0 Voti positivi0 Voti negativi

73 visualizzazioni97 paginemass transfer

May 28, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

mass transfer

© All Rights Reserved

73 visualizzazioni

mass transfer

© All Rights Reserved

- Mass Transfer and Mass Transfer Operations - Erden Alpay and Mustafa Demircioğu
- Mass Transfer Part (2)
- Two-stage Air Compressor Lab Report
- Getting Done With OLGA Input
- Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics-Smith,Van Ness,Abbot
- TL-4-1-18
- Principles and Modern Applications of Mass Transfer Operations by Jaime Benitez
- Dryness Fraction of Steam Exp
- Liquids and Solids
- mech engg ese solution
- R&AC Lecture 16
- 1-s6
- Fibonacci Search for Optimal Feed Location
- Chem2 - 3QPT
- EMM Notes
- Chapter 4
- Ter Nary Phase
- Termodinamica de Lidocaina Topica 2010
- Full Text
- riederer 2001 protegiendo la perdida de agua por la cuticula.pdf

Sei sulla pagina 1di 97

1-Fundamentals

Saeed GUL, Dr.Techn, M.Sc. Engg.

Associate Professor and Chairman

University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, PAKISTAN

The term mass transfer is used to denote the transference of a

component in a mixture from a region where its concentration

is high to a region where the concentration is lower.

Mass transfer process can take place in a gas or vapour or in a

liquid, and it can result from the random velocities of the

molecules (molecular diffusion) or from the circulating or eddy

currents present in a turbulent fluid (eddy diffusion).

Fractional distillation depends on differences in volatility, gas

absorption on differences in solubility of the gases in a

selective absorbent and, similarly, liquid- liquid extraction is

based on the selectivity of an immiscible liquid solvent for one

of the constituents.

28 November 2015

Cont.

The mass transfer rate dependent on both the driving force

(concentration difference) and the mass transfer resistance.

Example:

a box consisting of two compartments, each containing a

different gas, initially separated by an impermeable partition.

When the partition is removed the gases start to mix and the

mixing process continues at a constantly decreasing rate until

eventually (theoretically after the elapse of an infinite time) the

whole system acquires a uniform composition. The process is

one of molecular diffusion in which the mixing is attributable

solely to the random motion of the molecules.

28 November 2015

The rate of diffusion is governed by Fick's Law, first proposed by

Fick in 1855 which expresses the mass transfer rate as a linear

function of the molar concentration gradient.

In a mixture of two gases A and B, assumed ideal, Fick's Law for

steady state diffusion may be written as:

Where NA is the molar flux of A (moles per unit area per unit

time)

CA is the concentration of A (moles of A per unit volume),

DAB is known as the diffusivity or diffusion coefficient for A in B,

and y is distance in the direction of transfer.

28 November 2015

Fick's law of diffusion

Diffusion occurs in response to a

concentration gradient expressed as the

change in concentration due to a change in

position, . The local rule for movement or

flux J is given by Fick's law of diffusion:

and the negative gradient of concentration, [cm-3 cm-1] or [cm-4].

The negative sign indicates that J is positive when movement is down

the gradient, i.e., the negative sign cancels the negative gradient

along the direction of positive flux.

28 November 2015

An equation of exactly the same form may be written for B:

As for an ideal gas mixture, at constant pressure

(CA + CB) = constant

so

The condition for the pressure or molar concentration to

remain constant in such a system is that there should be no net

transference of molecules. The process is then referred to as

one of equimolecular counter diffusion

28 November 2015

This relation is satisfied only if DBA = DAB

mechanism will be reinforced and the total mass transfer rate

may be written as:

only of its composition, pressure and temperature, ED, which is

known as the eddy diffusivity, is dependent on the flow pattern

and varies with position.

28 November 2015

As the pressure P increases, the molecules become closer

together and the mean free path is shorter and consequently

the diffusivity is reduced, with D for a gas becoming

approximately inversely proportional to the pressure.

particle the effects of collision with the walls of the pores may

be important even at moderate pressures.

Where the main resistance to diffusion arises from collisions of

molecules with the walls, the process is referred to Knudsen

diffusion, with a Knudsen diffusivity DKn which is proportional

to the product uml, where l is a linear dimension of the

containing vessel.

