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KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

KNH 414 Comparative Analysis


Chris Harder
Miami University

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

When preparing a bid to host the Olympic Games, as well as evaluating the success of the
event, the legacy and lasting impact on the city is a very important measure. From the initial
stages of planning and preparing for such a mega-event, the city must anticipate how the
facilities used to host the events can continue to be used effectively for years after the Games.
This belief is upheld by both the International Olympic Committee and stated in their December
2013 update of legacies, and additionally reinforced in Guy Mastermans text Strategic Sports
Event Management. The IOC article quotes Rule 2, Article 14 of the Olympic Charter, explaining
that an important role of the committee is to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic
Games to the host cities and host countries (Factsheet Legacies of the Games, 2013, p. 1).
When describing the sport event planning process Masterman also explains the importance of
including of considering specific long-term strategies that extend beyond the event itself
(Masterman, 2012). Two cities that planned for and experienced enduring benefits from the
games are Barcelona in the 1992 XXV Olympic Games, and Sydney from the 2000 XXVII
Olympic Games. Volume 1 of the 2001 Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad reflects on the
preparation and execution of the games, stating that Australias goal for the Sydney Olympics
wasnt just to create facilities and venues good enough to host the games, but that these facilities
will continue to serve the communities and the companies whose investment they are (Official
Report of the XXVII Olympiad, 2001, p. 53). Although both host nations planned for their
respective games with long-term impacts and legacies in mind such as regenerating land and
improving infrastructure to enhance the image and popularity of their respective nations, the
goals, strategies, challenges, and results differ between them.
The overarching goal for any city bidding to host the Olympic Games is to improve the
status and well-being of their city and country. In order to facilitate the most growth and success
it is vital that organizing committees plan for the years following the Games and create strategies
to put the facilities to use so that they may continue to generate revenue, and in the case of
Sydney, remain environmentally sustainable. The Olympic Co-ordination Authority sought to
create a successful center of facilities and venues for the Games, as well as adhering to strict
environmental regulations and ensuring that the Olympic Villages and venues would continue to
be used in the future to create assets and benefits for the city (Official Report of the XXVII
Olympiad, 2001). Keeping in mind the importance of remaining environmentally friendly as well

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

as the desire to create a central hub of facilities for the Olympic Games, the committee planned
on redeveloping polluted and undesirable areas such as Homebush Bay, as well as The Southern
Threshold and building new and sustainable Olympic venues there. Masterman outlines the
benefits of looking to land regeneration and the building of new facilities as positive strategies
for mega-event planning. He explains that redeveloping derelict land is beneficial to creating a
central site for each event, as desired by the OCA, and the additional new opportunities to be had
on this redeveloped land following the games, since the land would remain undesirable and
unused had it not have been for the opportunities to host the event (Masterman, 2012). Following
the cleaning and development of the polluted land the committee continued to make the site
more aesthetically pleasing and increase the ease of transportation for both citizens and tourists.
In the years leading up to the Games the areas around Homebush Bay were stripped of overhead
power lines and replaced with unseen, underground lines, trees were planted, rail ways, roads,
and ferries were redesigned to improve travel efficiency, and additional waterways such as
Haslams Creek were cleared of waste and silt to restore the beauty of Homebush Bay and open
up more areas for travel and aquatic recreation (Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad, 2001).
These environmental improvements opened up opportunities for several new parks and
ecological attractions that would last for years after the Games.
Australias Olympic Co-ordination Authoritys plan to turn the Olympic village into the
Newington urban district as a residential suburb housing 5000 people, and incorporation of
family-style attractions such as leisure pools, spas, and water-slides into the aquatic center
opened up even more opportunities to increase tourism and leave a lasting legacy on the city of
Sydney. This was the first time in any Olympic Games that all athletes from every sport lived in
one village, and it was planned that way specifically so that they could transform the village into
a residential suburb following the games. To keep in line with their goal of remaining
environmentally friendly, houses and venues used solar-power, passive ventilation, recycled
water and waste, and limited the use of certain building materials and energy sources in favor of
renewable resources (Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad, 2001). In addition to marketing to
increase tourism for the city of Sydney, they created a brand for Australia as a whole and
increased tourism and popularity for their entire nation. As you can see, Australias bid to host
the 2000 Olympic Games was planned out very specifically and strategically to maximize the
lasting positive results of the mega-event, and create a legacy for many years to come.

