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DOOOO U4 ®OOOO 9.DOODO BOOODO 0. ©DOO® TABLE 2.1 Useful Constants 1 atornie mass unit 66 x 10” kg, Rest mass of the proton m7 1.67 10 ky Rest mass of the neutron 1.67 x 107 kg Rest mass of the electron 9.1 x 10 kg Magnitude of the electron charge 60 x 10°C “Avogadro's number 6.02 x 10" per mal Universal gas constant R=832 mol -K) Boltemann’s constant y= 1.38 x 10°" YK, Speed of light c=3x 10! mis Planck's constant 2663 X10*J $2414 x 10% Vos 1 electron volt TeV 16x 103 ‘Vacuum permitivty = 8.85 x 10" CIN - Coulomb's law constant B= (VA yma: = 9X 10" NHI ‘Vacuum permeability Ho = 4.x 107 Whi(A - mi) ‘Magnetic constant B= We = yylan = 10" WOKA ‘Acceleration due to gravity at Earths surface g-98mis ‘Universal gravitational constant G= 6.67 x10" mike - $) 1 atmosphere pressure 10 x 10" Nim® = 1.0 % 10° Pa 1 manometer Ox 10m For this examination the following conventions hold: I. All frames of reference are assumed to be inertial unless otherwise indicated. IL, Electrical current will follow the direction of a positive charge (conven. tional current), IIL For any isolated charge, the potential at infinity is taken to be equal to zero. IV. The work done by a thermodynamic system is defined as a positive quantity. DIAGNOSTIC TEST Section I Muttiple-Choice Questions 70 questions 90 minutes 50 percent of total grade ‘Directions: For each of the questions or incomplete statements below there are five choices. In each ‘ase select the best answer or completion and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. You ‘may not use a calculator for this part. 1, Which of the following quantities is nor a vector? (A) Momentum {@) Displacement (©) Acceleration (0) Work © Impulse 2. A.0.05-kg ball is thrown upward from the ‘round with an initial velocity of 30 ns. At its maximum height, the magnitude of the balls acceleration is approximately ) Oms (8) 10m © 30ms ©) Sms () Not enough information is given. 3. A projectile is launched at an angle 8 to the horizontal with an initial velocity v. Inthe absence of any air resistance, which of the following statements is correct? (A) The horizontal velocity increases and then decreases during the flight. (B) The horizontal velocity remains constant. (©) The vertical velocity remains constant. (D) The horizontal velocity decreases and then increases during the flight. (©) At the projectile’s maximum height, the accaleration vector is zero. 10 DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION 4. Which two graphs represent one- dimensional uniformly accelerated motion? 7 ; (a) Land Iv (B) Wand ill (© Tand V (©) Wand (©) Wand V 5, Arock is theown horizontally off ofthe top ‘of a building that is 75m above the ground. Its observed thatthe rock lands 22 m asvay fromm the base ofthe builling. Which of the following would increase the time i takes the rock to reach the ground? Increasing the height I, Increasing the initial horizontal velocity TI, Tnereasing the mass of the rock (A) Lonly (B) M only (©) Ml only (D) Vand I (©) Mand it ‘Questions 6 and 7 are based on the following information: [A student swings a 0.035-kg rubber stopper attached to a string in a horizontal circle over her head. The length of the string is 0.6m. The stopper is cbserved to complete 10 revolutions in 11.75, 6, What is the magnitude of the period of revolution? (A) 085s (8) Li7s (©) 3225 (D) 0658 () 117s 7. Which of the following expressions re- presents the relationship between the ‘centripetal force F acting on the mass and its kinetic energy &? (A) Kir (B) Kr (©) 2Kir ) Kir (&) Kr & Which of the following statements is correet about a projectile in flight (ncar the Earth)? (A) Its acceleration increases during its fig. (B) Is acceleration decreases during its Aight (©) les arerlemtion decreases. then increases, during its light. (D) Its acceleration mereases, then decreases, during its flight (©) Its acceleration remains constant. 