28 November 2015

reciprocal of the appropriate diffusivity and thus, when both

molecular and Knudsen diffusion must be considered together,

the effective diffusivity De is obtained by summing the

resistances as:

In liquids, the effective mean path of the molecules is so small

that the effects of Knudsen type diffusion need not be

considered.

28 November 2015

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Properties of binary mixtures

If A and B are ideal gases in a mixture, the ideal gas law is given by

the total number of moles in a volume V, and PA , PB and P are

the respective partial pressures and the total pressure.

28 November 2015

10

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

molecular weights, and CA, CB, CT are, the molar concentrations of

A and B respectively, and the total molar concentration of the

mixture.

From Dalton's Law of partial pressures:

28 November 2015

11

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

where XA and XB are the mole fractions of A and B. Thus for a

system at constant pressure P and constant molar

concentration CT.

partial pressure gradients rather than concentration gradients.

Furthermore, NA and NB can be expressed in terms of gradients

of mole fraction.

28 November 2015

12

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

28 November 2015

13

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

When the mass transfer rates of the two components are equal

and opposite, the process is said to be one of equimolecular

counter diffusion.

In binary distillation applications in which the molar heats of

vaporization for species A and B are approximately equal, both

species are diffusing, but at equal rates in opposite directions.

connecting two tanks containing a binary gas mixture of species

A and B. If both tanks as well as the connecting tube are at a

uniform pressure and temperature, the total molar

concentration would be uniform throughout the tanks and the

connecting tube.

28 November 2015

14

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

In the case of Equimolecular counter diffusion, the differential

forms of equation for NA may be simply integrated, for

constant temperature and pressure, to give respectively

Integrated form

Differential form

1 and 2 represent the values of quantities at positions y1 and y2

respectively.

28 November 2015

15

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Equimolecular Counter Diffusion

where hD = D/(y2 y1) is a mass transfer coefficient with the

driving force expressed as a difference in molar concentration;

its dimensions are those of velocity (LT-1).

Similarly:

may be written as:

where k'G = D/[RT(y2 y1] is a mass transfer coefficient with the

driving force expressed as a difference in partial pressure. It

should be noted that its dimensions here, NM-1L-1T, are different

from those of hD

28 November 2015

16

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Equimolecular Counter Diffusion

where kx = DCT/(y1 y2) is a mass transfer coefficient with the

driving force in the form of a difference in mole fraction. The

dimensions here are NL-2T-1

It is always important to use the form of mass transfer coefficient

corresponding to the appropriate driving force.

The mass transfer coefficient is a diffusion rate constant that

relates the mass transfer rate, and concentration gradient as

driving force

28 November 2015

17

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

(Stefans diffusion)

In several important processes, one component in a gaseous

mixture will be transported relative to a fixed plane, such as a

liquid interface, and the other will undergo no net movement.

In gas absorption a soluble gas A is transferred to the liquid

surface where it dissolves, whereas the insoluble gas B

undergoes no net movement with respect to the interface.

from the surface but the air has no net movement.

The mass transfer process therefore differs from equimolecular

counter diffusion and called Stefans diffusion

28 November 2015

18

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

For the absorption of a soluble gas

A from a mixture with an insoluble

gas B, the respective diffusion rates

are given by:

Mass transfer through a

stationary gas B

"bulk flow" of the system towards the liquid surface exactly to

counterbalance the diffusional flux away from the surface, as

shown in Figure where:

28 November 2015

19

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

(Stefans diffusion)

The corresponding bulk flow of A must be CA/CB times that of B,

since bulk flow implies that the gas moves en masse.

Thus:

Therefore the total flux of A, N'A, is given by:

Thus the bulk flow enhances the mass transfer rate by a factor

CT/CB, known as the drift factor

28 November 2015

20

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Fluxes of components of a gas mixture

28 November 2015

21

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

As:

On integration:

By definition, CBm, the logarithmic mean of CB1 and CB2 is given by:

28 November 2015

22

In terms of partial pressures:

Similarly, in terms of mole fractions:

This can be simplified when the concentration

of the diffusing component A is small.

