Sei sulla pagina 1di 23
Ground Improvement, Reinforcement and Treatment: A Twenty Year Update and a Vision for the 21st Century" 1997 ASCE FLORIDA ANNUAL MEETING September 26, 1997 Clearwater, Florida COMPACTION GROUTING “A Twenty Year Update and a Vision for the 21st Century” By: Arthur C. Baker, PE. M. ASCE Ron. L. Broadrick? A. ASCE INTRODUCTION Compaction grouting has become an effective and accepted solution to many settlement and incompetent soil problems. The applications for compaction grouting continue to increase with the value of property and existing structures Traditionally, structures that had ——_— experienced foundation settlement problems were structurally underpinned, or the problematic soil replaced. However, many faulty soil conditions exist which do not permit soil replacement, hence the need for compaction grouting. Compaction grouting technology is. = a versatile technology for saving ——=——> yy Yj and rehabilitating structures that Z Vy Ye would otherwise have to be G: £ “b demolished or rebuit, due to “<7 Z Wc ty settlement damage Mi OK It is important to distinguish Figure 1 Slurry Grouting " Principal Engineer, Earth Tech, Inc. Tampa, Fl. *President, Earth Tech, Inc. Tampa, Fl. between permeation grouting and compaction grouting. Permeation or slurry grouting (figure 1) utilizes pressure to force grout material into seams, voids, joints, cavities or fissures in permeable earth materials or other loose soil or rock formations. Generally, the permeability is reduced by filing void spaces and in certain cases the formation is strengthened by the grout. This type of grouting utilizes a fluid grout which is highly mobile within formations and_ therefore travels through the void spaces without providing any significant compaction or densification of the surrounding soils. Typically, under high injection pressures, hydro- fracturing of the soil matrix will occur. By contrast, compaction grouting (figure 2) utilizes a thick, viscous, homogeneous, typically cementitious mass, designed to Figure 2 Compaction Grouting remain together within the soil matrix. Generally, there is a distinct interface between the soil and grout material. The most improvement can be achieved in granular, alluvial soils or any highly permeable soil matrix that can be mechanically compacted. The technique is most effective in soils of low compaction which can be consolidated and densified by volume reduction. The most improvement will be attained within the weakest soil zones and the mass will be irregularly shaped. All types of soil can be improved, however the degree of effectiveness will vary depending on the in-situ conditions. Clay based soils with low permeability react dramatically different than a cohesionless, loose fill material, The 1980 ASCE Grouting Committee" defined compaction grout as: “Grout injected with {ess than 1 in. (25mm) slump. Normally a soil-cement with sufficient silt sizes to provide plasticity together with sufficient sand sizes to develop internal friction. The grout generally does not enter soil pores but remains in a homogeneous mass that gives controlled displacement to compact loose soils, gives controlled displacement for lifting of structures, or both." BACKGROUND ‘The development and history of compaction grouting over the last 30-40 years has been well established by many distinguished researchers, design engineers and design/build contractors. tis interesting to note that upon researching data for this paper, there is a distinct lack of technical information to be found in Geotechnical text books. However, many technical papers have been published dealing specifically with the issues surrounding compaction grouting design, implementation and case studies. A shortlist of fundamental reference paper ftfes are as follows (see references for full citations): “Compaction Grouting’, 1973 “Planning and Performing Compaction Grouting”, 1974 “Preliminary Glossary of Terms Relating (o Grouting’, 1980 “Compaction Grouting - The First 30 Years’, 1982 “Compaction Grouting - A 10 Year Update", 1987 These and other important references are the main stream basis of knowledge for the highly specialized engineering and construction technique know as compaction grouting. Many diverse case studies and project examples also provide data on a wide variety of applications for the technique, such as: Raising & re-leveling existing structures damaged by differential settlement. Soil bearing capacity improvement for new construction of structures. Soil bearing capacity increase beneath load bearing elements of existing structures. Densification of loose sands beneath dams to prevent liquefaction during earth quake conditions. Sinkhole stabilization and remediation of loose and raveled soil matrices. Mine Stabilization. sone oe The compaction grout method has some unique features which allow distinct advantages over other remedial methods of geotechnical construction. {n many instances grouting is the only viable solution. Some of the advantages include: ¢ Economy - Many times compaction grouting is the only feasible solution to foundation settlement problems, other than demolishing the structure and rebuilding with expensive deep foundation techniques. ¢ Minimal Disturbance - During the grouting operations, the structure may remain occupied and in-service. ¢ Minimal Risk - compaction grouting offers minimal risk of catastrophic structural failure while re-leveling structures or remediating sinkhole conditions. Minimal Geotechnical Exploration - Once a basic reconnaissance round of geotechnical exploration has determined that compaction grouting is a viable solution, the process may be used as an exploratory tool and a remedial tool, Using drill logs to note density changes and total depth to competent bearing strata combined with grout injection pressures, rates and volumes versus depth, engineers can explore and remediate a site simultaneously ¢ Provide Greater Support for Structures - grouting on a pre-determined spacing along the perimeter of a structure develops an improved degree of added support between the grout points which serves to influence and improve a substantial footprint area as compared to underpinning a structure which only provides discrete point support 4 Remediates the Problem - As opposed to building a structure on a pile, stone column or caisson foundation system which transfers the building load below the effected soil stratum, compaction grouting remediates the faulty layer, which minimizes the risk of future failures. + Ground Heave - Using a carefully