca. 1600-1610 ‘Steel, gold, brass; weight 10 Ib. 02, (4963 g) Excoll: Dukes of lla, Madrid(?); Charles Davillie, Pars; ‘William H. Riggs, Pais Gi of William H. Riggs 1913, 14.25995 ‘The surfaces were originally blued, deeply engraved and. punched, and damascened in gold; though worn with age, some of the original brilliant coloring is preserved beneath 38 the overlapping plates. The omament includes pairs of «entwined rings, a triangle (or delta) with paired palm ‘branches, and crowns surmounting a complex monogram (cither the owner’s name or device). The form, decorative technique, and omamental vocabulary are Milanese, but the hhelmet might also have been made by Milanese armorers ‘working in the Spanish royal workshop at Eugui. Unpublished, 461 Closed Burgonet of “Savoyard” Type Italian, ca. 600-1620 Stee; weight 10 Ib 102. (4562 g) Excoll,; Ambrogio Uboldo, Milan; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam . Riggs, 1013 asst “Savoyard” helmets area distinctive form of late Italian close-helmet worn by cuirassers, the heavy cavalry outfitted ‘with plate armor worn only to the knee and armed with pis- tols and swords. The term Saveyard isa reference tothe large number of these helmets thatthe Swiss caprured from the ‘troops ofthe duke of Savoy during an unsuccessful assault ‘on the city of Geneva during the night of December 11-12, 1602. These helmets are also referred to as Tadenkopf (“deaths head in German), an allusion to the eerie skull-like quality of the face defense. This example, which is unusual in having. a fully embossed human nose, has a decidedly more cheerful countenance Uboldo 1841, pl. 3, fig. As Lowisville 1952, no. 37; Hagerstown 1955, 1.30. 462 Closed Burgonet of “Savoyard” Type Italian, ea, 1600-1620 Stel, gold; weight 9b. 1102. (4301 g) Ex coll: Prince Pierre Soltykof, Pais; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gite of Wiliam H. Rigs, 1913 4.25516 Set off by blued steel surfaces, the etched and gilt flames provide an attractive and thoroughly appropriate decoration for a soldier constantly exposed to firearms and cannon fire Paris 188, vol 1p. 61 39 o4>r Burgonet for a Harquebusier Dutch or English, 110-20 Stel, gold sve, teste; weight 2b 9 0. (0348) "Ex coll; Wiliam H. Riggs, Pais Gift of Wiliam H. Rigs 95, per) ‘The harquebusier was a light cavalryman armed with a short carbine called a harquebus. Hee was usually outfitted with an open-faced helmet, acuirass with reinforcing breastplate, and an elbow-Length gauntict for the left hand, which was supplemented by a coat of thick buff leather, In most instances the armor was of sturdy utilitarian make, without ‘omament, ‘The extraordinarily rich decoration ofthis example is exceptional. The surface of the bow! is completely covered by wide bands of chiseled and punched foliate ornament, alternately silvered and fire-gilt. Similar chiseled decora- tion, but gilt overall, is found on the Dutch armor (now Royal Armour, Tower of London) ordered in 1612 for 463 Closed Burgonet Dutch, ca. 120-0 Stee, gold brass wight 51. om (2414 B) Excals: Prince Pere Solykoff, Pars; Willa H. Riggs, Pais Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 113 142550 “This simple but handsome example was originally blued or blackened; the barred face defense and pivot hooks on the right side ae git. The triple-barred visor and the single collar lame at the front and back, each shaped and engraved to suggest several articulated lames, are features frequently found on Dutch armors ofthe period. Unpublished, Henry, Prince of Wales, from an armorer a the Hague. It is also tempting to speculate that this splendidly embellished hhelmet may have been arade for the English couet. (The ‘one-piece til pate, cheekpices, and plume-hokder are expert restorations, as is the velvet-covered lining) Unpublisbed. 