Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

I. Introduction

MexicoonDrugs

Eyewitnessandgovernmentofficiatedreportstestifytowhatisnowknownas,“adate

inscribedinMexico’scalendarofhistoricatrocities.”

1 43students,allfromfamiliesofdestitute

villages,decidedtoholdaprotestrevoltingagainstPresidentEnriquePeñaNieto’seducational

system,inwhichpracticeddiscriminatoryhiringandfundingpractices.Todoso,theyhijacked

busestoMexicocity,tocommemoratetheTlatelolcomassacre,aneventwheregovernment

forcessuppressedpoliticaloppositionbymurderinganestimationof200students. Maríadelos

ÁngelesPinedaVilla,thePresidentoftheSNDIF(NationalSystemforIntegralFamily

Development),aninstitutionthatdedicatesitselftodevelopingthewelfareofMexicanfamilies,

wasspeakingataconferenceintown.Shewasworriedthatthestudentswould“disturb”it,to

whichJoséLuisAbarca,herhusbandandthemayorofthetown,orderedanattack.Onroute,the

unarmedstudentswereambushedbyofficerswhothenopenedfireandshovedthemintopolice

vehicles.Uponinvestigation,itwasrevealedthatMariawasfamilytotheBeltrán­LeyvaCartel,

whowaslaterfoundtoberesponsibleforthemurderofall43students,incineratedina14hour

bonfire.

Thousandsofpeopletooktothestreetsinprotestagainsttheinjusticeofthiscase,

consideringthatitwasaunificationofalotofMexico’scurrentissues.“Theallegedroleofthe

policespeakstothebrutalityofcrookedofficers.IgualaMayorJoséLuisAbarca—arrestedin

1 Grillo,Ioan.Time.“Mexico’sNightmare.”AccessedFebruary24,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

MexicoCityonNov.4—seems,ifthechargesagainsthimprovetrue,tosymbolizethecorrupt

politiciansunderminingthecountry.Themassgravesuncoveredinthesearchforthestudents

highlighttheviolenceandinjusticestillpervasiveinMexico,wheremorethan70,000people

havebeenkilledincartel­relatedviolenceinthepastsevenyears.”

2 Alltheseproblemsunified

haveturnedMexicointoanunstablecountry,makingitimpossibleforpeopletolivethere.The

powerthatthedrugcartelsholdoverthepeoplehasstemmedfromwhatappearstobeagrowing

globalcorporation,andisallsolelybasedonthebillionsofdollarsmadefromnarco­trafficking

industry.Cartelsareableto“purchase”thegovernment,inwhichplaysacrucialrolein

provokingfearandpreservingdomination.Withnoendinsightofcorruption,thepeopleof

Mexicoarebeingconsumedbythedrugwar,unabletolivetheirlivesinprosperity,freedomand

safety.Thereisalackofdirectauthoritytohelpthewelfareofthesepeoplewhoare

experiencingtheshortendofthedrugwar.Overthecourseofyearlongreforms,Mexicohas

attemptedtorenovatethecriminaljusticesystem,inwhichhasfailedtoaddressthehumanright

violationsthecountryisfacing.“In2013,MexicoenactedafederalVictimsLawintendedto

ensurejustice,protection,andreparationsforvictimsofcrime.Attimeofwriting,theexecutive

hadyettoadoptimplementingregulationsthatarenecessarytoprovidereparationstovictims.

AsofMarch2014,onlysixstateshadenactedlegislationincompliancewiththeVictimsLaw.”

3

Thegovernmentonthecontrarycollaborateswiththedrugcartelstolaunchdisappearanceson

anyonewhoisasuspectedpoliticalopponent.Andunfortunately,thepeoplewhoarethekeyto

2 Grillo,Ioan.Time.“Mexico’sNightmare.”AccessedFebruary24,2016 3 UnitedNations."HumanRights."AccessedMay29,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

changingandputtinganendtocorruption,arethestudentsandteacherswhoareinlawschoolin

Mexico.

