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PARADIP REFINERY PROJECT

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 2 of 18
REV : F1

CONTENTS
SECTION

SUBJECT

Page No.

SCOPE................................................................................................................... 3
DEFINITIONS......................................................................................................... 3
FLANGED JOINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR CONTROLLED TIGHTENING . 4
WHEN TO APPLY THE PROCEDURES ............................................................... 5
JOINT PREPARATION.......................................................................................... 5
BOLT STRESS CALCULATION ........................................................................... 6
HYDRAULIC TENSIONING ................................................................................... 7
Location of Prepared Bolts ..................................................................................8
Sequence of Tensioning 100% Bolt Sets ............................................................8
Sequence of Tensioning 50% Bolt Sets ..............................................................9
Sequence of Tensioning 25% Bolt Sets ..............................................................9
Checking Completed Joints ...............................................................................10
TORQUE TIGHTENING ....................................................................................... 10
General .................................................................................................................10
Torque Tightening Technique ............................................................................11
Location of Prepared Bolts ................................................................................11
Torque Values......................................................................................................11
Torque Tightening Sequence .............................................................................11
Checking Completed Joints ...............................................................................12
ASSEMBLY QUALIFICATION PROCEDURE .................................................... 12
INFORMATION REQUIRED BY A SPECIALIST BOLTING CONTRACTOR..... 13
INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED BY A SPECIALIST BOLTING
CONTRACTOR (BEFORE WORK COMMENCES) ............................................ 13
12.0
DOCUMENTATION TO BE PROVIDED BY SPECIALIST BOLTING
CONTRACTOR ON COMPLETION OF WORK .................................................. 14
FIGURE 1: FLANGE BOLT TIGHTENING SEQUENCE ....................................................... 15
TABLE 1: GUIDE VALUES OF RESIDUAL BOLT STRESSES FOR VARIOUS BOLTING
MATERIALS ............................................................................................................................ 16
TABLE 2: SUGGESTED TORQUE FACTORS ................................................................... 17
TABLE 3: ACCEPTABLE LUBRICANTS............................................................................ 18

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
9.0
10.0
11.0

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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1.0

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CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 3 of 18
REV : F1

SCOPE
This standard covers the requirements for the controlled tightening of flanged
joints using hydraulic bolt tensioners or torque wrenches. (Torque wrenches
may be hydraulically, pneumatically or manually powered).
It is recognised that vessel/heat exchanger manufacturers and specialist bolting
Contractors may have their own bolt tightening procedures. These may be used
following review by and written approval from the Buyer.
In the absence of approved bolt tightening procedures the requirements of this
standard apply to the controlled tightening of bolted joints

2.0

DEFINITIONS
Throughout the document the following definitions apply:2.1 Hydraulic
Tensioning

The application of bolt load by stretching the bolt using


a hydraulic nut at the free end of the bolt followed by
hand tightening of the service nut

2.2 Torque
Tightening

The application of bolt load by rotating the in service nut


using a torque wrench

2.3 Applied
Load/Stress

The maximum load/stress applied to the bolt during the


tightening procedure

2.4 Residual
Load/Stress

The load/stress in the bolt on completion of the


tightening procedure

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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3.0

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CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 4 of 18
REV : F1

FLANGED JOINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR CONTROLLED TIGHTENING


Flanged joints which comply with any of the criteria listed below shall be made
using a controlled tightening procedure. Joints to be considered include
a) pipeline flanged joints
b) pipeline to vessel joints
c) vessel joints including manway covers and girth flanges
d) equipment joints.
Each joint shall be identified on the piping isometric for line joints, vessel
drawing for line to nozzle, manway and girth joints and on the equipment
drawings/documentation for equipment items.
3.1

Individually designed flanged joints where a required bolt stress is a design


requirement.

3.2

Joints with a bolt size greater than or equal to 38mm.