Under these conditions CA is small compared with CT, and the

equation becomes:

28 November 2015

23

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

For small values of CA, CT CAi CT and only the first term in the

series is significant

counterdiffusion, Thus, the effects of bulk flow can be

neglected at low concentrations

28 November 2015

24

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

coefficient hD to give:

Where

Similarly, working in terms of partial pressure difference as the

driving force, the equation can be written:

Where

28 November 2015

25

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Using mole fractions as the driving force, the equation becomes:

Where

It may be noted that all the transfer coefficients here are greater

than those for equimolecular counter diffusion by the factor

(CT/CBm)(= P/PBm), which is an integrated form of the drift factor.

When the concentration CA of the gas being transferred is low,

CT/CBm then approaches unity and the two sets of coefficients

become identical.

28 November 2015

26

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Example 10.1

Ammonia gas is diffusing at a constant rate through a layer of

stagnant air 1 mm thick. Conditions are such that the gas

contains 50 per cent by volume ammonia at one boundary of

the stagnant layer. The ammonia diffusing to the other

boundary is quickly absorbed and the concentration is negligible

at that plane. The temperature is 295 K and the pressure

atmospheric, and under these conditions the diffusivity of

ammonia in air is 1.8 x 10-5 m2/s. Estimate the rate of diffusion

of ammonia through the layer.

28 November 2015

27

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Solution:

If the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the two sides of the stagnant

layer and the subscripts A and B refer to ammonia and air

respectively, then the rate of diffusion through a stagnant layer is

given by:

In this case, x = 0.001 m, D = 1.8 x 10-5 m2/s, R = 8314 J/kmol K,

T = 295 K and P = 101.3 kN/m2 and hence:

28 November 2015

28

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

gives:

28 November 2015

29

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

It is convenient to express mass transfer rates in terms of

velocities for the species under consideration where:

which, in the S.I system, has the units

(kmol/m2s)/(kmol/m3) = m/s.

For diffusion according to Fick's Law:

and

As a result of the diffusional process, there is no net overall

molecular flux arising from diffusion in a binary mixture, the two

components being transferred at equal and opposite rates.

28 November 2015

30

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

If the physical constraints placed upon the system result in a bulk

flow, the velocities of the molecular species relative to one

another remain the same, but in order to obtain the velocity

relative to a fixed point in the equipment, it is necessary to add

the bulk flow velocity.

28 November 2015

31

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Whatever the physical constraints placed on the system, the

diffusional process causes the two components to be

transferred at equal and opposite rates and the values of the

diffusional velocities UDA and UDB are always applicable.

It is the bulk flow velocity uF which changes with imposed

conditions and which gives rise to differences in overall mass

transfer rates.

In equimolecular counterdiffusipn, uF is zero,

In the absorption of a soluble gas A from a mixture the bulk

velocity must be equal and opposite to the diffusional velocity

of B as this latter component undergoes no net transfer.

28 November 2015

32

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

In genera], for any component:

Total transfer = Transfer by diffusion + Transfer by bulk flow

For component A:

Total transfer (moles/area time) = N'A

Diffusional transfer according to Fick's Law

Thus for A:

and for B:

28 November 2015

33

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Substituting:

Similarly for B:

For equimolecular counterdiffusion NA = NB and equation 3

above reduces to Fick's Law. For a system in which B undergoes

no net transfer, NB = 0 and equation 3 is identical to Stefan's

Law

28 November 2015

34

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

For the general case: fN'A = -N'B

If in a distillation column, for example the molar latent heat of

A is f times that of B, the condensation of 1 mole of A (taken

as the less volatile component) will result in the vaporization

of f moles of B and the mass transfer rate of B will be f times

that of A in the opposite direction

becomes:

Thus:

28 November 2015

35

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

If xA changes from xAl to XA2 as y goes from y1 to y2

then:

Thus:

Or:

28 November 2015

36

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Fick's Law of diffusion is normally expressed in molar units or:

The corresponding equation for component B indicates that

there is an equal and opposite molar flux of that component. If

each side of equation is multiplied by the molecular weight of A,

MA , then:

where JA is a flux in mass per unit area and unit time (kg/m2 s in

S.I units), and CA is a concentration in mass terms, (kg/m3 )

28 November 2015

37

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

Similarly, for component B:

Although the sum of the molar concentrations is constant in an

ideal gas at constant pressure, the sum of the mass concentrations

is not constant, and dcA /dy and dcB /dy are not equal and

opposite,

Thus:

Or:

and:

Thus, the diffusional process does not give rise to equal and

opposite mass fluxes.

