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Machine Design & CAD - II POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM


DESIGN PROJECT REPORT

Gear Box Design

Khalil Raza Bhatti

QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING,


SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, NAWABSHAH SINDH.

Content

Introduction
Problem Definition
Project Objectives
Design Methodology
Working Drawing
Conclusion
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Introduction
Gears are the most common means of transmitting power in mechanical engineering.
There are tiny gears for devices like wrist watches and there are large gears that
some of you might have noticed in the movie Titanic. Gears form vital elements of
mechanisms in many machines such as vehicles, metal tooling machine tools, rolling
mills, hoisting and transmitting machinery, marine engines, and the like. Toothed
gears are used to change the speed, power, and direction between an input and
output shaft. This site is all about Gears. Visit the pages linked below to know more
about different types of gears:

 Bevel Gear Reducer  Hypoid Gears


 Bevel Gearbox  Gear Pump
 Bicycle Gears  Gearbox
 Fixed Gear Bicycle  Speed Reducers
 Gear Coupling  Differential Gear System
 Gear Cutting  Worm Gear Reducer
 Gear Manufacturing  Worm Gear Speed Reducer
 Gear Technology  Spur Gear
 Helical Gears  Bevel Gears
 Worm Gears  Gear Design
 Gear Manufacturer  Gear Lube
 Gear Ratio  Gear Wrench
 Hydraulic Gear Pump  Planetary Gear
 Gear Reducers  Plastic Worm Gears
 Worm Gear Drives  Worm Gear Speed Reducers
 Spider Gears  Gear Oil

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Problem Definition:
What is the gear box how does it transmit the power?
A Gearbox Is Used in Turbines, Windmills, Grinders..
Gears are used for increasing the torque of the source of rotary motion having
high angular momentum and low torque. This high torque is necessary for
performance of work. This phenomenon of increase in torque is called gear
reduction and is brought about by coupling of a smaller gear called the pinion
with a larger gear. This results in reduction of torque at the expense of angular
momentum. Such a gearbox is called a reducer. One more application of
gears is to change the axis or plane of rotary motion with or without gear
reduction.

When you open a gearbox you will see that the inner construction is very
simple. Inside you will find two gears coupled with one another. The gears
may be of spur, helical, cycloid, worm or bevel type. In case of gear reduction,
the diameter of the output is larger than that of the input gear. If only a change
in direction is required, the size of the gears is the same. Spur gears are used
for heavy load but are noisy. If the load is comparatively lesser, helical gears
are preferred as they are silent in operation due to gradual engagement. If
change of plane of rotation is required, hypoid gears are used.

The gear may be either of metal or plastic. This entire arrangement is


enclosed in metallic or plastic housing. The point of contact of the gear teeth
is well lubricated with gear oil. The gear oil must be very clean and free of
abrasive materials to avoid wearing of the gears.

A gearbox is used in turbines, windmills, grinders, etc. to change the direction


of the rotary motion. In automobiles a gear box is used for transfer of to power
of the engine to the wheels through a differential.

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Project Objectives
Project Objectives are as Follows:

 Factors to Keep in Mind in Gear Design


 Advantages of Gear Technology
 Gear Ratio
 Speed Reducers, Gearboxes, and Gear-Heads
 Design of Gear box

Factors to Keep in Mind in Gear Design


Sometimes in gear design (for e.g. in the case
of spur gears, i.e. driver and driven) gears are
to be designed for a specific velocity ratio and
distance between central shafts. For the
purpose of understanding this gear design
better, let:

x = Distance between the centres of two shafts


N1 = Speed of the driver
T1 = Number of teeth on the driver
d1 = Pitch circle diameter of the driver
N2 T2 and d2 = Corresponding values for the driven or follower, and
Pc = Circular pitch

We know that the distance between the centres of two shafts,

x = (d1 + d2)/2

and speed ratio or velocity ratio,


N1/N2 = d2/d1 = T2/T1

From the above equations, we can calculate d1 and d2 (or T1 and T2) and the circular
pitch (Pc). The values of T1 and T2 as obtained above, may or may not be whole
numbers. But in gear design, since the number of teeth is always a whole number, a
slight alteration must be made in the values of x, d1, and d2, so that number of teeth in
the gear design is a complete number.

