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Educational Evaluation

SBU Evaluators:
Samantha Arias, Nicholas Perillo, Jessica Allen
A. Student Data
1. Student Name: Zach Luce
2. Date of Birth/Age: 11/9/2004, 10
3. Current Placement: Zach is currently placed in a 4th grade inclusion classroom at
Allegany-Limestone Elementary School. All four core subject areas (ELA, math,
science, and social studies) are instructed in the students inclusion classroom. The
school district also requires students to receive 40 minutes every MWF of literacy
instruction and 40 minutes every TTH of math instruction. There are 21 students in
the class ages 9-10. There are 7 students in the classroom who have classified IEPs
and 3 students who receive enrichment services. Instruction is taught primarily by the
general education teacher, although there is a full time special education teacher
present in the classroom.
4. Date(s) of Evaluation: The evaluators administered sections 1 and 2 of the SAGES-2
assessment as well as the vocabulary section on an IRI on 3/25/15.
B. Referral Information
1. Describe:
a. Zach enjoys being challenged and retains information quickly. He is a creative
thinker with a sharp memory and long attention span. He is very creative and likes to
think outside the box. Zach has been referred to the enrichment program based on state
and local test scores as well as a teacher recommendation. The teacher supports many of
Zachs mother views. She believes Zach is academically advanced because of his higher
level thinking skills, academic abilities and the maturity he displays in class.
b. Schooling is very important to both of Zachs parents. He was enrolled in the
Montessori Childrens House of Olean when he was 3. His parents wish to see this
evaluation benefit Zach in a number of ways. They want his curiosity and creativity to be
challenged and would consider acceleration for Zach or an early college program in the
future.
2. Zach has not been identified as gifted or talented, but he has been identified as a
student requiring extra challenge. Zach participates in an afterschool Alternative
Learning paths enrichment
3. *See attached referral form and intervention history.
C. Background Information
1. Family History:
a. Zach has 1 older sister who is in 6th grade. Both of his parents are teachers in
the Allegany-Limestone school district. His mother works at the elementary
school while his father works at the middle school.

b. The primary language spoken in Zachs household is English. He is of


German, Irish, and English ancestry. Zach has had no speech or language
factors that would impact his test results.
c. There are no family members that have been identified as gifted. His mother
stated that his father was awarded the National Honor Society at Cuba
Rushford and she was the president of St. Bonaventures Educational Honor
Society Kappa Delta Pi.
d. Zach is very social and makes friends easily. He likes to spend time with his
friends outside of school. He plays on both a travel soccer and hockey team as
extracurricular activities. Zach enjoys working with others and gets along with
his peers.
2. Educational History:
a. Zach is a student who is always on time and attends school everyday
b. Achievement
i. He reads above the 4th grade level and he is able to comprehend the
higher order text. He has mastered all the modules given by the
Common Core Standards.
ii. All of Zachs grades are above 90 percent.
iii. Due to Zachs fast pace learning he is continuously given supplements
in order to challenge him. He finishes most of his work before his
peers therefore the supplements allow him to continue on track while
his peers are working
iv. Zach has been enrolled in an afterschool enrichment program which he
attends every Thursday from 2:45-4pm. Zach has also been placed in
the advanced literacy and math blocks that his school provides which
he attends for 40 minutes every MWF or TTH.
v. Zach has had no previous individual standardized testing for
exceptionalities.
c. Social/emotional factors
i. Zach always listens to every adult in the room and his main objective
is always to try his hardest when given a task. He has never had any
school problems and the teacher continuously refers to him as being a
respectable young boy. Zach is known for be able to adapt to any
setting. He instantly get involves when given an activity.
3. Student Observations and Interview
a. Student Observations
i. Zach has been referred to the ALPS program for enrichment based on
state and local test scores as well as a teacher interview. Zach has a
sharp memory and a long attention span. He learns quickly and likes to
be challenged. He is a creative thinker and can approach problems
outside the box. Zach is very curious about things and asks a lot of
question. The evaluators had the opportunity to observe Zach on 2/26

