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The Forgotten Crusaders

The Northern World

North Europe and the Baltic c. 4001700 A.D.


Peoples, Economies and Cultures

Editors
Barbara Crawford (St. Andrews)
David Kirby (London)
Jn Viar Sigursson (Oslo)
Ingvild ye (Bergen)
Piotr Gorecki (University of California at Riverside)

VoluMe 56

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.nl/nw


The Forgotten Crusaders

Poland and the Crusader Movement in the


Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries

By
Mikoaj Gadysz

Leidenboston
2012
Cover illustration: Drawing after a crusading seal of Konrad of Mazovia. With kind permission of
Baej Poltrok.

Translator: Paul Barford

Language editor: Peter Barnes

The translation of the book was funded by The Foundation for Polish Science.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Gladysz, Mikolaj.
[Zapomniani krzyzowcy. English]
The forgotten crusaders : Poland and the crusader movement in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries / by Mikolaj Gladysz.
p. cm. (The northern world : North Europe and the Baltic c. 4001700 A.D. peoples,
economies and cultures; ISSN 1569-1462 ; v. 56)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Translation of: Zapomniani krzyzowcy.
ISBN 978-90-04-18551-7 (hardback : alk. paper) 1.PolandHistoryPiast period, 960-1386.
2.CrusadesParticipation, Polish. 3.Crusades13th15th centuries. 4.Europe, Eastern
HistoryTo 1500. I. Title.

DK4212.G5813 2012
909.07dc23

2011044660

This publication has been typeset in the multilingual Brill typeface. With over 5,100 characters
covering Latin, IPA, Greek, and Cyrillic, this typeface is especially suitable for use in the
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ISSN 1569-1462
ISBN 978 90 04 18551 7 (hardback)
ISBN 978 90 04 22336 3 (e-book)

Copyright 2012 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


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cOntents

Preface to the English Translation.............................................................. vii


Timeline............................................................................................................... xi
Genealogical Tree............................................................................................. xv
Maps ..................................................................................................................... xvii
Abbreviations..................................................................................................... xxiii

Introduction . ....................................................................................................... 1

I The Echo of Clermont: 10951141..................................................... 15

II The Second Crusade: 114649........................................................... 39

III The Northern Crusades: 1147............................................................. 67

IV CrusadersPilgrimsFounders: 115387.................................... 97

V The Third Crusade: 118793............................................................... 121

VI The Fifth Crusade: 121321................................................................. 147

VII Arms to the Aid of the Prussian Mission: 121725...................... 175

VIII Supporting the Crusading Orders: 122535................................... 213

IX Crusading on All Fronts: 124048.................................................... 253

X Unrealised Plans: 124860.................................................................. 297

XI Attempts to Reverse the Trend: 126173....................................... 333

XII A Final Change of Formula: 127491............................................... 359

Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 385


Bibliography . ....................................................................................................... 395
Index . ................................................................................................................... 427
Preface to the English translation

This book has been translated from a work which was the fruit of research
carried out in 19942000 during my studies, first as an undergraduate and
then as a doctoral student, in the Institute of History at the University
of Gdask. The Polish version appeared in print in 2002. Six years later,
mainly as a result of the interest expressed by Professor Piotr Grecki of
the University of California and of financial support from the Foundation
for Polish Science, work began on the present translation.
Over ten years have passed since the end of the research which pro-
duced the results presented here, and it therefore needs to be said that to
a large extent the text of the The Forgotten Crusaders reflects the state of
research, on the range of topics considered, in about the year 2000. This
has been supplemented here only by a few additions of later works to the
bibliography. Many topics which the book touches upon have been con-
sidered in later publications, butas far as the author is awarenone of
these works has required a serious revision of the conclusions presented
in this book. Things would perhaps have been different if the Polish ver-
sion of The Forgotten Crusaders had met with a more lively reception.
While it is true there were a couple of reviews, it did not provoke a wider
discussion, nor did it lead to increased interest in the subject. The ques-
tion of Polish involvement in the crusading movement remains a topic of
marginal significance for Polish medieval studies.
This is all the more reason then for the subject of the book to appear
even more exotic to the foreign reader, even to one who is familiar with
the topic of the Crusades. What can the analysis of the involvement of a
country lying on the peripheries of Latin Europe, far from the main cen-
tres of the crusading movement, offer to our knowledge of the crusading
expeditions?
The answer to that question directly depends on the perspective from
which we look at the history of the Crusades. If we narrow our field of
interest to the struggle of European knights for the Holy Land and the
history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, then the effect of investigations into
Polish participation in the Crusades is limited to the discussion of a few
poorly-documented episodes. If however we take an interest also in the
organisation of the campaign of preaching of the Cross and the collection
of resources for the support of the Crusades by the Church, an analysis
viii preface to the english translation

of the place of Poland in these phenomena may be cognitively valuable.