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Advantages of Gear Technology


The advantages of gear technology over other
transmission means are:

 Gear technology gives positive drives and


constancy of speed ratio without any slippage

 In Gear technology, the drive is very compact


due to short centre distances in such drives.

 Gear technology has high efficiency, service,


and simple operation.

 Gear technology drives are capable of driving loads subjected to shock at speeds
up to 20 m/s

 Maintenance of gear technology drives is inexpensive and if properly lubricated


and operated, gear drives have the longest service life compared to other drives.

 Gear technology can be used where precise timing is desired.

 Gear technology can drive much heavier loads than other drives.

 Gear drives can be used for a wide range of transmitted power.

Gear Ratio
The gear ratio of your transmission, timing belt/chain and
even your analog clock are what is responsible for
rotational movement and the speed each piece or part
achieves. Setting the correct gear ratio is vital, especially
in the automotive industry. The wrong gear ratio will rob
you of power, performance and even keep your vehicle
from running at all, in the case of a timing belt of chain.

If you've ever seen two gears working together, one turning the other as the teeth of the
two gears mesh, you've seen a perfect example of gear ratio. This complex sounding
conundrum is nothing more complex and complicated than the teeth of two gears
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meshing as they turn. It can also mean two sprockets connected with a chain or two
pulleys with a drive belt. The best example of the sprockets and chain combination is
probably the standard timing chain. This vital piece of engineering is the driving force
behind most modern vehicles, though timing belts are still used by some
manufacturers.

A correct gear ratio is the driving force behind anything that contains rotational motion.
Engines, transmissions, clocks and even windup toys use gears with the correct gear
ratio to produce the motion needed to turn whatever needs to be turned. Whether it's
belts and drive shafts or tiny plastic axles and wheels, the correct gear ratio is incredibly
important. One of the best examples of getting the correct gear ratio would be replacing
a timing belt. If the proper teeth are not selected when putting the new timing belt back
on, the vehicle will be out of time. In short, it will run either very poorly, or not at all.
That's because the pulleys and gears must meet at exactly the right point for the
rotation to match. If the rotational speed of the gears or pulleys doesn't match then you
have the incorrect gear ratio.

Gear ratio is also used to increase the speed of gears and pulleys. If you have a large
gear turning a smaller gear, the gear ratio will increase the rotational speed of the small
gear or pulley, dramatically. A gear ratio is written as any mathematical ratio: 2:1, 3:2,
etc. In an example, if the large pulley rotated once per every two revolutions of the small
pulley, you would have a gear ratio of 2:1. Gear ratio is an observable factor, as well;
look under your hood sometime, or inside a clock or anything else containing gears;
you'll see that larger pulleys and gears usually turn more slowly than their smaller
counterparts. This knowledge is used to create high speeds within engines and
transmissions.

Gear ratio and teeth on the gears are inextricably related. If it weren't for the teeth on
the gears, slight differences in circumference and other manufacturing inconsistencies
would lead to an incorrect gear ratio inevitably. Since the majority of gears use teeth,
those inconsistencies don't matter; the teeth make up the difference and provide for a
lack of slippage. Pulleys, on the other hand, are frequently the same size and have a
rubberized, or non-slip, outer covering. This combines with the autotensioner to keep
the belt firmly seated around the pulley, rather than dangling down below the vehicle.

Gear ratio within a transmission is incredibly important. Gear ratio is what's responsible
for your vehicle's acceleration and top speed. Both wide and close gear ratios have
benefits that are inherent to that type, though most modern transmissions do a good job
of running the middle ground between these two extremes.

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Speed Reducers, Gearboxes, and Gear-Heads


Speed reducers are a combination of sets of gears as
found in gearboxes and gear-heads, having shafts
and bearings, assembled in an enclosed metal
housing. The purpose of application of speed
reducers is to convert input to a known output speed,
there-by reducing the RPM at the output with
increased torque.

