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P Department

of
the Environment

cotia

C88-099702-8

624.151363

1988

E76

1A710.

Services.

Government

of

Dept.

Scotia.

Nova

I.

stabilization.

Soil

aspects.

Environmental

industry

Construction

2. 1.

0-88871-116-6

ISBN

references.

biographical

Includes

control

sedimentation

and

Erosion

title:

under

entry

Main

Data

Publication

in

Cataloguing

Canadian

0-88871-116-6

ISBN

Division.

Services

Information

Services

Government

of

Department

Scotia

Nova

the

of

Section

Publishing

Assessment

Environmental

Environment,

the

of

Department

Scotia

Nova

the

Published

the

Division.

by

Canada.

in

Printed

by

Produced

Scotia,

Nova

of

Province

Copyright.

22b

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

18b

REFERENCES

APPENDICES:

Environment

the

on

Sedimentation

of

llb 7b

Processes

Sedimentation

and

Erosion

Effects

B. A.

lb

GLOSSARY

2.10

Ponds

Siltation

Barrier

Straw

2.9 2.8

Barrier

Fabric

Filter

2.7F

Dam

Sandbag

2.7E

Dam

Fill

Earth

Sodded

2.7D

Dam

Plank

2.7C

Dam

Basket

Gabion

2.7B

Dam

Rock

2.74

Dam

Brush

Drains

Seepage

Structures)

(Drop

2.7 2.6 2.5

General

Dams

Check

Downdrains

&

Chutes

2.4

Protection

Outlet

Drain

Storm

Ditch

Dispersion

Ditch

Diversion

Drainage

2.3 2.2 2.1

Waterway

Grassed

Control

1.5

BufferStrips

&

Linings

Vegetative

Fabric

Filter

Geotextile

Lining

Basket

Lining

Riprap

Practices

Grading

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0

Matting

Temporary

Gabion

Stabilization

Surface

Measure

Control

Category

13a

Factsheets

2.3

Ba

Plans

Control

Sedimentation

and

Erosion

Preparing

for

Guidelines

2.2

5a

Sedimentation

and

Erosion

Reducing

for

Practices

and

Principles

Accepted

2.1

PROJECTS

CONSTRUCTION

ON

CONTROL

SEDIMENTATION

AND

EROSION

2.

Erosion

of

Causes

and

Processes

4a 2a

Controls

Sedimentation

and

Erosion

of

Effectiveness

Physical

la

Background

1.3 1.2 1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.

CONTENTS

Scotia.

Nova

of

province

the

in

taken

were

handbook

this

in

photos

All

2.3.

Factsheet

to

refer

waterway

grassed

newly-sodded

of

Close-up

construction.

highway

major

during

works

drainage

of

front

in

placed

rock

crushed

and

bales

straw

of

consisting

Berm

2.10.

Factsheet

to

refer

basin

sedimentation

Temporary

highway.

major

of
a

Hydroseeding

bottom

to

top

from

photos,

cover

for

Captions

la

scenario.

construction

every

for

instructions

precise

provide

to

designed

not

is

handbook

this

conditions,

climatic

and

topographic

soil,

in

differs

project

and

site

each

As

area.

this

in

training

technical

and

experience

practical

with

measures

control

siltation

and

erosion

persons

prevent

by to

used

be

should

It

watercourses.

local

of

sedimentation

appropriate

of

construction

and

design

the

in

aid

to

intended

is

handbook

This

environment.

the

need

the

recognized

of

protection

promote

to

program

educational

control

sedimentation

and

erosion

an

prepare

its to

of

part

as

handbook

Environment

the

of

Department

Scotia

Nova

the

enjoyment,

and

use

public

for

law

by

protected

are

marshes,

and

ponds,

lakes,

rivers,

including

watercourses,

Scotia

Nova

all

Because

A.

Appendix

see

explanation,

detailed

more

For

recreation.

and

navigation

supplies,

water

fresh

for

useful

less

being

water

and

habitat,

wildlife

and

fish

of

destruction

or

degradation

are

consequences

The

watercourses.

nearby

of

siltation

serious

often

is

result

the

treated,

properly

not

is

runoff

this

If

water.

running

and

rain

to

soil

of

areas

large

exposing

by

mainly

dramatically,

erosion

accelerate

projects

earth-moving

large

and

activities

Construction

balance.

environmental

an

maintaining

century,

by

century

landscape

the

shaping

slowly,

occurs

erosion

natural

erosion,

channel

stream

and

shore

of

cases

some

Excepting

formed.

was

Earth

the

since

rate

slow

relatively

at

occurring

been

has

ice

and

wind

water,

by

erosion

geologic,

or

Natural,

erosion.

and

weathering

natural

to

subject

is

Soil

BACKGROUND

1.1

INTRODUCTION

I
PART

1.2

PHYSICAL

PROCESSES

AND

CAUSES

OF

EROSION

Because

natural

or

geologic

erosion

of

the

Earth's

crust

takes

place

erosion

provide

guidelines

for

limits

of

gradually

over

thousands

However,

geologic

norms

of of

years,

the

process

is

not

readily

obvious.

practical

erosion

control

measures

and

basis

for

measuring

the

acceleration

of

soil

erosion.

Man's

activities

can

erosion

process

considerably

through

the

removal

of

soil

up
speed

a
in

matter

the

natural

of

days

or

weeks.

Inevitably,

this

affects

the

natural

environment

around

the

site.

For

example,

nearby

river

that

is

normally

clear

may

suddenly

turn

muddy-brown

colour

soon

after

rainstorm

passes

over

construction

area,

as

tonnes

of

soil

are

eroded

by

the

rain

and

washed

into

the

river.

Figure

1:

Sediment-laden

water

flowing

into

river

from

construction

site

during

heavy

rainfall.

Erosion

is

primarily

influenced

by

four

factors:

topography,

and

vegetation.

Soil

erosion

problems

can

differ

soil

climate,

from

type,

place

to

place

because

of

the

variability

of

each

factor,

and

the

relationship

of

one

factor

with

another.

Controlling

erosion

can

be

accomplished

through

understanding

the

nature

of

the

relationships.

Climate

and

soil

conditions

obviously

cannot

be

controlled

by

man;

however,

proper

planning

can

sometimes

permit

avoidance

of

construction

on

highly

erodible

soils

and

under

adverse

weather

conditions.

It

is

easier

and

more

effective

to

manipulate

vegetative

cover

and

topographic

conditions

through

erosion

control

practices

like

the

ones

presented

in

this

handbook.

For

more

detailed

discussion

on

the

processes

and

causes

of

erosion,

refer

to

Appendix

B.

Figure

2:

housing

development

where

vegetation

has

been

completely

stripped,

exposing

bare

soil

to

rainfall

erosion

on

long,

steep

slope.

3a

4a

conditions.

Scotian

Nova

to

rated

been

not

have

values

factor

The

achieve.

could

sites

construction

on

implemented

controls

sedimentation

and

erosion

predicted

the

However,

site.

construction

the

from

would

losses

erosion

annual

predicted

the

condition,

100
implementing

by

level

acceptable

an

to

decreased

be

greater

that loss

measures.

control

erosion

could

be

actual

than

simplified

more

although

example,

common

losses

Site

soil
merits

relative

the

illustrates

nonetheless

techniques,

prediction

This

times

construction

disturbed

the

to

assigned

was

.0

of

factor

and

site,

construction

of

condition

undisturbed,

completely

or

baseline,

the

to

assigned

was

0.01

of

factor

control

erosion

an

if

example,

For

.0.

1
than

less

values

factor

assigned

are

revegetation

of

methods

and

mulches,

of

rates

and

types

certain

of

use

the

as

such

Measures

runoff.

and

rainfall

against

protection

without

soil

the

leaving

zone,

root

the

and

vegetation

all

of

removal

in

results

site

grubbing

or

clearing

when

as

such

used,

are

controls

erosion

no

means

.0

of

factor

control

erosion

An

loss.

soil

annual

site,

from

loss

soil

annual

estimated

the

in

reduction

relative

erosion

an

with

combined

when

the and

predict

can

they

factor,

control

the

of

estimate

an

provide

values

factor

these

multiplied,

When

soils.

and

areas

different

for

factors,

topographic

and

erodibility

soil

rainfall,

to

assigned

values

recognized

in

resulted

has

America

North

throughout

models

prediction

loss

soil

mathematical

of

use

Extensive

CONTROLS

SEDIMENTATION

AND

EROSION

OF

EFFECTIVENESS

1.3

5a

structures.

diversion

constructing

or

terracing

benching,

by

broken

be

should

slopes

steep

Long,

velocities.

and

volumes

runoff

reduce

with

soils

and

soils

erodible

slopes,

steep

Environment.

Department

the

from

permit

require

alterations

that

Note

channels.

natural

of

features

all

preserve

every

make

and

flooding

to

subject

areas

sound
severe

any

to

utilized

be

not

should

uses

intended

the

for

channel

Avoid

to

through

limitations

the

overcoming

first

limitations

of

the

of

site.

the

of

portion

level

most

the

on

areas

graded

large

Locate

effort

practices.

engineering

without

Areas

slopes

designed

the

of

steepness

and

length

the

Limit

site.

the

of

characteristics

assure

will

planning

Detailed

natural

the

to

conform

activity

other

and

buildings

roadways,

the that

to

related

features

permanent

b)

activity.

proposed

the

to

conform

to

site

the

modify

to

attempting

than

rather

activity

specific

for

selected

is

site

if

minimized

be

can

maintenance

and

control

erosion

for

Costs

a)

SITE.

OFA

VEGETATION

NATURAL

AND

WATERWAYS,

SOILS,

TOPOGRAPHY,

THE

TO

ACTIVITY

THE

FIT

1.

SEDIMENTATION

AND

EROSION

REDUCING

FOR

PRACTICES

AND

PRINCIPLES

ACCEPTED

2.1

projects.

construction

all

on

possible

extent

maximum

the

to

utilized

be

should

pages

following

the

on

outlined

principles

five

the

of

combinations

Practical

field.

erosion

technical

for

basis

the

provides

B,

planner

project

control

sediment

the and

by

utilized

be

can

principles

These

principles.

in in

foreman

construction

by

implemented

readily

or

stage

design

the the

Appendix

in

explained

as

erosion,

affecting

factors

of

knowledge

construction.

of

phases

all

during

control

sediment

and

erosion

assure

to

scheduling,

including

necessary,

steps

is

plan

This

site.

construction

disturbs

equipment

earth-moving

the an

all

prescribes

and

plan

development

site

total

the

of

part

integral

any

before

erosion

controlling

for

plan

develop

to

is

bodies

water

receiving

of

sedimentation

reducing

in

step

first

important

very

PROJECTS

CONSTRUCTION

ON

CONTROL

SEDIMENTATION

AND

EROSION

PART

6a

expensive.

and

difficult

more

is

control

sediment

controlled,

adequately

not

is

erosion

When

gullies.

of

form

the

in

erosion

"gross"

Prevent

d) c)

results.

intended

the

ensure

to

nance

mainte-

sufficient

and

fashion,

timely

in

installation

accurate

design,

adequate

practices,

conservation

of

selection

judicious

upon

depends

reduction

sediment

and

control

erosion

Effective

b)

water.

surface

control

to

structures

tion

stabiliza-

grade

and

soils,

exposed

from

runoff

surface

divert

to

structures

diversion

as

such

practices

other

Incorporate

erodible.

less

it

make

to

soil

compact

and

Roll

dozer.

cleated

with

tracking

or

contour

the

on

slope

roughening

as

such

methods

grading

special

Use

erosion.

control

to

help

and

mulch

as

serve

can

chippings

and

logs

brush,

as

such

materials

project

Even

materials.

mulch

various

with

or

vegetation

permanent

or

temporary

with

possible

as

much

as

covered

soil

Keep

produced.

being

from

sediment

excessive

prevent

will

site

on

practices

control

erosion

Applying

a)

DAMAGE.

ON-SITE

AGAINST

DEFENSE

OF

LINE

FIRST

AS

PRACTICES

CONTROL

EROSION"

"SOIL

APPLY

3.

potential.

erosion

maximum

of

season

the

during

areas

critical

or

large

of

grading

Minimize

seeding.

staged

as

known

is

process

This

grade.

to

up

brought

are

slopes

fill

as

or

made,

are

slopes

cut

as

example,

for

progresses

work

as

slopes

the

Revegetate

area.

the

in

controls

erosion

and

gravel,

as

such

cover

surface

and

vegetation

permanent

establish

complete,

is

grading

after

immediately

Then,

begun.

is

it

after

possible

as

soon

as

grading

Complete

b)

mulch.

or

vegetation

permanent

or

temporary

of

cover

good

have

should

areas

other

All

exposed.

are

developed

being

actively

are

which

areas

the

only

that

so

development

of

stages

or

phases

the

Plan

becomes.

problem

the

serious

more

the

unstabilized,

left

is

it

longer

the

and

area

disturbed

leave

vegetation

natural

of

removal

the

and

changes

Earth

the an

larger

the

sedimentation;

and

erosion

to

susceptible

area

a)

TIME.

POSSIBLE

SHORTEST

THE

FOR

LAND

OF

AREA

PRACTICAL

SMALLEST

THE

EXPOSE

2.

sediment.

of

transport

and

production

associated

the

and

erosion

controlling

of

method

practical

most

the

be

to

prove

will

facilities

trapping

sediment

and

practices

control

erosion

overall

an

into

integrated

are

principles

five

these

Usually

of

techniques

management

and

measures

structural

and

vegetative

of of
demon-

as

sediment,

controlling

and

erosion

preventing

at

aimed

plan

cases,

most

In

3.

Figure

chart,

flow

the

by

strated

combination

selection

judicious

and

exposure

of

time

limited

grading,

limited

mulching.

for

sawdust

or

bark

hay,

like

materials

useful

of

sources

other

for

area

the

scout

and

riprap,

rock

or

gravel,

polyethylene,

bales,

straw

as

such

materials

of

hand

on

inventory

adequate

an

keep

construction

Throughout

predicted.

is

rain

if

prepared

be

and

daily

forecast

weather

the

Check

properly.

working

are

practices

control

all

that

sure

make

to

check"

day

of

"end

routine

Start

inventoried.

and

checked

materials

and

maintained,

be

must

equipment

construction

as

just

maintained

be

must

practices

These

practices.

control

sediment

and

erosion

the

of

checks

periodic

thorough,

without

controlled

effectively

be

cannot

site

others.

four

the

of

success

the

to

vital

is

principle

fifth

This

OPERATION.

FOLLOW-UP

AND

MAINTENANCE

THOROUGH

IMPLEMENT

5.

source.

its

at

erosion

prevent

to

is

however,

sediment,

control

to

way

best

The

b)

complete.

is

development

after

use

in

remain

will

they

not

or

whether

on

depending

permanent

or

temporary

either

as

classified

be

can

measures

control

sediment

structural

and

Vegetative

rses.

watercou

protect

and

sediment

control

to

used

practices

of

examples

some

are

filters

vegetative

and

traps,

sediment

basins,

sedimentation

Berms,

out.

settle

particles

impounding

or

area

an

through

flows

it

as

runoff

soil the

the

that

so

time

of

period

for

runoff

sediment-laden

filtering

either

by

done

is

this

Generally,

off-site.

getting

from

sediment

prevent

and

runoff

control

to

is

defence

of

line

second

The

a)

DAMAGE.

OFF-SlTE

PREVENT

TO

PROTECTION

PERIMETER

AS

PRACTICES

CONTROL"

"SEDIMENT

APPLY

4.

PREPARE EROSION AND


SEDIMENTATION CONTROL PLAN

Consists of a written document and drawings based on accepted principles and practices for reducing erosion and
sedimentation.
Carry out a thorough soils analysis
Fit the activity to the natural site features, particularly waterways
Include a stormwater management plan
Expose the smallest area for the shortest practical time
Plan for erosion control materials and the time to apply them
Plan the location for sedimentation control measures
Prepare for contingencies maintenance is very important

IMPLEMENT TEMPORARY

SURFACE STABILIZATION

DRAINAGE CONTROL

EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION


CONTROLS DURING

(TEMPORARY)

(TEMPORARY)

CONSTRUCTION

VEGETATIVE (1.5)
BUFFERSTAIPS

PERMANENT EROSION CONTROL


FOR FINISHED SITE

CHANNELS

GRADING

SEDIMENTATION

(DITCHES)

PRACTICES

PONDS

(2.1)(2.2)

(1.0)

(2.10) (TEMPORARY!

MULCHING

GABION BASKETS (1.2)

HYDROSEEDING

GEOTEXTILE FILTER

CHECK DAMS

FILTER BARRIERS

FABRIC (1.3)

BRUSH (2.7A)

STRAW (2.8)

MATTING (1.4)

ROCK (2.7B)

FILTER FABRIC

MATTING (1.4)

IMPLEMENT MAINTENANCE
PROGRAM THROUGHOUT
CONSTRUCTION

NON-VEGETATIVE

RIPRAP(1.1)

PERMANENT)

(2.9)

DAILY ROUTINE CHECKS

REPAIRS

REPLACEMENTS

INVENTORY OF CONTROL MATERIALS

SURFACE STABILIZATION

DRAINAGE CONTROL

(PERMANENT)

(PERMANENT)

VEGETATIVE (1.5)

NON-VEGETATIVE

CHANNELS

STORM DRAIN

CHECK DAMS

SEEDING

RIPAAP(1.1)

(DITCHES)

OUTLET
PROTECTION

ROCK(2.7B)

(2.4)

EARTH SODDED

(2.1)(2.2)
SODDING

GABION BASKETS (1.2)


BEAMS,

MATTING (1.4)

(2.7E)

GRAVELLING

TERRACES,
FINAL GRADING

SEEPAGE

PAVING

(1.0)

(2.6)

GRASSED

CHUTES AND

WATERWAYS

DOWNDRAINS

(2.3)

(2.5)

DRAINS

GABIONS (2.7C)
WOODEN PLANKS

I
MAINTAIN PERMANENT
EROSION CONTROL

(2.70)
SANDBAGS (2.7F)

SEDIMENTATION PONDS (2.10)

MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
ROUTINE CHECKS

REPAIRS

REPLACEMENTS

INVENTORY OF CONTROL MATERIALS

FIGURE 3

STEPS TO FOLLOW IN PREPARING AN EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.
NOTE: NUMBERS IN BRACKETS REFER TO FACTSHEETS. SECTION 2.3

9a

or

runoff,

overland

concentrated

conditions,

bank

unstable

velocity,

nature

flow

stream

high

of

result

the

be

may

ditch

drainage

example,

For

it.

correct

to

how

and

problem

the

a of

along

erosion

exact

the

determine

to

help

will

This

investigation.

site

thorough

instead,

undertake,

to

but

correction,

to

approach

blanket

avoid

to

wise

is

it

reason,

this

For

significantly.

differ

may

causes

their

symptoms,

similar

share

often

problems

erosion

Although

site.

erosion

each

for

measure

control

right

the

selecting

in

taken

be

must

care

Great

plan.

control

sedimentation

and

erosion

adequate

an

in

result

will

practices

conservation

of

combination

what

on

bearing

direct

have

all

factors

other

and

fill,

and

cut

of

amount

disturbed,

acreage

watercourses,

and

boundaries

property

to

proximity

characteris-

drainage

soil,

of

types

and

nature

slope,

of

degree

tics, The

site.

to

site

from

vary

sedimentation

and

erosion

accelerated

control

to

needed

practices

conservation

the

area,

regional

within

Even

circumstances.

approved

be

may

handbook

the

in

contained

individual

in

use

plan,

the

in

inclusion

for for

proposed

as

merits

their

upon

based

not

are

specifications

and

guidelines

which

for

Practices

handbook.

this

in

contained

specifications

and

guidelines

exceed

or

meet

should

control

sediment

and

erosion

for

practices

Conservation

drawings.

construction

or

location

the

and

problems,

erosion

plan

grading

plan,

site

any

measures.

control

suitable

of of

part

integral

an

be

should

map

The

anticipated

and

existing

grading,

and

clearing

for

limits

the

area,

the

of

features

natural

and

topography

the

depicting

overlays,

with

map

base

or

scale)

same

the

of

maps

several

(or

map

2.

followed.

be

to

measures)

control

of

maintenance

(including

procedures

and

techniques,

methods,

the

explaining

and

activities),

construction

major

of

phasing

or

scheduling

the

(including

project

the

describing

report

narrative

1.

parts:

two

of

consists

usually

plan

acceptable

An

approved.

be

to

order

in

plan

control

sedimentation

and

erosion

an

require

and

Acts

the

under

assessed

undertakings

typical

are

they

such,

As

constructed.

and

planned

properly

not

if

pollution

sediment

gross

causing

of

capable

all

are

development

and

exploration

mining

and

developments,

parks

industrial

and

subdivision

residential

developments,

linear

other

and

construction,

pipeline

utility,

Highway,

Act.