II.HistoricalBackgroundofHumanRight

EversinceMexico’sinterventionwiththeMexicanmilitarybeganin2006,theofficial

estimateddeathtolloftheongoingMexicanDrugWaris150,000andcounting.Throughoutthe

pastcoupleofyears,Mexicohasattemptedtopassjudicialreformsinordertoaddressthe

enforceddisappearancesandtorturebymilitaryforces.“InApril(of2014),Congressreformed

theCodeofMilitaryJustice,statingthatabusescommittedbymembersofthemilitaryagainst

civiliansshouldbehandledbytheordinarycriminaljusticesystem.Previously,thesecaseshad

beenhandledbythemilitaryjusticesystem,whichhadroutinelyfailedtoholdmembersofthe

4

militaryaccountableforabuses.” Bypassingthislaw,lowerclasscivilianswouldhavebeen

abletotakepartinthesystemwithoutthefearofbiasformembersofmilitary.Except,because

thepowerwasn’tdirectlyhandedtothepeopleindependently,thereforeanymilitarymember

couldhaveutilizedtortureinordertoforcefalseconfessionsandextractinformation.Thismust

havemadeitdifficultforvictims,becausetheyfeltthattheyhadasenseofpowertoadvocate

thewrongdoingsofthegovernment,buthadfearofbeingpunishedfordaringtobecourageous.

“InJune,militarypersonnelopenedfireonagroupof22civilianswhowereinsideanempty

warehouseinTlatlaya,stateofMexico,killingallofthem.Onesoldierwasinjuredduringthe

4 UnitedNations."HumanRights."AccessedMay29,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

incident.Stateprosecutorsdetainedtwoofthethreesurvivingwitnesses,beatthem,repeatedly

asphyxiatedthemwithabag,andthreatenedthemwithsexualabusetoforcethemtoconfessto

havinglinkstopeoplekilledintheincidents,andtosaythatthemilitarywasnotresponsiblefor

5

thekillings,accordingtotheCNDH.” Governmentofficialsstillfailedtoviewthisissuewith

transparency,andratherworsenedthesituation.Thefactthatlawenforcementhasfailedtoteach

civiliansselfdefense,provesthatthereformdidn’tserveanybenefit,sincethesepeopleare

vulnerabletoanyactsfromthecorruptMexicanGovernment.

Culturally,thepeopleofMexicoareactuallydependentonthedrugtradetohelpthem

endurethestrugglesoflivinginpoverty,anissuethatMexicohasbeenlongfacingfordecades.

Bunker(2012)estimatesthatMexicancartelsemployabout450,000people,andthelivelihood

ofabout3.2millionpeopleinMexicodependsonthedrugtrade.”

6 Takingthisinto

consideration,whenhumanrightsactiviststakeastandtoopposetheinjustice,theyarerather

harassedandattackedoutoffearofashakeintheinfrastructureMexicoholds.Peoplewould

ratherepidemicsinMexicostaythesameratherthangetworse.“In2012,Mexicoenactedalaw

toprotecthumanrightsdefendersandjournalists.Theprotectionmechanismcreatedbythelaw,

however,hasnotbeeneffectivelyimplemented,withprotectivemeasuresslowtoarrive,

7

insufficient,orincompleteinsomecases.” WhenitcomestosexualabusefromCartelsonthe

public,womenandyoungergirlsarenotprotectedbytheMexicanlaw.Their“chastity”is

5 UnitedNations."HumanRights."AccessedMay29,2016

6 Acharya,ArunKumar.“FORCEDLABOUR,GENDERVIOLENCEANDTRAFFICKINGOFWOMENINMEXICO:A

STUDYFROMMONTERREY.”AccessedFebruary24,2016

7 UnitedNations."HumanRights."AccessedMay29,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

questionedduetogenderrolesinMexico,andwomenwhospeakoutabouttheinjusticeare

shameduponanddisrespected.Becauseofthiswomenresorttoworkinginthesexindustry,a

practicethatthecartelswon’targuewith,butrathertakeadvantageof.“TheInternational

LabourOrganizationestimatesthatcurrently12.3millionpeopleworldwidearevictimsof

forcedlabour.Aboutonefifthofallforcedlabourersaroundtheworldaretraffickedwhich

includes98percentofwomenandgirls.Nearly43percentofwomenandgirlstraffickedfor

commercialsexualexploitation,32percentforeconomicexploitationand25formixedpurposes

(ILO,2005).”