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

While bidding for and preparing to host the 1992 Olympic Games, Barcelona had several
different issues they wanted to address and solve by creating a legacy from the Games. London
School of Economics professor Pedro Fontana shows in his Powerpoint lesson problems with
Barcelona that the citizens and government aimed to solve. These issues included poor
infrastructure, facilities, and equipment, as well as traffic congestion and a radical
communication structure. With a steadily growing population, Spain saw the 1992 Olympic
Games as a catalyst towards urbanization and becoming a well-known world super power
(Fontana, 2010). While many people expressed angst towards the desire to host the Olympics as
opposed to improving the city internally, the Barcelona Olympic Organizing Committee, or
COOB, used the Games as a large-scale legacy project to improve the city and create lasting
growth. All areas of improvement necessary to host the games were the same issues that had
been keeping the city from prospering since its shift from dictatorship decades before. With
severely underdeveloped and underutilized seafronts and ports on the Mediterranean Sea, the
COOB made plans to clear the beaches and ports of waste, redevelop several wharfs, and
improve ways of travel to the beaches to increase opportunities for sport and leisure, as well as
taking advantage of the countrys beauty and promoting tourism (Cuys,2012).Theimproved
portsandbeacheswerepartofafourprongedapproachtoimprovethecitieslacking
infrastructureandtrafficcongestion.Alongwiththenewlyredevelopedwharfsandbeaches,the
cityfinishedtheconstructionoftheirringroadandalteredandrebuiltmanyrailwaylinesto
improvetrafficanddecreasetraveldifficultyandtimethroughoutthecitytovariousOlympic
locationssuchastheOlympicVillageintheParcdeMarArea.Asaresultofthesechangesand
construction,thecitywasabletocreateanewseriesofdrainsandsewersystems,adding100
kilometersofdrainsthroughoutthecityanditshydrographicarea(Cuys,2012).Priortothese
improvements,manycitizensintheheartofthecitywerenotevenawarethattheyhadavailable
beaches,andthepeoplethatdidknowabouttheseopportunitieswouldhaveextremedifficulty
travelingtotheports.TheCOOBcreatedplansthatnotonlybenefitedtheimmediatesuccess
andeaseofoperationforthe1992OlympicGames,butalsoleftalastinglegacyonthequalityof
livesofthecitizensofBarcelonaaswellastheinfluxoftouriststhatwouldcontinuetocomein
theyearsfollowingthegames.Asafurtherimprovementtothelifeofthecity,thepushtowards
urbanization,andtoappealtonewtourists,thecityalsomodernizeditstelecommunicationsto

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

nowincludea40,000kilometerfiberopticnetworkby1991andboasteda30%rateofdigital
telephoneexchanges(Cuys,2012).
WithregardstoOlympicfacilitiesandvenues,theCOOBalsohadstrategizedplansin
placeallowingforimmediatesuccessintheGames,aswellascreatingalastinglegacywithsuch
facilitiesintheyearstocome.Capitalizingonthecityspoorinfrastructureandequipment,the
COOBdecidedtorenovateexistingfacilitiestofittheneedsofOlympiceventsasopposedto
buildingallnewvenues.TheOfficialReportoftheGamesoftheXXVOlympiadBarcelona1992
explainsthatnearlyallbuildingsusedfortheGameshadalreadybeeninplaceandweresimply
adaptedtofitOlympiccompetition(Cuys,2012).Forexample,theOlympicStadiumwas
renovatedfromtheoriginalstadiumdesignedin1929byPereDomnechIRourethatremained
unusedfollowingthe1955IIMediterraneanGamesuntilitwasrebuiltforthe1992Olympics
(Cuys,2012).TomakethisstadiummoresuitableforOlympiccompetitionaswellashosting
otherlargescaleeventsfollowingtheGames,theyaddedmoreseatingandarooftothebuilding.
ProfessorFontanacitesinhislessonBarcelonasintentionsoftheseplansshiftingthefocusof
tourismfromseasonaltopermanent,improvingboththequantityandqualityoftourisminSpain
(Fontana,2010).MastermanalsoprovidesevidencethatBarcelonaplannedforthelegacyofthe
eventbystating,the1992BarcelonaOlympicswerepartofawiderlongtermcitystrategyfor
modernization(Masterman,2012,p.86).ItisevidentthatbothBarcelonain1992,andSydney
in2000plannedforsuchamegaeventwiththemuchbroaderintentionsoffacilitatingalong
termchangeandlegacyintheirrespectivecountrybybothimprovingthecityasawholeaswell
asenhancingtheirworldlyimageandtouristicappeal.
ThelegacyofbothoftheseGamesisstillrecognizedtodaybyseveralpopularsources.
ThecreationoftheSydneyOlympicParkfollowingthegameshasgeneratedsubstantialrevenue
fromcitizensandtouristsalike.TheIOCquotestheAustralianTouristCommissionfrom2001
statingthat;TheOlympicGamesremainthemostsignificantbeneficialeventinthehistoryof
Australianinboundtourism(Factsheet Legacies of the Games, 2013, p. 4). With several venues
from the Olympics being used for public use and several others being used to host sporting and
entertainment events, the Olympic Village and all of its entities are still being used fully and
efficiently. The 2014 CBS News article, Olympicchallenge:Howdohostcitiesfareafterthe
games?reaffirmsthatthenewsuburbofNewingtonformedfromtheAthletesVillageisstill