Protection

Environmental

the

subject

and

Act

Assessment

Environmental

the

of

provisions

the

to

be

and

assessment

environmental

require

may

watercourses

of

siltation

in

result

could

that

disturbance

land

involving

Undertakings

PLANS

CONTROL

TATION

SEDIMEN-

AND

EROSION

PREPARING

FOR

GUIDELINES

2.2

lOa

problems.

quality

water

or

depositional

creates

downstream

transported

sediment

of

loss

direct

the

when

occur

may

situation

accumulated

the

type

of

to

This

only.

problem

sediment

involves

Ill

Type

Problem

insufficient

is

but soil

source,

erosion

the

at

damage

local

create

channels.

stream

and

ditches

downstream

into

transported

and

eroded

being

material

substantial

from

result

can

situation

of

type

This

problem.

sediment

and

problem

erosion

an

both

involves

II

Type

Problem

system.

waterway

into

move

not

do

but

boundaries,

construction

the

within

or

downslope

distances

short

relatively

deposited

and

transported

are

quantities,

substantial

in

even

sediments,

locally-eroded

where

occur

may

situation

Such

problem.

sediment

no

but

problem

erosion

an

involves

I
Type

Problem

pollutants.

sediment-borne

by

waters

downstream

clogging

example,

material

damage

other

and

structures,

of

undermining

the

mean

can

turn

in

which

soil,

of

loss

direct

the

for

of
with

associated

damage

repair.

the

roadways,

of

locations;

downstream

is

there

where

exists

problem

costly

necessitating

involves

loss

stream

and

ditches

drainage

of at

filling

culverts,

eroded

of

deposition

sediment

contamination

and

reservoirs,

and

ponds

of of

silting

channels,

the

erosion

to

attributable

damage

where

exists

problem

erosion

An

XX

II

X X

Ill

Problem

Sediment

Problem

Erosion

Type

Problem

strategies.

control

and

problems

of

categories

considering

for

basis

provides

below

presented

that

as

such

problems

sediment

and

erosion

of

classification

broad

causes.

problem

specific

the

correcting

in

required

avoid

to

important

objectives

specific

the

meet

appropriately

rather

but

measures,

of

choice

indiscriminate

that an

those

select

to

is

It

efforts.

control

the

of

objectives

the

as

well

as

problems,

existing

the

of

identification

clear

requires

measures

control

sediment

or

and/

erosion

effective

of

implementation

and

design

selection,

The
correct

it.

aggravate

even

may

and

it,

to

fail

may

measure

remedial

applied

the

determined,

adequately

are

problem

of

causes

actual

the

Unless

these.

of

combination

any

ha

facilities

and

measures

permanent

the

of

description

Brief

problems

off-site

or

site

on

on-

storm

by

posed

problems

of

analysis

runoff

areas

downstream

Brief

to

contribute

may

which

factors

drainage

local

of

Analysis

calculation

of

methods

and

considered

factors

runoff-producing

watershed;

upstream

the

and

area

project

the

from

runoff

of

amount

The

map)

the

on

shown

facilities

of

location

the

and

narrative

the

in

(described

program

management

stormwater

The

4.

scientist.

soil

qualified

by

made

be

should

evaluation

survey,

on-site

an

Alternatively,

disturbance.

planned

the

to

made

be

should

soil

the

of

analysis

mechanical

of a

depth

the soil

available

readily

is

data

Soils

of

absence

the

In

progress.

soil

modern

which

for

areas

in in

or

completed

either

are

surveys

soil

each

of

area

Surface

Reports)

Survey

Soil

Scotia

Nova

the

in

described

(as

structure

and

drainage,

depth,

slope,

texture,

type,

including

soil,

each

of

description

Adequate

map)

the

on

shown

and

narrative

the

in

(presented

soils

the

on

Information

3.

vegetation

existing

of

extent

and

Nature

wells

and

plains,

flood

ditches,

drainage

areas,

wetland

ponds,

lakes,

streams,

as

such

areas,

project

the

of,

proximity

in

or

within,

located

areas

environmental

Critical

construction

following,

and

to,

prior

area

the

describe

adequately

will

that

scale

and

interval

an

at

Contours

features

significant

or

landmarks

identifiable

other

and

supplies,

water

buildings,

boundaries,

property

highways,

to

relative

project

the

of

location

The

arrow)

north

and

scale

map

include

also

should

which

map,

the

on

(shown

features

topographic

The

2.

description

Brief

description

Brief

program

management

stormwater

program

control

sediment

program

control

erosion

of of of

description

Brief

areas

exposed

of

extent

the

minimize

to

stabilization

site

and

activities

land-disturbing

of

staging)

(or

phasing

The

completed

be

will

stabilization

final

that

date

expected

and

begin

to

is

project

that

Date

project

overall

the

of

description

Brief

narrative)

the

in

(included

project

the

of

statement

general

1.

documents:

plan

of

development

the

in

considered

be

should

elements

following

the

another,

to

site

one

from

variations

wide

the

Recognizing

12a

purposes

their

served

have

they

after

measures

structural

temporary

of

disposing

for

Method

area

project

the

or

facilities

control

the

from

reconstruction

or

reseeding

or

Resodding

sediment

of

disposal

and

removal

measures

structural

damaged

areas

vegetated

of of of

frequency

and

Method

Repair

schedule

and

frequency

including

program,

Inspection

narrative)

the

in

(described

facilities

control

the

for

program

maintenance

The

8.

mulching

or

sodding

seeding,

as

such

details

vegetative

or

Landscaping

applicable)

(if

calculations

and

considerations

Design

facilities

facilities

and

Section

factsheets

to

(refer

facilities

and

protection

long-term

erosion

permanent

considerations

Design

Dimensional

on

shown

and

narrative

the

in

(included

measures

control

sedimentation

and

applicable)

(if

calculations

and

facilities

facilities

the and

measures

of

Location

of

measures

Purpose

map)

The

of

measures

of

Types

the for

details

2.3)

details

Dimensional

of

Location

7.

service

of

length

expected

and

2.3),

Section

factsheets

to

(refer

facilities

and

measures

of

Types

Purpose

map)

the

on

shown

and

narrative

the

in

(included

tion

construc-

active

during

used

be

to

mechanical)

and

(vegetative

measures

control

sedimentation

and

erosion

temporary

The

6.

topsoil

or

fill

excess

of

stockpiles

of

protection

and

Location

structures

other

and

sewers,

storm

buildings,

crossings),

stream

(including

roads

for

Location

Limits

clearing

slopes

side

proposed

and

grading

fills and

and

cuts

of of

Areas

project

the

of

acreage

and

limits

Boundary

map)

the

on

(shown

area

the

of

alteration

proposed

The

5.

handbook.)

this

in

factsheets

the

to

addition

in

purposes,

design

for

used

be

may

1982)

(March

Manual

Criteria

Design

Drainage

Storm

Halifax

designed

of

County

the

of

Municipality

Scotia

Nova

the

as

such

(References

problem(s)

the

with

cope

of to

Province

construction.

and

design

project

in

experts

tion

construc-

other

and

engineers

aid

effectively

can

training,

technical

and

experience

practical

with

combined

when

that,

guidelines

general

are

they

Rather,

conditions.

climatic

and

topographic

soil,

in

differs

project

and

site

each

because

scenario,

construction

every

of

description

accurate-in-every-detail

an

represent

they

do

Nor

situation.

possible

every

encompass

not

may

factsheets

These

effort.

control

sedimentation

and

erosion

thorough

for

required

usually

is

measure

remedial

one

than

more

that

aware

user

the

make

to

referenced

cross

also

are

they

and

projects,

construction

of

types

various

to

apply

may

they

that

order

in

possible

as

detailed

as

are

They

Control.

Drainage

and

Stabilization

Surface

of

categories

broad

two

under

prepared

are

factsheets

The

conditions.

field

under

problem

existing

an

to

measures

some

applying

in

or

place

takes

development

before

plans

control

sedimentation

and

erosion

preparing

in

used

be

may

provided

factsheets

The

projects.

construction

on

circumstances

of

number

details

handbook

the

of

section

following

The

variety

erosion

in of

useful

be

may

which

measures

control

sedimentation

and

FACTSHEETS

2.3

No.

1.0
Page

of

4
June

1988

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

SURFACE

STABILIZATION

GRADING

PRACTICES

FACTSHEET

PURPOSE

(2:1),

consider

retaining

wall

or

uses

improve

surface

and

toe

of
adjacent

ground.

conduct

the

runoff

water

a
in

trolled

manner

to

stable

subsurface

outlet

to

blend

with

surface

or

cases,

round

the the

top

con-

lower

cuts

and

fills

of

3:1

and

and

drainage

slope

4:1. the

In

all

To

buildings,

facilities

and

other

to

efficiently.

In

erodible

soils,

consider

To

provide

sites

more

suitable

maintnance

equipment

can

operate

land

about

the

steepest

on

which

tractors

and

for

cribbing

as

an

alternative.

3:1

slope

is

To

limit

the

length

and

steepness

of

slopes

in

order

to

reduce

runoff

volumes

and

velocities

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

Where

grading

to

planned

elevations

is

practical

for

the

purposes

stated

above

ADVANTAGES

Prevent

standing

water

and

Divert

water

away

from

buildings

soil

saturation

detrimental

to

structures

and

to

lot

users

Grading

of

terraces

in

subdivision.

Provide

grades

for

safe

and

conve-

Provide

for

disposal

of

water

from

lots

nient

access

to

and

around

buildings

and

lots

for

their

use

not

make

cuts

too

close

to

property

lines.

maintenance

from

erosion,

sliding

or

settlement,

do

and

In

order

to

protect

adjoining

property

of

sliding

or

washing

onto

adjoining

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

Place

fill

so

that

there

is

no

danger

During

development,

some

exposure

of

property.

Do

not

locate

fills

adjacent

to

bare

earth

and

some

grading

work

are

stream

bank,

unless

they

are

protected

inevitable;

however,

they

can

be

mini-

by

riprap.

cut

or

fill

should

be

at

least

as

mized

by

careful

planning

and

scheduling.

Complete

regrading

work

as

early

during

horizontally

from

property

lines

as

the

job

as

possible,

and

stabilize

the

vertical

height

of

the

cut

or

fill

far the for

a a
As of

general

recommendation,

the

edge

No.

1.0

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

Page

of

SURFACE

STABILIZATION

GRADING

PRACTICES

chutes

and

downdrains,

in

order

to

ensure

that

runoff

will

not

flow

over

or

down

the

graded

slope.

DESIGN

STEPS

1.

Design

retaining

walls,

diversions

and

seepage

drains

if

required.

Cut

and

slopes

of

more

than

but

less

than

12.2
should

be

terraced

vertical

height

(40

ft.)

9.1 m

(30

approximately

mid-height.

Cut

and

fill ft.),in at fill

slopes

with

vertical

height

greater

approximately

equal

vertical

than

12.2

raced

at

(40

ft.)

should

be

ter-

intervals

about

(20

ft.)

apart.

Unusual

soil

stability

conditions

may

require

closer

terrace

intervals

to

assure

vegetative

establishment

and

maintenance.

2.

Terraces

should

be

not

less

than
travel,

1.5

width

(5 as

needed

for

equipment

ft.)

wide.

Provide

additional

vegetative

establishment

and

mainte-

nance.

Terraces

should

have

min-

imum

grade

of

one

percent

vegetated

or

one-half

percent

if if

the

upper

bank,

and

should

paved,

the

toe

a of

10:1

lateral

slope

towards

convey

water

to

an

acceptable

outlet.

Polyethylene

liner

used

to

protect

the

exposed

soils

are

not

suitable

temporary

diversion

ditch.

3.

Topsoil

can

be

spread

on

slope

if for

establishing

vegetation.

The

topsoil

Seeps

or

springs

encountered

during

should

be

firmly

bonded

to

the

construction

will

require

proper

drainage

existing

soils

to

prevent

slips.

Bonding

slope

before

placing

topsoil.

Depth

control.

can

be

improved

by

scarifying

the

Use

terraces

to

form

series

diversions

down

slope

or

to

change

to

steep

slope

series

of

ar

sl

smaller

slopes.

(4

in.).

of a

should

be

not

less

than

100

mm

control.

exercise

the

consent

expressed

dust

landowner.

of

operations,

grading

During

the

for

measures

necessary

the

5.

without

landowner

another

of

property

the

onto

water

diverting

avoid

to

as

way

such

in

done

be

should

Grading

4.

acquired.

been

has

permit

this

until

commence

can

work

No

Environment.

from

obtained

been

has

permit

the the

of

Department

Scotia

Nova

unless

channels,

constructed

or

watercourses

natural

on

encroach

not

does

it

that

way

such

in

fill

Apply

3.
filled.

brush,

roots,

stumps,

trees,

Clear

and sod,

cut

be

to

land

from

debris

and

2.

vegetation.

establish

help

to

contour,

the

to

parallel

vehicles,

track

with

surfaces

slope

finished

Rough

1.

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

slopes.

steep

on

constructed

when

effective

most

are

They

absorption.

water

increased

providing

by

and

water

of

velocity

down

slowing

by

hazards

erosion

the and

runoff

reduce

materially

can

benches

unstable.

saturated

becoming

fills

of

chance

Factsheet

Drains

Seepage

Downdrains

&

Chutes

Ditch

Diversion

2.6 2.5 2.1

Factsheet

Factsheet

installed,

and

planned

properly

When

and

Strips

Buffer

the

reducing

sewers,

storm

into

water

area,

cut

the

toward

drain

to

&

Linings

Vegetative

1.5

Factsheet

Matting

Temporary

.4

Factsheet

drain

will

lots

and

buildings

the

from

for

planning

careful

by

reduced

REFERENCES

slip

may

establish.

to

begins

cover

vegetative

before

occurs

gullying

serious

if

may

areas

fill

slopes,

steep

On

fill.

Regrade

potential

Sliding

wet.

when

the the

from

water

runoff

of

disposal

CROSS

bench

the

sloping

By

lot.

and

building

be

MAINTENANCE

part

and

cut

part

of

consist

Benches

No.

MEASURE

CONTROL

of

3 1.0

Page

PRACTICES

GRADING

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

CATEGORY

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

SURFACE

STABILIZATION

GRADING

PRACTICES

Undisturbed

vegetation

Diversion

Ditch

Dozer

treads

roughing

slope

parallel

to
thecir

Unvegetated

slopes

should

be

tem-

porarily

scarified

to

minimize

runoff

velocities.

No.1.1

Page

of

STABILIZATION

RIPRAP

CATEGORY

SURFACE

CONTROL

MEASURE

LINING

FACTSHEET

June

1988

PURPOSE

more

natural

appearance

May

To

provide

flexible,

inexpensive

bank

Adjusts

to

minor

shifts

and

movement

protection

tion

alone

in is

situations

inadequate

to

prevent

where

vegeta-

tion

be for

co-established

with

Provides

immediate

protection

vegeta-

Easyto

apply

Minor

repairs

Relatively

inexpensive

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

Where

erosion

is

caused

by

surface

erosion

a
of

streambank

made

easily

when

stone

is

runoff

or

subsurface

seepage

readily

available

On

streambanks

and

stream

bends

Can

be

placed

during

winter

months

with

erodible

soils

on

streambanks

because

trucks

are

the

erosion

site

In

areas

where

submergence

continuously

for

more

than

few

lasts days

able

to

be

driven

on

frozen

ground

to

(e.g.,

situations

where

vegetation

alone

provides

inadequate

Note:

Work

along

the

banks

watercourse

may

require

consult

the

Nova

Scotia

Department

applications)

the

Environment

for

advice.

downstream

(in

streambank

of

shift

in

the

erosion

problem

up

or

permit,

so

If

not

properly

a
of
control)

DISADVANTAGES

feathered

in,

will

cause

ADVANTAGES

High

initial

cost

if

stone

must

be

Tolerates

some

lateral

seepage

filter

fabric

is

used

rough

Provides

Provides

a a

flexible

surface

that

pates

stream's

force,

therefore

mini-

application

dissi-

Very

expensive

for

large-scale

lining

slope

no

steeper

than

2:1

underneath

Should

be

placed

if

hauled

any

distance

on

well-graded

mizing

the

erosion

problem

No.

1.1.

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

Page

3
of
2

SURFACE

STABILIZATION

RIPRAP

LINING

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

experienced

in

the

design

and

The

ability

of

riprap

to

resist

forces

depends

on

water

velocity

and

the

ment

control

measures.

erosive

installation

of

erosion

and

sedi-

interrelation

of

the

size,

shape,

weight,

Riprap

should

be

applied

at

and

gradation

of

the

stone,

the

side

thickness

of

at

!east

1.5

times

the

slopes,

roughness,

shape,

and

alignment

maximum

stone

size

and

not

less

of

the

channel,

and

the

thickness

of

the

than

300

mm

4.