8 TheCartels,whoconsistofpredominantlymen,takeadvantageofbothwomen

andthetraffickingindustry.Andbecausetraffickingisnotconsidered“legitimatelabor”,women

aren’tprotected,andbecomesubmissivetoviolencefromthecartels,slowlyformingan

acquaintanceandafamiliaritywithit.“A2012laborlawfailedtoaddressthelackof

transparencyanddemocracyinthepowerfulpro­managementunions,andfailedtoprotect

workers’righttoformindependentunionsandcarryoutcollectivebargaining.” 9

III.ModernDayResponses

DifferentiatingfromMexico,Switzerlandholdsadrugpolicythathasimpressively

decreasedcrimerates.Ratherthanpunishingoffenders,Switzerlandusesa“harmreduction”

strategythatoffersasysteminwhichsubstitutesavarietyofdrugstousers.“Drugsandcrime

areinextricablylinked.Addictsneedmoneytofeedtheirhabit,sotheyoftencommittheft.

8 Acharya,ArunKumar.“FORCEDLABOUR,GENDERVIOLENCEANDTRAFFICKINGOFWOMENINMEXICO:A

STUDYFROMMONTERREY.”AccessedFebruary24,2016

9 UnitedNations."HumanRights."AccessedMay29,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

However,byprescribingaddictsheroin,analystshaveseenareductioninseriouscrimesofupto

10

90%againstpropertycommittedbydrugusers.” Mexicoisn’tbattlinginsiderconsumptionof

drugsbyit’sowncountry,butrathersufferingtheconsequencesofsupplyingrichcountrieslike

theU.S.However,ifMexicoweretolegalizedrugs,itwouldserveasachainaffectandpush

theircustomerstodothesame.Andoncethisisdone,pricesofdrugswoulddecrease,

consideringthatallpowerthatcomesfromthedrugwarishowexpensivetheproductsare.This

wouldweakenthecartelsandtakethemotiveofprofitoutofnarcotrafficking.Also,criminals

whoareactuallyworthyofcapitalpunishment,suchascartels,wouldbesearchedandputinjail

ratherthandrugabusers.

Whenitcomestohumantrafficking,NewZealandhaspassedlawstodecriminalize

prostitutionandsexwork.“Decriminalizationhasresultedinhigherratesofcondomuseand

enablessexworkerstoorganizecommunity­basedhealthpracticesthatdemonstrablyimprove

healthandreduceHIVrisk.Italsomakesitpossibleforsexworkerstoreportandforthepolice

toaddressillegalactsastheyoccur,suchasassault,theftofservices,employmentofminors,or

11

clientcoercion.” IfMexicoweretofollowinSwitzerland’sfootsteps,womenwhoresorttosex

workforsurvivalwouldbeprotected,bothfinanciallyandphysically.Then,theywouldbuildup

thecouragetoworkagainsttrafficking,andspeakoutabouttheabuseofpolicebrutalityfroma

firsthandexperiencewithoutbeingafraidofbeingharmed.

10 TheBeckleyFoundation.“GlobalInitiativeforDrugReformPolicy.”AccessedApril26,2016

11 AnnaForbes.“DecriminalizingSexWorkCouldReduceHIVInfections,SoWhyIsn’tEveryoneonBoard?”

AccessedApril27,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

Toaddresspolicebrutality,“Britainhasworkedoutasolutionthatislargelyviewedas

therightbalancebetweenkeepingpolicingcommunity­orientedandkeepingthenationsafe,

saysPeterSquires,aprofessorofcriminologyandpublicpolicyattheUniversityofBrighton.

Whilemost“bobbiesonthebeat”donotcarryguns,armedpoliceareneverfaraway.Armed

responseteamsandvehiclesoftenpatrolorareonstandby.It’stheclassic“Britishcompromise,”

Squiressays.”IfthepoliceofMexicowererestrictedtousingtheirweaponsonlyincasesof

emergencies,crimesratewoulddecreasesignificantly.Todothis,theywouldhavetostop

militarylawenforcingactsinwhichcooperatewithcivilianlawenforcement.Therewouldalso

havetobeastoptothepentagon’s“1033”program,inwhichdistributesabout4.3billiondollars

of“surplus”weaponrytothemilitarytowhichtheythenuseoncivilians.Toensurethisfurther,

officersshouldbepaidhighersalariessothattheydonotfallunderthecorruptionofthecartels.