465 Pikeman’s Pot Dutch, ca, 1610-20 Stee, lacquer, gold, brass; weight 3b. 1402. (1769 8) Bx coll: Bashford Dean, New York Rogers Fund, 1904 ona ‘The introduction of European culture into Japan in the sixteenth century greatly influenced the indigenous style ‘of armor and tactics of warfare. Following the adoption of firearms, European armor, with its solid, sometimes shor proof plates, was eagerly acquired by the Japanese in the ‘original or was copied with considerable fidelity by local armorers. This finely made Dutch pikeman’s helmet, referred toat the time asa pot, was adapted for use by a samurai with, the addition ofa Japanese-style brow plate and a laminated neck defense (since removed) and by lacquering the interior and exterior surfaces. Dean 1903, pp. 6-65, fi. 20 466 Close-Helmet for the Field French, 2. 1600-1610 ‘Steel; weight sb. 10 02. (25448) Ex colls.: Ernest de Rociée, Paris; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gilt of Wiliam H. Rigs, 1913 14st ‘The decoration of this helmet, with its raised ribs outlining, parallel bands etched with trophies of arms, is typically French and is found on a distinctive group of armors dating to the reign of Henry IV (1590-1610). Among the trophies ‘on this example are cannon bearing the fleurs-de-lis of France, (The front collar lame is a modern restoration.) Resire sale, Hétel Drowat, Paris, March 17-18, 160, lot 37, il. “a 67> Close-Helmet for the Field French, ca 1620-50 Steel, golds weight 13 Ib. 14.02. (6293 8) Ex coll: William H. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 013 14.254 ‘The two-piece construction of the helmet bowl, the scal oped edges ofthe plates, and the distinctive snub-nosed profile of the visor recall French helmets of about 1620-30. ‘The reinforcing shot-proof plates screwed to either side of | the bowl, which add 3 pounds 10 ounces (1657 g) to the ‘overall weight, are rare on close-helmets for euirasies Beneath the reinforces, the original smooth blue-black surface of the bowl is preserved. [Nickel 196, . 202, fig. 2 468 Burgonet for a Cuirassier French 1620-30 Stel weight 616 (2724 8) Ex ols: Sir Richard Conway, LA, London; Same! HE, Whavel, ‘London; Bahford Dean, New York Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Gif of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander McMillan Welch, 999 aoissa ‘The surfaces are somewhat crudely etched with an overall pattern of strapwork cartouches enclosing trophies, ll set against a cross-hatched ground. The decoration and the distinctive profile of the helmet are typically French. The baluster-shaped finial atthe apex and large rayed washer below itare features also found on contemporary Flemish helmets and appear to be a conscious revival ofthe applied hhelmet ornaments depicted in Burgundian tapestries of the late fifteenth century. This example once belonged to the colebrated English painter Sir Richard Cosway, R.A. (1740-1821), who collected arms and armor as studio props for his history paintings. Grose 1786, ph oor Closed Burgonet French, 1630 Stee, golds weight 71b. (3177 8) Excoll: Willan H. Riggs, Paris Gift of William H. Riggs, 1983 142ssi8 Helmets witha faceted bowl surmounted by a pointed com ae characteristic of French examples worn during the reign of Louis XIII (1610-43). The somber dark stel surfaces are relieved by traces of orginal gilding on the plume holder atthe back, the baluster-shaped finial a the apex, and the "unusual baluster rivet heads on the buff and coll. The hel- ‘met’ large size and unusual type of falling buff with sloted sights are noteworthy: (The bottom collar lame a the front and back isa modem restoration) Unpublisbed. 70¥ Zischiigge German, c. 1630-40 ‘Stel, gold, bas leather, textes weight 4 1b 202 (80g) Exo: Willam H. Riggs, Pais Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 113 asst Ziscigge vefers 0 a distinctive type of seventeenth-century ‘cavalry helmet consisting of a hemispherical bowl, peak with sliding nasal, cheekpieces, and long laminated tail. The German word is a corruption of the Turkish chichat, which refers toa similarly constructed helmet used throughout much ofthe Ottoman world. Cat, nos. stand sa are eaelier examples of European helmets in the Oriental syle. Unlike most Zichigye, which were made in large numbers and lack quality of finish, this example has afnely uted and ribbed bow! with balustr final a the top its surfaces blued and gilt. Iealso preserves its orginal leather-covered lining in the bowl, peak, tail, and cheekpieces. The finial ofthe nasa is stamped a W (or upside-down M2). Unpublished, ent, mo. 70, interior 8 Tia Siege Helmet French, ca. 1600-1650 Steck; weight 20 Ib. 902. (9385 8) Excoll: William H. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam #. Riggs, 1913 435-495 Siege engineers, sappers, and bombardiers regularly came under fire at close range and thus were equipped with ‘extraordinarily heavy shot-proof armor. The bowl and cheeks ‘of this example are protected by a double thickness of plates. ‘The tight side of the bowl has a proofmark—the dent caused bya bullet fired ata prescribed distance as proof of the armor plate’ strength —but the shot did not penetrate the sturdy reinforce to the bow! below. Unpublished. 72a Siege Helmet French, ca 1650-1700 Steel; weight 2 Ib. 6 02 (10:70 8) x colls: Henry, Paris; Wiliam H. Riggs, Pais Gift of Wiliam H. Riggs, 1913 4.25493 ‘Wearing this extremely thick, heavy helmet could not have been comfortable. The adjustable face defense alone weighs almost four pounds. The shallow dent atthe front ofthe bow! is proofinark, The form of the bow! is curiously archaic, recalling sallets ofthe fifteenth century (for example, ‘at, nos, 6 and 9), whereas the siding nasal—an Oriental innovation —is reversed, so thatthe enlarged finial has become the principal face defense (cf. cat. no. 47). The bowl and face defense are both stamped with the number 21, indicating that the helmet was part ofa scrcs Paris 180, p. 4, il. cas, no. 7, sed at, 90.73, ope 734 Spider Helmet English or French 3 150-1700 Stel, pain, textile; weight 4 Ib. 07 (2152 8) Excolls.: Prince Pierre Soltykof, Pais; Wiliam H. Riggs, Paris Gift of Wiliam #1 Riggs, 1013 14.2503 ‘One of the most bizarre head defenses ever designed, the so- called spider helmet takes its name from the arrangement of arrow bars hinged around the rim of the domed bowl and projecting peak recalling the legs radiating from a spider's body. The hanging bars encircled the head and offered pro- ‘ection against cutting blows from swords. When not in use, the bars were folded up and their ends fitted beneath the spring:held disk a the apex. A tur ofthe screw a the front released the spring, causing the disk to pop up and the bars to fll into place. The bowl retain its padded fining. Paris 188, p. 68 ill. 45 MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS (not reproduced to scale) mares, eat. no. 3 ‘mark, cat. no. 13 mark, cat, no. 3 5 marie ent. 0.13 marks, ‘mark, cat. no. 1s ‘mark, eat. no. 15 marks, cat, no.15 ‘marke, ent, no. 12 mars, eat, no, 16 ‘mark, cat. no.19 ‘marks, ent, no. 21 ‘marie cat. no, 23 ‘mark, cat. no. 26 ‘marie, cat. no. 24 marly ent, no. 30 \ mark, cat, m0. 45 inscription (signature), cat. no. 53 inscription (date), cat, no. 53 ‘mar, eat no. 70 ‘mark, eat. no. 72 ‘marl, cat. no, 72 ” BIBLIOGRAPHY Allentown 964 Gransay, Stephen V. Aras and Arma. sh at Alenown, PAlentown Art Museum, 964. Allou its Alou, C. IN. “Enudes sur les casques dua Moyen Age (Part) Exe dun owvrage ine sures aes cx rues du Moyene ‘Age? Mémoies de a Soci Royale der’ Arius de Era 3 (88) PP 157334 Bocca, Ros and Moin ito ‘Bosca, Lionllo Giorgio, Francesco ons a Marco Mori, Arie amare lembe, Mian let Ec, 980 Borcensh i985 Borchers, Zignicw: “Un Groupe de cauqueshongroisdorés du XVI see” Arm atch (968) pp 108-8 DeCosson vor ‘De Cosson, [Charles Alexander), Baron. ‘Le Cabin are de Marc de Talend Perigord dc de Dino, Ps: Edouard Rowreyr, 901 De Cosson an Burges 1881 ‘De Conon, [Ces Alea) Baron and “Wiliam Burges, Ani Helmets and samp Ma: A Carlo ti bjs shite the Rooms of he Ral “Arcelie Itt of Great Brin ‘and land... London: Off of the Insite, 8 Dean 903 ‘Dein, Basho. Catal of the Loon Cale of Jeane Armor New York: Metropolitan Museum of Ar, 903 Desa vos ‘ean, Basho, The Mampalien Maco of ‘Ar Hand Bok No.1: Calne of “arpean Arsand rmer NewYork: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1005 Desniois ‘Dean Bashond. Handbo of Arms and ‘Ammar: Exrnpan and Onl, Inlding the Wim H. Rigg Calls, Nev York Metropolitan Museum of Ar, Desa oat ‘etn, Rashfond. “Recent Accessions inthe ‘Amor Department” Maplin Meum of Are Bullen 2,001 (Jaary 1938), Pp. 16-24 ine 1067 (Grancy, Stephen V. The Ar of te

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