Select

the

filter

material,

riprap

layer.

(1

ft.)

thick.

either

The

type

of

stone

applied

depends

on

geotextile

or

layer

of

filter

stone,

from

what

is

most

available

(quarried

stone,

manufacturer's

literature

or

technical

field

stone,

rubble).

references.

The

stone

should

be

a
of

blocky,

angular

shape,

rather

than

elongated,

and

should

be

sized

of

mixed

gradation

so

smaller

stones

fill

the

voids

between

that the

larger

ones.

layer

of

filter

stone

may

be

required

depending

on

the

type

of

underlying

soil

and

the

size

of

protective

riprap

above.

DESIGN

STEPS

1.

Select

stable

slope

for

the

soil.

2.

Determine

if

seepage

drain

is

required.

3.

Select

the

stone

size.

stabilize

stream

bank

after

installatiop

Use

stream

flow

velocity

ing

graded

channel

roughness

of

0.030)

to

determine

ofa

pipe

line.

(assum-Manning's

Riprap,

sod

and

crushed

stone

used

to

suitable

stone

size.

5.

Locate

the

riprap

on

the

channel

bank.

Stream

Flow

Velocity

Mean

Stone

Diameter

Riprap

design

on

stream

channel

m/sec.

(ft./sec.)

mm

soils

engineer

or

other

person

(3

less

than

2.0

(6.6)

80

and

(8.5

13)

installation

of

erosion

and

sedi-

2.5

3.0

(8.2

(9.8-

11.5)

3.0-3.5

9.8)

180 220

220 -330

(7

8.5)

experienced

in

the

design

2.0-2.5(6.6-8.2)

110-

180(4-

4) 7)

attempted

without

the

aid

of

(in.) 110

bends

or

meanders

should

not

be

ment

control

measures.

Velocities

greater

than

3.5

On

straight

channel

sections

the

Drains

Seepage

2.6

Factsheet

operation.

one

in

thickness

Strips

Buffer

full

its

to

placed

be

should

Riprap

damage

will

it

that

height

such

&

Linings

Vegetative

1.5

Factsheet

Fabric

Filter

Geotextile

.3

1
Factsheet

fabric.)

filter

the

sure

(Be

etc.).

(backhoe,

machine

REFERENCES

CROSS

from

dropped

not

is

stone

the

that

immediately.

repaired

be

should

stone

by

or

hand

by

placed

be

can

Riprap

of

displacement

any

However,

upkeep.

stone.

if
it

filter

the

out

Lay

little

requires

lining

riprap

place,

in

Once

filter

of

riprap.

the

Place

2.

MAINTENANCE

is

layer fabric,

the

or

used,

being

riprapped.

not

required.

but

graded

were

that

areas

any

on

drains

seepage

any

Install

used

be

should

lining

vegetative

trench.

toe

the

out

Dig

installation.

the

Complete

3.

slope.

mended

ice.

the

over

spilling

from

pre-

to

contained

and/or

carefully

be

should

riprap

conditions,

winter

under

installed

erosion.

bank

consultation

(after

site

the

Prepare

1.

If

of

Department

Scotia

Nova

the

with

the

Environment).

the

placed

debris.

of

area

the

Clear

it
vent

recom-

the

to

banks

the

Grade

into

protrude

not

do

further

stream

and the

eddying

cause

and

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

ends

the

so

banks

downstream

and

width.

channel

upstream

the

into

section

riprap

the

constrict

would

that

manner

the

of

ends

the

"feather"

or

Blend

in

placed

be

not

should

riprap

The

of

Page

LINING

RIPRAP

STABILIZATION

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

No.1.1

SURFACE

No.

1.2
Page

of

GABION

CATEGORY

CONTROL

SURFACE

STABILIZATION

FACTS

MEASURE

BASKET

LINING

HEET

June

1988

PURPOSE

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

To

provide

retaining

wall

support

for

normally

joined

together

with

wire

ties.

To

erosive

action

of

stream

flow

variety

of

standard

sizes

and

are

protect

streambanks

from

severe

The

gabion

baskets

are

supplied

a
in

an

unstable

soil

bank

Note

that

before

gabion

basket

may

be

used

to

line

permit

must

be

obtained

from

the

Scotia

Department

of

the

Environment.

constructed

to

act

as

protective

apron.

Nova

the

mean

stream

level,

should

watercourse,

bank,

line

of

gabion

baskets,

built

at be

lining

To

prevent

toe

failure

along

stream-

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

Where

the

flattest

possible

bank

slope

is

steeper

than

the

recom-

mended

slope

Where

slumping

is

being

caused

by

either

seepage

or

stream

flow

undercutting

Where

stone

of

sufficient

size

is

not

available

for

an

adequate

loose

riprap

lining.

ADVANTAGES

Provides

dual

purpose

of

bank

protection

and

retaining

wall

support

further

protection,

May

aesthetic

properties

tion and

be for

co-established

may

be

formed

with

gabion

mattress.

stabilization

protect

against

anticipated

scour

and

with

vegeta-

The

apron

must

be

deep

enough

to

wide

range

of

bank

there

is

seepage

problem.

Can

be

used

for

Normal

life

span

of a

30

to

50

years

seepage

drain

should

be

installed

if

lengths,

heights

and

shapes

bank

material

is

not

granular.

Very

little

maintenance

required

existing

usually

filter

fabric

should

be

used

if

the

The

lining

must

be

blended

into

the

bank

DISADVANTAGES

at

both

up-

and

downstream

ends.

Subject

to

rusting

and

deterioration

unless

the

baskets

are

made

of

DESIGN

STEPS

galvani

wir

Th

desi

gabi

bas

lini

No.

.2

Page

of

person

experienced

in

the

design

installation

of

erosion

control

and and

siltation

control

measures.

IMPLEMENTATION

STEPS

1.

Prepare

the

site.

Clear

debris

from

the

lined.

Grade

or

excavate

the

site

as

to
area

the

be

design

requires.

Install

seepage

drain

and

filter

fabric

if

required.

each

successive

Filling

Note

the that

gabion

baskets

with

layer

stepped

back

slightly.

baskets

in

place

with

their

open,

and

tie

them

together

lids with

is

Set

the

first

row

of

stone.

2.

Place

the

gabion

baskets.

empty

gabion

connecting

wire.

Fill

the

gabions

with

stone

slightly

larger

than

the

mesh

opening.

(Filling

by

hand

is

desirable

as

dumping

the

stone

in

usually

deforms

the

Fill

the

basket

baskets.)

uniformly

to

prevent

deformation

of

basket

sides.

If

the

basket

is

deeper

than

mm

(1

ft.)

depth

300 300

mm

(itt.),

fill

and

then

to

it

tie

connecting

wires

to

opposite

sides

of

each

cell

of

the

basket

to

prevent

deformation;

continue

at

300

mm

(1

ft.)

intervals

this until

the

basket

is

filled.

When

the

baskets

are

full,

close

and

tie

down

the

lids.

Repeat

for

additional

rows

or

layers.

Step

the

next

one

back

and

tie

in

properly.

ins

bank.

the

meet

baskets

Drains

Seepage

2.6

Factsheet

gabion

the

where

locations

at

erosion

Strips

Buffer

or

undermining

for

checks

periodic

Make

&

Linings

Vegetative

1.5

Factsheet

Fabric

Filter

Geotextile

.3

Factsheet

MAINTENANCE

REFERENCES

CROSS

bank.

existing

the

ends

the

at

vegetation

break.

the

into the

it of

"feather'

to

lining

gabion

upstream

Protect

4.

across

wiring

by

immediately

repaired

and/or

riprap

be

should

wire

basket

broken

Any

downstream.

rock and

loose

Use

No.

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of

3 1.2

Page

LINING

BASKET

GABION

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

No.1.3

Page

of

2
June

1988

CATEGORY

CONTROl.

MEASURE

SURFACE

STABILIZATION

GEOTEXTILE

FILTER

FABRIC

fFACTSHEET

PURPOSE

Greater

tensile

strength

than

granular

To

serve

as

soil

stabilizer,

allowing

filters

granular

material

is

not

accessible

from

water

to

flow

through

preventing

underlying

the soil

lining,

while being

Relatively

inexpensive

measure

where

washed

away

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

The

installation

of

fabrics

to

replace

Under

any

flexible

or

rigid

especially

erodible

With

riprap

linings,

check

dams

Beneath

soils drop

(e.g.,

drain

should

be

installed

in

addition

to

siltation

ponds

there

is

seepage

problem,

seepage

and

good

covering

of

granular

material.

If

structures

required

if

the

parent

bank

material

has

sand)

Moreover,

filter

fabric

may

not

be

when

applied

on

highly

economical

in

small

problem

areas.

lining,

granular

filter

material

may

not

be

ADVANTAGES

the

filter

fabric.

Eliminates

many

of

the

problems

If

there

is

no

granular

material,

installa-

associated

with

installation

of

graded

tion

of

filter

fabric

may

be

necessary

to

granular

filters

(e.g.,

segregation

of

protect

fine

particles

from

erosive

water

material)

action.

The

choice

of

filter

fabric

depends

on

the

type

of

soil

present

and

the

type

of

water

action

(surface

or

fabrics

are

classed

according

to

their

soil

subsurface).

Filter

retention

and

water

permeability

characteristics.

DESIGN

STEPS

1.

Select

the

filter

fabric.

Considering

the

many

variables

associated

with

geotextile

selec-

tion

(e.g.,

soils,

hydraulic

condi-

tions,

construction

conditions

and

Geotextile

used

prior

to

placement.

that

person

experienced

in

the

riprap

techniques),

it

is

recommended

design

and

installation

of

erosion

and

siltation

control

measures

(e.g.,

soils

engineer

or

the

Prev

possi

undermi

manufact

representati

slopes.

steep

on

fabric

heat.

excess

or

sunlight

from

protected

be

should

fabrics

Some

should

secure

the

in

wrinkles

and

fabric

direct

avoided.)

be

to

required

be

may

Pins

when

folds

MAINTENANCE

stretching

for

allow

to

tight,

(However,

applied.

is

cover

the

above

material

the

extend

filtering

its

decreasing

silt

and

geotextile

particles

clay

This

place.

into

it

roll

or

lay

to

filter

geotextile

the

installing

When

tear.

or

rip

the

ft.)

(3.3

least

at

extending

filter.

the

Install

area,

torn

the

over

geotextile

of

required.

if

drain

seepage

the

Install

3. 2.

beyond

and

up

running

by

fabric

(adjacent

slope

the

across

take

care

Lay

or the

down

fabric,

overlapped

be

should

fabric

of

rolls

drag

not

ft.).

the and

smearing

mm

300

of

minimum

(1

prevents

covered,

being

is

area

seepage

If

thus from

limit.

seepage

properties.

pulled

not

is

fabric

the

sure

Make

piece

new

placing

by

geotextile

the

in

tears

or

rips

any

Repair

ft.).

(3.3

higher

distance

from

be

not

should

stones

riprap,

site.

the

Prepare

1.

dropped

the

develop

otherwise

or

Regrade

than

type

and

site

the

to

according

bank

applied.

being

lining

of

under

fabric

filter

using

When

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

No.

FABRIC

FILTER

GEOTEXTILE

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

of

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2 1.3

Page

results.

best

for

Backfill

15m

at

Place

ditches. intervals

and

slopes

on

Slot

Check

Erosion

Installation

Slope

Typical

cover.

vegetative

permanent

and

blow

wind

subjectto

Not

establish

help

eventually

techniques

this

In

through.

grow

to

grass

they allow

way,

structural

other

than

expensive

Less

in,

moisture

hold

to

mulch

as

act

They
erosion

are

which

of

all

blankets),

control

ADVANTAGES

areas.

large

cover

to

rolls

in

available
Examples

grassed

and

ditches

drainage

diversion

in

(e.g.,

vegetation

new

out

include

matting

temporary

of

ditches,

paper

woven

mat,

fibre

glass

mat,

jute

waterways)

called

(Commonly

mat

vegetative

mat,

wash

to

likely

is

water

moving

Where

runoff

or

splash

raindrop

from

eroding

low

be

to

likely

is

germination

from

soil

newly-seeded

protect

To

and

high

is

hazard

erosion

where

(swales)

for

cover

provide

of

streambanks

and

slopes

steep

On

low

is

velocity

flow

Where

waterways

surface

or the

Channels

in

or

slopes,

To

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

PURPOSE

MATTING

TEMPORARY

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of

Department

AND

EROSION

Scotia

Nova

1988

June

of

Page

.4

No.

FACTSHEET

CONTROL SEDIMENT

Environment

the

underneath

drains.

requirements

structural

than

cause

downward

moving

from

water

Any

fabric

accumulate

may

the that

be

should

to

velocity

sufficient

prevented

the

more

slopes

On

erosion.

with

must

there

long

ft.)

(50

15.2

large

as

ground

even

uniformly

Provide

as

gullies,

removing

by

surface

such

obstructions.

other

and

roots

area

the

seed

and

Fertilize

at

slot

check

erosion

an

be

required.

2.

out.

wash

and

engineering

all

place

in

Put

or

slip

not

does

it

so

anchored

required.

well

is

matting

the

sure

Make

as

seedbed

and

site

the

Prepare

1.

depressions.

in

mat

the

secure

to

required

be

may

staples

Additional

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

length

the

soil.

the

with

contact

firm

in

and

smooth

is

matting

the

sure

edges,

outer

along

apart

ft.)

mm

600

and

overlaps

along

ft.)

(1.5

mm

450

staples

Place

length.

up-

the

by

in.)

(4

mm

100

imum

matting

temporary

of

type

the

Select

2.

slope

used.

be

to

depen-

is

mat

the

of

selection

The

apart

well

as

availability,

the

upon

dent

(2

tempo-

that

making

required.

time

is of

protection

rary

as

min-

overlapped

then

outlined,

seeded.

and

graded

be

to

are

previously

as

trench

into

stapled

areas

all

cover

should

matting

that The

is

mat

down-slope

the

end,

to

protected.

be

to

area

the

Determine

1.

end

put

be

must

lengths

mat

two

If

trench.

the

pack

firmly

STEPS

DESIGN

and

backfill

Then

trench.

deep

edge

upper

in.)

the

(6 of

mm

150

into

the

staples,

wire

U-shaped

Using

covered

be

to

area

of

slope

and

Size

staple

to

is

that

flow

of

velocity

and

Volume

matting

area

the

through

conveyed

be

side.

overlap

intensive

Labour

of

end

up-slope

with

site,

from

starting

out

matting

the

the Lay

Expensive

(4 the

mm

100

minimum

by in.)

side

laid

mats

between

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

slope.

with

matting

the

of

bottom

the

extending

length

newly-topsoiled

for

protection

the

out

lay

slopes

steep

flow.

the

of

direction

in

matting

the

out

lay

channels

in

aids

which

moisture

soil

Retains

matting.

the

Install

3.

establishment

vegetation

In

handle

to

Easy

On the

ditches

new

to its

top

the

from

DISADVANTAGES

slopes

or

Fast

installed.

work

been

has

matting

the

after

applied

grading

season

late

of

protection

ter

is

seed

the

half

where

matting,

overwin-

for

cover

reliable

Provides

jute

for

except

matting,

the

of

established

properly

installation

the

before

immediately

get

to

vegetation

aIloing

runoff,

seed

and

fertilizer

the

of

all

Apply

surface

against

protection

Good

No.

MAiliNG

TEMPORARY

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

of

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2 1.4

Page

growth.

thick

facilitate

to

again

applied

be

may

fertilizer

year,

second

the

In

out.

washes

that

matting

any

repair

and

Reseed

MAINTENANCE

ditch.

or

slope

the

across

dug

wide

in.)

(4

mm

100

and

deep

in.)

(4

mm

100

at

slot
long

ft.)

(100

30.5

than

more

Factsheet

Drains

Seepage

Waterway

Grassed

Practices

Grading

2.6 2.3 1.0

Factsheet

The

intervals.

check

should

there

ft.) be

(50

15.2

Factsheet

about

trenches

are

slots

check

REFERENCES

CROSS

ditches

and

slopes

On

midpoint.

of

Page

MAiliNG

TEMPORARY

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

1.4

No.

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

Nova Scotia

4A

Department of
the Environment

EROSION AND

SEDIMENT

CONTROL

FACTSHEET

CATEGORY

CONTROL MSURE

SURFACE STABILIZATION

VEGETATIVE LININGS
AND BUFFER STRIPS
(STREAMBANK PROTECTION)

Before hydroseeding.

Six months after hydroseeding.

PURPOSE

In conjunction with other linings such

To provide a natural, self-regenerating


cover, or lining, for protection of

streambanks from erosive action of

runoff (overland flow and open


channel flow)

as riprap and gabion baskets


ADVANTAGES

Relatively low cost compared to other


types of linings, especially for covering large areas

CONDITIONS WHERE APPLICABLE

Where the bank can be adequately


sloped

Where stream flow velocities are less


than 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft.)/sec.
Where water flows are intermittent
Where stream currents are offshore

Where undercutting and/or lateral


seepage are not causal factors

As a temporary cover on large areas


where final regrading has not been
carried out and more substantial
protection is to be installed

Most economical where protection is


required over an extensive bank area

Provide a natural protective cover


against erosive action of down-slope
surface runoff on the bank

Flexible, self-adjusting, permeable,


and adaptable to changes

Provide additional benefits of improved wildlife and fisheries habitat


and aesthetic value

Provide extra bank stabilization


through the root system of shrub
plantings

DISADVANTAGES

Of little use where slope is too steep


or where there is substantial seepage

No.1.5
Page 1 of 4

June 1988

company.

seed

or

firm

landscape

professional

contact

site,

particular

on

results

best

For

applications.

roadside

for

Communications

and

Transportation

of

Department

Scotia

Nova

the

by

used

mixture

**Typjcal

lbs/ac.)

(100

Fall

kg/ha

lbs/ac.)

(500

lbs./ac.l

@560kg/ha

15-15-15

kg/ha

112

kg/ha

13.5

Bird's-foot

112

1100

lbs./ac.)

(12

Trefoil

10-50-0

kg/ha

and

and

lbs/ac.)

(18 20

Fescue

Creeping

18-46-0

cover:

Temporary

Red

67kg/ha

Cereal

none

lbs/ac.)

(59.6

Rye

or

lbs/ac.)

@560kg/ha

none

(500

12-12-12

or

Kentucky-31

lbs/ac.)

(500

lbs/ac.)

(100

lbs/ac.)