planned and executed program, structures that have experience differential settlement can be re-leveled and stabilized. Large areas of a structure may be re-leveled without point loadings which may damage the structure. It is also prudent to know and understand the limitations and other considerations associated with compaction grouting, when producing an engineering analysis. Some of these considerations include: # Damage to Underground Utilities - including pipelines, structures, vaults and wells may be sealed off or filled with grout during the operation. ¢ Effectiveness Versus Permeability - Compaction grouting relies on the consolidation and mechanical densification of soils. Typically clays and other low permeability soils are not easily displaced or compacted. ¢ Verification of Effectiveness! Inspection ~ As the process takes place under ground, the main body of evidence for effectiveness are the grout logs produced during the operations and penetration testing before and after the process. # Cost Factors - Deep unstable conditions may exist which require extensive remediation in excess of the value of the structure, thus value engineering may determine that the process is cost prohibitive. METHODS OF GROUTING Traditional compaction grouting relies on the constant delivery of a stiff grout material that can be delivered into place under sustained pressures in the order of 500 to 800 psi (3.5 to 5.5 Mpa), Warner, The grout volume expands as a plastic mass with a discrete interface between the in-situ soil matrix and the grout mass. The groutis accurately placed in localized soil zones, typically 1 - 2 lineal feet, at a time. The point of injection is controlled by raising the tip of the injection pipe into the targeted zone to be improved. It is also vitally important to begin compaction grouting at the top of a strata that is capable of supporting any load that may be transmitted to it as a result of the soil improvement. Over the past thirty plus years of compaction grouting evolution, there have been modifications adapted to grouting design plans, to suite the particular designer. One such significant modification is to combine the benefits of compaction grouting with that of slurry grouting to produce a “Modified Compaction Grouting Prograi This type of program utilizes the homogeneous grout displacement theories with increased mobility to consolidate and strengthen certain soil matrices, This approach has mainly been applied in areas of karst topography. This design concept has been used to create a compaction grout “matt” over an extended area by placing grout injection points on a grid over the area with problematic soils. This technique utilizes the physical properties of a compaction grout mix with a slightly higher water:solids tatio to displace soft soils above a stable, but porous limestone strata and fill voids and fissures that have developed as a result of solutioning in a Karst system. In applications such as this where typical specifications for compaction grouting are not met, specifically the slump criteria, it becomes even more important to maintain a grout design mix that achieves the desired objectives. The grout slump is not directly related to the mobility or pumpability of the grout Very low slump grouts can be highly mobile, whereas very high slump grouts can be formulated that have essentially no mobility, The principle factors which influence both slump and mobility are the shape and gradation of the sand material, the amount and nature of the fine fraction therein, and the inclusion of lubricating and/or water retention additives, Warner’. The Modified Compaction Grouting Figure 3 Grouting Operations- Extracting the grout pipe during pumping technique can effectively be used to limit the flow of water or contamination from upper to lower soil zones or to seal off the top of rock in areas of soil raveling and solutioning. Compaction Grout Columns or Bulbs have also been utilized to provide vertical point 5 support and may be reinforced with stee! bar or steel pipe to be used as a structural support member. This application relies upon the skin friction developed at the interface of the grout mass with the compressible soil to distribute the weight of surficial loads of a building or other structure. Compaction Grouting techniques combined with Mini Piles have effectively been used to transfer loads through problematic soil zones to a more competent bearing strata without going to greater depths to encounter rock. This process is typically used in the remediation of lighter structures that have experienced settlement. An attachment to an existing foundation is normally used to integrate the Compaction Grout Pile, Other methods include the use of a longer grout zone reinforced with steel bar in less compressible soils. The reinforced grout column can be extended into an underlying competent soil strata to produce an increased load carrying capacity. It should be noted that a fair degree of controversy exists among engineers & designers over the fong term effectiveness of compaction grouted piles. The major concern centers around the bond between the grout and the pipe, the actual end bearing capacity of the pile and the effects of creep. GROUTING EQUIPMENT Drilling Methods & Equipment Several different methods exist for advancing a steel casing or grout injection pipe to a desired design depth for compaction grouting. The differing techniques are typically dictated by soil conditions, project size, injection depth and access limitations. Caution must be exercised to specify a drilling technique that does not aggravate a problem soil condition by subjecting the subsurface strata to excess vibration, water or uncontrolled air pressure. These can actually induce settlement and cart be risky when driling near existing structures, Some of the more popular methods used to advance injection pipes include: Auger Drilling Techniques- This method utilizes continuous flight augers to remove the soil from the borehole as the drill bit advances. Once the augers have reached the desired depth, the drill tools are removed from the hole and a steel injection casing is inserted to the full depth. The drill hole is typically sized slightly larger than the outside diameter of the steel casing. The annular space between the drill hole and the casing can be filled with a fine sand to establish intimate contact if necessary. Additionally, the compressive forces produced during the injection of the grout tend to compress the soils around the grout injection pipe. This