9, A 1S-newton force is applied to a mass Mf that is adjacent to a wall, as shown, Ifthe ‘mass is 2 kilograms, the force that the wall exerts on the mass is equal 10 (A) ON cn. 15N B) 2N (© ISN (D) 19.6N ©) 30N GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE > 10, Inthe diagram, 2 force F is applied to a mass M at an angle @ to the horizontal, The ‘mass is moving along a flat, smooth hori- zontal surface. What is the magnitude of the ‘normal foree? F ea (A) Mg - Fsin@ @) Mg+Fsin@ (©) MgiF sind {D) F sin Org, ©) Me 11, Inthe situation shown, a 2-kilogram mass is anached by a light string over a frictionless pulley to a 5-kilogram mass hanging betow. ‘The 2-kilogram mass rests on a frictionless surface. Ifthe system is released, what will be the approximate acceleration of both asses? [i (A) 5 mvs? @) 25 mis © Wms @) 15 ms* (E) 20ms* 12, A mass M rests on top of a frictionless inclined plane. Which of the following state- ‘ments is correct about the normal force acting on the mass as the angle of elevation increases? (A) The normal foree ineresses. (B) The normal force decreases. (C) The normal force increases, then decreases, (D) The normal force decreases, then increases. (B) The normal force remains constant, 13, A 45-kilogram boy is sliding down a fric- ‘ionless hemispherical surface with a radius Ras shown in the diagram. The boy loses contact with the surface when he makes an angle 8 with the horizontal, What is the _magnitude of the normal force acting on the boy at that instant? 4 (A) Mg (B) Mga cos @ (©) Mgoos 0 ~ R) (Dy Mg cos @ (0 14, A crate weighing 15 is moving along a rough horizontal surface with a constant velocity v. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and the surface is 0.50. ‘What is the approximate magnitude of the force maintaining the constant velocity? (a) ON (B) ISN (©) 75N (D) 30N ©) 75N Questions 15-17 are basedd on the graph of force versus time shown below for a 1S-kilogram mass. Force (N) ° 0 Tima (9) 90 100 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE > 15, What was the total impulse applied to the ‘mass for the entire 100-second interval?” (A) 1750N (B) 1800N. (C) 1900 N () 2100N (©) 2500. 16, What was the average force applied to the mass during the first $0 seconds? (A) TN (B) ISN © 18N (D) 21N (E) 30N 17, Ifthe mass had an initial velocity of 4 meters per second, what was its velocity at the end of 50 seconds? (A), 46 mis (B) 50 mis (O) S4m's (D) 60mis (®) 66m’ 18, A 10-kg object has a velocity of 2 mvs to the right. The object is struck by # 0.05-kx wad of putty moving to the left at 10 m/s. ‘The pully sticks to the object after the colli- sion. Which ofthe following statements is correct? (A) Linear momentum is not conserved, but ‘Kinetic energy is conserved. {B) Both linear momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. (©) Linear momentum is conserved, but kinetic energy is not conserved. (D) Neither linear momentum nor kinetic ‘energy is conserved, (B) None of the above statements is correct, 19. A mass m is moving with a velocity v. It collides with and sticks to a stationary mass ‘M, Which of the following expressions rep- resents the ratio of the initial kinetic energy to the final kinetic energy? mM (B) (m+ Mm (©) m+M (D) m-M AE) (n+ Myon = M 20, A Sckg mass is dropped from a height of 15 m, What will the approximate velocity of the mass be when it 1s 10 m above the ground? (a) Oms (B) 0ms (© 200s ©) 50s ims 21. A pulley is used to lift a 10-kilogram mass to a height of 2 meters. If 150 newions of ‘effort was used, the work done to overcome friction was equal t© tA) 4d B) 521 (© 1045 (D) 1967, () 3004 22, Power is to work as foree is to (A) impulse (B) momentum ©) velocity (D) acceleration (B) displacement 18, Which pair of forces could produce a resu ant force of 7 newtons? (A) 2N,6N @)3N1N (©) 1N,SN (0) 4N2N ® 3N3N 14, A mass ois sitting on a wooden board. One end of the board is elevated until at an angle 8, measured from the horizontal, the mass ‘begins to slide down the board. The cocffi- cient of static friction, w, is given by the expression (A) sin B) cos 0 (©) seo D) und (E) cor 28, A 20-newton force and a Mnewton force act concurrently at a point, making an angle ‘of 37 degrees. What is the approximate magnitude of the equilibrant for these forces? (A) 30N, (B) ISN © 1N )5N © 2N 26. Which of the following expressions repre- sents tho kinetic energy of a mass M that has a momentum p? (A) Imig ®) Imp" (C) 2pin (©) pram (©) 2pnr 27. Kepler's second law of planetery motion 28. 29, states that a planet sweeps out equal areas in ‘equal time. Which of the following state ments is not an implication (are not implica- tions) of thet law? 1. The angular momentum of the planet is ‘conserved. IL, There are no external torques acting on the planets at any time. UL For any planet, R'/7?