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The History of

Early Childhood
Education
D - 9.01 - History

Who are you?


How did you grow to become the
unique person you are today?

What do you remember


about your childhood?
Earliest memory
Memory you expect to keep
throughout life

D - 9.01 - History

Other Memories . . .

Most embarrassing moment?

Happiest experience?

Scariest experience?

D - 9.01 - History

The Importance of History

Why

is it important
to know about the
history of early
childhood
education?
D - 9.01 - History

Knowing about ECE History

Provides a sense of support and perspective


Serves as a source of inspiration
Helps teachers develop creative expression
Helps teachers develop better methods of
teaching
Creates awareness and understanding of
changes in education
Helps individuals get in touch with their own
early childhood experiences
Helps individuals develop a philosophy of
teaching
D - 9.01 - History

Many people have


contributed to our
understanding of child
development

D - 9.01 - History

John Locke
1632-1714

Founder of modern educational


philosophy
Theory based on scientific method,
study of mind and learning
Believed that each child is born with a
clean slate (tabula rasa) on which
their experiences are written

Tabula rasa
D - 9.01 - History

Environmentalism
The environment, not
innate characteristics,
determines what
children will become
The environment forms
the mind
D - 9.01 - History

Your Views - John Locke


What

do Lockes
beliefs and his work
mean to you?
What do you think
about his clean
slate theory?
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10

Friedrich Froebel
1782 - 1852
Coined the word kindergarten
Started the first kindergarten in
Germany in 1837
Emphasized teacher-directed learning
Advocated freedom, initiative, and
relevant curriculum
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11

Friedrich Froebel ---

Father of the Kindergarten


In German, the word kindergarten
means childrens garden.
Association between flower buds
opening and children going through a
natural unfolding process

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12

Your Views
Friedrich Froebel
What

do Froebels beliefs and


his work mean to you?
What do you remember
about being in kindergarten?
Did your kindergarten
experiences affect the
person you are today?
D - 9.01 - History

13

Sigmund Freud
1856-1939
A childs personality develops
through a predictable pattern of
psychosexual stages.
Many emotional and
psychological problems of adults
are connected to how their parents
and care providers met their basic
needs as children.
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14

The Id, the Ego, and the Superego


Sigmund Freud

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15

Your Views
Sigmund Freud
What

do Freuds
beliefs and his work
mean to you?
How well were your
needs met as a child?
D - 9.01 - History

16

John Dewey
1858 - 1952
First real American influence
on American education
Founder of progressive
movement
His theory = progressivism

child-centered
learning in groups
Advocated

D - 9.01 - History

17

Deweys
Pedagogic Creed

Education, therefore,
is a process of living
and not a preparation
for future living.
-John Dewey
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18

Your Views - John Dewey


How

much of education do you


believe is preparation for
future living, and how much is
the actual process of living?
Do you feel that learning
should be centered around the
subject or around the child?
D - 9.01 - History

19

Margaret McMillan
1860 - 1931
Margaret and her sister Rachel
extended concern beyond
education to medical and dental
care for children
Created open-air nursery in a
slum
Developed the McMillan
theory of fresh air, sleep,

and bathing
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20

The McMillan Sisters


Margaret and Rachel McMillan
crusaded to improve child care in
English slums.
Many people credit the creation of
nursery schools to these sisters.
Margaret created the name nursery
school --- nursery to focus on the goal
of nurturing good health, and school
to focus on educating young children.

D - 9.01 - History

21

Your Views
Margaret McMillan
How important are fresh air,
sleep, and bathing to the health
and well-being of children?
Have you ever known a situation
where a child did not receive
adequate physical care? What
were the results?

D - 9.01 - History

22

Rudolph Steiner
1861 - 1925
Founded Waldorf Schools
Interdisciplinary, multisensory curriculum with
emphasis on the arts
Emphasized the whole child;
begin where the learner is.
Promoted self-regulation and
self-discipline
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23

Rudolph Steiner
Steiner believed that experiences
for young children need to be
carefully selected. He believed
that fairy tales helped them learn
important truths.
Modern-day followers of Waldorf
philosophy believe that TV-viewing
for children should be limited.

D - 9.01 - History

24

Your Views
Rudolph Steiner
What

are your views on


children and television?

D - 9.01 - History

25

Patty Hill
1868 - 1946
Founded the National Association
for the Education of Young Children
Originated large-muscle equipment
and materials for climbing and
construction.
Wrote the song Happy Birthday

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26

Patty Hill

Her ideas about


unifying
kindergarten and
first-grade work
became the focus
of modern
kindergarten
practice.

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27

Your Views Patty Hill

Do

you believe it is important


for kindergarten and firstgrade learning experiences to
be unified?

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28

Maria Montessori
1870 - 1952
Child copies
reality,
rather than
constructs it.

Education begins at birth


The early years are very important as
children go through sensitive
periods. Their curiosity makes them
ready to learn certain things at certain
times.
Goals of education: the formation of
the child and development of
character
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29

Maria Montessori

Elements of early childhood


programs that are attributed to
Montessori:
A prepared environment (the
teachers responsibility)
Self-correcting and sequential
materials (usually tactile-touch)
Teaching based on observation
Trust in childrens inborn drive to learn
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30

Your Views Montessori


Which

of Maria Montessoris
philosophies ring true for you?
Were you ever enrolled in a
Montessori school as a child, or
have you ever visited one?

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31

Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934
Focuses on the child as a whole
Incorporates culture and values into
child development
Sociocultural Theory: A childs
development is influenced by more
than personal experiences.

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32

Vygotskys
Sociocultural Theory

Important influences on a childs


development include

Family
Community
Socioeconomic status
Culture

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33

Sociocultural TheoryImplications for Teachers


1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Incorporate each childs family and


culture into the school.
The relationship between teacher
and child is very important to
learning.
Use the tools of the society to help
children learn.
Play is an important part of learning.
Its very important to note individual
differences among learners.
D - 9.01 - History

34

Lev Vygotsky

Zone of proximal
development (ZPD)
(the distance between
the actual
developmental level and
the level of potential
development)

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35

Your View Vygotsky


Can

you think of an area of skill in


which your ZPD is large --- that is, the
distance between your actual level of
skill and your potential skill level is
very great?
You have a long way to go!

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36

Loris Malaguzzi
1920 - 1994
Founded Reggio Emilia Schools
Schools have teachers, a
pedagogista, and an aterlierista
All children capable of learning
Children construct their own
learning
Documenting childrens work is
essential for success of the
program D - 9.01 - History

37

Loris Malaguzzi

The family and


community are
important parts of the
amiable school.

D - 9.01 - History

38

Your Views Malaguzzi


What

do you think
should be the role of the
family in an early
childhood classroom?
The role of the
community?
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39

Imagine what our world would


have been like without . . .
Kindergarten
Nursery school
Montessori schools
Child-centered learning
Medical/dental care for
children?

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40

What do you think the


contributions of these
leaders will mean to you
as you work with young
children?

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41

Stay tuned for more . . .


Objective 3.01
Recognize the importance of and
contributions of leaders in the history of
early childhood education.