technique is the least disruptive to the insitu soils. Auger drilling can typically be used in any soil condition that will maintain an open hole long enough to install the steel casing, however, in soils where boulders exist or where rock must be drilled, other methods should be utilized. Percussion Drilling Techniques- This technique typically has two variations. The first involves simply driving a steel pipe or casing into the soil, normally with a disposable or lost point. The pipe is driven with either fydraulic or pneumatic percussion equipment (figure 4) to a design depth by displacing the soil directly in front of the pipe point. The soil remains tight around the pipe and provides a good seal. This method is highly utilized for its low cost, effectiveness and the ability to use small equipment in limited access areas. Pipe driving depth is typically limited by the size of the percussion equipment and the Figure 4 Percussion Drill ability of the equipment to overcomethe skin friction between the steel pipe and the surrounding soils. Pipe driving also subjects the surface and surrounding soils to some vibration but is very effective in advancing injection holes in collapsible soi! conditions. This method also does not allow for any visual observation of drill cuttings. The second percussion method uses an inner drill string that is simultaneously advanced with an outer casing. The drill bit is set slightly ahead of the end of the drill casing. One system of this method used for difficult drilling conditions is the Odex™ system. The ‘Odex™ system utilizes an eccentric under reamer to cut a drilled hole ahead of the bottom of the casing. The casing is then simultaneously advanced by a percussive force applied to either the top or bottom of the casing. As the hole is advanced, the drill cuttings are normally removed by air and travel up the inside of the casing in the annular space between the casing ID and the drill rod OD. The Odex"™ method is highly effective in ‘overburden soils where boulders or gravel layers are present, or when layers of rock must be penetrated. This method also subjects surficial and localized soils to some vibration Vibratory Drilling Techniques (Crane & mandrel)- This technique is typically used on large scale, high production compaction grouting projects. Vibratory drilling (figure 5) utilizes a hydraulic vibratory hammer mounted on pile driving leads or a fixed beam and suspended by crane or other support such as an excavator. A Figure 5 Crane & Mandrel Crane Drill 7 continuous grout injection pipe or mandrel is vibrated into the soil with the vibratory hammer. Disposable points or caps are typically utilized to prevent soil from plugging the injection pipe as itis advanced. As in the other percussion drilling techniques, this method provides intimate soil contact with the pipe since the surrounding soils are displaced by the advancing mandrel. Unlike other methods, the injection pipe is normally extracted using the same equipment used for advancing. When used in easily compressible or loose soils this is an extremely effective method for high production compaction grouting. Due to the large equipment required, sites must normally have unrestricted surface access. Air Rotary or Rotary Wash - This method uses typical driling techniques and tooling to advance the hole by removing the cuttings with air, water or bentonite slurry. Drill rods or casing may be washed into place and used to inject the compaction grout. This method may be risky when drilling in conditions where raveling or solutioning is present as uncontrolled flushing agents may develop conveying channels and induce settlement Grout Pumps Currently, twin cylinder positive displacement piston pumps are the first choice for compaction grouting. This pump ensures a constant delivery volume under varying pressure conditions. The pump should be specifically designed to provide high pressure (1,000 psi, typical (6.9 MPa)) with a constant flow rate which may be varied throughout the construction operation. The grout pump design is significantly different from the typical concrete delivery pump. A concrete pump swing tube or discharge valving typically permits minor leakage of water through the valves. However, where sustained slow delivery volumes and high pressures are required, the water will tend to squeeze out and cause a “sand block” within the pump mechanism. Therefore it is necessary to utilize a specifically designed compaction grout pump which utilizes a “leak free” technology. A compaction grout pump typically has a small cylinder bore (2 to 4 inches (5-10cm)) and a long stroke (40 to 50 inches (100-125 cm)). Most pumps are trailer or skid mounted and powered by a diesel engine. The engine operates a hydraulic motor which powers the grout cylinders. This type Pa a = i i Figure 6 Compaction Grout Pump & truck mixer delivery of pump is most popular because of the wide range of pumping pressures and placement volumes that can be achieved with a single pump unit. Grout Sources Another key element in developing and implementing a successful grouting program is the supply source for the grout. For many urban compaction grouting programs, truck mixers from a local concrete suppliers may provide a suitable grout supply source. There are several distinct advantages to using a truck mixer supply source. These include delivery of discrete batches, timing of deliveries of grout materials, containment of grout and transportability. For large scale compaction grouting projects, an on-site mixing plant (figure 7) is often used. The on-site plant is capable of producing compaction grout materials on-demand. One distinct advantage of using on-site grout mixing is the increased control of the grout mix with respect to mix proportions and slump. The gates of the plant are initially calibrated to the design mix, and can be altered slightly throughout the project, should conditions warrant. Typically, two or three aggregate storage bins supply volumetrically metered amounts of sand, flyash or other materials to the mixing auger. Cement is supplied to the mixing auger concurrently from a separate bin. The dry materials are then blended together and volumetrically combined with water and homogeneously blended in the mixing auger. The blended grout is then conveyed to the compaction grout pump. GROUT MIXES: Figure 7 Mobile Grout Plant & mixing auger to pump, bulk cement tanker in background A typical compaction grout mix consists of sand, cement, flyash (if available) and water. Silty sand near the finer