= kis valid and a constant, wi «B) © I (O) Vand it (©) Wand ut ‘A spring with a force constant k = 400 Nim is compressed horizontally by a 10-kg mass along a rough surface as shown below. The spring is compressed 0.2 m, and the coeffi- cient of kinetic friction 4 = 0.10. If the system is released, what will be the approxi- mate kinetic energy of the mass when the spring is no longer compressed? sadleheel oie] 2010” (a) 2d @) 6) (©) 8s (D) 103 (E) 125 Which of the following expressions is equivalent to 1 watt? ) kg (B) kg (C) kg (D) kg ©) kg mis? mis mis mig ws GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE > 30. A meter stick is balanced at the 50- ‘centimeter mark as shown. Four masses are suspended at the positions shown. What is the magnitude, m, of the missing mass? cece (4020304080 7080 09 ™ (A) 100g (B) 2002 (© 3008 {B) 400g ) 500g Questions 31 and 32 are based on the following information: ‘A wheel is rolling to the right with 4 constant velocity v. 31. What is the direction of the angular velocity vector a? (A) Up the page (B) Down the page (©) Out of the page (D) Into the page () To the right 32, Ifthe radius of the wheel is 0.50 m and the velocity is 5 m's, the magnitude of the Wwheel’s angular velocity is equal to rad. (Ay 25 (B) 10 © 5 () 12 ©) 15 s In the diagram below, a meter stick with length €, is attached to the wall with a fric- tionless pivot and is free to rotate. the stick is iniiatly horizontal and t rest and is then released, which of the following expressions represents the magnitude of the forque acting on the meter stick? (A) mgt2 @) mt (C) mg (D) metig ) mee 34. Two insulated containers are Gilled with ‘water. The amounts of water in the to con- tainers are given by m, and m, respectively (os; # mz). The initial temperatures of the two masses of water are 7; and 7, respee~ tively (F;> .). The contents ofthe two containers are mined together with no lose ‘of heat fo the surroundings. Which expres- sion represents the final oquilibrium temperature? (A) (omnia + NT) +7) B) (omiTs + mayen + ms) © (nT, + mT-Vemm) () (om; + mafXom +m) ©) (+ FMlom + ms) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE > ‘An insulated tank contains 2.5 cubie meters of an ideal gas under a pressure of 0.5 atmosphere. Ifthe pressure is raised to 3 atmospheres, while the temperature remains constant, the new volume of the gas will be (A) 25 n° @) Sm (©) 125m" @) 042m ©) 037m" 36, Which of the following graphs represents the relationship between pressure and ab- solute temperature for a confined ideal gas? w ® © 37. An ideal gas expetiences an adiabatic change. Which of the following statements is correct? (A) The temperature of the gas remains the same (B) No work is done to the gas. (C) The internal energy of the gas remains the same. (D) The entropy of the gas decreases (&) None of the preceding statements is correct. 38, An ideal gas is kept under constant pres- ‘sure, What change in Celsius temperature ‘must occur in order to double the volume of the gas? (A) 100°C @®) 373°C (©) 27PC (D) The required change depends on the starting temperature. (B) The required change depends on the starting volume. ‘The first law of thermodynamics states that AQ = AU + AW. Which of the following statements is correct? (A) AQis the heat supplied to the system, and AW is the work done to the system, (B) SG is the heat supplied to the system, and Ai is the work done by the system. (©) AQ is the heat supplied by the system, and AMV is the work done to the systein. (D) AQ is the heat supplied by the system, and AW is the work done by the system, (E) None of the preceding statements is correct. 40, The term “isobar” refers to a curve of constant (A) density @) mass (©) temperature (D) pressure (©) volume Formula Sheet for Sect Mechanics Heat and Thermodynamics vey tar AQ = me AT dae Kexetwtt yal pee 4 view +2aax pV =nkT Wapav AU=Q48 Waves and Optics’ dsin@ = mh = rogue, 2¢ uted om the AP Physic: ere ‘Atomic and Nuclear Physics’ Bene y= frequency, a ed onthe AP Pye ex Section Il Free-Response Questions T questions 90 minutes 50 percent of total grade Dinctions: Solve the following problems. Be sure to show all work, including substitutions with Lis, nd to explain clearly. You may use a calculator for this part. 1. Inthe arrangement shown, a spring with a force constant kis attached to a vertical wall. The ser end of the spring is attached to a mass m that rests on a rough horizontal surface. The soefficient of kinetic friction for the mass and the surface is i. A light string is attached to m and passed over a frictionless pulley to an overhanging mass M. The system is initially at rest. If mass AY is released, it will fall a distance 4 until coming to rest. oo (@) Wirite an expression for the conservation of energy as it applies fo this situation. () In terms of m, M, g, 4, and k, derive an expression for the coefficient of kinetic friction j. (©) If = 1000 newtons per meter, m= 0.5 kilogram, M= 1.5 kilograms, and h = 0.04 moter, | caloulate the value of 1. 