for 2 hours. The evaluators first observed Zach in his literacy block.
He was asked to write a haiku. While given independent time to work
on the poems, Zach was heavily focused and concentrated on his work
while his other peers seemed to get distracted from other commotion
going on in the classroom. Zach demonstrated his long attention span
as he was focused on directions given by the teacher and his work
throughout the entire class period. During the afterschool enrichment
program, Zach would frequently be the first person to raise his hand
when the teacher ask higher order thinking questions to the class. He
was very attentive and seemed eager to challenge his knowledge.
Zachs responses were always very in-depth and not a typical response
I would expect from his average peers. His peers would give shorter
responses to questions asked by the teacher while Zach would
constantly elaborate further on subject matter. The evaluators saw this
was typical in both math and ELA. I could see Zachs creative mind
shining through as well as his ability to think outside the box.
b. Student Interview
i. Zach has a very strong interest in math. Zachs father is a math teacher
at the middle school and Zach likes to be just like his dad. He
acquired this adoration at a very young age and asked his dad to teach
him math in his early elementary years. Zachs mother, gen. ed.
teacher, and enrichment teacher all suggest that Zach is gifted in
math which is also what the evaluators believed after working with
Zach for a few days. The evaluators have also decided to further
pursue to see if Zach is gifted in reading as well. Zach would prefer to
work independently. He feels that he can accomplish more and work
more efficiently when working by himself. Zach is incredibly creative
and enjoys designing his own versions of things. Zach stated that he
struggles in reading because his grades are not as high as his math
grades. He says his grades fluctuate between 90s-100s one week and
60s-70s the next. The evaluators inquired about what type of testing
Zach was taking when he was receiving the lower grades he described
a reading comprehension evaluation. He also mentioned that he
sometimes finds himself bored during math instruction because he
already knows most of the material. Zachs general education teacher
mentioned that she often provides Zach with more challenging math
work as he masters the 4th grade common core curriculum with very
little, if any difficulty. This is a typical behavior of a student who is
gifted in math. Zach plays on both a travel soccer and hockey team. He
is social and is well-liked by others which makes it easy for him to
make friends. Zach works hard on schoolwork, but also enjoys free
time watching television and playing video games. Zach said that if he

couldnt grow up to be a professional athlete he would love to be a


video game designer. This career choice would allow Zach to
demostrate his creativity. *See attached student interview.
4. Analysis of student Work Samples
i. Student work samples 1A and 1B are written excerpts taken from
Zachs reading response journal. Work sample 1A, completed just a
few weeks ago, depicts Zachs ability to recall information from a
story. Zach received a perfect score when he was asked to recall 1
main idea from the story and was able to provide 3 detailed supporting
facts. The other question on this work sample required Zach to respond
to a short answer question. Zach received a 1/2 because although he
did address the question, he did not address it entirely. Work sample
1B is another short answer question in which Zach was asked to re-tell
detailed facts that he remembered from a story. Zach scored a 4/4 as he
included an appropriate amount of facts, the facts were correct, and the
facts were detailed. These work samples prove Zachs strengths in
reading and writing. Compared to other students, Zach scored higher
than the majority of his classmates. Zachs high grades for these
assignments support the evaluators suggestion that Zach may be
gifted in the area of reading as well as math.
ii. Work sample 2 is a math worksheet Zach did in his enrichment
classroom. At the time, the class was working with probability. Zach
earned full credit for this assignment. Some of his peers did not
achieve perfect scores. This demonstrates Zachs advanced abilities in
math. The sample shows Zach writing realistic predictions with
reasoning. The work sample also depicts Zachs ability to problem
solve. Zachs work is neat and organized. This work sample is a
example of why many believe that Zach is gifted in math.
5. *See attached parent interview
After analyzing the parent interview questions and responses, the evaluators have
concluded that both the parents and the evaluators believe that Zach is
academically advanced in both math and ELA. His parents have requested to test
him in both subject areas and are eager to find out the results. The evaluators have
discussed a plan with his parents and teachers as to when the evaluators will start
administering the assessments to Zach. This will begin the week of 3/23-3/27.
6. Testing Needs
Zach is academically advanced in both math and ELA and the evaluators have chosen
specific assessments that will demonstrate his academic abilities in both of these
subject areas.
D. Assessment Plan
The evaluators have chosen to use 2 standardized assessments, 2 in-depth informal
assessments, and 1 brief informal assessment.
Standardized Assessments:

o Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II):


o This test measure students in subject areas including math reasoning,
written expression, listening comprehension, oral expression, word
reading, numerical operations, reading comprehension, spelling, and
pseudoword decoding. This test will assess Zachs math and ELA skills to
help the evaluators determine where he is academically in these areas.
o This assessment can be administered for candidates in grades PreK-12.
There is also a section of the test that can be administered to adults.
o There are 9 subtests included in the WIAT assessment. The test begins
with the word reading portion and continues in order throughout the rest of
stimulus booklet 1. When all subtests of stimulus booklet 1 are complete
you may begin the subtests in order in stimulus booklet 2. Each subtest has
a specific starting point based on the grade level of the student. Basal and
ceiling rules vary among the different subtests as well. The examiners
manual provides specific guidelines for reverse rules, discontinue
rules, and stop points for each subtest. To administer all 9 subtests it
will take approximately 90 minutes. Since all subtests should be
administered on the same day, the evaluators plan to give Zach some
brain breaks in between subtests to keep him attentive, focused, and
motivated.
o Reliability
o The reliability of this assessment determines that the test is consistent and
has stabile test scores across equivalent set of items. The test includes
internal consistency and procession. The split half reliability aspect of the
assessment helps the scorers score a particular subtest and then score
another subtest in order to compare and highlights strengths and needs.
o Validity
o Wechsler Individual Achievement Test with the usage of content related,
construct related and criterion related validity the test aim to measure what
is intended to measure. Each domain acquires a curriculum objective. The
assessment where determine to support the content format and wording of
the Math Reasoning, Numerical Operation and Reading Comprehension
subtest. The subtest consists of curriculum objectives that reframe from
having ethnic bias and eliminates any gender unfair.
o Screening Assessment for Gifted Elementary and Middle School
Students (SAGES-2): This test asses a students skills among a number of
subject areas. It is screening a childs general knowledge to see where they
stand academically. Since Zachs parents have an inquiry about where
Zach is academically advanced this will allow the evaluators to show them
results in not only math and ELA, but other subject areas as well.
o The portion of the assessment that we will be administering to Zach is
geared toward students in grades 4-8.

o The SAGES-2 consists of 3 subtests. The subtests should be administered


in order from subtest1-3. The student will begin at the first question for
every subtest. Basals are not used with the SAGES-2. A ceiling is met
when a child misses 3 out of 5 consecutive items. There is no time limit
for the assessment and it is recommended to give the student between 3045 minutes to complete each subtest. However, not all subtests must be
administered on the same day so depending on how the student is doing
we can separate the testing sections.
o Reliability
The reliability of the test is consistent among the normal, gifted,
time sampling and scorer. The test demonstrates a level of
understanding among all subtests according to grade level. The
summary of SAGES reliability related to three sources of test error
demonstrates there is a low number for possible error among all
subtest.
Summary of SAGES-2 Reliability Related to Three Sources of Test Error
Sources of test Error Content Sampling SAGES-2
Subtest

Normal

Gifted

Time Sampling

Scorer

K-3
Mathematics/Science
Languages Arts/Social
Studies
Reasoning

88

91

97

99

87

91

97

92

93

93

95

97

4-8
Mathematics/Science
Language Arts/Social
Studies
Reasoning

94

91

92

97

94

92

86

91

90

85

78

95

o Validity
The validity that the test contains is a correlation performance
based on total score. The test is made up of age differentiation,
group differentiation, subtests interrelationships and item validity.
This provides the opportunity to have good discriminating among
scorers. The SAGES-2 is considered to be an unbiased test that is
valid predictor of aptitude and intelligence. The selections of
literatures were selected based on how familiar students are with
the reading being used. The mathematics is closely developed to
support the Curriculum and Evaluations Standard for school

Mathematics. Social studies items are closely related to the


National Standards for Civics and Government.

