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Cài phần mềm trong Ubuntu

Cài phần mềm trong Ubuntu

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Published by: Nguyễn Hồng Quân on May 15, 2010
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07/14/2010

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Caø i phaà n meà m trong Ubuntu

I. So saùnh vôùi Windows:
1ron, Windows, phan mem thuon, duoc don, ,oi ya phan phoi duoi dan, mot file setup
don le (hoac mot thu muc nhieu file di cun, yoi mot file setup neu phan mem oua lon). \iec cai
dat duoc thuc hien lan, cach chay file setup. Khi file nay chay, no se lun, cac file chuon, trình
duoc don, ,oi tron, no hoac lay tu thu muc di kem ya chep chun, yao mot thu muc da dinh
truoc tron, o cun,.
1ren cac he dieu hanh Linux thì khac, phan mem khon, duoc phan phoi duoi dan, file
setup co the chay duoc ma phan phoi duoi dan, mot ,oi ma n,uon can lien dich hoac neu da
duoc lien dich san thì duoc chia thanh nhieu ,oi (packa,e) con. Khon, nhu Windows, khi ma
cac chuon, trình thuon, doc lap yoi nhau, thì cac chuon, trình tren Linux hau nhu cai nao
cun, phu thuoc yao mot phan hay toan lo chuon, trình khac. 1ruoc khi phan mem nay duoc
cai thì phai co mot yai phan mem duoc cai truoc. 'hun, phan mem can cai truoc do duoc ,oi la
dependencies cua phan mem muon cai. Linh dan, file cua cac packa,e da duoc lien dich la
*.del doi yoi cac lan phan phoi (distro) Linux thuoc ho Delian (nhu Delian, Uluntu, Linux
Mint...), *.rpm doi yoi cac distro ho Red Hat (nhu Red Hat Lnterprise Linux, ledora, Mandriya...)
hay mot so dinh dan, khac cua /rch Linux, Òpen SUSL...
Cac distro Linux thuon, cun, cap cac ,oi phan mem cua mình tai cac kho chua tren man,,
,oi la repository, duoc dat tren cac seryer cua cac nha tai tro khap the ,ioi. Khi can cai phan
mem nao do, n,uoi dun, chi can chay chuon, trình ouan ly ,oi cua distro (chan, han apt cua
cac distro ho Delian) ya yeu cau lay ye phan mem muon cai. Chuon, trình ouan ly ,oi sau do se
download phan mem cun, cac dependencies cua no tu repository ya tu don, cai.
II. Caùch caøi phaàn meàm trong Ubuntu
I. Uluntu Software Center
Lay la chuon, trình tro ,iup cai phan mem co the noi la de dun, nhat ya co mat tron,
Uluntu tu phien lan 9.IO (Karmic Koala) tro di. Mo chuon, trình tu menu Application
Cac phan mem tron, USC duoc sap thanh cac the loai de tien tìm kiem, n,oai ra con co
chuc nan, Search de tìm kiem nhanh.
Khi chon duoc phan mem, chi can lam Install de lat dau cai. Do tac yu cai phan mem co
lam thay doi den he thon, nen no doi hoi n,uoi dun, phai co ouyen ouan tri. Se co mot hop
thoai yeu cau nhap mat khau de xac thuc ouyen cua n,uoi dun,:
Z. Synaptic lacka,e Mana,er
Cai lan, Synaptic hoi kho hon mot chut yì thay yì hien thi ten phan mem han hoi nhu
UCS, Synaptic lai hien thi ten cac ,oi phan mem (yì no la Package Manager), dieu nay doi hoi
n,uoi dun, phai liet ten ,oi un, yoi phan mem muon cai. 1uy nhien, tình the chua den noi
kho khan lam yì moi ,oi deu co kem theo loi mieu ta, lan, cach su dun, chuc nan, tìm kiem,
can cu yao loi mieu ta, n,uoi dun, co the khoanh yun, chon lua duoc ,oi phan mem nao thich
hop.
Synaptic co the duoc tìm thay tron, menu System > Administration:
Khi da tìm duoc ,oi phan mem thich hop tron, danh sach, click chuot phai len no, chon
“Mark for Installation”. \iec ,o lo ,oi phan mem cun, tuon, tu, nhun, chon lenh khac (Removal).
Sau khi danh dau ,oi duoc chon xon,, lam Apply de lat dau tai ya cai.
J. /l1
Lay moi chinh la ke dun, dan, sau Uluntu Software Center ya Synaptic, yoi mot ,iao dien
hoi kho ,an: don, lenh. UCS ya Synaptic cun, cap ,iao dien truc ouan de lua chon ,oi, con yiec
,iai ouyet yan de phu thuoc ,oi, xun, dot ,oi, repository nao de download... la do /l1 dam
trach. /l1 ,om nhieu lenh, tron, do lenh de tai c cai ,oi la apt-,et. Le cai ,oi
packa,eexample, ta ,o lenh sau yao 1erminal: sudo apt-get install package_example, de
thao ,o la sudo apt-get remove package_example hay sudo apt-get purge
package_example. 1ron, do, sudo la de chay lenh yoi ouyen ouan tri (sau do se phai nhap
password de xac thuc).