@560kg/ha

15-15-15

kg/ha

112

10-50-0

kg/ha

(40 45

Fescue

Tall

cover:

Permanent

HIGH

IN.)

(6

150MM

AT

FERTILIZATION

SEEDING

AT

FERTILIZER

RATE

SEEDING

MIXTURE**

example:

for

lished;

exposed

all

to

applied

be

should

Mulch

estab-

become

legumes

slower

or

the

while

protection

quick

providing

grasses

the

with

legumes,

of

slope.

strip.

buffer

riprap

installing

vege-

strip

buffer

of

selection

The

by

provided

be

easily

site

the

upon

protection

can

dependent

is

tation

of

portion

lower

the

on

of

use

intended

the

and

conditions

extend

should

toe

artificial

The

the

and

level

water

vegetative

linings

the

above

normal

Streambank

lateral

of

zone

mixture

above

preferably

the

contain

usually

seepage.

and

grasses

for

planted

be

can

trees

small

or

Shrubs

fast-growing

stabilization

bank

purposes,

aesthetic

relatively

enhancement.

wildlife

the

controlled

is

seepage

unless

sod).

(or

mixture

vegetation

Select

be

may

protection

vegetative

evident,

is

runoff.

excessive

exhibiting

areas

ineffective

4.

Toe

provided.

is

protection

toe

and

or

slopes

steeper

for

wider

be

should

activity

seepage

lateral

or

undermining

If

control

drainage

of

width

the

selecting

when

considered

strip;

it

buffer

the
required.

of is

width

the

Select

3.

strips.

buffer

other

or

drain

seepage

ifa

Determine

2.

be

must

slope

and

type

cover

The

permits.

necessary

for

ment

Environ-

the

of

Department

Scotia

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

Nova

the

contact

streambank,

growth

shrub

heavy

natural

the

of

alterations

ing

to

due

flow

stream

of

reduction

or

mak-

or

grading

Before

material.

capacity

channel

of

reduction

Possible

not

is

cover

temporary

if
especially

soil

the

of

repose

of

angle

than

steeper

be

not

shall

slope

the The

used

soil.

for

slope

stable

Select

1.

established,

being

is

cover

vegetative

STEPS

DESIGN

the

while

erosion

serious

of

Possibility

stages

initial

during

for

care

seeded.

to

harder

and

expensive

more

is

ding

been

have

they

after

immediately

sites

sod-

by

vegetation

of

Establishment

PROTECTION)

(STREAMBANK

STRIPS

BUFFER

AND

LININGS

VEGETATIVE

STABILIZATION

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

1.5

No.

SURFACE

of

Page

limited.

access

where

and

areas

small

effective

is

seeding

cyclone

used

be

too

or

equipment.

and/or

areas

large

slopes

equipment

seeding

wheeled

for

steep

Permit.

ronment

means

efficient

convenient

establish-

rapid

provides

recom-

soil

in.)

(1/2

mm

100

soil. and

sandy

seedbed

moist

on

in.) to

(1/4

mm

of

firm,

uniformly

mixture

seed

the
mixture:

Seed

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

Apply

buffer

the

(including

site

the

Prepare

1.

on

sodding.

or

seeding

for

strip)

maximum

debris.

of

clay

the

to

banks

area

the

Clear


Grade

on

accordance

Hydro-seeding

Nova

the

is of

and

vegetation,

and

slope

mended

of in

conditions

with

and

Envi-

the

of

Department

Scotia

for ing

required.

if

drain

seepage

Install

3:1

of

slopes

required.

as

fertilizer

Conventional

plantings.

shrub

for

on

Apply

the the

Prepare

site

can

by

debris

excess

away

Clear

flatter.

(removing

furrowing

or

scalping

Hand

in.)

(1-3

mm

30-70

sod

of

layer

on

(12-

mm

300-450

and

deep

is

square).

in.)

18

A.

sod.

or

mixture,

seed

the

Apply

3.

drops.

rain

of

blocks.

impact

the

from

soil

the

protect

does

or

clumps

in

planted

effective

mulch

however,

germination;

seed

for

more

usually

are

shrubs

habitat,

sufficient

usually

is

soil

the

in

content

wildlife

enhance

to

used

When

moisture

the

and

extreme

as

not

conditions.)

are

temperatures

as

necessary,

be

not

site

and

tree

the

on

depending

may

mulch

seeding,

spring

If
seeding.

necessary,

be

may

applications

after

application

for

mulch

Select

7.

water

(Several

shrub.

the

Water

watering.

regular

include

water.

surface

retain

to

definitely

can

implementation

shrub

the

around

late

and

mid-July

between

Seeding

shape

saucer

air

eliminate

a to

forming

pockets,

unless

avoided

be

should

August

firmly

soil

pack

and

Backfill

flooding.

spring

conditions.

subsequent

by

away

washed

soil

on

depending

necessary,

be

may

seed

the

and

established

sufficient

allow

not

may

approach

this

however,

(September);

seeded

be

may

fertilizer

of
a

use

The

pit.

the

into

shrub

the

Place

Planting

2.

dormant-

be

also

can

mixture

The

machine.

or

hand
shrub.

by the

Plant

become

to

cover

ground

for

time

ball.

the

than

mm

300

be

must

diameter

mid-

before

preferred

is

mixtures

larger

in.)

(12

June.

pit

the

ball,

root

has

if

or,

over;

them

doubling

without

season.

plant

the

grass-legume

of

seeding

Spring

roots

accommodate

to

enough

seeding

required

the

Determine

6.

large

be

must

pit

planting

The

required.

downhill.

be

may

person

experienced

other

or

The

used.

be

to

shrubbery

turned

sod

the

with

done

should

scalping

sites

sloping

be On

Architect

Landscape

of

assistance

Select

5.

PROTECTION)

(STREAMBANK

STRIPS

BUFFER

AND

of

Page

MEASURE

CONTROL

No.1.5

LININGS

VEGETATIVE

STABILIZATION

SURFACE

CATEGORY

germinate.

not

do

that

areas

resod

or

reseed

possible,

as

soon

As

established.

Factsheet

Matting

Temporary

Practices

Grading

.4 .0

Factsheet

11

MAINTENANCE

REFERENCES

CROSS

is

vegetation

the

until

area

seeded

the

protect

otherwise

or

Fence

6.

discovered.

as

soon

as

areas

damaged

any

achieved.

is

mulching

the

pur-

desired

the

until

storms,

severe

ap-

be

may

matting

temporary

of

pose

area

seeded

the

protect

to

plied

Repair

established.

is

vegetation

the

until

5.

after

immediately

and

periodically

tons/ac.).

(1-2

tonnes/ha

2.5-5

at

damage,

for

areas

mulched

Check

example,

for

used,

be

may

Straw

the

obstruct

or

stream

the

in

lodged

follow-

immediately

mulch

the

Apply

flow.

seeding.

ing

4.

become

they

if

particularly

shrubs,

placement.

dead

or

severely-damaged

any

Replace

after

days

several

for

water

Apply

stream.

the

on

stakes.

with

prevent

to

necessary

if

shrubs

Prune

after

well

sod

the

encroachment

placement.

Pack

weeds.

place

in

it

hold

and

staggered,

by

take-over

discourage

and

growth

joints

with

slope

the

across

thicker

encourage

to

times

few

area

horizontally

sod

the

out

Roll

the

cut

mixture,

seed

the

on

Depending

Sod:

Required

as

Protection

Toe

Slope

Regraded

PROTECTION)

(STREAMBANK

STRIPS

BUFFER

AND

LININGS

VEGETATIVE

STABILIZATION

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

.5

No.

SURFACE

of

Page

Scotia

No.

2.1

Page

Department

DIVERSION

Environment

CATEGORY

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

FACTS

MEASURE

DITCH

HEEl

June

1988

of

of

slippage.

Construction

PURPOSE

should

divert

water

away

non-erosive

velocity

from

cut

or

fill

move

water

to

stable

outlets

at

ipal

drainage

and

water

control

laws.

To

break

up

concentration

of

runoff

compliance

with

provincial

and

munic-

To To To

reduce

slope

lengths

subject

diversions

and

outlets

must

be

of in

be to

used

with

caution

on

soils

slopes,

steeply

sloping

land,

con-

struction

sites,

buildings

and

resi-

areas,

and

low-lying

areas,

dences, erodible

active

gullies

or

other

in

order

to

prevent

flooding

To

convey

silted

runoff

to

vege-

tated

area

to

disperse

flow

and

filter

silt

Diversion

ditches

apply

only

to

overland

runoff.

Note

that

any

diversion

a
of

natural

watercourse

requires

permit

of

from

the

Nova

Scotia

Department

the

Environment.

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

ADVANTAGES

Where

runoff

from

higher

areas

is,

or

has

potential

for,

damaging

causing

erosion,

contributing

pollution,

flooding,

or

with

the

establishment

of

on

lower

Where

surface

and/or

shallow

silt

removal

areas

Reduces

volume

of

water

requiring

vegetation

terraces

interfering

An

inexpensive

alternative

to

to

and

removes

some

sediment

property,

Induces

infiltration

of

surface

water

subsurface

flow

is

damaging

sloping

upland

DISADVANTAGES

May

require

additional

surface

Where

the

length

and

steepness

the

slope

need

to

be

reduced

of in

Not

feasible

where

access

is

difficult

order

to

lower

runoff

velocity,

disruption

thereby

keeping

soil

loss

to

May

cause

off-site

property

damage

minimum

and

therefore

may

require

the

Where

diversion

dyke

is

not

purchase

of

additional

property

adequate

Diversions

are

only

applicable

below

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

stabilized

or

protected

areas.

Avoid

The

size

of

the

diversion

required

establishing

diversion

ditches

on

slopes

depends

on

the

amount

of

runoff

to

be

gr

1982.

March,

Manual,

Criteria

Design

is

turbulence

unnecessary

Halifax

of

County

the

of

Municipality

and

Scotia

Nova

of

Province

1.

created.

no

that

manner

such

in

join

should

two

the

elevation,

bottom

same

the

with

channel

surface

another

intersects

diversion

the

If

outlet.

the

Design

2.

measures.

control

siltation

design

the

in

experienced

and and

control

erosion

of

installation

person

other

or

engineer

soils

of
a

assistance

the

require

may

design

the

and

reference,

as

used

be

may

Criteria1

Design

age

Drain-

Storm

County

Halifax

The

Protection

diversion.

surface

the

Design

1.

property.

of

protection

Outlet

Drain

Storm

2.4

Factsheet

Factsheet

Waterway

Grassed

Lining

Riprap

2.3 1.1

Factsheet

STEPS

DESIGN

REFERENCES

CROSS

for

remain

will

and

system

disposal

water

overall

an

of

part

integral

revegetated.

an

as

installed

are

diversions

These

be

should

areas

eroded

or

bare

Any

Permanent

MAINTENANCE

less.

or

year

of

expectancy

life

have

usually

They

construction.

of

phase

photo)

(see

it.

within

some

facilitate

to

measure

interim

dams

check

of

number

construct

an

as

installed

are

diversions

These

to

adequate

be

may

it
structed,

con-

being

is

diversion

temporary

follows:

as

classified

are

Diversions

and line

polyethylene

with

diversion

the

Temporary

If

concrete.

or

asphalt

rock,

with

vegetation.

ditch

the

protect

and/or

Vegetate

3.

killed

or

erosion,

damage,

property

side.

down-

the

on

berm

of
a

addition

as

so

outlet

the

locating

in

care

Take

slope

flooding,

of

problems

new

create

to

not

the

with

waterway

grassed

to

stabilization.

similarly

installed

is

diversion

The

of

types

other

use

or

seed

then

diversion.

the

Install

2.

and

rock

with

ditch

the

of

slopes

side

the

on

Depending

be

may

it

outlet.

the

Install

1.

and/or

bottom

type,

the soil

cover

to

necessary

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

first.

constructed

be

should

outlet

the

required.

is

structure

of

type

some

elevation,

bottom

in

used

being

is

diversion

drop

outlet,

of

form

some

with

conjunction

the

If

lower

with

channel

surface

area.

the

erodibility

intersects

diversion

the

If

of

slope

the

and

soil,

the

of

No.

DITCH

DIVERSION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

MEASURE

CONTROI

CATEGORY

2 2.1

Page

site

construction

leaving

from

sediment

prevent

basins

Sediment

drainage

surface

Existing

site

construction

leaving

from

runoff

prevents

Diversion

.44

runoff

on-site

for

Diversion

slope limits

of

length

No.

MEASURE

CONTROL

of

3 2.1

Page

DITCH

DIVERSION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CATEGORY

rock

crushed

mm

25

of

Lip

Level

rock

crushed

mm

25

of

Lip

Level

slope

2:1
Sides:

grade

1%

exceed

not

should

ditch

of

Last

erosion

prevent

to

Rock

grade

Channel

N..

eCt10

0%

ditch:

of

trench

on

mid-way

intersect

to

Ditch

DITCH

DISPERSION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of

Department

4-

AND

EROSION

Scotia

Nova

1988

of

June Page

2.2

No.

FACTSHEET

CONTROL SEDIMENT

Envfronment

the

vegetated

stabilized

Ditch

Diversion

2.1

Factsheet

level,

to

outlet

should

undisturbed,

an

in

surface

They

REFERENCE

compacted

properly

or

soil

undisturbed

in

CROSS

fill.

re-excavated.

or

out

cleaned

be

should

constructed

be

should

ditches

Dispersion

it

sediment,

with

filled

is

ditch

the

If

damage.

property

level.

is

lip

or

flooding

off-site

prevent

to

care

Take

lower

the

that

ensure

to

regularly

Check

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

MAINTENANCE

sediment

some

removes

and

of

spreading

runoff.

level

uniform

ensure

in.)

(1

mm

25

of

to lip

rock,

Construct

4.

reducing

of

method

Inexpensive

crushed

runoff

of

force

erosive

storm

water

surface

of

infiltration

Induces

rock.

ADVANTAGES

by

protected

ditch

or

pipe

through

discharge.

ditch

the

to

flow

drainage

Convey

3.

of

point

the

below

centrate

prevent

to

size

sufficient

of

with

inlet

the

opposite

directly

on

constructed

be

can

ditch

the

the

and

ditch

the

of

bottom

the

Cover

2.

area

the

where

and

soil

undisturbed

side

stabi-

is

lip

lower

the

below

directly

rock

The

vegetation.

existing

by

lized

erosion.

recon-

to

allowed

be

not

must

water

in.)

sediment.

efficient

the

for

allow

length

and

intercepted

is

runoff

storm

Where

1.1

15

of of

width

onto

areas

graded

from

diverted

ditch

the

Excavate

mm

ft. a

and

in.)

minimum

minimum

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

1.

of (3 (50
ft.
to
ft.),
750 B
a a

depth

minimum

at

(e.g.,

areas

stabilized

undisturbed

(2

practice

This

etc.).

outlets,

diversion

of to

removal

where

situations

those

in

only

applies

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

erosion

drainage.

storm

of

volumes

large

causing

without

vegetation

existing

for

effective

not

are

ditches

Dispersion

Concentrated

convert

ditch.

the

of

ends

both

from

equidistant

point

of

and flow

flow

sheet

into

runoff

storm

by to

stabilized

areas

onto

it

outlet

To

at

located

be

should

inlet

The

area.

PURPOSE

No.

DITCH

DISPERSION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2 2.2

Page

Scotia

No.2.3

1988

of

GRASSED

Environment

CATEGORY

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

FACTS

MEASURE

WATERWAY

HEET

June

Department

Page

of

to

PURPOSE

concentrated

runoff

from

one

point

To

convey

stormwater

at

flow

or

velocities

through

inconspicuous

also

used

to

intercept

overland

non-erosive

another

at

safe

velocities,

but

they

are
Grass

there

is

heavy

or

prolonged

flow

in

the

mown

grass

channels

discharge

CONDITIONS

WHERE

Grassed

waterways

should

to

used

not

APPLICABLE

runoff

only,

and

are

dry

at

other

times.

If

be

waterways

are

intended

to

carry

storm

point

convey

it

to

safe

discharge

point.

safe

sheet

runoff

on

long

slopes

and

to

under

continuous

flow

conditions

or

to

replace

watercourse.

They

can

be

used

where

runoff

velocities

will

be

fairly

low.
ADVANTAGES

Unobstrusive

and

fits

well

into

rolling

mown

grass

terrain;

visually

more

acceptable

than

lined

channels

Reduces

velocity,

energy

and

erosive

potential

of

runoff

Increases

infiltration

of

runoff

Cheap

to

construct

and

maintain

and

availability

of

soil

moisture

to

vegeta-

tion

on

site

Removes

some

sediment

from

waterway,

grass

alone

cannot

give

stormwater

adequate

protection,

in

which

case

it

is

necessary

to

line

the

channel

center

with

DISADVANTAGES

stone

or

concrete.

subsurface

drain

of

Space-consuming,

in

order

to

allow

crushed

easy

mechanized

mowing

with

very

center

of

the

waterway

will

(French

stone

prevent

help
drain)

under

the

shallow

side

slopes

standing

water

from

killing

the

grass.

Maximum

storm

runoff

will

determine

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

the

size

of

the

waterway.

Future

develop-

exceed

the

channel

capacity

and

Grass

waterways

are

broad,

shallow,

ment

gently-sloping

channels

lined

dense,

erosion-resistant

turf

grass.

They

should

be

very

carefully

lining.

of

mown

necessitate

channel

enlargement

or

with

flows

of to

paved

areas

may

cause

peak

fitted

into

the

grading

plan

for

maximum

Careful

sizing

and

design

of

grass

effecti

visu

unobtrusiv

chan

esse

th

ar

1982.

March,

Manual,

Criteria

Design

thoroughly;

mulch

and

lining,

Halifax

of

County

the

of

Municipality

and

Scotia

Nova

of

Province

the

over

shoulders

sod the

lay

(iii)

or

1.

good

give

will

latter

The

channel.

protec-

temporary

with

channel

tive the

it
established

becomes

turf

the

Until

Ditch

Diversion

2.1

Matting

Temporary

Practices

Grading

.4 .0

Factsheet

11
Factsheet

divert

(i)

to:

either

necessary

be

will

Factsheet

line

(ii)

route;

alternative

an

via

runoff

3.

allow

to

percent

10

about

by

capacity

REFERENCES

CROSS

fill.

the

of

settlement

for

small

and

bushes

by

well-

are

areas

fill

sure

Make

prevent

to

necessary

as

often

as

Mow

crossed

are

they

wherever

compacted

encroachment

is

it

areas

these

In

waterway.

trees.

channel

the

increase

to

advisable

by

2.
ing

MAINTENANCE

fertilizer.

concrete.

or

rock

with

the

of

centre

the

line

necessary,

If

all

removing

by

seedbed

the

Prepare

4.

distribut-

and

etc.,

debris,

obstructive

channel

necessary

the

incorporating

and and

lime

1.

washout.

avoid

to

sod

the

stake

to

necessary

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

be

may

It

slopes.

steep

on

resistance

as

used

be

may

Criteria1

erosion

and

retardance

to

reference

to

slightly

overlapped

be

sod

recommended

is

unacceptable

an

may

view

In

sod.

and

STEPS

DESIGN

of

cost

high

the

it be of

Sometimes

this

sodding,

Drainage

Storm

County

Halifax

that risk.

or

to,

equal

is a

capacity

channel

ensure

increase

runoff.

expected

than,

greater

The

channel

both

damage

could

laying

there

if

after

shortly

storm

severe

but

well,

constructed.

is

growing

if

month

within

protection

waterway

the

use

to

need

it is
a
after

soon

No.