limits produce the best mixes, as suggested by Brown & Warner 9 (1974)°. The gradation of the sand (figure 8) is extremely important in compaction grouting. A uniform or gap graded sand typically lacks the fines necessary to produce a dense homogenous mix. Additionally, natural rounded edge particles produce the best grout mixes. Best and Lane ‘have previously undertaken a study to investigate the nature of flowrate versus pumping pressure on stiff displacement type grouts, Sand gradation in grout combined with angularity and surface texture influence the pumpability of grout. Coarse, uniform sands in a grout mix tend to plug or “sand block” the injection line due to the water segregating from the mix. A well graded grout mix design containing a sufficient percentage of fine particles (-200 sieve), minimizes the separation by lowering the porosity of the mix. Another advantage to a well graded mix is that low slumps (1 to 3 inches (2.5- 7.Scm)) can be achieved with low water:cement ratios while maintaining pumpability. Flyash is a common additive used to supplement many design mixes. Flyash is produced by burning coals which have been crushed and ground to a fineness of 70 to 80 percent passing the No. 200 sieve. Specifications for flyash are given in ASTM C 618, which defines two types of fiyash - Class °C” and Class “F”. Class °C" flyash usually has cemeticous properties in addition to pozzolanic properties, while Class F flyash is rarely cementitious when mixed with water alone’. The small particle size of flyash is helpful in void. filing and increasing the density of the mix, While the generally spherical shape of the particle significantly reduces the frictional line losses. Lane and Best's data indicated that the fineness of the flyash has a significant influence on performance in concrete. Concrete strength and abrasion resistance are functions of the proportions of the flyash finer than the No. 325 sieve. ERO passing Figure 8 Desirable Sand Gradation Curve In areas where sufficient amounts of fines are not available, bentonite has been found to be a useful additive’. This is primarily due to the water retaining ability of the montmorillonite clay particle. Testing by Jeffries” has shown that hydration of the bentonite prior to the adcition of cement is necessary to minimize the bleeding and segregation effect. The use of bentonite in compaction grouting may cause excessive mobility and a loss of compressive strength of the grout material. To verify this theory, Borden & Groome performed a field test using a positive displacement pump to produce a constant flow rate and varying the bentonite content in a sand, flyash, cement grout mix. The bentonite addition to the mixture was varied as a percentage of the flyash content and ranged from 2.5% to 15%. Attempts were made to hold the slump constant at approximately two inches (5cm). /t was found that the optimum bentonite percentage was 5% for flow rates of one cu. Ft,/min(28.3 l/min), and approximately 10% for flowrates of four cu, Ft./min (113.2 min). Extensive tests have been performed by Warner to evaluate the effect of bentonite and slump on mobility. The tests concluded that the composition of the grout, the shape and gradation of the sand material, the amount and nature of the fines content and the inclusion of 2 lubricating agent such as bentonite or other clay materials tend to greatly increase grout mobility and improve the pumpability. It was also found that the grout slump was not directly related to mobility of the grout. Additionally, Warner indicates that the selection of an appropriate grout pump is important for constructing a successful project. Figure 9 Slump Test It has been found by these authors, that most compaction grout mixes generally are a combination of a well graded sand, type | Portland cement, class F flyash or other soil fines and water. Occasionally, bentonite has been added for pumpability or by design modification of the project. Other additives are occasionally used such as Calcium Chloride or type Ill Portland cement to produce an early set. Shrinkage control additives are also available but seldom used. The quantities of the constituents of a typicaf compaction grout mix per cubic yard are as follows: Description Quantity Standard CommentEffect ‘Sand Wel! graded, rounded edge, min. 15% 1,800-2,200Ib._| ASTMC-33 _| passing #200 Sieve Cement ASTM C-150_ | Control strength of mix, increase density of 250-500 Ib. mix Improve Pumpabilty, increase density, Fiyash (1) 200-700 tb. ASTM C-618 | reduce cement content required for mix, Class F or Class C Water 20-50 gal Control stump ‘admixtures 142% of Control set time, control shrinkage (optional) Cement (1) Depending on the fines available from the sand. Although documented testing is not available at this time, another successful additive to the grout mixture is small diameter aggregate, or pea gravel. This material is typically minus 3/8 inch in diameter and has normally been added at rates between 100 - 200 pounds per cubic yard. The addition of course aggregate tends to knit the grout mix together and decrease the mobility of the grout by increasing the internat friction developed at the soil interface. Even though this has been successfully used in many applications, analytical testing should be performed and evaluated to better define optimum quantities and effects. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The successful design and implementation of a compaction grouting program must include several key elements to develop a sound engineering and cost effective program. The design of the program should include at minimum the following elements: 1. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigations a. Determine Scope of Work b. Delineate Grouting Boundaries c. Testing Methods 2. Drilling Methods ‘a. Auger b. Rotary c. Percussion d. Vibratory 3. Grout pipe Diameter a. 1.5 inch pipe (shallow) b. 3 inch pipe (deep) 4. Spacing of Grout Holes & Design Depth a. Linear b. Grid ©. Angled vs. Vertical 5. Sequence of Grouting a. Primary b. Secondary 12 ©. Tertiary 6. Method of Grouting a, Stage up b. Stage down 7. Grout Mix Design a. Slump b. Compressive Strength c. Mix Proportions of Materials d. Additives 8. Grout Procedures and Methods a. Specifications 1. Drilling method & sequence 2. Grout pressure refusal criteria 3. Grout volume refusal criteria 4. Grout injection rate 9. Grout equipment a. Specifications b. Production rates 10. Verification - Records a. Drilling logs 1. Location, adjacent holes 2. Penetration rate 3. Total depth 6. Grouting logs 1. Injection depth 2. Injection pressure 3. Injection Rate 4. Injection volume per stage 5. Total injection volume per grout hole 6. Test data (slump, Temperature, etc...) Stage up Versus Stage down Compaction Grouting There are two basic grouting methods in use today; Stage up and stage down compaction grouting. Stage up grouting begins at the bottom of the zone to be improved and works continuously upward in discrete stages to improve the soil from the bottom up. The Stage down method develops a dense layer afong the top of the area to be improved, then works progressively downward in subsequent stages. Stage up grouting is by far the most economical and most common method of compaction grouting. This method utilizes a single pass system (ie, Drill down, grout up). First, the grout hole is advance to terminal depth by one of the methods discussed herein, usually below the loose zone or to competent bedrock. Itis important that the grout casing bottom is placed one to two feet (.3-.6m) above the bottom of the hole to permit the first stage grouting to commence. The grout pumping begins and continues until refusal" is reached, 13 (a predetermined grout pressure is achieved) or when a predetermined amount of grout is injected into the stage, or when ground "heave" is observed. Upon achieving one of these criteria, the grout pipe is raised to the next stage. The grouting process continues in discrete stages of one to five feet (.3-1.5m), to the top of the improvement zone. Typically, the grouting pressure will be highest at the deepest depths and should be reduced as the grout pipe is up staged. The depth of overburden soil is a key element in determining grout pressure allowances, Stage down grouting is significantly more expensive than stage up grouting due to the additional drilling required for the process. Stage down grouting is primarily used on projects where there is an insufficiently dense roof layer to confine the soft zone to be improved. This method stabilizes the top of the soft zone first, to provide an adequate confining layer for subsequent grout injection. After the top cap has been established and sufficiently densified, the lower zones may be injected under higher pressures while experiencing less ground heave. The length for each zone is generally five to ten feet (1.5- 3 m) in depth with one foot stages specified. It has been suggested by Warner and others that the zone length be established as half of the hole spacing, Specifically, the stage down pracess invotves drilling down to the top of the layer to be densified, or approximately five feet below grade (for cases where the surface layer is loose), Next the area is grouted in discrete stages of approximately one foot until, surface "heave" is detected. A grid of the holes are completed sequentially throughout a work day to produce a "matt" zone. After the grout in the first zone has hardened (usually 24 hours, minimum), the holes are re-drilled to a depth of five to ten feet (1.5-3 m) deeper than the bottom of the first zone. The second zone is then grouted upwards in several stages to the bottom of the first zone. This process is repeated for the entire grid, thus deeming the second zone complete. After the second zone has hardened, the drilling and casing placement for the third zone may commence. This process is repeated until the bottom of the soft layer has been treated. Hole Spacing Grout hole spacing is a critical function of any successful compaction grouting project. The spacing is a function of the soils being treated, the desired densification improvement results, the logistics of the site, and sound engineering judgment. Several of the design methodologies described herein provide suggested guidelines forhole spacing. Generally, the deeper the layer to be improved, the greater the distance between holes may be possible. Typically, for projects with improvement zones of 20 feet (6 m)or less, a hole spacing of 5-10 feet (1.5-3 m) is used. This is primarily due to the low impinging stresses developed on the soil during grouting, thus producing a small radius of influence to the surrounding soils. As the depths increase, the hole spacing may increase to a maximum of approximately 15 feet (4.5 m). This is particularly true when there is a dense layer above the area to be improved, which will act as a confining layer. It should be noted that spacings greater than 15 feet (4.5 m) are generally not recommended as the effectiveness of the compaction grouting process significantly diminishes with an increase in radius away from the initial injection point and does not significantly increase with increased injection 14 Pressure. Graf® has previously suggested a maximum spacing of 10 to 12 feet (3-3.6 m) without increase for additional depth, due to the passive resistance of the soil Primary/secondary/tertiary Grout Points Upon completion of the primary grout injection points for an area to be improved, the quantity and pressure of grouting must be evaluated for the possibility of secondary holes being required, Ifa particular grout location has shown to take an excessive amount of grout with respect to the surrounding holes, secondary points may be warranted. Engineering judgementand testing may also dictate the necessity of additional work within a particular area, Generally, secondary holes are placed on both sides of a linear suspect primary point and on all four sides of a suspect primary point in a grid program The secondary point will typically take less grout than the primary points and is intended to compact smal! areas not sufficiently densified with the primary points. Upon completion of the secondary point grouting and further analysis of the data, tertiary points may be warranted in rare circumstances. This typically involves split spacing between the initial primary point and the secondary point, surrounding the ‘secondary point in question. A typical ‘example case would be where one of the secondary points injected took a significantly high amount of grout, equal or in excess of the primary point at lower than expected resistance pressure, Angled Versus Vertical Holes Placing a grout hole at an incline angle from vertical is a common practice in compaction grouting operations near structures. This practice allows the Primary Primary Figure 10 Primary/ Secondary Grout Point Plan & Profile improvement of soils beneath the structure without entering the structure. Additionally, the area of improvement is increased from that of a vertical grouting program. The angle