3.3

Joints with bolt greater than or equal to 25mm and below 38mm, when

3.4

a)

Joints have tapped holes.

b)

Items not subjected to hydrotest, eg joints for equipment manholes,


equipment mounted temperature, pressure and level instrumentation,
line mounted temperature connections, online instrument joints like
control valves, safety valves, compressor volume bottles

c)

Joints involving two sets of gaskets with one set of bolts, eg orifice
flange joints, joints with spectacle blinds, spacers, flangeless wafer
check valves, wafer type butterfly valves

d)

Tie-in joints with other Contractors and package vendors.

Pipeline sizes equal to or greater than as shown in the table below


Design Temperature (deg C)
Rating

Class

150

A,H,Q,S

None

20

300

B,J,R

22

16

400

C,K

18

14

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

<340

340-430

Cyclic

>430

C*

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CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 5 of 18
REV : F1

600

D,L

16

12

900

E,M

14

1500

F,N

2500

G,P

Note 1)

Below 340 deg C the bolt size governs the requirement for
controlled tightening. (i,e. Bolt size >= 38mm).

2)

Cyclic pressure and/or temperature is coded C* in the line class


list.

3)

Line class list code for critical joints is T*.

4)

In some cases application of the criteria specified in 3.3 above


may identify a large number of critical joints. IOCL should be
consulted in cases where this occurs.

(Note Codings* to be defined for contract use).


3.5
4.0

Any other flanged joint defined as critical by IOCL


WHEN TO APPLY THE PROCEDURES
It is not a requirement of this standard to apply the following procedure before
hydrotesting or flushing/cleaning operations. Controlled tensioning or tightening
of bolts in a flanged joint which complies with section 3 above, shall be carried
out prior to the introduction of process fluids. (ie final make up)
However, the procedure may be usefully applied to reduce spurious leaks
during pipeline cleaning and testing.
This procedure does not apply to "hot bolting".

5.0

JOINT PREPARATION
The final success of the completed joint is greatly dependant on the initial
preparation of the joint components. In addition to good engineering practice
the following must be covered in the inspection of the components before the
joint is "released" for final controlled tightening.
5.1

Bolts for hydraulic tensioning shall be the standard length plus one nut length to
accommodate the hydraulic puller.

5.2

Nuts shall run freely (by hand) along the working length of the bolting.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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5.3

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 6 of 18
REV : F1

Alignment of the flanges shall be measured and any misalignment greater than
as set out below shall be corrected before starting to complete the joint. Under
no circumstances shall the tensioning procedure be used to correct
misalignment of flanges or pipework.

Max allowable translation of


flange centre lines and faces
Max allowable out of parallel
alignment of flanges faces

0.25mm/100mm flange diameter,


1.5mm max

Bolt hole alignment

(1/8") max offset with


moving freely in bolt holes

bolts

5.4

Ring joint grooves shall be dimensionally checked to ensure compliance with


the appropriate standard.

5.5

Check that prepared bolts are in the correct location (see section 7.1 for
details).
The metallurgy of any metallic gasket to be certified.
Cleanliness of joints to be verified and/or remedied.

5.6
5.7
6.0

1.5 mm

BOLT STRESS CALCULATION


The preferred method of checking the residual bolt stress in a completed joint is
by calculation from a micrometer or vernier measurement of the elongation of
the bolt. Bolts to be used for elongation measurements (maximum of four per
joint) shall be minimum standard bolting for the joint with the following additional
preparation.
a)

Machine both ends of the bolt to a surface finish of 125 microns.

b)

Countersink both ends on the bolt centreline to accept an external


micrometer.

It should be noted that the following calculation only requires a comparative bolt
length measurement to obtain the calculated residual bolt stress. Bolt
elongation during tightening is of the order of tenths of a millimetre per metre.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 7 of 18
REV : F1

The residual bolt stress shall be calculated from the following formulae:Residual Stress = Bolt Elongation * Youngs Modulus / Bolt Equivalent
Length
Where Young's Modulus

= 207,000 N/mm2 for B7, B16 bolts


= 193,000 N/mm2 for stainless stud bolts.
(B8, B8M)