The further widening of the scope of enquiry, to consider the application
of the motifs of crusading against Polands pagan neighbours, local her-
etics or political opponents of the Church provides even more conclusions
which may interest the international reader. Finally, the wider context of
the Crusades, looking at the influence of the crusading ideology on dif-
ferent areas of life in medieval Polandone of the countries of young
Europe (to use J. Koczowskis term)would form an interesting contri-
bution to our knowledge of European culture in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries. Forgotten Crusaders, being an attempt to take a wider look at
the relationships between Poland and the crusading movement, therefore
has the potential to make a contribution to the state of our knowledge of
medieval history as a whole.
Another feature of the book ought to be pointed out to the foreign
reader; this concerns the research methodology adopted, which has had a
decisive effect on the form of the narrative. The work considers a period
in Polands history which is very poorly reflected in the written sources.
This means that a significant portion of the discussion necessarily has
more the character of a hypothetical reconstruction of events, created
on the basis of analysing the fragmentarily preserved information. The
reader must therefore be prepared for detailed discussions of the con-
tents of single documents, sentences or even phrases, the laborious deter-
mination of chronological facts or the identification of individuals, and
sometimeswhen the state of the sources gives too few indicationsthe
discussion of parallel alternative hypotheses. It cannot be denied that this
method, similar to the gathering of circumstantial evidence in criminal
investigations, makes The Forgotten Crusaders a work which in places is
not easy to read, and requires familiarity with the scientific methodology
of the medievalist. At the same time, however, it allows a full view of the
manner in which the reasoning is constructed, and thus facilitates the
evaluation of the conclusions presented. I hope that among the readers
of this English version will be researchers ready to enter into a discussion
of these conclusions.
Finally, this book is based on a doctoral thesis defended in December
2000 In the Institute of History at the University of Gdask. The author
would like to thank all those who, through their comments, their help in
identifying sources and the giving of their time to discussing the work and
facilitating access to their own libraries, greatly aided in the completion
of this study. Thanks are due especially to the founder, now no longer
preface to the english translation ix

with us, of the Gdask medieval school, Professor Dr. hab. Jan Powierski,
without whose good will this work would never have been undertaken.
Special thanks are also due to Dr. hab. Wiesaw Dugokcki, who took over
the promotion of the work after the death of Professor Powierski, and to
whom its completion owes a great deal.

Mikoaj Gadysz
Gdask, June, 2010
TiMeline

DATE EVENT PARTICIPANTS


1141 Prussian expedition of
Henry Zdik
114447 Legation of Cardinal
Humbald
114453 Correspondence of
Bishop Mateusz and Piotr
Wostowic with
St Bernard
1147 Second Crusade a Piast duke (Henryk of
Sandomierz*) at the head
of a numerous corps ( Jaksa
of Miechow*)
1147 Polabian crusade Mieszko the Old at the head
of a large troop of men
1147 Prussian expedition Bolesaw the Curly
115354 Expedition to Jerusalem Henryk of Sandomierz
116263 Expedition to Jerusalem Jaksa of Miechow, Presbyter
Otto*, Wojsaw Trojanowic*
1189 Legation of Cardinal John
Malabranca
1192 or 1193 Expedition of Kazimierz Bishop Wit of Pock, his
the Just against the Jatving brother Dzierko*
Second Expedition to Jerusalem Wielisaw of Jerusalem
half of (Third Crusade*), Brother
twelfth B., Voivode Krystyn* (Third
century. Crusade*)
121721 Fifth Crusade Piast duke (Kazimierz of
Opole*), Sieciech Konradowic
xii timeline

DATE EVENT PARTICIPANTS


1218 Prussian crusade Wawrzyniec bishop of
Wrocaw
1223 Prussian crusade Henryk the Bearded, Leszek
the White, Konrad of
Mazoviaat the head of a
large body of knights
122225 Prussian guard-post Silesian and Maopolska
system knighthood. (Castellan
of Chemno Stefan, Jan
Klementowic, Dziersaw
Abrahamowic, Budzisaw
Krzesawic)
1229 Prussian crusade Albert yka
Before 1232 Levantine crusade, oath of
Pakosaw
1234 Prussian crusade Konrad of Mazovia
(Kazimierz of Kuyavia*)
1235 Prussian crusade Henryk the Bearded, Konrad
of Mazovia, Wadysaw
Odonic, Henryk the Pious,
Kazimierz of Kuyavia,
(Archbishop Peka*)at the
head of numerous knights
123941 Attempt by Pope Gregory
IX to mount crusade
against the Emperor
1241 First Mongol attack
defensive crusade
authorised by the papacy
(self-declared crusade in
Germany and Bohemia).
124344 Prussian crusade Kazimierz of Kuyavia
timeline xiii