used 15 ranges from 0 to 20 degrees from vertical. When vertical and angled holes are used in an alternating sequence under a structure, the width of improvement is significantly increased, however the hole spacing should be slightly reduced. Angle hole grouting for compaction grout structural columns is not recommended. DESIGN METHODOLOGIES As grouting is an empirical method with an infinite number of variables and dynamic soil matrices, it is difficult to quantify certain design elements. Most literature regarding compaction grouting is based on sound engineering judgement and experience with compaction grouting as much of the grouting process cannot be directly observed However, many inferences and conclusions may be drawn from the reactions observed at the ground surface and the evaluation of depth and pressure versus volume relationships. There are other empirical methods that have been theorized and developed to evaluate and verify a compaction grout program. Brown and Warner’ (1973) developed an empirical method of estimating the degree of compaction increase. The model was based on several assumptions which are summarized as follo\ 1. Grout injection pressure cause radial and tangential stresses which decrease with distance away from the grout mass; 2. For a given pressure, the grout column diameter will vary based on soil types and moisture conditions; 3. As grout pressure increases, the grout column diameter will increase; 4.As the grout column diameter increases, the compacted soil will offer more resistance; 5. Total quantity of grout injected is a function of pumping rate; slower rates yield higher grout quantities; 6. Degree of compaction is a function of the amount of grout injected; The average increase in compaction, as a percentage of the soil mass being treated can be computed by determining the original volume and density of the soil mass and the volume of grout injected. Other researchers have refined the compaction grouting technique into a scientifically controlled procedure. Gambin” has developed such a procedure and renamed it “Lateral Static Densification.” The theory combines two type of soil improvement technique: sand densification and soil reinforcement. Using the most recent theories on cavity expansion in soils and reinforcement effects on columns have permitted this technique. The parameters of the theory are summarized as follows: 1. Analyze the soil strength and deformation parameter as a function of void ratio 2. The response law of soils exhibiting a negative dilatancy around a cylindrical cavity in expansion. 16 3. A correlation between cylinder size and the ratio of the pressure developed by the pump to limit pressure measured in the surrounding soil 4. The mechanics of reinforcement by the grout columns This method examines the effect of a relatively small amount of densification on the bearing capacity and differential settlements. The work suggests that large increases in bearing capacity and soil density can be achieved from a relatively small change in the void ratio or specific gravity of a soil matrix. Furthermore, there is distinct and quantifiable value in the grout column with respect to increased bearing capacities. This element has been termed “soil inclusion” for design purposes and is mainly based on the Menard pressure meter test. The author states that the roll played by micro shear strains in the densification process decrease the potential for liquefaction of the soils in earthquake situations. Schmertmann & Henry'' presented a new theory for compaction grouting to protect overhead construction (a landfill cell) from sinkhole settlement. The theory is based on shear enhancement and density increase between the grout columns to support the soils above and between the grout columns to produce a ‘matt’. The matt will greatly reduce the potential for loss of support to accur within the landfill cell. The “matt” design is based on several parameters summarized as follows: 1. High pressure injections of compaction grout columns using a geometric pattern founded on a sound bearing layer, 2. Each coiumn increases the lateral pressure and soil friction. The lateral pressure dissipates to a fraction of it's original value due primarily to creep, thus yielding a final density and stress increase and bearing value. 3. The column spacing, grouting height and column diameter are selected such that the overburden soils can be supported by the final shear force and top bearing enhancements. 4. Removing the load over void areas by arching to the grout columns reduces the risk of settlements. From the mathematical models used in this theory, the writers produced a bench scale experiment for verification. The experiment involved using load and stress cells in the bottom of a container, loading the container with sand, measuring the stress cell responses then simulating the compaction grout process by injecting four columns of grout above the load cell locations and after curing, reloading the system. A comparison of the before and after grouting loadings were analyzed and conclusions drawn. Based on thirteen equations used for the design methodology, a design-chart guide was developed to aid in the design of future compaction grout “matt” projects. 7 VERIFICATION OF COMPACTION GROUTING An important aspect of any compaction grouting program is the ability to determine the overall effectiveness of the program. As compaction grouting generally cannot be observed, the design engineer relies on density changes, back pressure readings during injection, sample corings, penetration tests and load testing to draw the final conclusions. To aid engineers in designing appropriate grouting programs and verification techniques, the ASCE Committee on Grouting published a book entitled “Verification of Geotechnical ". This is a valuable project design manual which incorporates verification into the entire project. This is accomplished primarily by asking a few important questions during the preliminary design basis and throughout project development and implementation, The questions to ask include: Is Compaction Grouting appropriate for this site? Is grouting necessary? What are the desired soil improvements? What measurements can confirm the improvements? What field data are necessary? What are the acceptance criteria? What remedial actions will be required for sub-standard work? Finally the issue of cost enters the equation and must be balanced between need and desire ASTM standards have been successfully used to establish testing methods for several