28 November 2015

38

Quiz # 1

Ammonia is absorbed in water from a mixture with air

using a column operating at 1 bar and 295 K. The

resistance to transfer may be regarded as lying entirely

within the gas phase. At a point in the column, the partial

pressure of the ammonia is 7.0 kN/m2. The back pressure

at the water interface is negligible and the resistance to

transfer may be regarded as lying in a stationary gas film

1 mm thick. If the diffusivity of ammonia in air is 236 x

10-5 m2/s, what is the transfer rate per unit area at that

point in the column? How would the rate of transfer be

affected if the ammonia air mixture were compressed to

double the pressure?

28 November 2015

39

(Diffusion in Liquids)

equations as for the gas phase.

The diffusion coefficient D is about two orders of magnitude

smaller for a liquid than for a gas.

The diffusion coefficient is a much more complex function of

the molecular properties.

at a given total pressure P and temperature T.

This approximation holds quite well for real gases and

vapors, except at high pressures.

28 November 2015

40

(Diffusion in Liquids)

density will range from about 790 to 1000 kg/m3 whereas the

molar density will range from about 17 to 56 kmol/m3.

For this reason the diffusion equations are frequently written

in the form of a mass flux JA (mass/area x time) and the

concentration gradients in terms of mass concentrations, such

as cA .

Thus, for component A, the mass flux is given by:

mass fraction of A in the liquid.

28 November 2015

41

(Diffusion in Liquids)

For component B:

where the components are being transferred at approximately

equal and opposite mass (rather than molar) rates.

Liquid phase diffusivities are strongly dependent on the

concentration of the diffusing component which is in strong

contrast to gas phase diffusivities which are substantially

independent of concentration.

28 November 2015

42

(Diffusion in Liquids)

apply to very dilute concentrations of the diffusing

component, the only condition under which analytical

solutions can be produced for the diffusion equations.

For this reason, only dilute solutions are considered here, and

in these circumstances no serious error is involved in using

Fick's law expressed in molar units.

The molar flux is given by:

where D is now the liquid phase diffusivity and CA is the molar

concentration in the liquid phase.

On integration:

D/(y2 y1) is the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient.

28 November 2015

43

In many important applications of mass transfer, material is

transferred across a phase boundary

the fractionating column

In gas absorption, the soluble gas diffuses to the surface,

dissolves in the liquid, and then passes into the bulk of the

liquid

In liquid -liquid extraction however, a solute is transferred

from one liquid solvent to another across a phase boundary

These processes is characterized by a transference of material

across an interface.

Because no material accumulates there, the rate of transfer

on each side of the interface must be the same

28 November 2015

44

The mass transfer rate between two fluid phases depend on

the physical properties of the two phases, the concentration

difference, the interfacial area, and the degree of turbulence.

Mass transfer equipment is therefore designed to give a large

area of contact between the phases and to promote

turbulence in each of the fluids.

that it is not capable of expression in mathematical terms, and

the interfacial area is not known precisely

A number of mechanisms (models) have been suggested to

represent conditions in the region of the phase boundary

28 November 2015

45

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

Theoretical models have been developed to describe mass

transfer between a fluid and an interface

The two-film theory

The Penetration Theory

Surface Renewal Theory

28 November 2015

46

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

The two-film theory of WHITMAN was the first serious attempt

to represent conditions occurring when material is transferred

from one fluid stream to another

Although it does not closely reproduce the conditions in most

practical equipment, the theory gives expressions which can be

applied to the experimental data which are generally available,

and for that reason it is still extensively used.

In this approach, it is assumed that turbulence dies out at the

interface and that a laminar layer exists in each of the two fluids.

action caused by the random movement of the molecules, and

the resistance to transfer becomes progressively smaller.

28 November 2015

47

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

AGC and DHF

indicate the

hypothetical

concentration

distributions

L1 and L2:

thicknesses of

the two films

therefore linear close to the interface, and gradually becomes

less at greater distances as shown in Figure by the full lines ABC

and DEF

28 November 2015

48

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

Equilibrium is assumed to exist at the interface and therefore the

relative positions of the points C and D are determined by the

equilibrium relation between the phases.