Informal Assessments

In-depth Informal Assessments


Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
Temporarily, the evaluators may use the
Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory,
although this IRI goes only through 9th
grade. The evaluators are hoping to find a
different IRI to assess Zachs skills that
goes through a 12th grade level.

Brief Informal Assessments

Rationale
Zachs classroom teacher mentioned that Zach
was reading well above grade level. By giving
Zach an IRI, it will allow the evaluators to see
where his vocabulary, reading fluency, and
reading comprehension place Zach academically
in these areas. An IRI is going to help the
evaluators identify if Zach is gifted in reading.

Rationale

Reading Passage with Comprehension Questions


Reading Street Basal Series, Grade 6

Zach claims that he struggles in this area, but his


teacher insists that Zachs comprehension ability
is high. The evaluators want to use a 6th grade
reading passage with correlating comprehension
questions to evaluate where Zach lands with this
skill. The evaluators will modify grade level
materials from these results.

Mid-module Assessment
Grade 5 common core mathematics
module 2

As a group, the evaluators agree with Zachs


parents and teachers and believe that Zach is
gifted in math. The evaluators chose a 5th grade
module as the evaluators know Zach has the
ability to solve these questions and the evaluators
can evaluate how academically advanced he is in
math. The evaluators will modify grade level
materials from these results.

a. What skills/concepts needed to be assessed? After reviewing the student, teacher,


and parent interviews and our student observations, the evaluators have decided
that the evaluators want to assess the following skills and concepts:
i. Vocabulary

ii. Reading fluency


iii. Reading comprehension
iv. Standard operations
v. Problem solving/Word problems
b. Resources
i. IRI
1. Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory, 3rd Edition (Eldon E. Ekwall &
James L. Shanker). **Hope to find a different IRI that asses up
through 12th grade.
ii. Reading Passage/Comprehension Questions
1. Reading Street Basal Series. Knowing the elementary school uses
the series, the evaluators used an advanced grade level portion of
the series to find a 6th grade passage that would challenge Zach.
iii. Mid-module Assessment
1. engageny.org, Grade 5 math module 2. Knowing the elementary
school follows the modules, the evaluators chose a module just
above Zachs grade level in order to identify where his abilities are
academically in math.
Testing Sessions
o Assessments in order as they will be administered:
WIAT-II
Mid-module Assessment
IRI
Reading Passage/Comprehension Questions
STAGES-2
WIAT-II
o The assessment takes approximately 90 minutes for students in grades 1-6 to
complete. The student should receive breaks if they begin to seem distracted or
fatigued, but these breaks are not calculated into the testing time.
o The evaluators will test Zach one-on-one in a quiet, well-lit room. When
administering the test, the evaluator and Zach will sit across from each other. The
appropriate stimulus booklet will be put in front of Zach, yet still in reach of the
evaluator. Evaluating materials (for example answer keys) will be completely
hidden from Zach. The evaluator will be sure to re-read and directly follow the
directions provided in the examiners manual.
Mid-module Assessment
o Zach will be given 20-30 minutes to finish this assessment. No breaks will be
needed as there are only 6 questions.
o This assessment will be administered to Zach one-on-one and in a quiet room
with little distraction.
IRI
o The amount of time needed to complete this assessment varies based on the
student. In some cases, students do not need to complete all subtests or can skip

subtests entirely depending on their academic ability. Most subtests will take
around 15-20 minutes each.
o Zach will be assessed in a quiet room with little distraction. All three of the
evaluators will be present when administering this assessment.
Reading Passage/Comprehension Questions
o Zach will be given 15-20 minutes to complete this assessment.
o Zach will be tested in a quiet, distraction free room.
SAGES-2
o All subtests should be administer in order (1-3). Time length for the entire test
varies. Zach will be given 30-45 minutes to complete each subtest.
o Zach will be assessed in a quiet, distraction free room.