WATERWAY

GRASSED

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2 2.3

Page

(4-7

1.2-2.1

(4

1.2

to

pipe

pipe

mm

in.)

(6

mm

mm

mm

in.) in.) in.)

(30 (18 (12

mm

750 450 300

in.) in.)

(24 (12

mm

600 300 150

dia. dia. dia.

pipe

86

10

ft.) ft.) ft.)

(7-10

2.1-3

up

Thickness

Size

Stone

Apron

Diameter

Culvert

Apron

Average

of

Length

Environment.

the

of

Department

concrete,

of

constructed

be

should

Scotia

Nova

the

from

approval

requires

outlet

drain

storm

the

at

apron

The

which

stream,

in
a

working

for

need

the

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

avoid

would

manner

this

in

Construction

stream.

reaches

drainage

before

above

velocities

erosive

reduce

to

placed

mentioned

conditions

the

under

so

that

be

watercourse

of
a

short

point

at

DISADVANTAGES

can

protection

outlet

adequate

necessity

always

almost

None;

terminated

be

should

pipes

possible,

If

maximum

above

ft.)

(1

mm

300

down-

erosion

streambank

Prevents

at

extend

should

sidewall

the

of

top

The

outlet

the

from

stream

least

slippage

embankment

fill

Prevents

tailwater.

erosion

and

installations).

structure

pipe

multiple

of

case

the

in

pipes

the

of

failure

and

undermining

(or

pipe

the

of

side

each

on

diameter

preventing

thereby

outlet,

the

from

placed

be

should

materials

the

of

bottom

the

of

scour

Prevents

pipe

one

of

top

the

of to

minimum

and

pipe

the

downstream

immediately

channel

approved

other

or

Riprap

embankment.

ADVANTAGES

downstream

the

for

cases

all

in

quired

washout

prevent

to

required

be

and

chutes

of

outlet

the

re-

the

is of

it

and

embankment,

upstream

downdrains

At

may

protection

lateral

inlet,

drain

storm

systems

drainage

or

streams

existing

the

of

channel

paved

particu-

etc.,

outlets,

configuration

the

on

Depending

into

discharges

water

the

where

larly

2:1

be

should

apron.

the

of

end

be

should

There

flatter.

slopes

Side

channel.

existing

the

of

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

the or

at

overfall

no

culverts,

road

outlets,

drain

storm

For

channels

receiving

entering

before

gradient

the

at

or

percent

one

than

at

downstream

slope

should

apron

less The

outlets

drain

storm

below

soils.

fine

with

areas

in

riprap

under

(according

riprap

or

asphalt,

gabion,

PURPOSE

be to

may

fabric

Filter

below).

table

the

flow

channel

to

flow

pipe

convert

required

channel

and

scour

minimize

textured

flow

of

velocity

reducing

by

erosion


To To

PROTECTION

OUTLET

DRAIN

STORM

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

Department

of

AND

EROSION

Scotia

Nova

1988

June

of

Page

2.4

No.

FACTSHEET

CONTROL SEDIMENT

Environment

the

flow.

no

or

low

of

periods

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

Downdrains

&

Fabric

Filter

Geotextile

.3

2.5

Chutes

Factsheet

Factsheet

in

constructed

be

should

apron

The

REFERENCES

CROSS

measures.

control

immediately.

siltation

and

erosion

of

installation

and

replaced

be

should

they

so,

If

away.

design

the

in

experienced

person

other

washed

been

have

it

of

portions

no

or

engineer

soils

contact

structed,

ensure

to

periodically

apron

the

Check

con-

be

to

is

headwall

Concrete

If

CE

NTENAN

MAI

STEPS

DESIGN

L
Channel

'

Receiving

VIEW

TOP

PROTECTION

No.

OUTLET

DRAIN

STORM

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2 2.4

Page

Outlet

Side-Pipe

B-B

Section

Outlet

End-Pipe

A-A

Section

PROTECTION

No.

MEASURE

CONTROL

of

3 2.4

Page

OUTLET

DRAIN

STORM

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CATEGORY

No.

2.5

Page

of

June

1988

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

Where

distance

of

channel

runoff

conveyance

would

be

too

long

Where

soils

are

incapable

of

han-

dling

the

expected

runoff

roadside

In

highway

medians

Where

drainage

Atthe Along

head

ofa

gully

ditches

intersect

watercourse

at

different

bottom

elevations

ADVANTAGES

protect-

Protect

against

erosion

reach

of

ditch

as

opposed

a
in to

Relatively

simple

to

construct

short

steep

ing too

an

entire

length

of

ditch

that

is

Good

erosion

protection

where

space

is

limited

(e.g.,

steep

cuts

and

fills

on

highway

rights-of-way)

DISADVANTAGES

Require

very

regular

maintenance

inspection

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

The

type

and

sire

of

structure

depends

it

is

to

convey.

on

its

location

Good

example

a
of

corrugated

steel

velocity

of

water

and that

the

volume

and

pipe

downdrain.

Site

accessibility

also

has

an

effect

on

the

type

of

drop

structure

selected.

When

discharging

into

an

open

ditch,

outlet

protection

must

be

provided.

PURPOSE

fi

slop

whe

canno

Chut

downdra

To o

conduct

surface

runoff

down

cut

DESIGN

STEPS

an

dro

structure

2.6

CATEGORY

CONTRol.

MEASURE

Page

2of3

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

CHUTES

AND

DOWNDRAINS

(DROP

STRUCTURES)

':.i

-.

:i.

-.

.-

-)

.
.;

_w_

.-

,...

___,'/5___1

l('

z.-

f
-L

'-F

-,

:;

-;

4P

-'-?

'-

4...

Good

example

of

riprap-ilned

chute.

After:

stable

storm

drainage

Before:

an

unstable

and

eroding

easement.

slope.

quently,

the

assistance

of

soils

slopes,

whereas

flexible

downdrains

are

engineer

or

other

person

experienced

in

more

appropriate

on

fill

slopes.

Chutes

the

design

and

installation

of

erosion

should

be

constructed

of

riprap,

control

and

siltation

control

measures

is

gabion

mattress

lining,

concrete

block

required.

system

lining,

concrete,

asphalt,

or

The

following

are

some

examples

of

corrugated

steel

pipe.

Protection

structure.

Outlet

Drain

Storm

2.4

Factsheet

the

of

bottom

the

above

ft.)

(3.3

the

of

section

horizontal

the

of

inlet

The

REFERENCE

CROSS

of

minimum

be

should

structure

'drop

structure.

out.

being

from

structure

entire

the

Straw

Repair

to

immediately

spots

eroded

checks.

necessary

be

may

it

instances,

some

regular

require

downdrains

and

Chutes

collars.

anti-seep

install

MAINTENANCE

device.

anti-vortex

an

or

inlet

the

at

grate

rodent/trash

to In (2) (1)

maintenance

rock

crushed

of

berm

or

bales

any

during

inlet

the

around

placed

be

should

prevent

silting

prevent

to

period

construction

the

washed

drainage

the

of

person.

experienced

have

not,

may

or

may,

structures

These

surface

desired

with

interfere

not

does

other

or

engineer

professional

provided

be

should

assistance

cases,

by all

use.

land

In

structure.

of

type

the

upon

depends

that

point

to

drainage

convey

They

structure

drop

of

implementation

The

inlet.

vertical

with

structures

drainage

syn-

Concrete,

are

drains

Subsurface

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

subsurface

metal

corrugated

or

thetic

works.

drainage

surface

into

charge

Drains

Subsurface

dis-

or

systems

drainage

subsurface

outlet.

existing

into

tie

may

structures

These

the

from

downstream

erosion

prevent

sediment.

with

to

size

sufficient

of

be

should

apron

The

filling

from

pipe

the

prevent

to

covered

downdrains.

flexible

and

chutes

of

outlet

partially

be

should

inlets

Horizontal

the

at

Constructed

be

should

apron

An

STRUCTURES)

(DROP

No.

MEASURE

CONTROL

3 2.5
of
3

Page

DOWNDRAINS

AND

CHUTES

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CATEGORY

measures

lization

stabi-

bank

other

with

conjunction

In

gullies

large

the

where

toes

their

and

banks

On

and

banks

steep

on

install

to

DiffiCult

and

sloughing

causing

is

seepage

in

"mining"

bank

DISADVANTAGES

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

linings

channel

of

installation

proper

problems

groundwater

control

and

intercept

allowing

streambanks,

Stabilize

development

gully

further

Prevent

stability

bank

causes

that

seepage

To

ADVANTAGES

PURPOSE

Drain

Area

Seepage

Trenches

Shallow

in

Pipe

Corrugated

Plastic

I'

Fabric

Filter

with

Wrapped

I
Layer

Impermeable

Trench

Shallow

Zorie

Seepage

DRAINS

SEEPAGE

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

AND

1988

June

of

Page

2.6

No.

FACTSHEET

CONTROL SEDIMENT

EROSION

Fabric]

Filter

Drain

Layer

Seepage

Fill

Granular

Material

Excavated

of

Replacement

Protection

in

experienced

person

other

or

engineer

For

installed.

be

to

measures

remedial

Outlet

Drain

Storm

2.4

Factsheet

Fabric

Filter

Geotextile

1.3

Factsheet

soils

of
a

assistance

reason,

this

REFERENCES

CROSS

other

the

as

well

as

problem,

seepage

the

of

cause

the

on

dependent

is

drain

work.

measure

seepage

the

of

design

and

selection

The

remedial

designed

other

Complete

5.

material.

excavated

STEPS

DESIGN

dried-out,

the

with

area

the

Backfill

fill.

granular

of

layer

Install

material.

wet

and

the

determine

to

important

also

is

It

the

removing

by

area

the

Excavate

designed.

as

site

the

Prepare

2. 1.

drained

be

to

water

seepage

of

volume

soft

area

seepage

the

of

accessibility

the

and

4. 3.

drain.

the

install

to

order

in

Drain

Layer

Seepage

area.

bank

the

of

portion

large

work.

measure

over

or

layer

impermeable

an

above

for

problem,

seepage

the

of

and

type

the

determine

to

important

pipe.

drain

the

on

collars

anti-seep

consider

remedial

designed

other

Complete

trenches.

drain

the

Backfill

pipe.

drain

the

Install

trenches.

drain

the

Excavate

designed.

as

site

the

Prepare

5. 4. 3. 2. 1.

occurs

seepage

the

whether

example,

cause

is

It

Drain

Area

Seepage

to

necessary

be

may

it
instances

some

In

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

sites.

larger

for

used

be

should

drains

is

measures

control

siltation

and

to

used

be

should

drains

layer

Seepage

recommended.

area

seepage

while

areas,

small

drain

erosion

of

installation

and

design

the

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

DRAINS

SEEPAGE

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

Page

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2.6

No.

Dams

Sandbag

most

located,

and

designed

Carefully

Dams

Fill

Earth

Sodded

minimal

is

cost

therefore,

rials;

Dams

Brush

Dams

Slab

or

Plank

mate-

available

readily

of

use

Make

Dams

Sandbag

Dams

Gabion

Dams

Rock

Dams

Rock

ADVANTAGES

Temporary:

Permanent:

intermittent

is

or

ft.)/sec.,

(6.5

dams:

check

temporary

and

nent

than

less

is

velocity

water

where

perma-

of

examples

are

following

The

and

ac.)

(10

ha

than

less

dam.

the

of

tancy

drainage

have

that

gullies

of in

areas

Only

expec-

life

required

the

and

runoff

the

establishment

vegetation

in

aid

Temporary

structural

too
lining

of

velocity

and

volume

the

by

determined

to

regraded

been

have

that

gullies

be

will

dam

check

of

type

The

material.

used:

be

can

dams

check

the

select

and

temporary

or

permanent

linings

channel

the

where

and

alone

be

to

is

dam

check

the

if

Determine

STEPS

DESIGN

of is

installation

practical

for

large

gradient

vegetative

for

steep

too

is

capacity.

sediment-trapping

the

channel

where

bottoms

gully

In

In

maximize

and

velocities

runoff

reduce

to

used:

be

can

dams

check

Permanent

few

preferable

are

to

gully

Several

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

mm

400

over

not

dams,

high, check

ft.)

(1.3

in

used

be

not

must

dams

or

dams.

larger

ditches

for

only

are

they

watercourses;

Check

ditch

the

in

dams

check

Locate

drainage.

storm

carrying

measures.

control

drainage

other

with

conjunction

in

structures

developed

these

using

to

given

be

must

tion

being

those

from

downstream

lands

silt

considera-

so

areas,

drainage

small

only

on

deposited

from

runoff

treating

to

limited

are

They

and

sheet

by

being (caused

from

erosion)

prevent

nil To

washouts.

avoid

to

vegetation

and

designed

carefully

be

must

They

by

sediment

of

amounts

small

trap

constructed

velocity

reducing

To

intensive.

labour

is

tion

stabilizing

of

establishment

the

ing

Construc-

temporary.

or

permanent

be

to

facilitat-

thereby

gullies,

the

of

bottom

collecting

by

runoff;

concentrated

is

dam

check

the

whether

and

available

readily

is

what

on

depending

rials,

the and

in

soil

and

moisture

holding

mate-

various

of

method,

in

variations

of

velocity

slowing

by

bottoms:

slight

with

constructed,

are

dams

Check

ditch

or

gully

of

erosion

prevent

To

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

PURPOSE

structures

traps.

silt

or

traps

permanent

as

remain

can

dams

check

sediment

called

also

are

dams

Check

(GENERAL)

DAMS

CHECK

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of

Department

1988

June

of

Page

2.7

No.

El

H
E

AND

EROSION

Scotia

Nova

FACTS

CONTROL SEDIMENT

Environment

the

Strips

Buffer

steep.

and

narrow

than

it

used

being

is

spillway

notch

Factsheet

&

Linings

Vegetative

Matting

Temporary

1.5 1.4

Factsheet

rather

shallow,

and

broad

be

should

If

9.

necessary.

for

lining

vegetative

the

Determine

REFERENCES

CROSS

if
gully,

the

8.

repairs.

erodibility.

soil

the

dams

of

number

necessary

any

for

structure

the

to

access

and

ditch

allowing

to

given

be

must

consideration

deter-

be

the will

of

slope

the

by

mined

The

7.

prevent

permanent,

are

dams

check

the

If

structure.

factsheets.

from

water

falling

the the

undermining

individual

the

in

given

are

dam

of

type

each

for

maintenance

on

Tips

spillway

main

the

beyond

ft.)

check

This

ditch.

the

of

banks

both

on

will and (3.3

it1
extending

dam,

check

Place

foot

the

at

apron

protective

MAINTENANCE

the

of

6.

pre-

steps

implementation

individual

type

each

the for

in

given

are

dam

check

(keyed-in).

bank

the

into

back

well

The

embedded

are

dams

the

sure

Make

of

to

surface

channel

the

below

factsheets.

undermining.

vent

5.

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

dam

check

the

of

walls

wing

the

end

each

Raise

3.

bank.

the

protect

upstream.

mm

450

dam

the

to of

more

or

ft.)

Set (1.5

4.

the

sure

Make

11.

as

and

broad

as

spillway)

the

one

the

of

base

dam

check

the

of

the top

as

high

as

is

possible.

as

flat

nearly

(i.e.,

sediment.

dam

check

the

of

centre

the

Make

2.

trapping

for

capacity

some

provide

slope.

slopes

side

the

will

area

This

dam.

check

the

of

stable

more

upstream

just

area

small

Excavate

10.

are

ditch

the

a of

to

regrade

steep,

If

1.

(GENERAL)

DAMS

CHECK

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

Page

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2.7

No.

brush.

keyed-in.

be

to

dam

the

allow

and

the

the

of

face

upstream

are

the

against

litter

of

layer

Place

ditch

the

of

slopes

side

the

dam,

openings

the

into

it

pack

carefully

slope.

stable

more

to

regrade

steep,

If

1.

of

ends

butt

the

between

to

channel

the

of

sides

the

Excavate

2.

wire.

galvanized

no.

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

with

stakes

and

posts

the

to

wired

being

are

poles

the

while

brush

the

compress

to

poles

Check

in

listed

steps

design

the

Follow

properly

2.7.

Factsheet

General,

Dams

these

on

stand

should

men

two

STEPS

DESIGN

or

One

posts.

the

of

side

upstream

the

on

poles

cross

the

Place

it.

around

than

lower

kept

mass.

compact

into

forced

be

will

brush

the

are

poles

cross

the

when

brush,

with

filled

almost

be

can

is

it

used,

type

the

of

Regardless

and

be

dam

placed,

water

allow

of

to
the

centre

the

that

important

ends

down

than

rather

dam

the the

over

flow

to

gully

the

Usually,

posts.

the

tween

controlled.

on

depends

of

ends

butt

The

tramped.

and

avail-

brush

of

amount

be- the

upstream

placed

are

brush

be

to

gully

of

size

the the

and

able

brush,

apron

the

of

top

on

layered

site

particular

for

chosen

kind

The

be

then

would

brush

dam

shorter

The

bottom.

the

across

layer

in
a

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

eventually

may

brush

apron,

an

for

used

limbs

straighter

longer,

the

with

brush,

the

Place

flows

low rot

relatively

to

Limited

etc.

straw,

twigs,

of

conditions

flow

continuous

Under

consists

Litter

ft.).

(6

1.8

about

unacceptable

aesthetically

be

May

for

posts

the

from

downstream

extending

sides,

and

bottom

gully

DISADVANTAGES

the

on

and

posts

the

between

litter

near

or

at

available

readily

Material

to

mm

300

be

posts

center

the

of

of

gully mm

the 600

of

top

the

below

ft.)

about

tops

should

banks.

(1-2

constructed

easily

and

Inexpensive

ADVANTAGES

driving

The

ft.).

1/2

(3-3

ft.)

about

in

driven

and

apart

areas,

drainage

small

with

gullies

in

ditch

mm

600

about

set

posts

center

The

gully.

be or

should

of

bottom

the

into

posts

diameter

in.)