'hu tren da noi, chuon, trình ouan ly ,oi se download cac ,oi phan mem tu repository ye
ya cai. \ay ta co the chon lua mot repository nao khac ,an hon ye khu yuc dia ly hay them lot
repository de co duoc nhieu kho phan mem hon khon,! Cau tra loi ya co, ya duoi day se trình
lay cach chuyen san, su dun, repository tron, nuoc (\iet 'am) de tan, toc do download, tranh
oua n,o Internet nuoc n,oai chat hep, n,oai ra con them mot repository chua mot so phan mem
dac thu \iet 'am nhu lo ,o chu \iet, font chu \iet y.y...
III. Chuyeån sang duøng repository trong nöôùc
Hien nay (nam ZOIO), Uluntu dan, la loai HLH Linux duoc su dun, ron, rai nhat ya co he
thon, mirror repository co mat ron, khap the ,ioi. 1ham chi, \iet 'am la noi ma Windows cuc
ky than thuoc, co mat tren hon 99º may tinh (nho Windows o day duoc xai lau thoai mai, chi
can nua ky ,ao la mua duoc mot dIa Windows) ma cun, co toi J mirror repository: mot cua han,
yien thon, ll1, mot cua lhon, 1hi n,hiem Mo thuoc So KHC' 1pHCM ya mot cua nhom
HanoiLUC (nhom n,uoi dun, Linux tai Ha 'oi). 1ron, do, chi co mirror ll1 la duoc dan, ky
chinh thuc yoi Canonical, con, ty do dau cho Uluntu, tuy nhien day lai la mirror kem on dinh
nhat, hay li dut ket noi. Mirror cua l1'M co toc do nhanh nhat nhun, n,uoi ouan ly doi khi
ouen ,ia han ten mien nen neu dun, dia chi dan, ten mien se co luc khon, yao duoc, con dun,
dia chi dan, Il thì on dinh hon. Cuoi cun,, mirror cua HanoiLUC (duoc dat ten la \irror) la
mirror lam yiec dan, hoan, nhat: ho tro lau dai nhat, khon, chi ho tro cho Uluntu phien lan
hien tai ma con ho tro cho phien lan Uluntu cu hon (nhun, phai con tron, thoi han ho tro
cua Canonical) ya tham chi ho tro phien lan Uluntu tiep sau con tron, ,iai doan phat trien ya
thu n,hiem: on dinh nhat: ho tro mirror cho ca cac distro Linux khac (Delian, ledora, CentÒS).
1uy nhien, mình ua dun, mirror repository cua l1'M yì mình o tron, 'am, dun, mirror nay
tai le hon ya muon nhuon, \irror cho cac lan n,oai Bac xai cho thoai mai.
Le thay doi repository, mo chuon, trình Software Sources tu menu System > Administration:
',oai ra, chuon, trình nay con co the mo tu Uluntu Software Center (menu Edit) hay
Synaptic (menu Setting > Repositories).
1ron, Software Sources, o tal Uluntu Software la noi cau hình cho repository chinh.
Repository chinh duoc Canonical lap ya chia phan mem ra cac yuc: main, uniyerse, restricted,
multiyerse dua theo muc do ho tro loi Canonical, con, don, Uluntu ya do tu do (free) cua phan
mem. ',oai su phan loai nay, Canonical con phan loai ye muc do can update (,iam dan – xem o
tal Update): security, updates, proposed, lackports, tron, do hai loai sau thuon, chua du on dinh
de update n,ay (). Repository chinh duoc nhan sao ra ya dat o nhieu seryer khap the ,ioi (mirror)
yer nay phan lon duoc tai tro loi cac truon, dai hoc lon ya cac con, ty huon, loi tu phan mem
n,uon mo. 1ai danh sach Download from ta co the thay cac mirror duoc dan, ky chinh thuc yoi
Canonical (lam yao danh sach ya chon Other)
'eu muon su dun, mirror ll1, ta co the chon nhanh tu day. Sau khi chon xon,, lam
Choose Server. 1ron, truon, hop khon, the su dun, duoc mirror tai \iet 'am, mình de n,hi su
dun, mirror cua 1aiwan, lapan, 1hailand, co toc do cun, kha khi truy cap tu \iet 'am.
Le su dun, nhun, mirror khon, co tron, danh sach chinh thuc cua Canonical cun, nhu su
dun, nhun, repositoriy phu, ta co the them chun, yao Software Sources tai tal Other Software.
Khi su dun, mirror khon, chinh thuc, luu y phai tat mirror chinh thuc lan, cach lo cac dau
chon tai tal Ubuntu Software.
Sau do, tai Other Softwares, lam Add ya chep tun, don, sau yao (day la mirror cua lhon,
1hi n,hiem Mo):
deb http://202.78.227.17/ubuntu lucid main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://202.78.227.17/ubuntu lucid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://202.78.227.17/ubuntu lucid-security main multiverse restricted
universe
deb http://202.78.227.17/ubuntu lucid-proposed main multiverse restricted
universe
del http:ZOZ.7o.ZZ7.I7uluntu lucid-lackports main multiyerse restricted uniyerse