Part II
E. Test Behavior & Results
1. Test Behavior
When Zach was taking the SAGES exam during the beginning position of the text the evaluators
noted that he was very calm and relaxed. He seemed very concentrated and confident in his
ability because he was answering questions very rapidly. When Zach was answering question 13
the evaluators noted that he was struggling with answering the question. He skipped question 14
but quickly realized and answered the question. During the process of the exam the evaluators
noted by his facial expression and his hand gestures he was progressively getting more
frustrated. Although this was occurring Zach continued to remain claim. By the 18th question
Zach asked to get a drink of water. When Zach completed the second part of the exam he is claim
and relaxed. After about ten minutes the evaluators observed that he seemed to struggle with this
section more than the math and science portion of the exam. When Zach was distracted by the
clock and when he was being frustrated with the questions that could have influence the accuracy
of the results.
a. During the exam there were times when Zach became distracted and he started
to look at the clock. He will look out the door to note where the noise was
coming from. During the end of the exams the evaluators noted that he started
to take longer on each question and he reread each question. The evaluators
noted when he started a new part of the exam he started the process clam and
relaxed.
b. Zach cooperated very well while he was being tested. He followed every
direction given during an appropriate time. He didnt ask any questions during
the process of taking the exam. Zach did ask permission to use the bathroom
and get a drink of water.
c. Zach and the evaluators had great rapport with each other. Zach reacted in a
respectful manner when he was provided with an exam. When Zach became
frustrated his facial expression was very intense. The evaluators noted that he
started to reread the questions and he was flicking his pencil around. When the

evaluators noted that Zachs was frustrated we informed Zach that he should
take a break by walking around or getting a drink of water. He immediately
took the offer.
d. Zach was tested during afterschool and the evaluators believe this may have
influenced his scores. The evaluators tested him before the standardized
exams and we believe that could have affected his anxiety because of the
workload being provided in school. During the days Zach was tested it was
sunny outside. The evaluators on those days noted that Zach was eager to be
finished with the exam. These are all factors that could have effected Zachs
performance.
2. Results of Individual Assessments
a. Formal Assessments
i. Report Scores
1. SAGES-2 includes 3 subtests in the areas of mathematics/science,
language arts/social studies, and reasoning. Zach was assessed on
the mathematics/science and language arts/social studies subtests
only. Both the mathematics/science subtest and language
arts/social studies subtests sample achievement in the specific
subject areas, or what knowledge a child has acquired through
formal and informal educational experiences. The child is required
to complete 30 multiple-choice format questions in each subtest.
There is no time limit. Items included focus on recall,
understanding, and application of ideas and basic concepts in these
content areas. Questions in the mathematics/science subtest are
more logical and technical in nature while questions in the
language arts/social studies subtest are more linguistic in nature.
For the SAGES-2, s standard score is referred to as a quotient.
Zach received a quotient of 115 compared to the normative group
and a quotient of 100 compared to the gifted group on the
mathematics/science subtest. Zach received a quotient of 106
compared to the normative group and a quotient of 96 compared to
the gifted group on the language arts/social studies subtest. A
percentile rank is a percentage of scores that fall below a given
score. Zach's performance on the SAGES-2 overall
mathematics/science subtest suggests that he is functioning at the
84%ile compared to the normative group and the 50%ile compared
to the gifted group. Zachs performance on the SAGES-2 overall
language arts/social studies subtest suggests that he is functioning
at the 66%ile compared to the normative group and the 39%ile
compared to the gifted group. Using a bell curve, Zachs
mathematics/science percentile rank represents that Zach is
functioning at the average standard deviation compared to the
gifted group, but he is functioning 1 standard deviation above the