Integrated form of Ficks law

two film theory

the interface, the two rates of transfer

must be the same and:

28 November 2015

49

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

The penetration theory was propounded in 1935 by HlGBlE

He was investigating whether or not a resistance to transfer

existed at the interface when a pure gas was absorbed in a

liquid.

In his experiments, a slug-like bubble of carbon dioxide was

allowed rise through a vertical column of water in a 3 mm

diameter glass tube.

As the bubble rose, the displaced liquid ran back as a thin film

between the bubble and the tube,

Higbie assumed that each element of surface in this liquid was

exposed to the gas for the time taken for the gas bubble to

pass it; that is for the time given by the quotient of the bubble

length and its velocity.

28 November 2015

50

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

It was further supposed

that during this short

period, which varied

between 0.01 and 0.1 s

in the experiments,

absorption took place as

the result of unsteady

state molecular diffusion

Penetration of solute into a solvent

into the liquid, and, for

the purposes of calculation, the liquid was regarded as infinite

in depth because the time of exposure was so short.

28 November 2015

51

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

Dankwerts surface renewal theory (1951), represents an

extansion to penetration theory.

Higbie always presupposed that the contact time between the

phases was the same at all positions in the apparatus.

Dankwerts went on to suggest that fluid elements which

come into contact with each other, have different residence

times which can be described by a residence time spectrum.

One has to imagine that mass exchange between two

different materials in the fluid phase takes place in individual

fluid cells.

28 November 2015

52

Models for Mass Transfer at a Fluid-fluid Interface

After a certain amount of time an element can be dislodged

from the contact area and be replaced by another one.

It has been successfully applied in the absorption of gases

from agitated liquids.

However the fraction of time for surface renewal is equally as

unknown as the contact time in penetration theory, so both

theories are useful for the understanding of mass transfer

processes, often neither is applicable for the calculation of the

quantities involved in mass transfer

28 November 2015

53

Phase Equilibria

A limit to mass transfer is reached if the two phases come to

equilibrium and the net transfer of material ceases.

production rate, equilibrium must be avoided, as the rate of

mass transfer at any point is proportional to the driving force,

which is the departure from equilibrium at that point.

To evaluate driving forces, a knowledge of equilibria between

phases is therefore of basic importance.

Several kinds of equilibria are important in mass transfer.

combinations are found except two solid phases.

28 November 2015

54

Phase Equilibria

More specifically, there are three important criteria for different

phases to be in equilibrium with each other:

The temperature of the two phases is the same at

equilibrium.

The partial pressure of every component in the two phases is

the same at equilibrium.

The Gibbs free energy' of every component in the two phases

is the same at equilibrium.

28 November 2015

55

If there is only a single component in a mixture, there is only a

single possible temperature (at a given pressure) for which phase

equilibrium is possible.

For example, water at standard pressure (1 atm) can only remain in

equilibrium at 100C.

Below this temperature, all of the water condenses, and above it,

all of the water vaporizes into steam.

At a given temperature, the unique atmospheric pressure at which a

pure liquid boils is called its vapor pressure.

If the atmospheric pressure is higher than the vapor pressure, the

liquid will not boil.

Vapor pressure is strongly temperature-dependent. Water at 100C

has a vapor pressure of 1 atmosphere, which explains why water on

Earth (which has an atmosphere of about 1 atm) boils at 100C.

Water at a temperature of 20C(a typical room temperature) will

only boil at pressures under 0.023 atm, which is its vapor pressure

at that temperature.

28 November 2015

56

Phase Diagrams

In general, chemical engineers are not dealing with single

components; instead they deal with equilibrium of mixtures.

When a mixture begins to boil, the vapor does not, in general,

have the same composition as the liquid. Instead, the substance

with the lower boiling temperature (or higher vapor pressure)

will have a vapor concentration higher than that with the higher

boiling temperature, though both will be present in the vapor.

A similar argument applies when a vapor mixture condenses.

The concentrations of the vapor and liquid when the overall

concentration and one of the temperature or pressure are fixed

can easily be read off of a phase diagram.

In order to read and understand a phase diagram, it is necessary

to understand the concepts of bubble point and dew point for a

mixture.