(4

mm

100

Drive

natural

in
a

used

be

not

may

dams

Brush

wooden

used

be

can

they

However,

watercourse.

the

that low

conditions

soil

and

velocity

runoff

(2

anchoring

necessary

of

mm-i

permit

the

900

stakes

layer

in.)

(6

mm

150

Place

site

dam.

the

Construct

3.

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

DAM

BRUSH

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

Department

of

AND

EROSION

Scotia

Nova

1988

June

of

Page

2.7

No.

FACTSHEET

CONTROL SEDIMENT

Environment

the

mm

600

approx.

long

mm

900

Stake,

mm

posts

to

wired

Poles

Side

Upstream

from

View

Cross-Sectional

View

Side

areas.

eroded

or

washed-out

any

revegetate

or

Repair

construction.

after

immediately

Remove

sodding,

of

means

by

stabilized

dam.

the

of

the

on

silt

of

build-up

side any

upstream

gravelling

or

mulching,

seeding,

MAINTENANCE

be

should

ditch

the

of

sides

The

4.

DAM

BRUSH

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2.7

of

No.

Page

No.

2.7

Page

B of

ROCKDAM

CATEGORY

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

FACTS

MEASURE

HEET

June

1988

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

Rock

dams

may

not

be

used

a
in

natural

Size

of

stone

used

should

be

directly

of

treated.

If

25-50

mm

watercourse.

However,

they

may

be

used

proportional

(1-2

in.)

rock

is

used

it

is

necessary

to

in

gullies

of

low

to

moderate

slope,

having

small

drainage

area,

(1-8)and

runoff

to

to be

the

anticipated

velocity

where

source

of

suitable

rock

is

protect

the

centre

and

back

side

of

the
stone

gradation

available.

dam

with

100

mm

(4

should

be

used

with

none

smaller

100-150

mm

(4-6

in.)

ADVANTAGES

Flexibility

and

weight

constantly

rock size than

is

available,

in.)

rock.

If of

larger

hold

dam

in

contact

with

gully

If

only

large

stone

is

available,

it

is

bottom

necessary

to

place

filter

fabric

under

the

Easy

to

construct,

depending

on

stone

to

prevent

the

finer

soil

particles

location

from

washing

away.

Materials

normally

are

readily

available

DESIGN

STEPS

Follow

the

design

steps

listed

in

Check

Dams

General,

Factsheet

Several

check

dams,

rather

2.7. than

one

or

two,

will

likely

be

required.

IMPLEMENTATION

STEPS

1.

If

the

side

slopes

of

the

ditch

are

steep,

regrade

to

more

stable

slope.

2.

Excavate

the

sides

of

the

channel

to

allow

the

dam

to

be

keyed-in.

3.

Construct

the

dam.

Excavate

across

the

gully

or

ditch

to

depth

of

250

mm

rocks

are

available,

If

only

large

(10

in.).

them

in

rows

across

the

gully

lay or

ditch

with

sufficient

overlays

to

produce

shingle

effect.

than

the

sides.

DISADVANTAGES

Keep

the

centre

of

the

dam

lower

Requires

frequent

inspection

and

Construct

stone

apron

if

neces-

construction.

after

immediately

gravelling

or

mulching,

seeding,

sodding,

of

means

by

stabilized

be

should

ditch

the

of

sides

The

4.

dam.

next

the

Construct

needed.

not

is

apron

an

rock,

in.)

(1-2

mm

to

is

dam

and

low

are

velocities

dam.

the

of

upstream

the

from

silt

of

build-up

the

protect

also

should

apron

The

remove

and

stone

displaced

any

Replace

runoff

If

ditch.

the

of

banks

side any

25-50

of

constructed

be

MAINTENANCE

downstream.

ft.)

(3.3

point

DAM

ROCK

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

Page

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

2.7

No.

EROSION

AND

Page

CONTROL

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MSURE

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

GABION

BASKET

DAM

FACTSHEET

June

1988

SEDIMENT

No.

2.7

C of

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

Gabion

basket

dams

may

not

be

used

in

natural

watercourses.

However,

they

can

be

used

in

gullies

or

ditches

of

moderate

area,

and

where

medium-sized

drainage

(8-12)

slope,

having

small-

to

source

of

suitable

rock

is

available.

ADVANTAGES

Can

be

used

where

only

small

rock

properly

installed

series

of

gabion

lining

the

is

available

check

dams.

Note

also

Flexibility

and

weight

More

durable

than

other

check

hold

dam

in

contact

with

ditch

erosion

control.

constantly

ditch

with

rock

to

achieve

maximum

dams

ness

of

hydroseeding

the and

effective-

bottom

More

resistant

to

Resistant

to

vandalism

damage

by

fairly

high

velocities

than

other

types

of

even

small

stones

are

not

very

efficient

check

dams

Although

stone

reduces

water

velocity,

efficiency

of

stone

can

be

improved

by

DISADVANTAGES

at

trapping

sediment.

The

trapping

the

filtering

More

expensive

than

other

types

of

placing

layer

of

straw

check

dams

the

gabion

to

assist

in in

the

bottom

of

action.

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

Gabion

baskets

are

the

most

permanent

DESIGN

STEPS

type

of

check

dam.

They

come

a
in

Follow

the

design

steps

listed

in

Check

variety

of

standard

sizes

and

are

Dams

General,

Factsheet

2.7.

normally

held

together

with

wire

ties.

baskets

wire

the

dam.

the

of

side

upstream

shut.

the

from

silt

of

build-up

any

Remove

and

rock

wire.

broken

any

Repair

ditch.

the

of

bottom

the

MAINTENANCE

in.)

(12

mm

300

approximately

baskets

wire

the

of

bottom

the

Set
below

Fill

wire with

and

straw,

of

layer

construction.

after

immediately

ling

dam.

the

Construct

3.

gravel-

or

mulching,

seeding,

sodding,

to

channel

the

of

sides

the

Excavate

by

ditch

the

of

sides

the

Stabilize

4.

keyed-in.

be

to

dam

the

allow

2.

gabion.

are

the

from

ft.)

(3.3

point

Place

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

it

extend

and

baskets

the

down-

just

apron

rock

of a

stream

ditch

the

of

slopes

side

the

to

slope.

stable

more

to

regrade

steep,

If

1.

2.7

No.

DAM

BASKET

GABION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of C

Page

Nova Scotia

EROSION AND

SEDIMENT
Department of
the Environment

CONTROL

FACTSHEET

CATEGORY

CONTROL MEASURE

DRAINAGE CONTROL

PLANK DAM

[rade Slope

2:1

Posts: either an
Iron Bar or Wood Stake
0.8 m below grade

tTrap

-f Dam

1..

Place Planks
0.3 m below grade

CONDITIONS WHERE APPLICABLE


Plank dams may not be used in a natural
watercourse.
They can be used:
In gullies with small- to mediumsized drainage areas
When a durable check dam is
needed

Easily constructed
Heavy board, slabs or railroad ties
can be used instead of planks

DISADVANTAGES

Planks may rot if submerged conditions prevail

DESIGN STEPS

ADVANTAGES

Inexpensive

materials)

(given availability of

Follow the design steps listed in Check


Dams General, Factsheet 2.7.

No. 2.7 0
Page 1 of 2

June 1988

apron.

the

dam.

the

of

side

upstream

form

to

brush

or

rock

either

Use

the

into

only

dam

plank

installed,

posts

to

planks

Nail

MAINTENANCE

ends

the

well with

the

maintenance.

routine

of

minimum

planks

the

set

Once

banks.

of

requires

apron.

the

to

damage

any

Repair

notch.

spiliway

the

in

Cut

from

silt

of

build-up

any

Remove

apron.

the

Install

4.

earth.

construction.

after

immediately

ling

well-packed

with

backfill

Then

plank

bottom

the

placing

gravel-

or

mulching,

seeding,

sodding,

seal.

by

ditch

the

of

sides

the

Stabilize

5.

thin

a and
a

as

grass

or

straw

of

layer

upstream

level.

bottom

original

the

to

up

rock

large

spiliway.

the

area

the

fifl

used,

being

is

rock

stakes.

short

with

brush

the

Anchor


If

the

ft.)

trench

narrow

along

with

side

a of

Dig

(1

mm

gully

permit

to

enough

300

wide side

and

deep

1
approximately

on

pieces

shorter

similar

laid. top,

are

shingles

way

the

depth

to

gully

the

across

long

bottom

the

in

pieces

straight

in
a

posts

the

Set

is

brush

Where

dam.

the

Build

3.

upstream.

the

in

it

lay

ends used,

cut

the

with

area

row

Place

of

and

ft.).

(3.3

to

each

on

immediately

posts

the

Set

in.).

(2-3

mm

50-70

of

depth

keyed-in.

be

to

dam

the

of

height

effective

to

Channel

the

of

sides

ends

spillway

notch

the

of

the and

twice

least

at

downstream

are

ditch

the

of

slopes

side

the

If

1.

each

beyond

ft.)

(1.5

mm

side 450

slope.

stable

more

regrade

to

steep,

to

the

Excavate

dam

the

allow

2.

least

at

of

area

an

Excavate

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

No.

DAM

PLANK

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of D

2 2.7

Page

keyed-in.

be

to

dam

the

allow

where

instances

in

structures

other

to

channel

the

of

sides

the

Excavate

2.

than

cost-effective

more

be

Can

slope.

stable

more

to

regrade

are

ditch

the

of

slopes

side

the

If

runoff

where

areas

in

vegetation

1.

newly-established

out

wash

steep,

vegetation

would

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

establishing

of

means

Effective

rootstocks

or

stolons

2.7.

Factsheet

General,

Dams

by

spread

which

grasses

using

when

Check

in

listed

steps

design

the

Follow

especially

covering,

quick

Gives

STEPS

DESIGN

VANTAGES

AD

structures

require

May

channel

and

ft.)

3.3-5.6

or

(1-1.7

ditch

the

complete

provide

other

than

time

longer

of to a

stabilization

(3:1).

flat

relatively

is

that

grade

can

they

However,

watercourse.

natural

DISADVANTAGES

gullies

medium-sized

or

small-

in

used

be

available

is

in
a

used

be

not

may

dams

fill

Earth

soil

good

and

excessive

not

is

runoff

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

4:1

slope

recommended

Downstream

apron

strip

Sod

dam

the

side

upstream

of the

on

trap

sediment

small

Excavated

expected

level

seeded

the

up

placed

Sod

to

Areas

15-30cm

sides

gully

be

minimum

the

above

III

DAM

FILL

EARTH

SODDED

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

MEASURE

CONTROL

CATEGORY

of

Department

AND

EROSION

Scotia

Nova

1988

June

of

Page

2.7

No.

FACTSHEET

CONTROL SEDIMENT

Environment

the

Seeded

be

to

Areas

Level

Water

High

Expected

width.

same

the

of

trench

dam.

the

of

side

upstream

shallow

in
a

wide,

ft.)

(1

mm

300

the

from

silt

of

build-up

any

Remove

approximately

strips,

sod

Lay

areas.

washed-out

Check

Strip

Sod

or

eroded

any

revegetate

and

Repair

Dam

Alternative

MAINTENANCE

ditch.

the

Vegetate

4.

dam.

slope.

the

the

of

side

downstream

the

on

difficult

is

vegetation

where

sketch.)

(See

of to

steepness

the

to

due

establish

flow

the

to

parallel

fills

earth

and Sod

3:1

of

excess

used.

sod

be

used

the

of

characteristics

ing

side

upstream

can

strips

sod

Contour

side.

downstream

the

the on

on

4:1

and

spread-

the

on

depending

vary

can

in

dam

the

of

slopes

side

Avoid

distance

the

apart;

ft.)

(2.3-3.9

capacity.

spiliway

necessary

mm-1.2

700

strips

the

Space

the

provide

to

order

in

sides

levels.

water

high

expected

gully

the

meet

to

upward

curves

up

strips

the

Extend

is

fill

the

the

above

side

gully

fill

the

Pack

mm

gully.

ft.).

the

of

bed

the

below

slightly

or

heights

avoid

and

500 well

than

greater

of (1.6

top

the

that

sure

Make

in.) the

(6

mm

150

least

at

gradually

and

centre

the

in

low

flush

are

strips

the

that

sure

Make

dam.

the

Build

3.

No.

DAM

FILL

EARTH

SODDED

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

MEASURE

CONTROI

CATEGORY

2 2.7

Page

Nova Scotia

Department of
the Environment

EROSION AND

SEDIMENT
CONTROL

FACTSHEET

CATEGORY

CONTROL MEASURE

DRAINAGE CONTROL

SANDBAG DAM

Section A-A

No. 2.7 F
Page 1 of 2

June 1988

displaced.

become

have

that

bags

2.7.

Factsheet

General,

Dams

any

replace

and

wash-outs

any

Repair

Check

in

listed

steps

design

the

Follow

dam.

the

of

side

upstream

the

from

silt

of

build-up

any

Remove

STEPS

DESIGN

MAINTENANCE

flow.

the

of

velocity

and

volume

construction.

the

is

consideration

design

main

The

after

immediately

gravelling

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

or

mulching,

seeding,

sodding,

volumes

by

ditch

the

of

sides

the

Stabilize

6.

runoff

of

downstream.

ft.)

(3.3

low

relatively

have

that

ditches

least

at

extended

and

spillway

the

below

apron

an

as

sandbags

Place

produce

bags

effect.

shingle

to

the

of

sides

the

Excavate

to

keyed-in.

be

to

dam

the

allow

2.

to

the

gully

the

across

in.). or

(10

mm

250

Excavate

3.

velocity.

runoff

low

channel

The

across

row

in
a

sandbags

of

depth

Inexpensive

ADVANTAGES

and

ditch

high.

bags

two

least

at

Lay

4.

construct

to

Easy

areas

as

so

overlapped

be

should

and

gully

is

in

where

alternative

rock

5.

DISADVANTAGES

unavailable

Good

placed

when

only

Effective

watercourses.

natural

slopes

side

the

If

1.

in

used

be

not

may

dams

Sandbag

stable

more

are

ditch

the

a of

to

regrade

steep,

can

they

However,

slope.

drainage

small

with

gullies

in

used

be

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

APPLICABLE

WHERE

CONDITIONS

No.

DAM

SANDBAG

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

of

MEASURE

CONTROl.

CATEGORY

2 2.7

Page

EROSION

AND

No.

2.8

CONTROL

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

STRAW

FILTER

BARRIER

FACTSHEET

June

1988

SEDIMENT

Page

of

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

property

boundaries

during

construc-

Straw

barriers

may

not

be

used

natural

watercourse.

They

are

short-

In

drainage

areas

of

a
in

tion

of

other

measures

less

than

ha

term

measure

and

are

effective

only

(2.5

ac.)

when

treating

runoff

from

very

small

drainage

areas

for

short

time.

under

some

uses.

Burlap

geotextile

filters

would

be

substitutes.

rainfall,

while

constructing

more

suitable

measure

against

sedimentation

from

fore, able

their

cost-effectiveness

is

question-

or

An

effective

Low

cost

There-

ADVANTAGES

preventative

control

elaborate

erosion

control

structures

Straw

barriers

can

be

used:

When

normal

flows

are

minimal

or

establish

and/or

allowing

vegetation

to

where

conditions

exist

for

runoff

from

infrequent,

high-intensity

DISADVANTAGES

rainfall

Must

be

cleaned

out,

repaired,

and

Along

the

side

of

waterways

or

effectiveness

In

shallow

ditches

or

swales

replaced

regularly

to

maintain

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

STRAW

FILTER

BARRIER

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

The

maximum

life

is

approximately

Straw

filter

barriers

are

over,

designed

allow

water

to

flow

through,

not

the

wetter

conditions

and

successive

storms.

to

months,

or

considerably

less

under

barrier;

therefore,

if

properly

installed

and

maintained,

they

require

no

apron.

IMPLEMENTATION

STEPS

The

bales

plug

up

with

sediment

very

constant

surveillance

placed

on

quickly

and
bales

are

not

replaced

when

improperly

placed,

undercutting

and

sediment,

rock

apron

must

constructed

on

the

downslope

side

of

barrier.

flow

occurs,

which

actually

increases

end the

be the

improper

installation

and

use.

When

and the with

close

attention

to

maintenance.

have

had

high

rates

of

failure

because

of

plugged

projects

in

Nova

Scotia

and

elsewhere

If

various

kinds

of

construction

require

Experience

has

shown

that

straw

barriers

amount

of

sediment

eroded

and

trans-

ported

by

runoff

1.

If

the

barrier

is

used

a
in

ditch

or

swale,

and

the

side

slopes

of

the

ditch

are

steep,

regrade

to

more

stable

slope.

Excavate

the

sides

of

the

ditch

to

allow

the

bales

to

be

keyed-

in.

Refer

to

the

design

steps

listed

in

Check

Dams

General,

Factsheet

2.7.

2.

Excavate

the

trench.

Excavate

trench

the

width

a
of

straw

bale

and

the

length

of

the

Straw

ba/es

used

to

filter

sediment

proposed

barrier

to

minimum

near

the

edge

of

lake

here,

one

depth

of

100-150

mm

(4-6

in.)

small

lot

is

being

developed.

below

the

surface.

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

No.

2.8

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

STRAW

FILTER

BARRIER

Page

of

3.

Place

the

straw

bales.

Wedge

loose

straw

between

any

Place

the

bales

on

their

sides

and

cracks

or

other

openings

tightly

together

in

the

trench.

bales

have

been

tied

with

non-

the

uphill

side

of

the

barrier.

the

(If

scatter

loose

straw

over

the

soil

and on

degradable

twine,

they

should

be

Subsequent

movement

of

the

placed

on

the

flat.)

loose

straw

tends

to

seal

any

Drive

two

sturdy

wooden

or

steel

undetected

openings

in

the

barrier.

stakes

through

each

bale,

deep

4.

Backfill

enough

to

anchor

them

securely.

Backfill

and

lightly

compact

the

Drive

the

first

stake

in

each

bale

excavated

soil

up

to

depth

of

barrier.

toward

the

previously

laid

bale

to

100

mm

force

the

bales

together.

slope

side

(4 of

in.) the

against

the

up-

the

down-

Backfill

and

compact

soil

to

ground

level

the on

excavated

slope

side.

the

barrier.

5.

Dig

side

a of

sediment

trap

on

the

upslope

MAINTENANCE

replaced,

if

necessary,

after

each

The and

barrier

should

be

checked

regularly

rainstorm.

It

should

be

replaced

if

the

bales

become

clogged

with

silt.

bales

are

very

heavy.)