parameters of the compaction grout material. Grout properties such as sand gradation (ASTM C-33), Portland cement quality (ASTM C-150), slump (ASTM C-94) and compressive strength testing ( ASTM C-39) are important tests to ensure the success of 2 compaction grout program. The frequency of the tests may be specified as a function of time or volume of material placed, (ie.. Twice per day or one test per 250 cubic yards (193 cubic meters)). Field testing before and after a project by Standard Penetration Testing (ASTM D-1586), Cone Penetration Testing (ASTM D-3441), Flat Dilatometer Testing (DMT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) are all available methods of evaluating the effectiveness of a compaction grout program. Generally, SPT tests have been performed to initially establish qualitatively the extent of the problem. This data then becomes the benchmark for post construction analysis. Often times the verification program involves post grouting testing to determine the overall density increase of a work site. Seismic testing methods" utilizing down hole and cross hole methods show promise for qualitative evaluation for ground improvement. With further research, quantitative results may be possible. Another extremely important tool in verifying a program are the field logs. Grouting logs. provide real time data on the performance of a grouting operation. Typical grouting logs include logistical data such as date, time, hole number, temperature, weather and supervising personnel. Physical data of the grouting operations include total grout hole depth, grout injection pressure and volume for a given depth and any testing that may have occurred such as slump tests. 18 Careful and diligent evaluation of the grout fogs tend to provide the most valuable data to determine the effectiveness of a grout program. By evaluating the pressure and volume relationships for each grout hole zone and considering the takes’ of secondary andtertiary holes, reasonable assurances can be concluded as to effectiveness. It is reasonable to assume that the primary grout holes will tend to “take" the most grout and perform the largest amount of consolidation and densification. Then the secondary or intermediate points should require less grout to reach refusal or a predetermined back pressure reading, thus indicating that the area has been substantially improved. By producing grout volume maps and sectional view profiles, reasonable inferences can be drawn and conclusions developed. By including each of these elements into the initial project plans and specifications, the designer has indicated that they have thought the job through, looked at the options and considered the consequences of their actions. APPLICATIONS Compaction grouting has proven to be a successful construction method for a wide variety of applications including pre-development stabilization, sinkhole remediation, seismic stabilization, mine stabilization and structural stabilization and underpinning, In each case the compaction grouting method has compacted and densified loose soil conditions and increased the bearing capacity of the soil matrix. in some instances the grout mass has been a significant part of the improvement by inclusion. Preconstruction compaction grouting has been performed on a wide variety of building applications, from building development to airport runway stabilization (o fandfill cell foundation stabilization. Typically, pre-construction compaction grouting involves establishing the limits of the area to be improved by preliminary SPT and/or CPT testing. Often times a liniment study of the Karst terrain is also performed, Geophysical methods may also be employed to establish the zone requiring improvement. Once the limits have been established, the improvement area is generally specified to be improved with a grid ‘of compaction grout points with an average spacing of 10 to 15 feet (3-4 meters), depending on the depth of the improvement zone. For structures with irregular shapes or high point bearing loads, compaction grouting may only be necessary at the load bearing portions of the structure, or along the footprint perimeter. Once the primary graut injection points are complete for a particular area, the area is verified and tested, then evaluated for potential secondary and possibly tertiary grout injection points in weak areas. In areas of karst topography within the United States such as portions of Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana and Florida'* and many other parts of the world such as England, compaction grouting has been extensively used to remediate sites and structures which have experienced settlements due to the loss of support of the subsoils. Compaction grouting has also been extensively used to consolidate the solution channels and raveled 19 soils typically associated with karst topography. Generally, an area or site found to have evidence of karst, will display natural surface irregularities, depressions and possibly sinkholes, Existing structures or potential structures may experience minor structural cracking and/or settlement or in a limited number of instances experience catastrophic failure due to a sudden collapse of a sinkhole. Numerous other geological formations exist which can be improved with compaction grouting such as alluvial fan stratum deposits and glacial til infil areas or other sedimentary profiles produced by eluviation. Granular cohiesionless soils are commonly found in many areas of the country. When these cohiesionless soils are saturate or near waterways and bridges and in earth quake prone areas where dynamic forces re present, liquefaction of the soil matrix is possible. ‘The amplitude of these dynamic earthquake forces can shear the soil and permit lateral displacements and loss of support. Compaction grouting techniques have been specified and used to improve the stability of the soil and minimize the potential for liquefaction. Coal producing areas of the country which have used deep mining techniques, long since abandoned, create a potential for future collapse. Many of the areas once mined are now urbanized and prone to settlements from mine collapses. The overall effect is similar to. that of sinkhole damage in that there is a loss of suitable bearing material beneath a structure. Compaction grouting is commonly used to first fill the collapsed mine shaft, then re-densify the soil matrix above the collapsed area and below the structure. Often times surface heave may be useful to re-level a portion of the structure. ‘Structural