IV.Conclusion

BystrengtheningExternalControloverpolice,legalizingdrugsandofferingprotectionto

sexworkers,Mexicowouldevolvefrombeingoutofcontroltoslightlymoreorganized.To

strengthencontroloverthepolice,theywouldhavetobetrainedsotheyarepreppedfordutyand

monitoredbycivilianforcessotheydon’tbecomesubjecttothecartels.Thisway,theirmotive

forworkisaninsightdedicatedtokeepingthepeoplemexicosafeandnotmanipulatingthem.

PresidentEnriquePeñaNietowouldhavetoimplementalawthatgrantsdirectauthorityoverthe

Mexicanpolice,andnotasystemthathastimeandtimeagainproventofail.Disappearance

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

rateswouldlower,andwhentheydohappen,thegovernmentwouldlaunchinvestigationsinto

thesystemtofindwho’sresponsible.

Protectingsexworkerswillnotonlybenefitthewelfareofthevictimsofsexualabuse

andpovertyinMexico,butitwillalsomotivatethemtospeakoutagainstthemalfeasanceofthe

government.Genderroleswouldchange,andfeministswouldbeabletoadvocatefortheirown

rightswithoutthefearofbeingsilencedduetopoliticalconflict.Governmentofficialscouldstart

campaignsinwhichadvocateforlawsthatpasssexworkasregularlabor,gatheringvictimswho

arewillingtospeakoutabouttheissue.Butbeforetheydothat,theworkerswouldneedtobe

grantedfullprotectionandmonitoringfrompolicesothattheyarenotthreatenedbythedrug

Cartels.

Mostimportantly,thePresidentshouldconsiderpassingalawthatlegalizesdrugsin

Mexico.Althoughtheissueisnotwiththecountryitself,theactoflegalizingillegalsubstances

willweakenthepowerofthedrugcartels,andsendallit’sprofitstotaxesforthewelfareofthe

peopleenduringpoverty.Addictscouldgettheirsupplyatanylocalpharmacy,whichwouldbe

safer.Peopleenduringpovertywouldn’thavetoresorttosellingdrugsalongsidetheCartelswho

wouldthreatentheirfamilies,sincedrugswouldbelegalandthemoneywouldgotowardsthem.

Cartelswouldn’tnecessarilyceasetoexist,fortheywouldcontinuetheirbusinesstrafficking

drugstorichcountriesliketheU.S.ButiftheMexicanpresidentweretolegalizedrugs,theU.S

presidentmightconsideritaswell.Andthen,narcotraffickingwouldceasetoexistasawhole.

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

ThepeopleofMexicowouldbeabletoliveinfreedomandsafety,andMexicowouldturnfrom

a“countryondrugs”toonefilledwithprosperity.

WorksCited

UnitedNations."HumanRights."AccessedMay29,2016

Grillo,Ioan.Time.“Mexico’sNightmare.”AccessedFebruary24,2016

Acharya,ArunKumar.“FORCEDLABOUR,GENDERVIOLENCEANDTRAFFICKINGOF

WOMENINMEXICO:ASTUDYFROMMONTERREY.”AccessedFebruary24,2016

TheBeckleyFoundation.“GlobalInitiativeforDrugReformPolicy.”AccessedApril26,2016

AnnaForbes.“DecriminalizingSexWorkCouldReduceHIVInfections,SoWhyIsn’tEveryone

onBoard?”AccessedApril27,2016

RubénGuzmán­Sánchez,AlejandroEspriu­Guerra.“ExternalPoliceOversightinMexico:

Experiences,Challenges,andLessonsLearned.”AccessedApril27,2016

JessicaCarrillo

Ms.Alvarado

WorldStudies2

29April2016

STEPHANIENEBEHAYLife.Swissdrugpolicyshouldserveasmodel:experts”AccessedMay

14,2016