DATE EVENT PARTICIPANTS

1244 Prussian crusadeentry


of an anonymous member
of the Maopolska elite
into the Teutonic Knights
First half of Prussian crusade Andrzej of Morawica
thirteenth
century
1253 Legation of Abbot Opizo
of Mezzanoproposal for
anti-Mongol crusade
125557 Polish-Czech proposal for Kazimierz of Kuyavia
Baltic crusade
1257 Proclamation of crusade
against Bolesaw II the Bald
125960 Second Mongol invasion
Proposal for relief
crusade by the Czechs,
Brandenburgians and the
Teutonic Knights
1261 Prussian crusade the Wielkopolska knighthood
Before Levantine crusade, oath of
1286 (1274) Henryk IV Probus
1284 or Taking-up of the cross
1285 against the Mongols by
Leszek the White and the
Maopolska knighthood
1287 Proposal for crusade
against Henryk IV Probus
128788 Third Mongol invasion defensive crusade (Leszek
the Black*)
*entries in italics are based on hypotheses
Genealogical Tree

SIMPLIFIED GENEALOGICAL TREE OF Bolesaw III the Wrymouth*


THE PIAST DYNASTY IN 12th AND 13th (10861138)
CENTURY

Wadysaw II the Exile* Bolesaw IV the Curly* Mieszko III the Old* Henryk of Sandomierz Kazimierz II the Just*
(11051159) (11211173) (11221202) (11301166) (11381194)

Leszek the White* Konrad of Mazovia*


(c.11861227) (c.11871247)

PIASTS OF SILESIA PIASTS OF WIELKOPOLSKA PIASTS OF MAZOVIA


AND KUYAVIA

Bolesaw the Tall (12271201) Wadysaw the Spindleshanks (c.11651231)* Kazimierz of Kuyavia Siemowit of Mazovia
(c.12111267) (c.12151262)
Henryk the Bearded (c.11681238)* Wadysaw Odonic (c.11901239)
Bolesaw the Chaste (12261279)*

Henryk the Pious (before 12071241)* Przemysl I (1220 or 12211257)


Leszek the Black (c.12411288)*

Bolesaw the Bald (before 12251279) Bolesaw the Pious (before 12271279)

Henryk Probus (c.12581291)* Przemys II (12571296)*


Maps

Gdansk

a
Gdansk i
Pomerania s
in s
ec ia u
cz n r
Sz era P
o m
P

R
S zc zec i n

M a zs o v i a
W l oc l a w e k
Wi
elk Po z n a n
P l oc k
K o p an i c a op Gniezno
ols
ka
(G
re
at

U
Po
la
nd
S )
i
Mai s s en
l
e W ro c l a w
M
s (L a o
es
i se p o
a r P l s S a n d om i e r z
ola k a
nd S
)
DOM OF BOHEM
KING P r ag ue IA C r a c ow

boundaries of the state district of the Duchess Salomea


under Boleslaw the Wrymouth in 1138 Duchies of Pomerania P r z e my s l
boundaries of dioceses province bestomed on
Boleslaw the Wrymouths Statule of 1138 Duke Henryk in 1146 Olomouc
boundaries of Brandenburg
province of the Grand Duke under Albert the Bear (1170) Y
province of the Wadyslaw III boundaries of Western K R
Pomerania c. 1180 I N A
D O N G
province of the Bolesaw the Curly boundaries of the State under
M H U
Casimir the just in 1194
province of the Mieszko the Old
castellanies O F

After map The Beginning of the Feudal Fragmentation of Poland from The Historical Atlas of
Poland (English edition).
1.Poland in the second half of the 12th century.
xviii maps

L
I
T
H
Gdansk

U A
ER
Gdnsk Pomerania F D
O OR

N I A
Sz
cz TE IC
A N
ST TO
eci
M

n Pomerania
arc

E U
Szczecin T
h of Brandenbu

Chemno E
T o Hu n t y
oC
Province of P

Ch e mn
Province of

D U
Drohiczyn
Gniezno
Wloclawek Plock
Lubusz

C H
Poznan
rg

Y
zn

Gn

czyca
L
an

O F
cz
i

Kalisz
Province of Gowgw
ez

Si

yca
er
no

Gowgw
ad

Cou

H A
-K

Sieradz
z C

w
ocla
al

Legnica
Wr
nty
oun

z
is

Maissen f

L I C
Province
of c eo Wroclaw
t

Legnica
y
vin

Po Vladimir
Pro
K

vi

Z V L A D I M I R
IN

C S a n d o m i e rSandomierz
z Co
n
G

ce

Opole ra uKopanica
nt
D

of

co y
O
M

Op

w
Prague
O

C
ol
F

B o
e

O Racibrz
-R

H Cracow
E
u
ac

M
n

IA
ib

ty

Olomouc
rz

POLAND IN THE 13TH CENTURY (c. 1250)


1 : 5,000.000 O
M Y
D R
G A
boundary of Poland in 1250 main roads N G
I N
boundaries of provinces and duchies K U
routes of Tartar invasions (1241) H
boundaries of countries F
capital cities of states. provinces, duchies
battle elds O
and countries lands lost up to the mid-13th century
main lowns and castle-towns

After map Poland in the 13th Century (c. 1250) from The Historical Atlas of Poland (English edition).
2.Poland in the first half of the 13th century.