mean compared to the normative group. Zachs language


arts/social studies percentile rank represents that Zach is
functioning almost 1 standard deviation above the mean compared
to the normative group and a little below the average deviation
compared to the gifted group.
ii. After analyzing Zachs test results, the evaluators have concluded that
Zach demonstrates an above level understanding in the area of math.
His strengths include basic math operations (x, /, +, -, finding an
average, some fractions), locating coordinates and being able to
interpret a graph, finding patterns, using mathematic and scientific
formulas correctly, and basic science concepts (planets, light/sound, air
pressure, and metals). Areas in which Zach was challenged include
finding fractions of a whole number, finding fractions of a decimal,
algebra equations, and more advanced scientific concepts
(photosynthesis, earthquake/p-scale, chemistry/physics, and the rock
cycle). Zach also performed above his academic level in the areas of
language arts and social studies. His strengths include print concepts,
needs vs. wants, word choice, sentence structure, reading a map, word
pronunciation, and fact vs. opinion. Areas in which Zach was
challenged include identifying the meaning of a word or quote, time
spans in history, interpreting a graph, taking information from a
passage, metaphors, root words, and different climates around the
world. The questions in both sets of the subtests become increasingly
more challenging as they go. Zach reached ceilings in both the
mathematics/science and language arts/social studies once the
questions were well above his grade level.
iii. The evaluators believe that the SAGES-2 test results are an accurate
depiction of Zachs abilities in both math/science and ELA/social
studies. The evaluators have discussed with Zachs enrichment teacher
his state and local test scores that made him eligible for the ALPS
program and the SAGES-2 test scores are similar to the state and local
test scores. The evaluators could see that Zachs mathematical skills
were slightly more advanced than his language arts skills when
beginning the educational evaluation process and the SAGES-2 test
scores have proven this correct as well. The test scores also accurately
reflect Zachs everyday work samples. Zach was very calm and
relaxed while being assessed in mathematics, but became increasingly
more frustrated once the evaluators began assessing him on language
arts skills. From what the evaluators gathered from the student
interview, this is a logical result as Zach mentioned he finds himself
getting frustrated during language arts lessons in his classroom and
mentioned that he knows his grades are lower in language arts than in
math.

iv. *See attached score sheets.


b. Informal Assessments
i. Math Informal worksheets: The evaluators noted that Zach did very
well on the 5th grade fraction worksheet that asked him to determine
the missing number in the equivalent fractions. He finished the
worksheet very rapidly and used mental math to answer the questions.
Zach had difficulties on the 5th grade fraction worksheet that asked him
to simplify the fractions. The evaluators observed that he first
completed the questions that had a smaller fraction to simplify. Once
again he used mental math to complete the questions. After a while
Zach started to look at the clock and he started to flick his pencil
again. The evaluators allowed him another two minutes to get back on
task. But they quickly noted that he was frustrated. He handed in the
worksheet without answering 3 of the 8 questions.
ii. Informal Reading Inventory: The evaluators provided Zach with a
3rd grade passage to read. After the reading Zach answered
comprehension questions based on the passage he read. The evaluators
noted that Zach was very confident in his abilities and he correctly
answered all the questions. When Zach read the passage for grade 5
the evaluators noted he read with fluency but had trouble with the
vocabulary component of the comprehension questions. When Zach
read the passage for grade 7 the evaluators noted that he was
mispronouncing and exempting words. The evaluators noted that he
struggled with the comprehension questions. He had difficulties
answering the questions that asked him to make inferences, analyze
details and sequence the story. Due to the summary of quantitative
analysis we didnt allow Zach to proceed to the 8th grade level
passages because that was on his frustration level.
iii. *See attached graded assessments.
F. Evaluation Summary
1. Summary Statement
Zach enjoys being challenged and retains information quickly. He
is currently in an afterschool enrichment program. As previously
noted Zach is academically advanced in both math and ELA and
the reason for referral was chosen for specific assessments that
help demonstrate Zachs academic abilities in both the ELA and
Math subjects. The evaluators noted that he has the ability to read
passages that are written on a 7th grade level. With the usage of the
SAGES and the informal math assessment we have determine that
he could possibly be gifted in math.
2. Instructional Levels, Strengths/Needs, Instructional
Implications
a. By analyzing the results from the IRI, the evaluators have
concluded that Zachs vocabulary is at about a 5th grade