(Wet

normally

be

removed

Here,

the

straw

bales

are

with

crushed

stone

and

berm

to

filter

runoff

from

large

The

barrier

used

as

the

upslope

side can

of

the

barrier.

covered

Remove

the

buildup

of

sediment

from

construction

area

before

it

flows

off

after

other

measures

have

been

com-

the

site

into

storm

sewer.

pleted

and

control

is

well

established.

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

FILTER

FABRIC

BARRIER

(GEOTEXTILE)

slopes

of

the

ditch

are

steep,

regrade

to

more

stable

slope.

For

further

information,

see

Factsheet

2.7,

Check

Dams

General.

3.

Excavate

the

trench.

cres-

in.)

trench

Excavate

100

mm

a (4

100

mm

a
(4in

in.)

by

cent

shape

across

the

flow

path,

with

ends

pointing

upslope.

4.

Set

wood

stakes

supplied

by

the

manufacturer.

Drive

sturdy,

50

wood

stakes,

spaced

(21
mm

ground

apart,

securely

into

the

(3.3

ft.)

in.)

square

along

the

downslope

side

of

the

trench.

will

be

needed.

Note:

If
or

steel

the bar

ground

is

hard,

pick

5.

Install

the

filter

barrier.

The

filter

fabric

should

be

a
in

continuous

roll

and

cut

to

its

desired

length.

(Avoiding

seams

improves

the

strength

and

effi-

Staple

the

filter

Fabric

ciency

of

the

barrier.)

fabric

to

the

upstream

side

of

the
trench.

extending

Backfill

L!i

mm

(36

in.)

in

height.

The 900

filter

barrier

should

not

exceed

(8

in.)

into

the the

bottom

200

stakes, mm

6.

Backfill.

Backfill

and

compact

the

soil

in

the

trench

over

the

filter

fabric.

7.

Vegetate

exposed

soil

immediately.

MAINTENANCE

Clean

out

accumulated

sediment

at

regular

intervals

and

after

severe

rainstorms,

and

promptly

repair

barrier

if

undercufting

or

end

flow

the has

occurred.

The

barrier

can

be

removed

once

other

construction

work

has

been

completed

ar

sta

EROSION

AND

No.

2.10

CONTROL

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

SILTATION

PONDS

FACTSHEET

June

1988

SEDIMENT

Page

of

These

are

also

referred

to

as

sedimenta-

tion

ponds

or

basins,

and

are

not

to

be

confused

with

silt

traps.

(For

information

on

silt

traps

refer

to

Factsheet

2.7.)

PURPOSE

To

intercept

and

retain

sediment-

laden

runoff

so

that

sediment

may

settle

out,

thereby

reducing

amount

of

sediment

leaving

the the

disturbed

area,

and

protecting

drainage

ways,

properties

watercourses

below

the

pond

and from

excessive

sedimentation

designed

for

few

days'

use

and

CONDITIONS

WHERE

APPLICABLE

Expedient

siltation

ponds

should

be

Generally,

siltation

ponds

are

structed

with

bulldozer

or

backhoe.

last

resort"

to

treat

runoff

which

already

become

silt-laden.

They

do

has not

storage.

They

can

quickly

be

con-

used

as

should

provide

for

small

amount

of

solve

erosion

problems.

Natural

water-

courses

must

not

be

considered

for

the

location

of

siltation

ponds.

They

can

be

used:

Where

physical

conditions

or

land

ownership

restrictions

on

disturbed

site

preclude

the

installation

of

erosion

control

measures

to

ade-

quately

control

runoff,

erosion

and

sedimentation

Below

construction

operations

which

expose

critical

areas

to

soil

erosion

Siltation

ponds

remain

in

effect

until

the

disturbed

area

is

protected

against

erosion

by

permanent

stabilization.

Temporary

span

of

few

months

to

few

years

There

are

three

types

of

siltation

ponds

siltation

ponds

have

life

that

may

be

installed:

expedient,

tempo-

and

provide

much

more

storage

than

ra

perm

expe

on

CATEGORY

CONTROL

MEASURE

DRAINAGE

CONTROL

SILTATION

PONDS

tion.

The

efficiency

of

sediment

trapping

is

dependent

upon

watershed

soil

type.

Clay

and

silt

particles

do

not

settle

quickly

once

they

are

suspended

in

water.

Watersheds

that

contain

soils

high

in

clay

and

silt

require

large

ponds

to

capture

the

soil

that

has

been

eroded.

The

average

basin

length

should

be

least

twice

the

average

width,

in

order

at to

increase

the

amount

of

time

in

which

1.2

(4

to
ft.)

settling

may

occur.

depth

should

be

at

The least

average

basin

lessen

the

frequency

of

clean

out.

Permanent

siltation

ponds

serve

It

should

be

located

and

designed

for

function

after

construction

is

com-

easy

clean

out

by

large

mechanized

pleted.

These

ponds

may

act

as

space

flood-proofing

measure

or

recreational

opportunities.

For

watercourses.

ent

siltation

ponds,

refer

to

"Design

of

not

wash

into

nearby

tailed

information

regarding

perman-

removed

from

the

pond,

so

that

it

does

de-

to

put

material

that

has

been

provide

It
equipment.

is

necessary

to

provide

be

used.

In

some

instances,

Sedimentation

Basins")

Transporta-

tion

Research

Board,

1980)

or

references.

spillway

is

other

Determine

if to

pipe,

weir

or

drop

inlet

it

may

be

necessary

to

use

filter

fabric

on

spillways.

ADVANTAGES

The

size

and

cost

of

sedimentation

Eroded

topsoil

may

be

reclaimed

ponds

can

be

greatly

reduced

by

Improves

watercourse

quality,

partic-

preventing

off-site

drainage

from

enter-

ularly

when

used

in

conjunction

with

ing

the

construction

site

other

erosion

and

sedimentation

Diversion

Ditch

effectiveness

a
of

pond

can

be

increased

control

practices

2.1).

The

(cross Factsheet

reference

either

not

possible

or

around

it.

Therefore

do

not

locate

Useful

zation

in is

areas

where

slope

stabili-

by

diverting

non-turbid

storm

water

ineffective,

or

where

volume

of

siltation

pond

a
in

pond

or

swamp.

water

to

be

treated

is

high

stream,

lake,

natural

DISADVANTAGES

It

is

recommended

that

sedimentation

More

costly

than

slope

stabilization

basins

not

be

built

in

series.

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

DESIGN

STEPS

primary

consideration

is

the

location

of

The

design

of

siltation

ponds

requires

other

person

experienced

in

the

design

siltation

the

siltation

pond

and

area.

The

volume

of

control

measures.

(1/16

must

be

at

least

190

for

every

hectare

(acre)

under

ac.-ft.) construc-

and

installation

of

erosion

and

siltation

the the m3

available

land pond

the

assistance

a
of

soils

engineer

or

Protection

cleanout.

detected

be

repaired

basin imme-

the

inspect

rain and

each

After

diately.

can

Outlet

Drain

Storm

2.4

Factsheet

Factsheet

Ditch

Diversion

Matting

Temporary

2.1 1.4

Factsheet

for

need

the

for

or

damage

erosion

for

Fabric

erosion

by

or

equipment

by

damage

any
going

operations

construction

while

Filter

Geotextile

1.3

Factsheet

Lining

Riprap

1.1

Factsheet

that are

so

vicinity,

immediate

its

in

on

cally

REFERENCES

CROSS

periodi-

basin

sedimentation

the

Inspect

MAINTENANCE

revegetated.

and

levelled

be

should

site

are

ponds

siltation

temporary

When

construction

the

of

grubbing

any

before

the no

control,

siltation

for

needed

longer

occurs.

site

below.

installed

be

should

ponds

Siltation

stream

the

or

basin

the

re-enter

cannot

it

where

sediment

removed

the

Place

STEPS

IMPLEMENTATION

cleaning.

the

for

in

brought

be

must

dragline

if
a

delay,

even

done

be

should

cleanout

the

forecast,

is

rain

if

However,

cleanout.

starting

before

dries

sediment

the

until

to

well

be

might

it
system,

dewatering

so

or

possible.

extent

the

to

area

that

crest

spillway

the

when

within

comes

level

sediment

the

Minimize

pond.

siltation

the

to

drain

has the foot

basin

the or

If

full.

2/3

about

is of

pond

to

be

can

Method

Rational

of

wait

runoff.

determine

The

used
riprap.

with

spillway

weir

the

Protect

2.

downstream

just

riprap

the

Place

without

scour.

prevent

to

outlet

pond

the

4. 3.

when

material

accumulated

the

Remove

will

that

land

of

area

the

Determine

1.

3
of
3

Page

PONDS

MEASURE

CONTROL

2.10

No.

SILTATION

CONTROL

DRAINAGE

CATEGORY

lb

elevation.

same

the

of

points

connecting

map

on

drawn

line

(2)

elevation.

same

sediment.

of

accumulation

scour

minimize

gradient),

channel

the

reducing

(by

velocity

(like
and

CONDUIT

promote

water

the

closed

or

open

whether

water,

of

conveyance

for

intended

channel

Any

erosion

CONTOUR

culvert).

of

points

connecting

earth

the

of

surface

the

on

line

imaginary

An

(1)

decrease

to

place

similar

other

or

ditch,

gully,

in
a

constructed

dam

small

DAM

CHECK

property.

adjacent

and

project

construction

the

between

or

the

of

construction

the

in

used

material

fill

earth

of

to

structures.

fill

earth

source

or

STRIP

BUFFER

embankments

retard

to

streambanks

beside

left

vegetation

permanent

of

strip

Usually

other

and

material,

transported

of

deposition

causes

that

water

runoff

of

flow

trees

of

particularly

strip,

vegetative

be

also

could

It

banks.

left the

bushes,

protect

AREA

BORROW

slope.

of

continuity

the

breaks

that

ridge

A
BERM

sediment.

trap

to

serve

technique

also

and

length

slope

effective

the

reduce

Benches

slope.

benches

level

of

series

create

to

fill

of

placement

or

grading

a of

on

'steps'

or

BENCHING

material.

bank

upper

the

of

slumping

causing

layer,

impermeable

an

above

seepage

groundwater

by

layer

horizontal

along

out

washed

material

Bank

'MINING"

BANK

water;

of

flow

direct

culvert.

or

chute

slope,

of

toe,

or

bottom,

the

at

placed

of it
a is

outlet

the

at

or

spillway,

energy

the

dissipating

by

erosion

from

surface

protects

that

lining

or

floor

of A

APRON

processes.

natural

through

assumes

soil

that

slope,

maximum

the

and

horizontal

the

between

angle

The

REPOSE

OF

ANGLE
Pleasing

at.

look

to
AESTHETIC

foot.

of

depth

to

acre

1
cover

will

that

water

of

volume

The

(ac.-ft.)

ACRE-FOOT

GLOSSARY

2b

soil.

of

quality

as

'erodible'

with

confused

erosion.

to

Susceptible

ERODIBLE

inclined.

or

vertical

be

may

drop

The

fall.

surplus

its

dissipating

and

level

lower

to

water

dropping

for

structure

STRUCTURE

elevation.

lower

wall

vertical

over

drops

water

the

which

in

structure

overfall

ice,
an

wind,

water,

principally

agents,

erosive

by

particles

soil

of

Detachment

EROSION

at

apron

be

gravity.

DROP

An

onto

EROSIVE

energy;

to

Not

water.

or

wind

to

Refers

erosion.

cause

to

velocity

sufficient

Having

and

SPILLWAY

DROP

conduit.

discharge

to

connected

riser

vertical

through

drops

water

the

which

in

structure

overfall

An

SPILLWAY

INLET

DROP

point.

(design)

common

to

run

may

runoff

which

from

area

water

and

land

All

(WATERSHED)

AREA

DRAINAGE

drainage.

natural

affect

that

characteristics

Soil

(2)

drains.

subsurface

or

surface

of

means

by

land

from

water

ground

or

water

surface

excess

of

removal

The

(1)

DRAINAGE

percolation.

by

soil)

the

(from

water

lose

To

(2)

flow.

internal

or

flow

surface

by

removed

be

can

water

excess

that

so

drains,

closed

or

ditches

open

as

such

channels,

provide

To

(1)

(VERB)

DRAIN

groundwater.

or

water

surface

off

carrying

for

drain)

(open

channel

or

ditch

drain).

(subsurface

conduit

other

or

pipe

buried

AA

(2) (1)

(NOUN)

DRAIN

erosion.

prevent

to

helping

thus

vegetation,

existing

by

stabilized

areas

onto

outlets

and

flow

sheet

into

runoff

of

flow

concentrated

converts

that

ditch

it A

DITCH

DISPERSION

water.

agent,

transporting

the

of

movement

slower

to

due

dropped

is

or

settles

which

material

of

accumulation

The

DEPOSITION

seeder.

the

from

outward

seed

the

slings

that

motion

rotary

by

seedbed

the

onto

seed

broadcasts

that

seeder

tractor-drawn

or

hand-turned

SEEDER

CYCLONE

FILTER FABRIC
(G EOTEXTILES)
A synthetic material of woven or non-woven (plastic) description. Its purpose
is to allow water to filter through while retaining fine soil particles and
preventing them from being washed away.

GABION MATTRESS
A thin gabion (flexible woven-wire basket), usually 150 to 230 mm (6 to 9 in.)
thick, filled with rock and used to line channels or stream banks for erosion
control.

GRADE
(1) The slope of a road, channel, or natural ground.
(2) The finished surface of a roadbed, top of embankment, or bottom of
excavation; any surface prepared for the support of construction, like

paving or laying

conduit.

(3) To finish the surface of a roadbed, top of embankment or bottom of

excavation.

GRADIENT
Change of elevation per unit length; slope.

GULLY/GULLYING
(GULLY EROSION)
Erosion of soil caused by concentrated runoff which forms a deeply-cut
channel in the land surface.

HECTARE (ha.)
A measure of the area of a land surface equal to 2.47 acres.

HYDRO-SEEDING
Mechanical application by spraying onto the surface of the soil a speciallymixed slurry of turf-establishing materials, consisting of water, seed,
fertilizer, and short-fibre wood or paper mulch.
IN LET
(1) A surface connection to a closed drain.
(2) A structure at the entrance end of a conduit.
(3) The upstream end of any structure through which water may flow.

JUTE
A coarsely woven material of jute yarn which can be used to control soil
erosion.

LAND-DISTURBING
ACTIVITY
Any land change which may result in soil erosion, including, but not limited
to, clearing, grubbing, grading, excavating, transporting, and filling of land.
LI1TER
Fine-textured vegetative material such as straw or forest litter.

MEAN STREAM LEVEL


The average or normal water level in

stream.

3b

4b

surface.

soil

the

over

layer

thin

in

flowing

water

is

which

flow),

(overland

flow

sheet

by

caused

erosion

Soil

EROSION

SHEET

spot.

localized

from

emerges

water

the

where

spring,

with

contrasted

as

surface,

or

line

extensive

an

along

occur

to

considered

usually

ground;

the

from,

emerging

or

through,

escaping

Water

SEEPAGE

erosion.

through

detached

become

that

particles

soil

of

deposition

and

Transportation

SEDIMENTATION

conduit.

to

due

conduit,

of

outlet

the

at

or

channel

in
a

structure

or

obstruction

the an

from

discharging

or

obstruction

the

around

velocity

water

the

in

increase

an

around

localized

usually

channel,

of

banks

or

bed

the

of

Erosion

SCOURING

soil.

the

of

surface

the

break

or

modify,

scratch,

abrade,

To

SCARIFY

flow.

groundwater

and

flow

channel

open

flow),

(sheet

flow

overland

portion

include

runoff

of

Components

streams.

into

discharged

the

into

absorbed

not

is

that

area

drainage

on

precipitation

is of

but

ground

The

RUNOFF

water.

of

action

erosive

the

against

soil

the

of

protection

for

surfaces

earth

on

placed

boulders

or

cobbles,

rock,

Large

RIPRAP

runoff.

by

soil

the

of

surface

the

into

cut

deep,

foot)

(one

centimetres

thirty

than

more

not

channel,

small

EROSION)

(RILL

RILL/RILLING

life.

aquatic

or

birds,

animals,

man,

to

useful

less

or

properties

aesthetic

health,

public

to

harmful

waters

the

render,

to

likely

resources),

water

the

(including

environment

the

is of

or

render,

will

which

or

biological,

chemical,

physical,

the

of

variation

or

alteration

detrimental

POLLUTION

water.

seepage

by

developed

"pipes"

or

channels

flow

subsurface

through

soil

of

removal

The

PIPING

area.

drainage

or

stream,

channel,

conduit,

from

discharges

water

which

at

point

The

OUTLET

raindrops.

of

impact

the

against

protection

and

moisture

soil

of

retention

as

such

characteristics,

certain

enhance

and

protect

to

soil

the

of

surface

the

covering

materials

other

or

residue

plant

of

layer

artificial

or

natural

A
MULCH

5b

water.

the

in

suspension

in

moving

sediment

to

due

cloudy

becomes

it

when

water

of

Condition

WATER)

(TURBID

TURBIDITY

structure.

hydraulic

other

or

conduit

spillway,

entering

from

debris

prevent

to

used

device

structural

or

grate

grill,

RACK

TRASH

growth.

survival

plant

for

suited

and

matter

organic

containing

soil,

of

layer

upper

and The

TOPSOIL

features.

man-made

and

natural

its

of

position

and

shape

the

including

surface,

Earth's

the

of

configuration

The

TOPOGRAPHY

slope.

the

down

uninterrupted

flow

to

it

permitting

of

instead

runoff

surface

store

or

divert

to

spacing

suitable

at

slope

across

channel

and

embankment

an

of

combination

or

embankment

an

constructing

involves

that

technique

control

erosion

An

TERRACING

structure.

from

downstream

immediately

channel

the

in

water

The

TAILWATER

erosion.

soil

minimizing

of

purpose

the

for

structures

permanent

or

temporary

installing

with

combination

in

cover

ground

other

or

mulch

and/or

vegetation

of

cover

soil

enduring

an

establishing

of

process

The

STABILIZATION

it.

through

move

to

air

or

water

allow

to

soil

of

ability

The

PERMEABILITY

SOIL

bank.

the

through

seeping

water

by

weakened

of

sliding

or

collapse

Sudden

is

structure

soil

the

and/or

inadequate

occurring

stream,

the

into

bank

the

of

portion

is a

support

underlying

when

SLUMPING

bank.

crumble

away

falling

the

through

seeping

water

by

weakened

stream,

the

into

bank

the

of

portion

is of

structure

soil

the and

when

occurring

Slow

NG

I
SLOUGH

watercourse.

of

pollution

sediment

Denotes

SEDIMENTATION.

also

See

SILTATION

slope.

1:1

being

deg.

45

and

(maximum),

vertical

being

slope

deg.