In its present form of new invention, the multiple


speed gear reducer has an input shaft and a power
output shaft, with a series of train of load sharing
gears interconnecting the shafts at the output and
input. The gear trains also interconnect two or more
reaction gears of different sizes. These reaction gears
are of different sizes, which are connected to the input
shaft coaxially, producing relative rotational motion
between the gears and the input shaft. These are then
operatively connected to the gear trains. Each of the
reaction gears has a clutch, which selectively restricts the gear trains to attain a
predetermined gear reduction ratio between the input and output shafts. There are
separate coaxially arranged sleeves put around the input shaft, which is used to mount
these reaction gears. The clutches on the sleeves control the reaction gears in order to
maintain the specific gear ratio.

Speed reducers are used in machine tools to set the different speed that is required for
different kinds of machining. The common types of reducers that are used are the pulley
pairs of different diameter, gearboxes, and stepped electric motors. Gear boxes which
are termed as speed reducers are generally found in different machine tools,
automobiles, transmission products, cranes and hoists, etc. The most common type of
speed reducers are:

 Worm gear reducers.


 Bevel gearboxes.
 Helical gear reducers.
 Parallel shaft gear reducers.
 Planetary gear reducers.
 In-line helical reducers.
 Right angle reducers.

Gearboxes or speed reducers are constructed out of high performance hardened and
toughened shaved gears, which have been designed to operate smoothly with loss of
little power. The gears and the shafts are assembled in a metallic housing using shafts
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and bearings. The input to the speed reducer comes from an electric motor shaft. The
gears are of different sizes, having variety of numbers of teeth and coming in different
diameter. The gear combination that is required to be meshed into each other is
selected by the set of levers and clutches, and this combination enables the speed
reducer to run in varied fixed steps. The output of this speed reducer came from the
output shaft. The speed reducer needs to be thoroughly lubricated for the system to run
smoothly.

In designing a speed reducer, the number of teeth of that of the larger gear is divided
with that of the smaller gear. This ratio will provide you with the one you want in a
helical and bevel gear set. For example, with the large gear having 28 teeth, if the
smaller one has 14, the speed reducer ratio between the input and output would give
you a ratio of 2:1. However, in worm gears the ratio is designed in a different way,
where the number of teeth in the gear, is selected with respect to the number of that of
the worm threads. If the worm has 2 threads with the gear having 60, then the speed
reducer ratio would be 30:1.

Design Methodology
Gear Boxes Design

Introduction
Prime movers such as Electric motors, internal combustion engines, steam
engines and turbines produce rotary motion at certain speeds and with certain
torques at optimum efficiency. The motion produced is rarely equal to the
motion required to do the necessary work and gear trains are required to
translate the motion economically at maximum efficiency.

It may be possible to use a low cost method of translating the motion e.g. a
timing belt vee belt or chain transmission system. However these methods
are limiting in their scope and are subject to regular maintenance and
replacement. The engineered gearbox generally provides the optimum
solution. Many companies provide motorised gear units with the electric
motor mounted directly onto a gearbox providing the drive conditions (torque
and speed ) exactly as required by the user. Once installed to the
manufacturers instructions the only maintenance required is regular
lubrication.

Gearboxes can be engineered to allow gear ratio changes to enable output


shaft speed while keeping the input speed and torque at the same value. The
primary advantage for using a gearbox for changing speed is to enable the full
power to be transmitted at the different speeds. Electric motors and other
prime movers are rated for a maximum torque at the optimum speed. If the
speed is reduced using electronic controls the resulting developed torque is
not proportionally increased.

Gearboxes also allow the input shaft and the output shaft to be in different
directions.

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Simple Drive Train Rules


1) For any pair of meshing gears the angular velocity ratio is given by

2 /1 = ω z 1 /z2 = ω d 1 / d 2

1 = Input speed (rads/s)


2 = Output speed (rads/s)
z 1 Number of teeth on input gear
z 2 Number of teeth on output gear
d 1 Pitch Circle Dia of the input gear
d 2 Pitch Circle Dia of the output gear

The sign is - (Reversing) if both gears are external and


+ (Same direction)if one gear is a ring (internal gear)

2) For a train of gear wheels the overall angular velocity ratio is given by

2 /1

= ω Product of teeth No's Driving gears / Product of


teeth No's Driven gears
= ω Product of pitch diameters (Driving gears) /
Product of pitch diameters (Driven gears)

The sign is - (Reversing) if there are an odd number of


pairs of external gears

Gearbox Design Features


The design of the gearbox includes the following features..