level. His reading and comprehension abilities are at a 7th


grade level. The SAGES-2 asses Zach based on a
curriculum that advances through 8th grade so the IRI
results taken from the SAGES-2. The informal mathematics
assessments demonstrated that Zach comprehends and is
able to complete 5th grade level material. The SAGES-2
assessment revealed that Zach is able to complete up to 8th
grade level mathematical concepts which accurately
correlate with the results taken from the informal
assessments. Overall, Zachs performance on the SAGES-2
assessment and both informal math assessments support the
original referral stating that Zach may be gifted in math.
b. Zach has mastered ELA skills including print concepts,
sentence structure, and word choice. Zach was challenged
with skills such as interpreting a graphic, word meaning,
and taking information from a given passage to answer
comprehension questions. Zach has mastered basic and
some advanced math skills including mathematical
operations, graphing, finding patterns, and using formulas.
Zach was challenged during the SAGES-2 assessment with
more advanced math concepts including algebra, finding
fractions of a whole number, and finding fractions of a
decimal. The results of the SAGES-2 display that Zach is
possibly gifted in the subject area of mathematics.
c. In order for educators to continue to challenge Zach, they
need to provide him more advanced work. Zach is able to
read and answer comprehension questions at the 7th grade
level. This means Zachs teachers should encourage him to
check out more advanced reading material from the library
and provide opportunities during literacy instruction to read
material that challenges. Zachs teachers also need to
challenge Zach in math. This is his strongest subject area.
His teachers should be differentiating instruction so that
Zach has opportunities to work on above grade level
mathematical concepts during class time or for homework.
Zach would also benefit from extended practice with
fractions.
G. Recommendations
1. Recommended Supports
a. The evaluators believe that Zach doesnt need any adaptive
devices. As previously highlighted Zach is possibly gifted
in Math. The evaluators believe that he will benefit in being
placed in an enrichment program that allows Zach to

completely mastered the 5th and 6th Math curriculum. The


evaluators believe that Zach should be given modifications
that are higher then the 4th grade math material.
b. The evaluators believe that he doesnt need any additional
testing needs.
c. The evaluators believe Zach does not need any support
from a staff member. Zach will benefit from the general
teacher collaborating with another teacher to help modify
materials in order for Zach to be given advance work.
d. The informal assessment noted that Zach struggled with
fractions. He should continue to work on simplify larger
fractions. Also, Zach frustration level begins when he is
reading a 7th grade passage. He should continue with
reading high order text and work on answering questions
that require analyzing details, making inferences, and
highlighting sequences.
2. Suggested Instructional Goals
a. The evaluators had the opportunity to have a meeting with
Zach. We informed him how proud we are of him and all
his accomplishments. We informed him that is he able to
complete worksheets that are beyond the 4th grade material
and he shouldnt become frustrated when taking an exam.
We highlighted that he knows the math material very well
and that he should take his time when he is given an
assignment.
b. What skills/concepts are most important for the student to
learn (**USE MAGER)
c. Rational for each objective
3. Research-based Instructional Strategies
a. Explain each instructional strategy specifically enough for
an unfamiliar educator to understand (**credit sources
using APA)
b. Give specific example illustrating how the strategy might
be used to help student
c. References section
H. References
I. Appendices

Nicholas Perillo, Jessica Allen, Samantha Arias


Dr. Lawrence-Brown
DIFF-503
May 6, 2015
Literature Review
Goals:
1. When given mathematical word problems when having to find
either the fraction of a whole number or fraction of a decimal,
Zack will answer the questions with 90%.
2. When given 20 mathematical problems involving basic
operations (+-x/), Zack with answer with 95% accuracy.
3. When given ten problems requiring him to discover a pattern,
Zack will answer with 95% accuracy.

For our educational evaluation we chose to work with a fifth


grade boy named Zack. Zack is 10 years old and gifted in
mathematics. When tested he scored in the 84th percentile
compared to the normative group. With this being said, the
evaluators chose to focus on his math skills and meet his gifted
needs. To do this they looked on the St. Bonaventure University
Database for articles with strategies and methods as how to
enrich Zack in mathematics. Using this database the evaluators
found many articles that had strategies and methods to help
meet the goals and needs of Zack.
The first article we found was called The Effects of
Cooperative Mastery Learning Strategies on Mathematics
Achievement by Zemira R. Mevarech In this article the authors
talk about Student team learning and how it can help gifted
students. In this setting students are randomly assigned to
mixed-ability teams consisting of five to six members of all ability
levels. This type of technique helps students of all abilities gain
necessary knowledge in the given subject areas as well as
socially. Each student is given responsibility and this gives the
gifted students a chance to kind of play a teacher role. This can
help them to not be bored with the work. For a student like Zack
this would be helpful in math because he often finishes earlier
then classmates and then has to sit and wait for the rest to
finish. This team learning idea will help him by letting him help