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

ecofriendlyusingsolarpowerandarecycledwatersupply(Olympicchallenge:Howdohost
citiesfareafterthegames?,2014).ThearticlegoesonwithfurtherstatisticsthattheSydney
OlympicParknowalsoconsistsofhotels,offices,restaurantsandparklands,anddrawsinover
12millionvisitorsayearwithvariousfestivals,sportingevents,andbusinessconferences
(Olympicchallenge:Howdohostcitiesfareafterthegames?,2014).The2012articlefrom
Olympic.orgfurtherexplainsthesuccessoftheOlympicslegacyonSydneyandmore
specificallyitsOlympicPark.In2011thePark,whichhostsover130organizationsand
employeesover12,000people,generatedoverAU$1billionineconomicactivitythroughnearly
6,000events(Sydney'sOlympicLegaciesPraised,2012).ItisevidentthatSydneysOCAdid
astellarjobofplanningforimmediatesuccessandlongtermlegaciesfromthe2000Olympic
Games,andcontinuestobuilduponthoselegacieswiththeirMasterPlan2030fortheParkto
becomehometo50,000workers,students,andresidents,andhost25,000visitorsdaily,as
outlinedbyCEOofSydneyOlympicParkAuthority,AlanMarsh(Sydney'sOlympicLegacies
Praised,2012).
Inadditiontotheimmediateandlongtermimpactsthattheinfrastructureimprovements
resultedin,Barcelonasawseveralotherlegaciesthatarestillbenefittingthecitytothisday.The
improvementsininfrastructureandefficiencyallowedthecitytorecover400,000squaremeters
ofpublicspace,buildanewinternationalairport,andopened40newhotelsfromtheOlympic
village,increasingtourismfrom1.7millionin1990to6.5millionin2009andmovingSpainup
from11to4intherankingoftopbusinesscitiesby2009(Fontana,2010).TheIOCs2013
factsheetalsocitesthelegacyandcontinueduseofthestadiums,statingthatin1994fourofthe
existingvenuescreatedover450newjobsandheld346eventsfor1,514,348people.From1982
to1992thenumberofavailablesportvenuesinBarcelonaincreased126%(Factsheet Legacies
of the Games, 2013). The CBS News article also cites the continued use of Palau Sant Jordi as a
large-scale music venue, and the Olympic Stadium as FC Barcelonas home stadium and host of
many other sports competitions (Olympicchallenge:Howdohostcitiesfareafterthegames?,
2014).Althoughbothhostnationsdidanexceptionaljobofplanningforandimplementing
legaciesoftheirrespectivegames,theydidhavetoovercomechallengesintheplanningprocess.
WhenbiddingforaneventsuchastheOlympicGamesseveralproblemscanarise.Often
timesstadiumswillfalltodisuseandbecomedesolateandtooexpensivetomaintainfollowing