28 November 2015

57

To predict the phase behavior of a mixture, the limits of phase

changes should be examine, and then utilize the laws of

thermodynamics to determine what happens in between those

limits. The limits in the case of gas-liquid phase changes are called

the bubble point and the dew point.

The bubble point is the point at which the first drop of a liquid

mixture begins to vaporize.

The dew point is the point at which the first drop of a gaseous

mixture begins to condense.

If you are able to plot both the bubble and the dew points on the

same graph, you come up with what is called a Pxy or a Txy

diagram, depending on whether it is graphed at constant

temperature or constant pressure.

28 November 2015

58

Pxy Diagram

what causes a liquid

to vaporize?

Increasing the temperature

Decreasing the pressure

the two lines intersect at two

ends These intersections are

the pure-component vapor

pressures

28 November 2015

59

Pxy Diagram

Composition of each component in a 2-phase mixture,

vapor pressure.

start on the x-axis at the

overall composition

go up to the pressure

left until you reach the

bubble-point

go to the right until reach

the dew-point curve to find

the vapor composition

28 November 2015

60

Txy Diagram

28 November 2015

61

Txy Diagram

28 November 2015

62

To summarize, here's the information you can directly garner

from a phase diagram. Many of these can be used for all

types of phase diagrams, not just VLE.

You can use it to tell you what phase(s) you are in at a given

composition, temperature, and/or pressure.

You can use it to tell you what the composition of each phase

will be, if you're in a multiphase region.

You can use it to tell you how much of the original solution is

in each phase, if you're in a multiphase region.

from the endpoints (though these are usually the best-known

of all the mixture properties).

28 November 2015

63

28 November 2015

64

28 November 2015

65

28 November 2015

66

(Binary Diffusion in Gas Mixtures)

28 November 2015

67

and Mass Transfer

28 November 2015

68

Mass transfer can only occur along a negative concentration gradient

Case:-1

Here the concentrations in both

the gas and liquid phase diminish

in the positive direction, causing

solute to transfer from the gas to

the liquid phase.

The fact that the interfacial liquid

mole fraction is higher than the

gas

concentration

is

no

impediment.

It is merely an indication of high

gas solubility, a perfectly normal

and acceptable phenomenon.

28 November 2015

69

Case:- 2

The gas-phase concentration here

increases in the positive direction

so that no transfer of solute from

gas to liquid can take place.

Neither can there be any transfer in

the opposite sense, because the

liquid concentration rises in the

negative direction.

Such profiles arise only in cases

when solute is generated by

chemical reaction at the gas

liquid interface. The product

solute then diffuses from the

interface into the bulk fluids.

28 November 2015

70

Case:- 3

This case involves decreasing

concentrations in both phases,

but the decrease is in the

negative direction.

Solute will therefore desorb from

the liquid into the gas phase.

Gas solubility is low because

the interfacial concentrations

are nearly identical.

28 November 2015

71

profile indicates that the liquid

phase is well

stirred and shows no mass

transfer resistance. Because the

gas phase concentration

diminishes in the negative

direction, the transfer will be

from

liquid to gas.

28 November 2015

72

applies here as well, but the transfer

this time is from the gas. This follows

from the fact that gas-phase

concentration decreases in the positive

direction.

The question is now asked whether the

results would still be the same if

the gas-phase profiles had in each case

been located above the liquid-phase

counterparts. The answer is yes; transfer

would still take place as indicated

before. The only change would be in the

equilibrium solubility of the gas,

which would now be lower than before.