re-leveling has been a common use of compaction grouting by many engineers and contractors. The project must be carefully planned and skillfully executed to produce a desirable result, not a damaging one. For structural releveling it is important that the lft be attempted at an appropriate soil depth (usually 10-20 feet below grade), to provide an adequate cushion of soil between the grout bulb and the structure. This will typically permit the area to heave in a slow contolable manner. Itis critically important that proper leveling instrumentation be utilized throughout the leveling process and all aspects of the project carefully monitored. Once a structure has been raised above the desired level, it generally cannot be lowered, even by running the pump in reverse to reduce the pressure and volume of the grout bulb. FUTURE ‘One of the pressing issues that has been investigated and continues to be a strong topic is the mobility of grout and test methods for evaluating a grout design prior to injection Several test methods have been employed such as slump cone, inverted slump cone and shallow injections, however none of these methods has proven conclusive for predicting ‘mobility. One major consideration for determining mobility is the in-situ soil matrix being considered for improvement. It has been found that a similar grout material may react differently with different soil conditions. 20 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are currently able to accept the field pressure, grout volume and depth data to produce cross-sections, profiles and other valuable verification maps and charts. Given the proper data, these maps may also be developed during the initial grout injection pipe insertion, thus increasing the possibility for more accurately determining the volume of grout required for a particular project. By fine tuning the drilling method to correfate with initial investigation SPT data, a detailed profile of the site may be generated throughout the initial drilling operations. Another significant improvement which will greatly enhance the predictive capabilities of compaction grouting will be improvements to Ground Penetrating Radar, (GPR). _As deeper depths of penetration are developed and density refinements are made, GPR will become a more widely accepted predictive tool as well as a verification method. Another issue which warrants further investigation and study is analytical methods for confirming the effectiveness of a compaction graut program. Before and after SPT or CPT testing combined with load settlement tests are becoming increasingly popular as confirmation tools. Standardization of the testing procedures and consistency of results should eventually emerge which will provide consistency throughout the industry. Since the initial inception of compaction grouting the design concept has remained essentially consistent over the past 30 years. The applications and soil types which have been improved or stabilized by this method have greatly expanded. It can only be assumed that new derivatives of the current applications will develop and new machinery and techniques will also be developed to service these new applications. With respect to remediation, compaction grouting has already made amazing growth into the mainstream market place. As densification and in filing of urban areas continues to ‘expand, the need for compaction grouting will also expand. The future of compaction grouting holds many exciting challenges for the design engineer and geotechnical contractor by discovering new application and methods of construction as developable property continues to decrease and construction prices continue to increase. The challenge will certainly be to develop higher production methods and equipment to permit economical remediation at deeper depths with lower production costs Equally important will be the planning, design, construction and verification of these projects to ensure the continued growth of compaction grouting. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The authors would like to thank Mr. C. Lynn Miller, P.E. for the opportunity to be involved with this important project. Additionally we would like to thank Mr. Peter P. Aberle, P.E., Mr. Ken Andromolos, P.E., Mr. Ken Faught, and Mr. Chris Ryan, P.E. for their time, efforts and contributions to this project. 2 REF! ES 1.”Preliminary Glossary of Terms Relating to Grouting” Committee on Grouting, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Proceedings of the ASCE, Vol 106, No. GT1, July 1980, pp. 803-815 2.Wamer, James, F. “Compaction Grout: Rheology VS. Effictiveness”, Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 30, Feb, 1992, pp. 229- 239. 3. Warmer, J. & Brown, D.R. (1974) “ Planning & Performing Compaction Grouting”; Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE Vol. 100 GT6, June 1974, pp. 653-666. 4 Best, J.F. and Lane, R.O., “Testing for Optimum Pumpability of concrete”;Conerete International, October 1980 pp. 9-17. 5.ACI Committee 266, “Use of Flyash in Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, Committee Report Title No. 84-M39, September 1987. 6.Borden, R. And Groome, D.M., “Influence of Bentonite Cement On The Pumpability of Compaction Grouts”, Innovative Cement Grouting, pp. 115-128 7 Jeffries, S.A.,”Effects of Mixing Bentonite Slurries and Grouts”, Proceedings of Conference on Grouting in Geotechnical Engineering, February 1982, pp. 62-76. 8.Graf, Edward D. “ Compaction Grout, 1992", Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics, ASCE Geotechncial Special Publication No. 30, Feb. 1992, pp. 275-287. 9. Brown, Douglas R. And Wamer James, “Compaction Grouting”, Journal of the Soil ‘Mechanics and Foundations Division, August 1973, pp. 589-601 10. Gambin, Michel P., “Lateral Static Densification at Monaco”, Deep Foundation Improvements: Design, Construction and Testing STP 1089, 1991, pp. 248-265 11.Schmertmann, John H. & Henry, James F. “A Design Theory for Compaction Groutin; Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 30, 1992, pp. 215-228 12.ASCE Committee on Grouting, Verification of Geotechnical Grouting, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 57, ASCE Oct. 1995 13.Byle, Michael, J. , Blakita, Pou) and Winter, Ernest “Seismic Testing Methods For Evalui Of Deep Foundation Improvement By Compaction Grouting”, Deep Foundaiton Improvements Design, construction and Testing, ASTM STP 1089, 1991. 22 14-Lutgens, Frederick K. And Tarbuck, Edward J, Essentials of Geology, 3rd edition, Merrill Publishing Co, 1989 23