Bolt equivalent length

= Nut face distance plus one nut height mm

Values of residual stress for various bolting materials are given in table 1.
Attention is drawn to the fact that class 900, 1500 and 2500 RTJ flanged joints
have a lower residual bolt stress than RF joints for the same bolting material.
This reduction is necessary to avoid excessive deformation of the flange facing
by the joint ring.
Bolt stress and elongation measurement using ultrasonic techniques shall only
be used following approval of the technique by the Buyer.
7.0

HYDRAULIC TENSIONING
Hydraulic tensioning is the preferred method to be employed where controlled
flanged joint tightening is required. In addition, 100% tensioning is preferred
(i.e. a bolt tensioner on each joint bolt). Bolt tensioning heads may be fitted on
alternate sides of the flange.
Where clearance between bolts is restricted, 50% or 25% tensioning is
permissible provided that:for 50% tensioning
a)

tensioners are fitted on alternate bolts and

b)

the tightening procedure is completed in steps of 40%, 70% and


100% of the required applied bolt stress on the first bolt set.
(See 7.3).

for 25% tensioning


a)

a minimum of four heads are used

b)

heads are evenly spaced round the bolt circle.

c)

the tightening procedure is completed in steps of 40%, 70% and


100% of the required applied bolt stress on the first bolt set. (See
7.4).

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 8 of 18
REV : F1

In practice, the applied bolt stress is greater than the residual bolt stress. The
reduction in bolt stress after releasing the hydraulic puller is caused by
relaxation of the bolt system. To attain the required residual stress it is
permissible to use an actual bolt stress up to 20% greater than the residual
stress given in Table 1.
7.1

Location of Prepared Bolts


To enable bolt stress to be checked, prepared bolts as described in section 6
shall be fitted to each flanged joint which is subject to controlled tensioning (or
tightening).
The minimum required number and location of the prepared bolts for various
flange bolt arrangements is shown on Figure 1.

7.2

Sequence of Tensioning 100% Bolt Sets


Fit tensioners to all the bolts and tension to give 40% of the required applied
bolt stress. Check the flange alignment to ensure that the gap is closing up
evenly. Any misalignment up to the limits stated in section 5.3 can be corrected
by adjusting individual bolt loads. Misalignments greater than those given in
section 5.3 must be investigated and corrective action taken before proceeding
with the tensioning process.
Continue to increase the pump pressure until 70% of the applied bolt stress is
achieved and again check the flange alignment.
Provided satisfactory checks have been made, increase the pump pressure to
achieve 100% of the applied bolt stress.
Tighten the service nuts and reduce the pump pressure to zero. Repressurise
the tensioners to give 100% of the applied bolt stress and tighten the service
nuts if necessary. Repeat this step once more.
Measure and record the lengths of the prepared bolts and calculate the residual
stress in these bolts as described in section 6.
The bolt stress is proportional to the hydraulic pump pressure, thus the 40%
and 70% bolt stresses are achieved when the pump pressure is 40% and 70%
respectively of the pump pressure necessary to achieve the required applied
bolt stress.
There is no requirement to measure bolt elongation at the 40% and 70%
intermediate steps.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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7.3

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 9 of 18
REV : F1

Sequence of Tensioning 50% Bolt Sets


Identify the 50% bolt sets using the letters A & B working consistently round the
flange.
Fit tensioners to all the reference A bolts and tension to give 40% of the
required applied bolt stress. Check the flange alignment to ensure that the gap
is closing up evenly. Any misalignment up to the limits stated in section 5.3 can
be corrected by adjusting individual bolt loads. Misalignments greater than
those given in section 5.3 must be investigated and corrective action taken
before proceeding with the tensioning process.
Continue to increase the pump pressure until 70% of the applied bolt stress is
achieved and again check the flange alignment.
Provided satisfactory checks have been made, increase the pump pressure to
achieve 100% of the applied bolt stress . Tighten the service nuts and reduce
the pump pressure to zero.
Repressurise the tensioners to give 100% of the applied bolt stress and tighten
the service nuts if necessary. Repeat this step once more.
Move the tensioners to the reference B bolts. Pressurise the tensioners to give
100% of the applied bolt stress tighten the service nuts and reduce the pump
pressure to zero. Repeat this step twice more.
Move the tensioners back to the reference A bolts and reapply the pressure to
give 100% applied bolt stress. Tighten the service nuts if necessary.
Measure and record the lengths of the prepared bolts and calculate the residual
stress in these bolts as described in section 6.
The bolt stress is proportional to the hydraulic pump pressure, thus the 40%
and 70% bolt stresses are achieved when the pump pressure is 40% and 70%
respectively of the pump pressure necessary to achieve the required applied
bolt stress.
There is no requirement to measure bolt elongation at the 40% and 70%
intermediate steps.