28 November 2015

73

28 November 2015

74

28 November 2015

75

28 November 2015

76

28 November 2015

77

28 November 2015

78

28 November 2015

79

28 November 2015

80

28 November 2015

81

28 November 2015

82

28 November 2015

83

28 November 2015

84

28 November 2015

85

28 November 2015

86

28 November 2015

87

28 November 2015

88

28 November 2015

89

28 November 2015

90

28 November 2015

91

28 November 2015

92

28 November 2015

93

28 November 2015

94

28 November 2015

95

28 November 2015

96

28 November 2015

97

- Mass Transfer and Mass Transfer Operations - Erden Alpay and Mustafa DemircioğuCaricato daSerkan
- Mass Transfer Part (2)Caricato daoctoviancletus
- Two-stage Air Compressor Lab ReportCaricato daWill Haynes
- Getting Done With OLGA InputCaricato daAkmal_Fuadi
- Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics-Smith,Van Ness,AbbotCaricato daLenin Prabhu
- TL-4-1-18Caricato daChandra Myn
- Principles and Modern Applications of Mass Transfer Operations by Jaime BenitezCaricato datiwaribcet
- Dryness Fraction of Steam ExpCaricato daAthina
- Liquids and SolidsCaricato daAizat Asyh
- mech engg ese solutionCaricato daNaveen
- R&AC Lecture 16Caricato dablauwwater
- 1-s6Caricato daTamadur Barghoothi
- Fibonacci Search for Optimal Feed LocationCaricato daneft
- Chem2 - 3QPTCaricato daAlyssa Jane Boller
- EMM NotesCaricato daNallappan Rajj A
- Chapter 4Caricato daYasir Ali
- Ter Nary PhaseCaricato dacrema79
- Termodinamica de Lidocaina Topica 2010Caricato dacesfara
- Full TextCaricato daManuel
- riederer 2001 protegiendo la perdida de agua por la cuticula.pdfCaricato damarianarias
- Phase Diagram MnCaricato daMoHammadNashatSabbah
- Mass Transfer Controlled Corrosion of the Wall of Dual IJSERCaricato dayehiaelshazly
- IJETR021665Caricato daerpublication
- bioen325exam3 conceptualanswersCaricato daapi-359355468
- Majer 2008Caricato daLucas Rossini
- Technical DOUCaricato danahkbce
- MHLCaricato dagzissis
- Ethanol EnthalpyCaricato daYamilet Salas
- 7.9.pdfCaricato daJack Ryder
- EXP_1_PACKED_COLUMN_DISTILLATION_UNIT.docCaricato daWahid Ali

- eng ICaricato daSwatantraPandey
- Path of Contact CalculationCaricato daRoberto Perracini
- 60132 Glesne EDFS 348Caricato daContinuing Education at the University of Vermont
- HardwareCaricato dareggedwar
- OPGW48FCaricato daRoberto De La Torre
- 05 - Steam DistillationCaricato daHuỳnh TẤn Phát
- deappg bulltin 8Caricato dadigecon
- m7025cat Milpower Ysmetronics m7025-10aCaricato dabhutanise
- ch07Caricato daRidwan Fauzi
- United States Engineered Quartz (E-Quartz) Market: Opportunities & Forecast (2017-2022) - Azoth AnalyticsCaricato daAzoth Analytics
- janelle cofey writing assignmentCaricato daapi-340794329
- ShastaRightsReportCaricato damakehimpay
- Biodata DiriCaricato daMade Mahardika
- Toward a Script Theory of Guidance in Computer Supported Collaborative LearningCaricato daGustavo Leyes
- 06Caricato daAbdurrab Awan
- (Data Analytics Applications) Jay Liebowitz, Joanna Paliszkiewicz, Jerzy Goluchowski-Intuition, Trust, And Analytics-Auerbach Publications (2017)Caricato daJani Szabo
- Cara Elliott 2Tentatia pacatuluiCaricato daLory Loredana
- CK-12 Chemistry Intermediate Quizzes & Tests (With Answers).pdfCaricato daJamir Escalante
- 7S Model by Tom PetersCaricato daNawab SchLesser Gray
- 120079854-L-Oreal-Project-Romania.docxCaricato daCrisstina2904
- Antonio Negri：The Labor of the Multitude and the Fabric of Biopolitics.docCaricato daAykut Aykutalp
- How To Gambas - Building GUI applications-0.0.1(1).pdfCaricato daAnonymous hsFu23KZ
- GSoC 2011 ProposalCaricato dasharmaaditya333
- prac 8 resistance and heat - using nichrome wireCaricato daapi-357642569
- Slidex RestaurantCaricato daShoaib Shah
- Ontologies_Intr_Overv.pdfCaricato dahaliane
- MapaMS-2017 Sem JurisdiçãoCaricato daLucas Vaez
- alex brimhall lesson planCaricato daapi-294636577
- Exam Set 06Caricato daallovid
- Midterm Exam, 2nd Semester 2017-2018Caricato davisayasstateu

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.