 Input and output shaft relative positions and orientation

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 Support of external forces on shafts


 Design and rigidity of casing
 Type, dimensions and strength of gears
 Method of changing speed /direction if required
 Design and strength of gear shafts
 Gearbox bearings
 Gearbox Seals
 Lubrication
 Noise and vibration
 Couplings to shaft
 Fixing /support of gearbox
 Heat dissipation
 Maintenance provisions

Gearbox Examples
A gearbox is loosely defined as an enclosure for housing gears. Examples of
gearboxes are numerous and some are listed below:

 Watch mechanism
 Bicycle axle gear (Sturmy Archer-3 speed) Sprocket to wheel axle -
(Sturmy Archer-3 speed)
 Power tool gear units - allowing speed reduction, change and reversing
 Automobile synchromesh gearbox -5 speed + reverse - Engine to drive
shafts
 Machine tool integral - Electric motor drive to spindle and travelling
motions
 Wind turbine gearbox - Turbine to generator
 Steam turbine - speed reduction turbine to generator
 Marine - Gearbox - turbine /diesal prime movers to Prop shaft
 Cranes -Gearbox usind for lifting and travelling motions

These are all specialised applications and the notes on this page relate to gear units manufactured
as separate units for mounting in transmission systems.

The normal method of fixing an enclosed gearbox in industry is to mount it on a rigid horizontal
baseplate designed to absorb vibration. The rotary motion is transferred to the input shaft and from
the output shafts via flexible couplings. There are a number of variations as listed below

Mounting
 Foot mounted on vertical surfaces
 Foot mounted below horizontal surface
 Flange mounted onto the prime mover
 Shaft mounted with a torque arm to prevent rotation of gearbox

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The sketches below show examples of gearboxes mounted in different ways.


These are only illustrative sketches and should not be considered as gearbox
designs.

Working Drawing:

When using a gearbox in a non-standard mounting position the lubrication system should be
checked for suitability

Gearbox Casing
The large gearbox casings are generally castings from cast iron or steel. Cast iron is a rigid
material with excellent vibration damping properties.

Fabricated steel gearbox are used for small batch quantities.

Gearboxes used for the transmissions in vehicles are often made from cast aluminium this is
primarily to save weight.

The tiny gearbox units are made from a variety of materials including cast zinc alloys.
The important criteria in the gearbox casing design are listed below..

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 Inclusion of safe lifting points to allow installation


 Support of the shaft bearings and hence the gear loadings;
 The transfer of the developed gear forces to supporting structure or
further drive element;
 Containment of lubricant and exclusion of foreign matter;
 Providing a safety and noise barrier;
 Dissipation of the heat generated by gear friction
 Aiding testing, installation, and maintenance by containing all element
in one unit;
 Providing convenient access to internals for inspection & maintainance
 Aesthetic benefits
 Enable accessible location of nameplate with all of the gear unit details

Gearbox shafts
A variety of shaft designs are available including the following

 Plain shaft with keyway


 Plain shaft suitable for Friction drive coupling system
 Splined shaft
 Hollow shaft with internal keyway
 Flange

The selection of the drive shaft system is generally based on space


considerations, on the design of the prime mover of the driven component and
on the loading pattern. A proprietary gearbox is design to best fit in with the
existing drive arrangements.

Shaft Orientation
The shafts transfer of motion to and from a gearbox can be supplied in a variety of designs some of
which are listed below.

 Inline shafts .....Epi-cyclic. spur, helical, harmonic


 Parallel shafts .... spur, helical
 Shafts at angles but non intersecting....Helical, Worm, Hypoid, Spiroid
gears
 Shafts at angles and intersecting... Bevel gears

Worm gears and bevel gears are most commonly supplied with shafts at Right angles.

Conclusion:
The basic theme of our project is to understand the design of gear box.

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