7.4

Sequence of Tensioning 25% Bolt Sets


Identify the 25% bolt sets using the letters A, B, C and D working consistently
round the flange. Tension all the reference A bolts to 40% of the required
applied bolt stress and check the flange alignment as in 50% tensioning above.
Follow this by 70% and 100% tensioning.
Move the tensioners to the reference B, C, and D bolts in turn and tension to
give 100% of the applied bolt stress. After each pressurisation, tighten the
service nuts and reduce the pump pressure to zero. Repressurise the
tensioners twice to check the tightness of the service nuts.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 10 of 18
REV : F1

Depending on the actual relaxation of the bolt sets during the above process
the tensioning of sets A, B, C, and D may have to be repeated to obtain a
residual bolt stress within the tolerance specified in section 7.5. It is not a
requirement of this standard to check the flange alignment at this stage.
Measure and record the lengths of the prepared bolts and calculate the residual
stress in these bolts as described in section 6.
The bolt stress is proportional to the hydraulic pump pressure, thus the 40%
and 70% bolt stresses are achieved when the pump pressure is 40% and 70%
respectively of the pump pressure necessary to achieve the required applied
bolt stress.
There is no requirement to measure bolt elongation at the 40% and 70%
intermediate steps.
7.5

Checking Completed Joints


On completion of the joint tensioning procedure, the calculated bolt stress shall
be within +/- 10% of the required residual stress for the appropriate material
from table 1 unless specified otherwise. (See section 6 for bolt stress
calculation method).
Should the bolt stress be less than the above limits, then increase the hydraulic
pump pressure to achieve the applied stress.
For 100% tensioning, tension all bolts using the increased pump pressure. For
50% tensioning apply the increased pump pressure to set A followed by set B.
Similarly for 25% tensioning apply the pressure to set A followed by B,C and D
in order.
The extended bolt threads shall be adequately protected by threaded metal
caps.
The above is additional to a thorough visual inspection based on a good
engineering practice.

8.0

TORQUE TIGHTENING

8.1

General
Accurate torque tightening of a bolted joint is highly dependant on the condition
of the bolting components. In particular, the condition of the threads, mating
surfaces and the type of lubricant applied. For this reason, torque tightening of
flanged joints is not preferred practice. However, it is recognised that there may
be circumstances under which torque tightening is necessary.
Torque
tightening shall be subject to an assembly qualification procedure as described
in section 9.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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8.2

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 11 of 18
REV : F1

Torque Tightening Technique


To ensure that consistent torque tightening is achieved, the basic details given
below should be followed:-

8.3

a)

A calibrated torque wrench shall be used.

b)

Inspect bolt and nut threads and nut face/flange face for defects.

c)

Ensure that nuts run up the bolts freely (by hand) along the working
length of the bolt.

d)

Clean and lubricate all contact parts.

e)

Where several joints are being tightened use the same lubricant on each
joint.

f)

Mark nuts and bolts to give visual indication of nut rotation on the bolt.

g)

If a nut seizes on a bolt, replace the nuts and the bolt.

h)

Hold torque wrench perpendicular to the flange face or bolt axis, as


appropriate.

i)

Ensure that the reaction arm is in contact with a rigid support. If reaction
is from an adjacent nut ensure that the reaction does not loosen the nut.

j)

Sockets shall be checked for cracks, burrs and other defects before use.

Location of Prepared Bolts


For bolts stress checks, prepared bolts shall be fitted to each flanged joint as
shown on Figure 1.