2. A rigid rod with a mass of 20 kilograms and a length ¢ is attached to a wall by means of a frictionless pivot as shown, A. mass of 5 kilograms is hung from the middle of the rou, and a fight string is attached to the free end. The string is attached to the wall, making an angle of 25° to the horizontal. The system is in equilibrium. 20k9 Es] (a) Draw a free body diagram for the rod, and label all forces involved. (b) Determine the magnitude of the tension . (©) Determine the magnitude snd direetion of the reaction force R acting at the pivot, 3. (a) A projectile is fired straight up with an initial velocity v and reaches a maximum height of 4500 km. Neglecting any air resistance, find the magnitude of the initial velocity (b) Show that while in 2 circular orbit about the Earth, the satellite's total energy Z is given by the expression Clem 2 where M = mass of the satellite; Me = mass of the Earth = Earth = 6.4 x 10° m; h = altitude; r= Ry + h. (©) State Kepler's three laws of planetary motion, (@) Explain how you can use Kepler’ third law to determine the mass of the Earth using only the orbital period and mean distance of the orbiting satellite, radius of the 4. The following data were collected by a student wo measured the period of pendulum by changing its length. A constant mass was used, length (m) Period (3) Te 010 0.68 os 083 020 0.96 025 108, 030 Lis 035 127 040 136 04s 144 9.50 132 (@) Using the grid below, make a graph of length versus period for this data, Be sure to label the axes and use an appropriate scale for your values (©) Based on the shape of your gra pendulum in words. (©) Using the data, determine the value of the constant of proportionality for this relationship. ‘You must describe your method for arriving at this value (@) Using the known equation for the period of a simple pendulum, determine the expected value for this coefficient assuming that the experiment was performed near the surface of the Earth state the relationship between the length and period of the GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE D> 5, Anclectron is accelerated across 3 1200-volt potential difference, as shown inthe diagram, ‘Upon sezching the other sie, the electron enters a downward elestre field of uniform sent Fe 1000 newtons per coulomb, The length of the second region, containing the cleetric field, is 1.2 meters. tK> 1200 _ = ¥] = 000 we ° » 120 Foster eee (a) How much work is done to move the electron seross the potential difference region? (b) What is the velocity of the electron as it enters the electric field region? (6) Neglecting any gravitational effects, the clestron is deflected away feom its straight path Derive an expression for the deflected distance h in terms ofthe mass of the electron, its Charge. the fength ofthe region €, and its entrance velocity v. Assume constant horizontal velocity (@) Using he known value of each quantity, calculate the magnitude of the deflected distance 6. The threshold frequency fora photoelectric metal is 2.5 x 10" hertz. Electromagnetic radiation swith 2 Wavelength of 50 nanometers is incident on the surface of the metal, (a) What is the frequency of the radiation? (@) {f the total energy ofthe radiation is equal to 9.945 x 10" joules, how many photons are associated with this radiation? (©) What is the work function for this metal? (a) What isthe maximum Kinetic energy, in joules and electron vot, forthe emited electrons? (@) What is the stopping potential for the emitted electrons? (() Explain the relationship between maximum Kinetic energy and intensity, 7. A rectangular block of height 20 cm is suspended by a thin wire of negligible mass. A spring, balance is attached to the wire. In air, the scale reads 400 N, but only 250 N when itis fully submerged in a tank of water (neglect the density of the air) Witer (2) Find the density and volume of the block. (6) The diagram below shows a representation of the block when itis completely submerged. raw, label, and indicate the magnitude of all ofthe forces acting on the block in this conkition, (©) If the block is slowly raised upward, describe the changes that take place in the gravitational potential energy of both the block and the water. STOP ‘THIS IS THE END OF SECTION IL YOU MAY USE ANY REMAINING TIME TO CHECK YOUR WORK IN THIS SECTION,