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

theGames,existingstadiumscanbetoosmall,orfinancingandacquiringpropertiescanbetoo
expensiveordifficult.Whatmadethe1992BarcelonaOlympicGamesandthe2000Sydney
OlympicGamessosuccessfulandlastingwastheirabilitytoovercometheseobstacles,oruse
themtotheiradvantage.Forexample,theOfficialReportoftheGamesoftheXXVOlympiad
Barcelona1992explainsthattheirdesiredOlympicStadiumwastoosmallandneededtobe
renovatedandmodernized.Ratherthanrenovatingtheentirestadiumorbuildinganewone,the
existingstadiumwasadaptedbyloweringthelevelofthearenaby11metersandbuildinga
lowerbankofseats,andadditionallyaddingaroof(Cuys,2012).WhileBarcelonawasableto
constructmostoftheirOlympicvenuesthroughrenovationsandadditionstoexistingbuildings,
Sydneyexperiencedtheoppositeproblem.Thecitywasgiven5yearstoacquirepropertyand
fullyconstruct15newvenuesinadditiontotheOlympicandMediaVillage.Sincethe
ownershipandmanagementofOlympicpropertiesisoftenanissuefollowingtheGames,the
SOAconsultedwiththelocalcommunity,governmentbodies,andstakeholderstodetermine
differentownersandmanagersforthepropertiesattheconclusionofthegames,utilizinga
Build,own,operate,andtransfertechnique.Byusingthisstrategyandbyfundingthesites
fromvarioussourcesandcooperatingwithSydneysbuildingworkersandunionmovement,
theywereabletoensurethatpropertieswerepurchasedandbuiltfortheGamesmostefficiently,
andthattheywouldbeproperlymaintainedandrunfollowingtheGames(Official Report of the
XXVII Olympiad, 2001). Additionally, to ensure more affordable and sensible upkeep and usage
of the facilities following the Olympic Games, several venues were downsized based on
popularity and projected revenue so they could remain functioning and useable without wasting
resources (Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad, 2001). These alterations immediately
following the Games also ensure that venues are still sound and useable for future use. Every
host city can experiences challenges with anything from property acquisition and management to
tourism, and the most successful hosts overcome these challenges to create lasting legacies for
their city and country.
Barcelona 1992 and Sydney 2000 are considered by many to be the most successful
Olympic Games to date as a result of their exceptional planning and legacies left behind for their
city and country. Although both Games planned for and created a legacy, there are a few standout
points that resonate the most with people when reflecting on the 1992 and 2000 Olympic Games.

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Barcelona became the first city to use the Games as an opportunity to reshape and improve the
overall image and structure of their city, while Sydney boasts hosting one of the first green
Games, and being the first city to plan so extensively for legacy and outline a descriptive and
strategic future for the infrastructure created for the Games (Sydney'sOlympicLegacies
Praised,2012).Sydneyalsouseduniquemarketingtopromotetheirlegacy,beingthefirst
Gamestomarketandpromotetourismfortheirnationasawholeasopposedtotheirspecific
cityandsawanincreaseinnationaltourismandprideasalastingresult.Asyoucansee,oneof
themostimportantmeasuresforpreparingforandevaluatingtheimpactoftheOlympicGames
isconsideringthelegacyandlastingimpactonthecityandnationforyearstocomeafterthe
Games,andBarcelonain1992andSydneyin2000bothstandoutinOlympichistoryfortheir
legaciesandoverallimprovementstotheircityintheyearsfollowing.

KNH 414 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Works Cited
OfficialreportoftheXXVIIOlympiad(1sted.,Vol.1).(2001).Sydney,N.S.W.:Sydney
OrganizingCommitteefortheOlympicGames.
Masterman,G.(2012).StrategicSportsEventManagement:OlympicEdition(2nded.).New
York,NewYork:ButterworthHeinemann.
Factsheet:LegaciesoftheGames.(2013,December3).RetrievedMarch2,2015,from
http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reference_documents_Factsheets/Legacy.pdf
Sydney'sOlympicLegaciesPraised.(2012,July13).RetrievedMarch15,2015,from
http://www.olympic.org/news/sydneysolympiclegaciespraised/
Olympicchallenge:HowdoHostCitiesFareAftertheGames?(2014,February24).Retrieved
March15,2015,fromhttp://www.cbsnews.com/news/olympicchallengehowdohostcities
fareafterthegames/
Fontana,P.(2010).TheBarcelona1992GamestheLegacy[Powerpointslides].Retrievedfrom
http://www.lse.ac.uk/europeanInstitute/research/catalanObservatory/PDF/Sports/Pedro
Cuys,R.(1992).OfficialReportoftheGamesoftheXXVOlympiadBarcelona1992(Vols.1
2).Barcelona:COOB'92.