8.4

Torque Values
Table 2 gives guidelines for torque factors for various bolt sizes. Torque factors
are given since the maximum residual stress (table 1) varies with the bolt
material and joint type. To calculate the required torque, multiply the required
residual stress by the appropriate torque factor. When a torque multiplier is
used the torque factors shall be increased to compensate for increased friction
(say 10% as a guide).

8.5

Torque Tightening Sequence


The flanged joint shall be tightened using a 40%, 70% and 100% step
procedure However, the bolts shall be tightened using a 'criss-cross' sequence.
Typical sequences are shown in figure 1. Tightening bolts in pairs using two
torque wrenches is good practice.
Complete one round of tightening with the torque wrench set to give 40% of the
applied bolt stress. Check the flange alignment to ensure that the gap is closing
up evenly. Any misalignment up to the limits stated in section 5.3 can be
corrected by adjusting individual bolt loads. Misalignments greater than those

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 12 of 18
REV : F1

given in section 5.3 must be investigated and corrective action taken before
proceeding with the tensioning process.
Increase the torque wrench setting to give 70% of the applied bolt stress and
complete one round of the flange. Check the flange alignment and correct if
necessary. Increase the torque wrench setting to give 100% of the applied bolt
stress and complete one round of the flange.
On completion of the step procedure above, all bolts shall be tightened to the
final torque working in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction round the flange
until no further rotation of the nuts is observed at the required torque.
Ensure that the nuts are rotating on the bolts during the torque tightening
procedure.
8.6

Checking Completed Joints


The residual bolt stress shall be calculated from the elongation of the prepared
bolts (section 6). Because of the effects of friction in the bolting system, the
residual stress may be lower than required for the bolt material (see table 1).
For residual bolt stresses less than 90% of the required value from table 1
estimate the new torque to give 90% residual stress. Apply this torque to all
bolts working in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction round the flange.
After achieving a 90% residual stress either on the initial tightening or after
retightening, complete the procedure by tightening in two 5% steps until the
required residual stress is achieved. It is recognised that it is difficult to achieve
an even bolt stress round a flange using a torque tightening procedure. A
variation of the a final bolt stress of +/- 10% of the required residual stress is
acceptable. The above is additional to a thorough visual inspection based on
good engineering practice.

9.0

ASSEMBLY QUALIFICATION PROCEDURE


An assembly qualification for both hydraulic tensioning and torque tightening is
required. The aim of the qualification is to establish and record the bolt
elongation, pump pressures and torques by tightening joints under controlled
conditions. The recorded data is then used for the subsequent bolting up of
similar flanged joints. To qualify a procedure, the procedures outlined
previously shall be used with the addition of the following requirements.
a)

Qualification of the procedure and the operating crew using a mock up


flanged joint is preferred. However, qualification on service joints is
acceptable provided that each bolt is accessible for measurement.

b)

The procedures previously described shall be used with the additional


requirement that the residual bolt stress in every bolt shall be calculated.

c)

A minimum of two joints of each size shall be successfully qualified.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 13 of 18
REV : F1

d)

All bolt sizes to be qualified for torque tightening.

e)

Records of bolt elongation, pump pressure and torques, as described


later, shall be made.

f)

The qualification shall be witnessed by specialist group arranged by


IOCL.

It should be noted that the successful application of the procedure in the field is
highly dependant on qualification of the procedure and the crew before field
joint tightening work commences. It is also strongly recommended that 10% of
the field joints be checked to ensure compliance with the qualification
procedure.
10.0

INFORMATION REQUIRED BY A SPECIALIST BOLTING CONTRACTOR


When a specialist bolting Contractor is contracted to carry out joint tightened,
the following detailed information shall be provided:a) Location of joint

b) Joint Description

Name of site
Isometric No.
Equipment NO.
Tag No/Reference No.
Rating
Bolt Size/Quantity
Bolt & Nut Material Specification
Joint Material
Residual Stress (from table 1)
Preferred Tightening Procedure
(ie tensioning or torque lubricant
type - if specified).