Luu y neu khon, muon xai lan update chua du on dinh, dun, chep Z don, cuoi cun,
(proposed, lackports).
Con day la mirror cua HanoiLUC
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/archive lucid main restricted universe
multiverse
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/archive lucid-updates main restricted
universe multiverse
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/archive lucid-backports main restricted
universe multiverse
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/security lucid-security main restricted
universe multiverse
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/medibuntu lucid free non-free
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/canonical lucid partner
deb http://virror.hanoilug.org/ubuntu/hanoilug lucid contrib import
Ciai thich ye chu lucid: Chu lucid am chi phien lan Uluntu IO.O+. lhien lan nay co ten ma
day du la Lucid Lynx (Linh mieu san, suot). Cac dia chi repository tren deu co the su dun, lai
yoi Uluntu phien lan khac, mien la thay doi chu lucid cho phu hop, chan, han phien lan IO.IO
sap toi co ten Mayerick Meerkat thì thay chu lucid lan, mayerick.
Mot diem doc dao thu yi o Uluntu la cach dat ten phien lan. Linh ky, Uluntu phat hanh
o than, mot lan yao than, + ya than, IO tron, nam, ya so phien lan Uluntu co dan, |nam|.
|than,|, chan, han 9.IO la lan than, IOZOO9, IO.O+ la lan than, +ZOIO. Ben canh phien lan so,
Uluntu con co ten ma ,om Z tu trun, phu am dau chi mot loai yat cun, mot pham chat nao do
(khon, han la pham chat dac trun, cua loai), chan, han Karmic Koala, Lucid Lynx. ',oai ra,
moi Z nam se co mot lan Uluntu than, + la lan L1S, tuc Lon,-1ime Support, se duoc
Canonical ho tro lau nam hon cac lan khac, cun, co n,hIa day se la lan on dinh nhat (chan,
han lan IO.O+ L1S Lucid Lynx hien tai).
Sau khi them repository ya don, lai Software Source, ta se duoc yeu cau cap nhat lai danh
sach phan mem dan, co tren repository. Bam Reload de chap nhan.
IV. Theâm caùc repository phuï cho Ubuntu
Repository chinh ma Canonical cun, cap mac du da co nhieu phan mem nhun, yan khon,
the lao ,om het luon, phan mem don, dao dan, ton tai, yì yay Canonical cun, cap dich yu
ll/ (lersonal lacka,e /rchiye) cho cac du an phan mem n,uon mo de tao repository phu chua
cac packa,e phan mem danh cho Uluntu cua du an. Sau day, yì nhu cau su dun, tien, \iet tren
Uluntu, ta se them ll/ chua phan mem lo ,o chu \iet ilus-unikey.
Hien tai, phan mem ilus-unikey dan, duoc phat trien loi nhom Uluntu-yn, ta se tìm dia
chi cua ll/ cua nhom lan, cach yao http:launchpad.net ya ,o “ppa uluntu-yn” yao o tìm
kiem.
1ron, ket oua tìm kiem, lam yao link dau tien (ll/ for Uluntu \iet 'am...), ta se den
tran, cua ll/ nay. 1ai day, hay de y cum chu in dam ppa:ubuntu-vn/ppa. Copy cum chu do
yao Software Source
Sau khi reload danh sach phan mem, ouay lai Uluntu Software Center, tìm ya cai ilus-
unikey:
Kich hoat Unikey tron, IBus: Bam yao lieu tuon, lan phim o panel phia tren, lam tiep
Preferences:
Chuyen san, tal Input Method, lam Select an input method, tron, danh sach hien ra, chon
Vietnamese > Unikey.
Khi Unikey da duoc chon, lam Add roi Close.
Ke tu ,io tro di, khi can ,o chu \iet, chi yiec de chuot tai noi can ,o ya nhan Ctrl ÷ Space
(luu y khi tro chuot khon, o noi co the ,o chu thì khon, the ,oi IBus).
',oai nhun, cach yua neu de cai dat phan mem cho Uluntu, n,uoi dun, con co the lam
yiec nay thon, oua chuon, trình Uluntu 1weak. Khon, nhun, the, o day con co mot danh sach
cac ll/ dan, chu y, chua nhun, phan mem hay nhun, chua duoc dua yao repository chinh. 1u
day n,uoi dun, co the de dan, them yao Uluntu nhun, repository phu lao ,om ca cac ll/ lan
repository cua nhun, con, ty phan mem khac (nhu Droplox, Òpera).
Uluntu 1weak la mot phan mem kha thu yi yì no chuyen dun, de tuy chinh Uluntu. 1uy
nhien Uluntu 1weak yan chua co mat tron, repositoriy chinh nen phai lay tu ll/. 'ao, lay ,io
lan hay yao http:launchpad.net ya tìm kiem “ppa uluntu-tweak” de thu cach tìm ll/ cho
mot phan mem.
IZ – O5 – ZOIO
',uyen Hon, Òuan
n,.hon,.ouan,mail.com

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