90

with

plane,

meaning

percent),

horizontal

the

from

slope

the

of

angle

the

is

it

degrees,

1,

to

example,

for

first;

distance

horizontal

the

percentage.

or

ratio

as

expressed

is

It

hill.

or

grade

distance.

vertical

unit

(200

2:1

frequently,

name

to

customary

is

1 or It

to

units

of

distance

horizontal

in a

expressed

When

of

steepness

the

embankment;

or

watercourse

of

sides

the

of

slope

The

SLOPE

SIDE

6b

AREA.

DRAINAGE

See

WATERSHED

scouring.

in

resulting

flow

concentrated

to

due

structure

or

streambank,

slope,

embankment,

an

under

from

soil

of

Loss

(2)

bank.

vertical

or

overhanging

the

along

Erosion

an

creating

obstruction),

an

around

or

stream

flow

channel

concentrated

to

due

streambank

in toe
a of
a

bend

the

at

(e.g.,

(1)

(UNDERMINING)

UNDERCUT11NG

APPENDIX

EFFECTS

OF

SEDIMENTATION

ON

THE

ENVIRONMENT

Sedimentation

is

the

process

of

transportation

and

deposition

of

detached

soil

particles.

Sediment

is

estimated

to

be

the

largest

single

excessive

sediment

in

water

destroys

the

aesthetic

water

pollutant

Turbidity

caused

by by

volume

at

least

700

times

that

of

sewage.

attractions

of

lakes

and

streams,

thereby

spoiling

recreational

activities

like

swimming

and

fishing.

Sedimentation

of

lakes

reduces

mean

depth

and

volume

and

provides

substrates

for

nuisance

aquatic

plants.

It

can

also

affect

the

quality

of

drinking

water.

Deterioration

of

the

quality

of

municipal

water

supply

for

long

periods

eventually

necessitates

sophisticated

and

expensive

water

purification

used

for

hydro-electric

purposes,

increased

turbines.

damage

Other

pollutants

namely,

dissolved

heavy

metals,

pest

control

products,

bacteria,

and

often

attached

to

eroded

soil

particles.

When

deposited

fertilizers

lakes

or

treatment.

nutrients,

dissolved

salts, are

If
sediment

loads

may

in

river

is

rivers,

they

can

kill

fish,

wildlife

and

waterfowl,

and

can

become

serious

health

threat

to

man.

One

of

the

most

serious

environmental

effects

of

siltation

is

the

destruction

of

fish

and

fish

habitat.

Fish

can

withstand

high

turbidity

for

short

periods,

but

such

conditions

may

induce

an

added

physiological

stress

which

makes

fish

susceptible

to

infection

by

disease-causing

micro-organisms.

Figure

A-i:

Aedal

view

of

siltation

to

water

supply

lake

due

to

upstream

construction

activities.

Figures

4-2

and

4-3:

High

concentration

of

sediment

pumped

out

a
of

construction

project

into

stream

smothered

this

small

fish

in

minutes.

Larger

in.

trout

suffocated

soon

after.

High

turbidity

levels

reduce

light

penetration

and

inhibit

photosyn-

thesis,

thereby

affecting

the

food

chain

and

dissolved

oxygen

content.

Streams

that

fill

with

sediment

have

fewer

suitable

and

provide

less

shelter.

Eventually,

populations

of

sport

fish

for
habitats

like

fish

salmon

and

trout

decline

and

less

desirable

species

proliferate.

Decline

of

fish

stocks

in

turn

affects

the

natural

food

chain

of

waterfowl,

small

mammals

and

furbearing

animals.

Some

of

the

most

prominent

types

of

sediment-producing

activities

are

farming,

forestry

operations,

highway

construction,

urban

development,

and

other

mass

grading

projects.

One

main

reason

for

excessive

erosion

and

transport

of

sediment

is

that

the

peak

of

land

clearing

often

coincides

with

heavy

rainfall

season.

Studies

have

indicated

that

successive

changes

in

land

use

within

watershed

are

accompanied

by

changes

in

sediment

yield.

For

example,

sediment

yields

can

vary

from

38

tonnes

per

square

kilometre

per

year

(100

tons

per

square

mile

per

year)

from

forested

areas

to

304

tonnes

per

square

38,000

tonnes

per

square

kilometre

per

year

kilometre

per

year

lands,

and

in

excess

(800 of

tons

per

square

mile

per

year)

from

agricultural

(100,000

tons

per

square

mile

per

year)

from

exposed

construction

areas.

8b

APPENDIX

EROSION

AND

SEDIMENTATION

PROCESSES

GEOLOGIC

AND

ACCELERATED

RATES

OF

EROSION

&

SEDIMENTATION

Soil

erosion

wind,

ice

natural

or

geologic

erosion

of

the

Earth's

crust

takes

place

of

soil The

is

known

is

sedimentation.

as

and

gravity.

The

transportation,

deposition

and

accumulation

the

gradual

wearing

away

of

the

land

surface

by

water,

gradually,

over

thousands

or

millions

of

years

and

is,

therefore,

not

readily

discernible.

However,

geologic

norms

of

erosion

provide

guidelines

for

limits

of

practical

erosion

control

measures,

and

basis

for

measuring

the

acceleration

of

soil

erosion.

rapid

removal

of

soil

in

matter

of

Man's

activities

can

speed

up

processes

considerably

through

the the

natural

erosion

and

sedimentation

days

or

weeks.

Figure

B-i:

stable,

natural

stream

environment.

Geologic

erosion

is

unnoticeahie.

fib

Figure

8-2:

Accelerated

erosion

a
of

large

construction

area

upstream

caused

dramatic

build-up

of

sediment

in

this

stream

a
in

few

weeks.

SHEET,

RILL

AND

GULLY

EROSION

Sheet

erosion

the

removal

of

fairly

uniform

layer

of

soil

by

shallow

sheets

of

water

is a

caused

by

raindrop

impact

and

splash,

and

refers

to

without

the

development

of

conspicuous

channels.

Sheet

erosion

often

unobserved,

but

may

be

evidenced

by

the

accumulation

is of

freshly-eroded

material

at

the

foot

of

slopes.

soil

by

running

water

as

the

sheet

flow

Rill

erosion

is

the

creation

the

detachment

and

removal

of of

conspicuous

shallow

channels

due

to

becomes

concentrated.

While

sheet

erosion

is

not

greatly

influenced

by

slope

steepness

or

location

on

slope,

nIl

erosion

results

primarily

from

the

purpose

of

implementing

erosion

controls,

sheet

and

nIl

erosion

the For

effects

of

runoff,

and

is

greatly

influenced

by

slope

and

flow

rate.

are

usually

considered

and

treated

as

one,

rather

than

two

separate

processes.

Gully

erosion

occurs

as

overland

flow

in

rills

combines

into

increasingly

larger

channels.

It

involves

more

significant

erosion

than

does

nIl

erosion.

Therefore,

heavy

equipment,

specially

designed

structures

or

the

costly

import

of

new

material

are

required

to

replace

the

eroded

soil

and

to

control

or

repair

gullies

and

their

tributary

Figure

8-3:

Sheet

and

nil

erosion

occuning

on

an

exposed

highway

embankment

quickly

tilling

in

the

drainage

ditch

with

sediment.

Figures

8-4

and

8-5:

The

advancement

of

gully

erosion

at

landfill

site

right.

over

two

month

period.

For

scale,

notice

standing

in

the

gully

in

the

photograph,

on

the the

man

14b

rainfall.

intensive

of

time

amount

The

periods.

construction

busy

on

depends

the the

at

site

construction

erosion

the soil

of of

condition

and

conditions

moisture

soil

also

are

which

fall,

and

spring

the

in

occurs

this

Scotia,

Nova

like

areas

In

rainfall.

intensive

most

the

and

condition

ground

unstable

most

critical.

more

often

is

distribution

seasonal

the

erosion,

affecting

the The

of

combination

by

characterized

is

erosion

heaviest

of

season

runoff

parameters

critical

are

rainfall

of

intensity

and

amount

rainfall.

heavy

the or

Although

spring

of

periods

during

gully

the

from

transported

usually

is

causes

other

and

slumping

to

due

gullies

in

accumulated

has

that

Material

thaw.

spring

after

occurs

slumping

when

especially

enlargement,

gully

of

cause

be

can

thawing

and

Freezing

transported.

are

particles

soil

larger

and

sediment

of

volumes

greater

increases,

velocity

the

As

rills.

in

runoff

occurs

which

velocity

water

concentration

the

and

runoff

of

amount

velocity

The

downslope.

flows

water

the

the as

with

increases

also

flow

of of

in

increase

an

with

increases

runoff

of

erosiveness

The

particles.

soil

detach

to

capacity

little

has

it

particles,

suspended

transport

can

flow

sheet

Although

develop.

to

flow

sheet

causes

process

sealing

The

rainfalls.

heavy

during

quickly

more

even

and

rainfall,

average

an

of

beginning

the

of

minutes

within

occurs

usually

process

sealing

This

surface.

the

sealing

thereby

surface,

the

below

washed

are

particles

clay

soil,

the

infiltrates

water

rain

As

develops.

quickly

slurry

surface,

soil

bare

the

strike

raindrops

When

detention.

water

surface

and

soil

the

of

capacity

infiltration

combined

the

exceeds

rainfall

of

rate

the

when

occurs

Runoff

form.

to

begin

rills

and

begins

runoff

as

occurs

rainfall

by

caused

erosion

of

phase

second

The

time.

of

period

longer

over

occurring

drizzle

fine

and

drops,

large

containing

thunderstorm

duration

short

of

capacity

erosive

the

comparing

when

important

is

energy

and

intensity

rainfall

The

bombs!

miniature

like

second)

per

ft.

(30

second

per

9.0

approaches

drops

larger

of

velocity

intensity.

rainfall

the

and

drop

each

of

velocity

and

size

the For

whereas

second,

per

in.)

(1

mm

25

about

at

falls

mist

fine

example,

the

of

function

is
a

impact

upon

particles

soil

detach

to

raindrops

of

capacity

The

runoff.

by

and

impact,

raindrop

by

ways:

two

in

erosion

causes

It

erosion.

to

contributes

which

factor

climatic

major

the

is

Rainfall

FACTORS

CLIMATIC

importance.

of

order

in

factors

the

rating

of

method

suitable

some

deriving

by

or

relationships

the

of

nature

the

understanding

through

accomplished

be

can

erosion

Controlling

them.

among

relationships

topography,

inter-

complex

the

and

factor,

each

of

variability

control

to

difficult

often

is

erosion

Soil

vegetation.

the and

of

because

type,

soil

climate,

factors:

four

by

primarily

influenced

is

Erosion

EROSION

OF

CAUSES

AND

PROCESSES

PHYSICAL

5b

site.

construction

the

to

adjacent

property

to

damage

serious

cause

could

but

effects

environmental

significant

have

not

will

stream

in

deposited

ultimately

not

is

that

Sediment

channel.

well-defined

enters

water

runoff

the

or

deposition,

causes

thus

and

decreases

gradient

slope

the

either

where

point

the

to

flow

overland

of

origin

of

point

the

from

distance

the

as

defined

is

length

slope

The

further.

even

increases

displaced

soil

of

amount

the

direction,

downhill

the

in

blowing

wind

strong

by

accompanied

is

rainfall

If

downhill.

transported

soil

of

amount

the

greater

the

slope,

the

steeper

The

ground.

level

on

occurs

that

replacement

accompanying

the

without

downhill,

it

transporting

by

soil

displaces

simply

earth

bare

on

splash

raindrop

however,

slope,

On

area.

adjacent

an

from

away

splashed

particles

by

replaced

normally

are

area

one

from

away

splashed

particles

soil soil

particles

earth,

bare

of

surface

level

On

away.

ft.)

(4.9

.5

as

far

as

soil

splash

can

raindrops

velocity,

and

size

their

on

Depending

toe.

the

at

steeper

become

slopes

convex

whereas

deposited,

become

particles

soil

eroded

the

where

end,

lower

or

toe,

the

towards

flatten

that

those

are

slopes

Concave

rates.

different

at

erode

which

of

all

sections

concave

and

straight,

convex,

of

consist

may

slopes

natural

because

too

consider

to

important

is

shape

slope

The

considered.

be

should

steepness

and

length

of

effects

combined

the

work,

field

practical

For

site.

on

erosion

affecting

features

surface

principal

the

are

therefore

and

water,

runoff

of

velocity

the

affect

slopes

of

steepness

and

length

The

STEEPNESS

AND

LENGTH

SLOPE

FACTORS:

TOPOGRAPHIC

erodibility.

decreasing

thus

permeability,

soil

and

rates

infiltration

increase

to

tends

soil

matter

organic

of

percentage

higher

soils,

clay

for

Except

transport.

in to

difficult

are

they

because

erodibility

low

have

but

detached,

easily

are

hand,

other

the

on

sands,

Coarse

problems.

environmental

prolonging

thereby

time,

long

suspension

in

remain

and

transported

easily

are

they

detached,

become

do

they

once

but

detach,

to

difficult

are

they

because

erodibility

low

have

particles

Clay

matter.

organic

and

clay

sand,

coarse

of

content

greater

with

decrease

and

sand,

fine

very

and

silt

of

content

greater

with

increase

to

tends

erodibility

Soil

runoff.

and

rainfall

to

resistance

soil's

predicting

of

capable

resistance

the

as

well

as

capacity,

infiltration

its

affect

can

soil

the

properties

chemical

and

physical

of

number

among

interactions

is of of

parameter

single

No

transport.

and

detachment

to

particles

soil

Complex

others.

than

readily

more

erode

soils

some

equal,

being

factors

all

with

even

but

management,

soil

and

cover,

characteristics,

rainstorm

landsiope,

by

influenced

be

may

erosion

soil

of

rate

The

FACTORS

SOIL

VEGETATION

AND

SURFACE

COVER

Accelerated

soil

erosion

on

construction

sites

is

generally

caused

by

the

removal

a
of

protective

vegetative

cover.

Consequently,

artificial

aids

then

become

necessary

to

replace

the

natural

controls.

There

are

several

ways

that

vegetative

cover

can

affect

soil

erosion:

1.

vegetative

canopy

of

trees,

bushes

and

grass

intercepts

rainfall,

greatly

reducing

the

impact

force

of

rain

drops.

It

is

also

effective

reducing

the

amount

of

water

that

reaches

the

soil,

because

some

in of

the

rainwater

intercepted

on

the

leaves

of

trees

or

blades

of

grass

evaporates

before

dropping

onto

the

soil,

or

reaches

the

soil

in

the

form

of

smaller

droplets.

The

type

of

vegetation

and

the

amount

of

cover

it

provides

will

have

different

effects.

dense

cover

will

reduce

erosion

reducing

splash

erosion

than

taller

shrubs

or

by

exposing

less

soil

are

more

effective

to in

direct

rainfall.

For

this

reason,

short

sod

grasses

weeds.

Effective

soil

protection

can

also

be

obtained

during

construction

by

using

mulches

to

cover

exposed

soil

or

by

simply

leaving

all

or

strategic

parts

a
of

site

under

natural

cover

for

the

greatest

amount

of

time

possible.

Figures

B-6

and

B-i:

The

same

site,

viewed

from

opposite

directions,

shows

long.

steep

slope

mulched

to

prevent

sheet

and

nIl

erosion.

1Gb

2.

Vegetation

reduces

the

velocity

of

overland

runoff

and

tends

to

disperse

it

so

that

it

does

not

concentrate.

As

the

velocity

is

reduced,

soil

particles

in

transport

are

redeposited

or

filtered

among

the

vegetation.

3.

Vegetation

prevents

puddling

and

sealing

of

the

soil

surface,

thereby

maintaining

infiltration.

4.

The

roots

of

plants

increase

the

stability

of

soil

granules,

improve

soil

remember

that

the

effectiveness

structure,

and

add

It

is

important

to to

the

organic

matter

content

of

the

soil.

a
of

vegetative

canopy

can

change

between

seasons

of

the

year,

and

even

frequently

between

storms.

Even

without

changes

in

the

canopy,

different

amounts

of

raindrop

interception

can

occur.

An

open

canopy

of

tall

vegetation

may

intercept

more

than

90

percent

of

the

raindrops

if

high

wind

drives

them

in

at

an

angle,

while

the

same

canopy

may

intercept

less

than

50

percent

of

the

drops

if

they

fall

vertically.

Figures

B-8

and

8-9:

subdivision

street

which

has

been

grubbed.

but

not

developed

for

several

months.

has

been

completely

covered

with

straw

mulch.

The

closeup

view

shows

that

although

some

of

the

straw

has

been

blown

away,

it

has

been

very

effective

in

keeping

this

erodible

soil

on

the

constnjction

site.

8b

7-14.

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1970,

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the

in

information

Gaudet

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service

the

N.S.

the

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Elaine

of

assistance

the

acknowledge

gratefully

We

of

production

and

design

the

in

Government

of

Department

Services

editing

and

writing

professional

Handbook.

to

the

presenting

in

helpful

very

The

understandable

it

making

and

format

was

Ltd.

Canada

of

Gabions

Maccaferri

from

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gratefully

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baskets

gabion

of

use

the

about

information

publish

to

Permission

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their

for

Cox

J.

Donald

and

Sweeney,

Reg

Leadbetter,

Fisheries

by

or

Environment

the

of

Department

N.S.

the

of

staff

by

taken

Jim and

P.Eng.,

Jollymore,

Brian

thank

to

wishes

Committee

The

Canada.

Oceans

were

projects,

Scotian

Nova

on

construction

from

arising

sedimentation

and

erosion

of

aspects

various

showing

Handbook,

the

in

used

photographs

All

Region.

Scotia-Fundy

Canada,

Oceans

and

Fisheries

Division,

Anadromous

and

Freshwater

the

of

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Corporation;

Development

Breton

Cape

The

Region;

Atlantic

E.P.S.

Canada,

Environment

of

Section

Assessment

Environmental

the

of

staff

and

P.Eng.,

Aibright,

Rodger

Mr.

P.Eng.;

Lewis,

Lee

by

chaired

Scotia,

Nova

of

University

Technical

the

at

Control

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and

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on

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The

Robertson;

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and

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Gordon,

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members

and

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Mrs.

notably

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Lakes

Dartmouth

The

by:

provided

was

review

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controls.
problems

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implementation

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of

outside

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from

input

acknowledge

to

wishes

committee

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both

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interest

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have

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engineers,

consulting

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department,

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drafts.

earlier

the

on

commented

and

reviewed

who

Department

the

of

staff

technical

and

engineering

other

many

of

assistance

the

appreciates

committee

The

Brennan.

Grant

and

Porter,

Gerald

Grey,

Don

P.Eng.,

Theakston,

John

of

consisting

Environment,

the

of

Department

the

by

established

committee

by

compiled

was

Handbook

The

EMENTS

ACKNOWLED