In general, the above information is contained in the line isometric or vessel


drawing and pipeline specifications.
11.0

INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED BY A
CONTRACTOR (BEFORE WORK COMMENCES)

SPECIALIST

BOLTING

The following information shall be supplied by the specialist bolting Contractor


before work begins on the joint. Separate documentation shall be provided for
each joint which shall have a unique identifier.
For a hydraulic tensioning:-

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 14 of 18
REV : F1

a)

A written step by step procedure to be complied with during joint


tightening.

b)

No of tensioning heads to be used (eg 100% or 50%)

c)

Head type and size to be used

d)

Calculation of bolt elongation required to achieve residual stress.

e)

Hydraulic pressure to achieve applied stress.

For torque tightening:In addition to the requirements for tensioning above;


a)
b)
c)
12.0

Type of lubricant to be used (To be checked for compatibility with


services fluid see table 3).
Torque required
Coefficient of friction used in calculation

DOCUMENTATION TO BE PROVIDED BY
CONTRACTOR ON COMPLETION OF WORK

SPECIALIST

BOLTING

The information given in sections 8 & 9 above shall be included in the final
signed documentation. A record of the final tightening data shall also be
included and must contain the following as a minimum requirement:a)

Assessment of initial condition of the joint

b)

Measured elongation of the prepared bolts

c)

Hydraulic pump final pressure

d)

Hydraulic pump and pressure gauge serial numbers

e)

Hydraulic pump and pressure gauge calibration certificates (copies if


necessary)

f)

For torque tightening only, the wrench calibration certificate and final
torque.

g)

Record of initial joint alignment.

h)

Record of cleanliness and surface quality checks.

i)

Record of lapping checks for Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges.

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 15 of 18
REV : F1

FIGURE 1:

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

FLANGE BOLT TIGHTENING SEQUENCE

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TABLE 1:

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CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 16 of 18
REV : F1

GUIDE VALUES OF RESIDUAL BOLT STRESSES FOR VARIOUS


BOLTING MATERIALS

Guide Values of Residual Bolt Stress for Various Bolting Materials

Grade

A193/BS4882

B7

345

A193/BS4882

B7M

345

A193/BS4882

B16

345

A320

B8M

(strain hardened)

170

A320

B8

(strain hardened)

275

A320

L7

A193/BS4882

B7/B16

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

Notes

N/mm2

Spec No

345

Class 900 Ring Joint

275

Class 1500 Ring Joint

205

Class 2500 Ring Joint

205

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PDRP-8440-SP-0011
PAGE : 17 of 18
REV : F1

TABLE 2:

SUGGESTED TORQUE FACTORS

SUGGESTED TORQUE FACTORS


Nominal Bolt Dia (in)

5/8

7/8
1
1 1/8
1
1 3/8
1
1 5/8
1
1 7/8
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4

40%
0.10
0.19
0.33
0.53
0.78
1.13
1.58
2.13
2.79
3.58
4.49
5.57
6.78
9.74
13.46
18.00
23.50
30.00
37.57
46.31
56.36

70%
0.17
0.33
0.58
0.92
1.37
1.98
2.76
3.72
4.88
6.27
7.85
9.75
11.86
17.04
23.55
31.50
41.13
52.48
65.76
81.04
98.04

Final
0.24
0.47
0.82
1.31
1.95
2.83
3.95
5.31
6.97
8.96
11.22
13.92
16.94
24.34
33.65
44.99
58.75
74.96
93.94
115.77
140.91

To obtain torque (N-m) multiply Residual Bolt Stress (N/mm2) from Table 1 by the
above factor.
Notes:
1)
2)

Calculations are based on well lubricated bolts.


Assumed coefficient of friction 0.2

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

DSN: 1863

PARADIP REFINERY PROJECT


PROJECT SPECIFICATION

CONTROLLED BOLT TIGHTENING

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TABLE 3:

ACCEPTABLE LUBRICANTS

MOLYSLIP COPASLIP ANTI-SEIZE

LOCTITE ANTISEIZE

Any other lubricants approved and recommended by IOCL

PDRP-8440-SP-0011 REV F1.doc

DSN: 1863