his peers. This article also mentions the use of the technique
called Mastery Learning Strategy. This strategy allows students
to be exposed to teacher presentation, individual worksheets,
formative testing, and corrective activities. After being quizzed,
students who have mastered the material were engaged in
enrichment activities. Then the last strategy from this article is a
combination of the two strategies previously listed. This
combination treatment has students work cooperatively on a
worksheet and help one another to solve the given problems.
Then students are quizzed indidviually and those who mastered
the tasks were asked to help others remedy their difficulties
(Mevarech, 2001). I think this technique would be very beneficial
to help Zack enrich his mathematics abilities.
The second article found was called Curriculum Compacting:
An Essential Strategy for Working with Gifted Students by
Joseph Renzulli. This article tells the reader that curriculum
compacting is a great way to enrich the talents of gifted
students. Curriculum compacting is just what it sounds like. It is
basically when a teacher takes the entire curriculum and
scrunches it down into a smaller window for instruction. This
would be beneficial for a student like Zack so that he would not
become bored with his math work seeing that he is gifted in that
area. If his teacher would fit more information into a smaller
time period he would benefit. With this being said, this does not
mean that the teacher should throw the entire curriculum at him
at once but due to his high abilities in the subject are he should
be learning at an accelerated pace rather than the same pace as
the rest of his classmates. This will keep him learning and
engaged.
The third article we found is called Opportunities to learn
fractions in elementary mathematics classrooms by Maryl
Gearhart, Geoffrey Saxe, and Michael Seltzer. This study was
concerned with the implementation of two of these units for the
upper elementary grades, Seeing Fractions (Corwin, Russell, &
Tierney, 1990) and My Travels With Gulliver (Kleiman & Bjork,
1991). These units were designed to support students'
involvement with mathematical problem solving and enhance
their conceptual understandings; using these resources, teachers
can provide students with multiple models for understanding

mathematics in key domains, pose no routine and open-ended


problems, engage students with multiple representations, and
encourage group discussion and problem solving (Maryl
Gearhart, Geoffrey Saxe, & Michael Seltzer, 1999). Seeing
Fractions, the problem-solving curriculum unit that is the focus of
the work presented in this article, was designed to provide
students opportunities to engage with and reflect upon
mathematical relationships represented in graphical form. The
unit contained a set of five modules; each module contained
problems designed to engage students with part whole relations
but in the context of different models of fractions-area models
(partitioning squares and circles), fair-sharing models (e.g.,
constructing fair shares of sets of square brownies or circular
cookies; adding shares), and linear models (e.g., comparing
fractions strips). The authors of Seeing Fractions designed the
unit with the assumption that children's developing capacities to
construct images of part-whole and part-part relationships help
them to conceptualize and construct fraction values and to
operate on them( Maryl Gearhart, Geoffrey Saxe, & Michael
Seltzer, 1999).
These articles are three of many more out there that deal
with strategies to help gifted students. There are so many
different ways one can meet the needs of a gifted student its
just a matter taking the time to meet each students individual
needs. Zack is gifted in mathematics and needs to be enriched
in that subject area. Using these three techniques above Zack
can have his needs met.

Sources
Maryl Gearhart; Geoffrey B. Saxe; Michael Seltzer; Jonah Schlackman;
Cynthia Carter Ching; Na'ilah Nasir; Randy Fall; Tom Bennett;
Steven Rhine; Tine F., S. (n.d). Opportunities to Learn Fractions in
Elementary Mathematics Classrooms. 30(3), 286-315.

Mevarech, Z. R. (1985). The Effects of Cooperative Mastery Learning


Strategies on Mathematics Achievement. Journal Of Educational
Research, 78(6),
Renzulli, J. S., & And, O. (1982). Curriculum Compacting: An Essential
Strategy for Working with Gifted Students. Elementary School
Journal, 82(3), 185-94.